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‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻭﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻳﻚ ﻭﻧﻘﺶ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻫﺎﺩﻛﻴﺎﻧﻔﺮ ﻛﺎﺭﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﺭﺷﺪ ﺭﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﻲ‬

‫ﻛﻠﻴﺪﻭﺍﮊﻩ ﻫﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ‪ /‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ‪ /‬ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬

‫ﭼﻜﻴﺪﻩ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻣﺎﻳﺔ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻌﺪﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﺔ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻛـﻪ ﻛـﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺁﺳﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺍﺑﺘﺪﺍ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ ﻭ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔـﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻓـﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﻭ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﺢ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﺭﻳﺖ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘـﻪ ﻭ ﺑـﻪ ﺩﻧﺒـﺎﻝ ﺁﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻭ ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳـﻲ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ ﻣـﻲ ﮔﻴـﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨـﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺑﺨﺶ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ES‬ﻭ ‪ DSS‬ﻭ ‪ TPS‬ﻭ ‪ MIS‬ﻭ ﻧﻘـﺶ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻬﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎﻭﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺯﻣﻨﻴﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻳـﺎﻥ ﻧﻴـﺰ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻧﮕﺮﺵ ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺭﻭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﺎﻧﮕﺮ ﺍﻳﻨﺴﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ ﭘﻮﻳﺎ ﻣـﺴﺘﻠﺰﻡ ﺍﻳﺠـﺎﺩ ﺳـﺒﻜﻬﺎﻱ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺭﻫﻴﺎﻓﺖ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻮﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻤﮕﻲ ﻧﺎﺷﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﻞ ﻋﻈﻴﻢ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺮ ﺣﺎﺿﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ؛ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺠﺒﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﻧﮕﺮﺵ ﻣﺠﺪﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﻭﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻧﻔﻮﺭﻣﺎﺗﻴﻚ ﻣﻌﺮﻭﻑ ﺷﺪﻩ ‪ ،‬ﻧﻮﻳﺪ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﺓ ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻮ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﻮﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻮﻳﻦ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺎ ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﻝ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺑﺮﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺘﻲ ﻭ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻼﺡ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻳﻚ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺘﻲ ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻮﺟﻲ ﻓﺮﺍﮔﻴﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺗﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻛﻠﻴﻪ ﺟﻮﺍﻧﺐ ﺯﻧﺪﮔﻲ ﺑﺸﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺟﻤﻠـﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺻﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺟﻤﻌﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺩﻭﺭ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ … ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﮔﺮﮔﻮﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺑﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻓﻲ ﺍﺟﺘﻨﺎﺏ ﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺑﻬﺮﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﻻﺯﻡ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﺗـﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﺁﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﻩ ﻗﺪﻡ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻫﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺛﺮﺍﺕ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺁﮔﺎﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬﺍ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺑﺮ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴـﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻳـﺴﺘﻲ ﺑـﺎ ﻓـﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺑﻌـﺎﺩ ﻣﺨﺘﻠـﻒ ﺁﻥ ﻭ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨـﺪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻴﻤﻴﻢﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﻫﺪﻑ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭ ﻓﻨـﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﻌـﺪﺩ ﻣـﻮﺩ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺘﺮﻳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺁﺳﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺑﺤﺚ ﺣﺎﺿـﺮ ﺑـﺮ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺗﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﺮ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻧﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧـﺪ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺭﻭﺯﺍﻓﺰﻭﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻭ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻣﺒـﺎﺩﺭﺕ ﻣـﻲ ﺭﻭﺯﻧـﺪ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺣـﺎﻟﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﻣﻘـﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻬﺎﻱ ﺩﺭﺳﻲ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﻣﻘﺎﻻﺕ ﻭ ﻛﺘﺎﺑﻬﺎﻱ ﺩﺭﺳﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻳﺎ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺠﺰﺍ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﻗـﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭﻙ ﻧﻈﺮﻳﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻭﺭ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺵ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻛـﻪ ﺗﺠﺰﻳـﻪ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﮔﻤﺮﺍﻫﻲ ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻭﺍﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺑﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨـﺪ ﺑـﺎ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻭﺳﻴﻊ ﺗﺮ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٢‬ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‬

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‫ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﺴﺖ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺑﺠﺎﺋﻲ ﻭ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻭ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﻣﺼﺮﻑ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ؛ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺎ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺗﺎ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺗـﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻋﺼﺮﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻧﺎﻣﻬﺎﻱ ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ ﻋﺼﺮ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻋـﺼﺮ ﻛـﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ‪ ،‬ﻋـﺼﺮ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃـﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻋـﺼﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻧﺎﻣﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻚ ﭼﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻧﻘﻄﺔ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﺍﻙ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻧﺎﻣﮕﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻫﺎ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻛـﻪ ﻗﻄﻌـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﻜﺮﺓ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﻀﻮﺭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻫﺎ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻭﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﺧـﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺩﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﺩ ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻤﻲ – ﻓﻨـﻲ ﻭ ﺳـﺎﻳﺮ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺧﺮﺩﻣﻨﺪﺍﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺏ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٣‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬

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‫‪1- information Technology‬‬ ‫‪2- information ststem‬‬

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‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺘﻲ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺟﻤـﻊ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﻳـﺎ ﺑﺎﺯﻳـﺎﺑﻲ ‪ ،‬ﭘـﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺯﻳﻊ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﭘـﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻨـﺪ ‪ .‬ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺗﻲ ﻓﺮﺍﺗـﺮ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧﻪﻫﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﺓ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻳﺎﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﺓ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬

‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬

‫‪ (٤‬ﺳﻴﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬

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‫ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺭﻭﺩ ‪ .‬ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺮﻳﻘﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺳـﺎﺯﻧﺪ ﺗﻮﺟـﻪ ﺩﺍﺭﻣـﻲ ‪ .‬ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻜﻤﻞ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻧﻮﺳﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻮﺳﻲ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫» ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﻪ ﺷـﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﻭﻇﺎﻳﻒ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻤﻨﺪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣـﺆﺛﺮ ﻭ ﺑـﻪ ﻣﻮﻗـﻊ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺪﺍﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻝ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺭﺳﺎﻧﺪ «‬ ‫ﺳﻦ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻜﻤﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪:‬‬ ‫» ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﻳﻜﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳـﺰﻱ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﻮ ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺑﻪ ﮔﺬﺷـﺘﻪ ‪ -‬ﺣـﺎﻝ ‪ -‬ﺁﻳﻨـﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺁﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ «‬

‫‪1- management information system‬‬

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‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺮﻭﺯ‪ ،‬ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺍﻧﺤﺼﺎﺭﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧـﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﺮﻛﺐ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻭﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻣـﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧـﺪ ﻭ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺫﺧﻴـﺮﻩ ‪ ،‬ﭘـﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﻧﺨﺎﺏ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (١‬ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﻃﺮﺍﻓﺶ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻴﺪﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (١‬ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬

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‫ﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺘﻲ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ��� ( SMIS ) ١‬ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺮﻳﻢ ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﻛﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻗﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺭﺍﻫﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨـﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ ‪ .‬ﻳـﻚ ﺭﺍﻫﺒـﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻗﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻤﻨﺪﻱ ﻧﺴﺒﻲ ﻣﺆﺳـﺴﻪ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﺳـﺦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺗﻼﺵ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻱ ﻭﻗﺘﻲ ﻣﻮﻓﻖ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﻪ ﺭﻗﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﻧـﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺟﻮﺭ ﺁﻣﺪﻧﻲ ﻳﺎ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﻭ ﻗﻮﻱ ﺗﺮ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻤﻨﺪﻳﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻔﻬـﻮﻡ ﺭﻳـﺸﻪ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻪ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﺔ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺍﻧﺪﺭ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺭﻗﻴﺒﺎﻥ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (٢‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻪ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻳﻚ ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻤﻨﺪﻳﻬﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺟﻮﺭ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻮﺩﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﻱ‬

‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﻳﺎ ﺳﻮﺩﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﻱ‬

‫ﺭﻗﻴﺐ‬

‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻳﺎ ﺧﺪﻣﺖ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (٢‬ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺜﻠﺚ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻳﻚ ) ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ (‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﻤﺔ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻳﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻫﻤﺔ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺮ ﻭﺿﻌﻴﺖ ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺘﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺑﮕﺬﺍﺭﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺴﺘﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﻤﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﺻﻮﻟﻲ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﮔﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬

‫ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﺸﻮﺩ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺧﺪﺷﻪ ﻭﺍﺭﺩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺤﺖ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﻛﺴﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺖ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺑﮕﺬﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﺗـﺎ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺑﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫﺎﻳﺸﺎﻥ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧﻤـﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨـﺪ‬

‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭﻳﺎﺑﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻃﺮﺡ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪1- strategic mangement inforamtion system‬‬

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‫‪‬‬

‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻣﻬﻤﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺳﺒﻜﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻤﺔ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻛﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٥‬ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ (١-٥‬ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﺎ ﺗـﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﻣـﺴﺎﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﻴـﻴﻦ ﺟﺎﻧـﺸﻴﻨﻬﺎﻱ ﺣـﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻞ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺳﺮﻭﻛﺎﺭ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪.‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ‪ MIS‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨـﺪ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻧﺨﺴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻴﻢ ‪:‬‬ ‫» ﻳﻚ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻳﻚ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻞ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﻭ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮ ﺍﺳـﺖ « ﻧـﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻌﻤﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﻭ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻳﻚ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻦ ﻳﺎ ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺩﺍﺭﺍ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻫﺸﺖ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳﻚ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻲ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻣﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺎ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﻛﺮﺩ‪،‬ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻨـﺼﻮﺭﺕ ﻣـﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺭﺍﺗﻌﺮﻳـﻒ‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﺭﻗﻤﻲ ﻭ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎﺕ ﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﺑـﺎ ﮔـﺮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺳـﺐ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻧﺠـﺎﻡ‬

‫ﻣﻲﮔﺮﻳﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻦ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎ ﺑـﺮ ﺣـﺴﺐ ﻫـﺪﻑ ﺑـﺎﺯﺩﻫﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣـﺸﺨﺺ ﻛـﺮﺩﻥ‬

‫ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻬﺎ ) ﻭﺳﺎﻳﻞ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ( ﻭ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺭﺗﺒﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻫﺪﻓﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻲ ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﻳﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺭﺍ ﻗﺎﺋﻞ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﺁﻥ‬

‫ﺭﺍ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺷﺪﻩ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻧﻘﺶ ﻛﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻴـﺎﻥ ﻣـﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻥ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺭﺍﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﺣﻞ ﺟﺎﻧـﺸﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬

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‫‪ (٢-٥‬ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻝ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ) ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ( ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ ﺑﺎ ﻋﺎﺩﺍﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻼ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﻳﻚ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ ﻳـﺎ ﺑـﺴﺘﻦ ﻳـﻚ ﻛﺎﺭﺧﺎﻧـﻪ ‪ ،‬ﻣـﻮﻗﻌﻴﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺭﻭﻳﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻌﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﻣﺜ ﹰ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﻱ ) ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﺭﻳـﺰﻱ ﻳـﺎ ﻏﻴـﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻝ ( ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻭﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻲ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻧﻤﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﻲ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻋﺎﺩﻱ ﻭ ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ ﺳـﺮﻭﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪.‬ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (٣‬ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻲ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺮ ﺑﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (٣‬ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻋﻘﻼﻳﻲ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬

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‫‪ (٣-٥‬ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﭼﻨﺪﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﺨﺮﺩﺍﻧﻪ ‪ :‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﮕﻮ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺭﻭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﺽ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮ ﻫﺪﻑ ﻣـﺸﺨﺺ ‪،‬‬

‫ﺷﺎﺧﺼﻬﺎﻱ ﺭﺗﺒﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻳﺎ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﺪﻑ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻗﻮﻩ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻦ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻛـﺪﺍﻡ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻟﮕﻮ ﻓﺮﺽ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻛﺎﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺩﻭﺭ ﻭ ﺑﺮ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩ ﺑﺨﺮﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﺮﻱ ﺑﺨﺮﺩﺍﻧﻪ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻧﻘﺪ ﻭ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﻭﺩﺭ ﻋﻮﺽ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻧﮕﺎﻩ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻧﺘـﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﻲ ﭼﻮﻥ ﻧﺎﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻧﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺭﺿﺎﻳﺘﺒﺨﺶ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎﺭﭺ ﻭﺳﻴﻤﻮﻥ ‪ ١‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﻓﺎﺋﻖ ﺁﻣﺪﻥ ﺑﺮ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻟﮕـﻮﻱ ﺑﺨﺮﺩﺍﻧـﻪ‬‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﺩﺭ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮﻱ ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻲ ﺭﺿـﺎﻳﺘﺒﺨﺶ ﺗـﺮﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣـﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻴـﺎﻥ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻠﻬـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻳﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﺑﻴﺶ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻞ ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺭﺿﺎﻳﺘﺒﺨﺶ ﺍﺻﻄﻼﺡ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺳﻴﻤﻮﻥ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻧﺎﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺭﺿﺎﻳﺘﺒﺨﺸﻲ ﻳـﻚ ﺍﻟﮕـﻮﻱ ﺗﻮﺻـﻴﻔﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻓﺘـﺎﺭﻱ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻧﺎﻗﺺ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻭ ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺭﺿﺎﻳﺘﺒﺨﺸﻲ ﻣﻲ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﺍﻥ ﻫﻤـﺔ ﺟﺎﻧـﺸﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻨﺎﺳﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻳﻚ ﻫﺪﻑ ﺑﺎﺯﺩﻫﻲ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ‪ MIS.‬ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﺎ ﻓـﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺁﻭﺭﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺍﺳﺎﺳـﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻕ ﻛﺸﻒ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻨﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺩﺭ ﻛﺸﻒ ﻃﻴﻒ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺗﺮ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺑﺨـﺶ ﺍﺭﺯﺷـﻴﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﻨﺪﮔﻲ ‪ :‬ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩ ﻫﻴﭻ ﺷﺎﺧﺼﻲ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻨﺎﺭ ﻧﻤﻲ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻮﺽ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺨﻠﻮﻁ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻲ ﺯﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻱ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﻨـﺪﮔﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻣـﻲ ﭘـﺬﻳﺮﺩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﹰﺎ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻭﺿﻊ ﺟﺎﺭﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺗﺎ ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻣﺘﻔـﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺘﺨـﺎﺏ ﻣـﻲ ﻛﻨـﺪ ‪ .‬ﭼﻨـﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻟﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻝ ﺗﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻛﻮﭼﻚ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻱ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﻳﻜﺪﻓﻌﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻭ ﺑﺰﺭﮒ ﻗﻴﻤﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٤-٥‬ﺳﺒﻜﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎ ﺳﺒﻚ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮ ﻣﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺳﺒﻚ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺤﻮﻩ ﺍﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺳﻨﺠﺪ ﻭﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﻨﻈﻢ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭﺩﺭ ﮔﺮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻳـﻚ ﻣـﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺟـﺴﺘﺠﻮﻱ ﺑﻬﺘـﺮﻳﻦ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣـﻞ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻣـﻲ ﻛﻨﻨـﺪ ‪ .‬ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﻳﮕـﺮ ﺑﻴـﺸﺘﺮ ﻛـﺸﻒ ﺷـﻬﻮﺩﻱ ﻫـﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺑـﺪﻭﻥ ﺩﺍﺷـﺘﻦ ﺭﻭﺍﻝ ﺭﺳـﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮﮔﺮﻱ ﻃﻴﻒ ﻛﺴﺘﺮﺩﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻲ ﺗـﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻓـﺮﺍﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺤـﺖ ﻋﻨـﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺟﺘﻨـﺎﺏ ﺍﺯ‬

‫‪1-March,JG and simon , HA‬‬

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‫ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮﻱ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻭ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻛﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺳﺒﻚ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺨـﺼﻮﺹ ﺩﺭ ﻫﻨﮕـﺎﻣﻲ ﻛـﻪ ﻃـﺮﺡ ‪ ) DSS‬ﻳـﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ( ﻭ ‪ ) ESS‬ﻳﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ( ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻣﻼﺣﻈﻪ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﻣﻬﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ‪. ١‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺭﺥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻳﻦ ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩ ﺑﺮ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴـﺮﻱ ﺍﺛـﺮ ﺑﮕـﺬﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﻣـﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳـﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ ﻋﻤﺪﻩ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ؛‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻣﻮﺍﻧﻊ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ‬

‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻣﺮﺯﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮﻱ ﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﮕﺬﺍﺭﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٦‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻧﺪﺭﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﻛﻮﺷﺶ ﻣـﻲ ﻛﻨﻨـﺪ ﺑـﺎ ﺍﺳـﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺗﻲ ﻛـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ‪ ، MIS‬ﻳﺎ ﻣﻨـﺎﺑﻊ ﻏﻴـﺮ ﺭﺳـﻤﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻧﻨـﺪ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌـﺎﺕ ﺭﻭﺩﺭ ﺭﻭ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻠﻔﻨﻬـﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺳﺖ ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺡ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪ ﻭ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ ﺁﻝ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻛﻨﻴﺪ ﻭ ‪ MIS‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧـﺪ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭﻋﻤﻞ ‪ ،‬ﻧﺎ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻧﻲ ﻭ ﻋﺪﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﻴﺖ ﭘﻴﺸﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻌﻨﺎﻱ ﺁﻧﻲ ﺑﻮﺩﻥ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪ .‬ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑـﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﻃﺮﺡ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬

‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ ﻣﻲ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺪ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻧﺎﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻧﻲ ﺭﺍ ﻛﺎﻫﺶ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻝ ﻛﻠﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺿﺮﻭﺭﺕ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﻭﺳﻄﺢ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٧‬ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫‪ MIS‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺩﻭ ﻭﻇﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻤﺎﻳﺰ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﺑﺮﺳﺎﻧﺪ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻱ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻭ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ ‪.‬‬

‫ﻼ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‬ ‫‪ -١‬ﺩﺭ ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ ﲝﺚ ﻃﺮﺡ ‪ DSS‬ﻣﻔﺼ ﹰ‬

‫‪١٠‬‬


‫‪‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﻣﺰﺍﺣﻤﺖ ﻭ ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺗﻨﻬﺎ ﻫﻨﮕﺎﻣﻲ ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﭙﺬﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺑـﻪ‬

‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﺭﻭﺯﻣﺮﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﻗﻮﺍﻋﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﺳﺎﺧﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺁﻳﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٨‬ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﺑﺪﻳﻊ ﻭ ﻓﺎﻗﺪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﻼ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ) ﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﺓ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﺍﺳﺖ (‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ) ﺩﻭﺭﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﻣﺪﺕ ﻭ ﻛﻮﺗﺎﻩ ﻣﺪﺕ (‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻛﻤﻴﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ) ﻧﻈﺮﻳﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻗﻀﺎﻭﺗﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﺶ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﺍﺕ (‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻼ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣ ﹰ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺣﺪ ﻭ ﻣﺮﺯ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﭼﻨﺪ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (٩‬ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﺔ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻧﻘﺶ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺗﺄﻛﻴﺪ ﺷﺪﻭ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﺷﺪ ﻛـﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﻣﻨﺒـﻊ ﻣﻬﻤـﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﺗﺎ ﺣﺪﺍﻛﺜﺮ ﺳﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺍﺷـﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﻛـﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺳـﻴﻠﻪ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﭘﺬﻳﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺴﺎﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﮔﺮﺩﺁﻭﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳـﺎﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻦ ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻬﺪﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬ﺗﻤﺎﻡ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺳﺨﺖ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻧﺮﻡ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻧﻜﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺭﻭﺍﻝ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻛﺎﺭ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ‬

‫ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺗﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻳﻚ ‪ MIS‬ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺠﺎﻝ ﺑﺤﺚ ﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣـﺎﻡ ﺑـﻪ ﻃـﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﮔﻔﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺮ ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩﻱ ﺭﺍ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻳـﻚ ﺭﻭﺵ ﺷﻨﺎﺳـﻲ ﻣﺜـﻞ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‪ SISP ١‬ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧـﺪ ﺍﺛـﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪.‬ﭼﻨﺪﻳﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ‪ MIS‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺁﻣﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬

‫‪ (١-٩‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ )‪(TPS‬‬

‫‪٢‬‬

‫ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ ﻧﻮﻉ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ ﻧﺎﻡ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺭﻭﻳـﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺭﻭﻳﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺛﺒﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺭﻭﺷﻨﺘﺮ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎ ‪:‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﻡ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻥ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫‪1- strategic information system plan‬‬ ‫‪2- transaction processing system‬‬

‫‪١١‬‬


‫‪‬‬

‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎﺕ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻻﺕ ﺭﺍ ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺍﮔﺮ ﻧﻴﺎﺯ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﭼﺎﭖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﹰﺎ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺪﺍﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻓﺮﻭﺵ ﻳﺎ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ﺍﻳـﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪‬‬

‫ﻃﺒﻘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺩﺳﺘﻪ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻳﺎ ﻣﺮﺗﺐ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﻟﻲ‬

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‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬

‫‪‬‬

‫ﺫﺧﻴﺮﻩ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ‬

‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ ) ‪ ( TPS‬ﻭﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ) ‪ ( MIS‬ﻳﻚ ﺭﺍﺑﻄـﺔ ﻣﻬـﻢ ﻭﺟـﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺎﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ)‪ (٤‬ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷﻨﻲ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﭘﺪﺍﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻟﻲ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪ ( MIS) .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻫـﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻫﺒـﺮﺩﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺗـﺎﻛﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻴـﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ ﺧﺮﺩﻩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻻﺯﻡ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ﺷـﻜﻞ )‪ (٥‬ﻧﻴـﺰ ﻣـﺴﻴﺮ ﭘـﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫـﺎ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ) ‪ ( TPS‬ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ‬

‫‪M‬‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪S‬‬

‫ﻣﺎﻟﻲ‬

‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬

‫‪M‬‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪S‬‬

‫‪M‬‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪S‬‬

‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬

‫‪M‬‬ ‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪S‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻛﺘﻴﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ‬

‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺒﺎﺩﻟﻪ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬

‫ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬

‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ‬

‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (٤‬ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬

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‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (٥‬ﻣﺴﻴﺮ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻭ ﺧﺎﺭﺝ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ‪TPS‬‬

‫‪ (٢-٩‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ )‪( DSS‬‬

‫‪١‬‬

‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺷﺎﺕ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ‪ MIS‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﭼﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺘﻬﺎ ﻣﻔﻴﺪﻧﺪ ﻭﻟﻲ ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻧﻴـﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﺁﻧﻬـﺎ ﻣﻤﻜـﻦ ﺍﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻛﺎﻓﻲ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻮﻗﻊ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻧﻜﻨﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ ﺁﺯﻣﻮﻥ ﺁﺛﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻧﺪﻫﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻳﺖ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫‪1- Decision support systems‬‬

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‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﭘـﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ ) ‪ ( DSS‬ﻣـﻲ ﺷـﻮﺩ ‪ DSS.‬ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺗﻲ ﻫـﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛـﻪ ﺑـﻪ ﻣـﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻓﺮﺩ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮ ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻛﻪ ﻧﺴﺒﺘﹰﺎ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺳ���ﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻤﻚ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ﺑﻨـﺎﺑﺮ ﺍﻳـﻦ ‪ DSS‬ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﺗﺎﻛﺘﻴﻜﻲ ﻭ ﺭﺍﻫﺒﺮﺩﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻧﺴﺒﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻄﺢ ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻲ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ ﺑﻴـﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺣﻤﺎﻳـﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻠﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮ ﺻﻮﺭﺕ ﻣﻲ ﮔﺮﻳﺪ ﺍﻣـﺎ ﻗـﻀﺎﻭﺕ ﻭ ﺑﻴـﻨﺶ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨـﺪ ﻣﻬـﻢ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﭘـﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴـﺮﻱ ﻣﻤﻜـﻦ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﺭﻳـﺰﻱ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮕﻮﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺟﺎﻧﺸﻴﻨﻬﺎ ﻭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﻭﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﻣﻌﻤﻮ ﹰﻻ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﻣﭙﻴﻮﺗﺮﻱ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ ﺭﻭﻱ ﻣﻴﺰ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﺎ ﻗﺪﺭﺕ ﭘـﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎ ﹰﻻ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺤﻠﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺎﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺳﺎﺩﻩ ﺗﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻣﺘﺼﻞ ﻣﻴـﺸﻮﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ ﺩﺭ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻴﻬﺎﻱ ﻛﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻣﺨﺘـﺼﺮﹰﺍ ﺍﺷـﺎﺭﻩ ﺷـﺪﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﮕﻮﻳﻴﻢ ﻛﻪ ‪ DSS‬ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﻨﺪ ﻭ ﻧﻴﻤﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﻨﺪ ﺣﻤﺎﻳـﺖ ﻣـﻲ ﻛﻨـﺪ ‪ .‬ﮔـﺮﻭﻩ ﺯﻳـﺎﺩﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺑﻮﺳـﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﻣﻴﺸﻮﺩ ﻛﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﻨﺪ ﻭﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﻫﻢ ﻋﻨﺼﺮ ﻏﻴﺮﺳـﺎﺧﺘﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ ﺗﺤﺖ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻄﻮﺭ ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺗﺮ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺣﻤﺎﻳـﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺍﺗﺤـﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻧﻤﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ ‪ DSS‬ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺍﺟﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻻﺕ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ » ﭼﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺍﮔﺮ« ﺑﻴﺎﺑﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻭﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻤﺎﺕ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻤﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﮕﻮ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﻮﺍﻉ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻱ ﺩﺭ ‪ DSS‬ﻫﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺣﺴﺎﺏ ﻣﻲ ﺁﻳﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪DSS‬ﻫﺎ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ – ﻣﺤﻮﺭﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺟﺴﺘﺠﻮﻱ ﻫﺪﻑ ‪ ،‬ﺑﻬﻴﻨﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺷﺒﻴﻪ ﺳـﺎﺯﻱ ﻭ ﻣﻌـﺎﺩﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﻣﻲ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﭘﻴـﺸﺮﻓﺘﻪ ﺍﺯ ﻟﺤـﺎﻅ ﻓـﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﺗﻮﺳـﻌﻪ ﻣـﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﻨـﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪DSS‬ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻬﺎﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻲ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﻨـﺪ ) ﺯﺑﺎﻧﻬـﺎﻱ ﻧـﺴﻞ ﭼﻬـﺎﺭﻡ ( ﻭ ﻳـﺎ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳـﻖ ﺑـﺴﺘﻪ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭﻱ ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (٤‬ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺍﻧﻔﺮﺍﺩﻱ ﻳﺎ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻨﺞ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﺔ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺧﻼﺻﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-١‬ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺻﻮﺭﺗﺒﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺑﻄﻮﺭﻱ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫‪-٢‬ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺗﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﺩﺭﻛﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ ﺑﺪﻫﺪ‬ ‫‪-٣‬ﺻﻮﺭﺗﺒﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ ﭘﺎﺭﺍﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻪ ﻫﻢ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ‬ ‫‪-٤‬ﺁﺯﻣﺎﻳﺶ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺛﺒﺎﺕ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻞ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻭ ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺵ ﻭ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ‬ ‫‪-٥‬ﭘﺎﻻﻳﺲ ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ ﻫﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫ﺷﻜﻞ )‪ (٦‬ﻳﻚ ﻣﺪﻝ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬

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‫‪(٣-٩‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ )‪(ES‬‬

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‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ‪ ، ES‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﺓ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺏ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺗﺨﺼﺺ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺍﺯ ﺧﺒﺮﮔﺎﻥ ﺗﻘﻠﻴﺪ ﻛﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻳﻚ ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺣﻮﺯﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺣﻴﻄﻪ ﺩﺍﻧـﺶ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﻩ ﻋﻠﻢ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﻳﻚ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺭﺳﻤﻲ ﺗﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﻛﻪ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻘﺎﻳﻖ ﻭ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻟﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻠﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻄـﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺎﺋﻴﻬﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺼﺎﻥ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺑﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺍﻏﻠﺐ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪،‬ﻛﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﻭ ﻣﻬﻤـﻲ ﺍﺳـﺖ ﻛـﻪ ﺩﺍﻧـﺶ ﺗﺨﺼـﺼﻲ ﺍﻧـﺴﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﻧـﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺤﺚ ﺑﺎﺧﺒﺮﮔﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺁﻧﺎﻥ ﻣﺸﺘﻖ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﭼﻨـﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻥ ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ ﺍﺯ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺭﺍ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﻛﻨﺪ ﻧﻪ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻠﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈـﺮ ﺑﮕﻴـﺮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑﻨـﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺒـﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﻬﺎﻡ ﻭ ﺍﺳﺘﺪﻻﻝ ﻧﺎﻣﻌﻴﻦ ﺗﺤـﺖ ﺷـﺮﺍﻳﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻧﻴﺴﺖ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺍﻧﺪ ‪ ،‬ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ ﻋﺪﻡ ﺍﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎﻥ ﻭﻗﻀﺎﻭﺕ ﺗـﻼﺵ ﻣـﻲ ﻛﻨﻨـﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻳﻚ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲ ﻣﻬﻢ ﻳﻚ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺣﻮﺯﻩ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻫﻮﺵ ﻣﺼﻨﻮﻋﻲ ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﻋﻼﻗﻪ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺗﺠـﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﻣﺤـﻴﻂ ﻫـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﻣﻤﻜﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﻜﺎﺭ ﺭﻭﺩ ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﻨﺎﻥ – ﺛﺒﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺎﻳﮕﺎﻧﻲ – ﻛﻤﻚ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﻓﺮﺩ ﺩﺭ ﻳﻚ ﺭﻭﻳﺔ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ – ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﻣﺎﻟﻴﺎﺕ ﺷﺨﺼﻲ – ﻗﻴﻤـﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻱ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ – ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺏ ﺭﻭﺵ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﻭﺵ – ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺑﺎﻧﻜﻲ – ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﺁﻣـﻮﺯﺵ – ﻃﺮﺍﺣـﻲ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻱ – ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﻭ ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ﺭﺍﻩ ﺣﻠﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﻳﻚ ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧـﻪﺍﻱ ‪ .‬ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺧﺒـﺮﻩ ﻃـﻮﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮ ﺑﺘﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺩﮔﻲ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻭﻧﺪﺍﺭ ﻛﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻻﺗﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻭﺳﻴﻠﻪ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﺒـﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮﺡ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻭ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺍﺟـﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳـﻦ ﺗﻌﺎﻣـﻞ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ )‪ (٧‬ﻧﺸﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﻭﺟﻮﺩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻫﻤﺔ ﺣﻘﺎﻳﻖ ﻭ ﻗـﻮﺍﻧﻴﻨﻲ ﺍﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﺎﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺑﺎ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺣﻘﺎﻳﻖ ﻭ ﻗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻦ ﺩﺭ ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺳﻬﻮﻟﺖ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻛﺴﺐ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻛـﻪ ﺳـﻬﻮﻟﺖ ﻛـﺴﺐ ﺩﺍﻧـﺶ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧـﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮﻩ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﭘﺸﺘﻴﺒﺎﻧﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ‪ ،‬ﻛـﻪ ﺑﺨـﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺎﺷـﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻭ ﻣﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ ﺩﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ﭼﺮﺍ ﻳﺎ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ) ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ ( ﻋﻤﻞ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ ،‬ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‪.‬‬

‫‪1- Executove systems‬‬

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‫ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ‬

‫ﭘﺎﻳﮕﺎﻩ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻣﺎﺷﻴﻦ‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﻨﺒﺎﻁ‬

‫ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ‬

‫ﺳﺌﻮﺍﻻﺕ‬

‫ﻛﺎﺭﺑﺮ‬

‫ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻼﺕ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬

‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﺍﺭ )‪ (٧‬ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﻳﻚ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﺧﺒﺮﻩ‬

‫‪ (١٠‬ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺍﺯ ﮔﺮﺍﻳﺶ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﭼﻪ ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘﻪ ﺗﺮ ﻭ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ ﺗﺮ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﭘﺪﻳﺪﻩ ﻫﺎ ﺑـﻪ ﻫﻤـﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺳـﺖ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺑﺎﻋﺚ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻙ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ ﺩﺭ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻫﺎ ) ﺳﺒﻚ ﻣﺸﺎﺭﻛﺘﻲ ( ‪ ،‬ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺳـﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺳﺮﻋﺖ ﺩﺭ ﺣﻞ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻥ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺎﺩﻝ ﺑﻴـﺸﺘﺮﻱ ﺩﺭ ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫـﺎ ﺍﻳﺠـﺎﺩ ﻛـﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ‪ .‬ﺍﻣﺎﻡ ﺩﺭ ﻋﻴﻦ ﺣﺎﻝ ﻣﻮﺟﺐ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺗﻲ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻛﻪ ﺑﻌﻀﹰﺎ ﻣﻘﺎﻭﻣﺖ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﭘﻴﺶ ﺭﻭ ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﻓﻦﺁﻭﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻱ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺎﺭﻱ ‪ ،‬ﺷﻴﻮﻩ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﻮﺭﻭﻛﺮﺍﺗﻴﻚ ﻭ ﻧﺨﺒـﻪ ﮔﺮﺍﻳﺎﻧـﻪ ﺭﺍ ﺑـﺮ ﻫـﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺯﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ ﻧﺎﭘﺬﻳﺮ ‪ ،‬ﺧﻮﺩ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﺠﺎ ﻛﻪ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﺔ ﻣﻬﻤﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺑﻴﺸﻴﻨﻪ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺳﻮﺩ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ‪،‬ﺧﻮﺏ ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ‪ .‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺯﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﺗﺤﻘﻖ ﻣﻲ ﻳﺎﺑﺪ ‪ .‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﺳـﺘﻴﺎﺑﻲ ﺑـﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻫـﺎﻱ ﻛـﺎﺭﺑﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺍﻧﻌﻄﺎﻑ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺩﺍﻣﻨـﻪ ﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧـﻮﺍﻉ ﻣﺘﻔـﺎﻭﺕ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﻣﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ ‪ .‬ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ ﻫﻤﺔ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﺑﺤﺚ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻨﺠﺎ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ ﻣـﻮﺭﺩ ﻧﻴـﺎﺯ ﺧـﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﻓـﺖ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ )‪(MIS‬ﺑﻪ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲ ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ ﻭ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺷﻬﺎﻱ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎ ﻳﻜﺪﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﻏﺎﻡ ﻣﻲ ﻛﻨﻨﺪ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺭﺍ ﺍﺯﺩﺭﻭﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ��� ﻭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻪ ﺷﻜﻞ ﻗﺎﺑـﻞ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻤﻲ ﺩﺭ‬

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‫ﻣﻲ ﺁﻭﺭﺩ ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ ﭼـﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ ﻧﻈـﺮﻱ ﺑـﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻮﺳـﻌﻪ ﺩﺍﻧـﺶ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺮﺑـﻪ ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋـﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﻣﻲ ﺩﻫﻨﺪ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻛﻤﻚ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺑﻴﻨﺸﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﻭ ﻣﺠﻬﺰ ﺷﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺑﺰﺍﺭ ﻓﻦ ﺁﻭﺭﻱ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺗـﺼﻤﻴﻢ ﮔﻴـﺮﻱ ﻭ ﻣﻬﺎﺭﺗﻬـﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺭﺍﻳﺎﻧﻪ ﻫﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻲ ﺩﻱ ﺭﺍﻣﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺷﺒﻜﻪ ﻫﺎﻱ ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻲ ﻭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺮﻭﻧﻴﻜﻲ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮﻱ ﻭ ﺻﻮﺗﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﻛـﻪ ﻣـﻲ ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨـﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺘﺎﺭ ﺣﺮﻓﻪ ﺍﻱ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻗﺮﻥ ﺑﻴﺴﺖ ﻭ ﻳﻜﻢ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﺛﺮ ﺑﺨﺶ ﻛﺎﺭﺍﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﻭ ﺑﻬـﺴﺎﺯﻱ ﺳـﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻧـﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺍﷲ‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻓﺎﺭﺳﻲ‬ ‫‪-١‬ﻛﻨﺖ ﺳﻲ ﻻﻭﺩﻥ ﻭﺟﻴﻦ ﭘﺮﻧﺲ ﻻﻭﺩﻥ »ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻬﺎﻱ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ« ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺮﺿـﺎ ﺭﺿـﺎﻳﻲ ﻧـﮋﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﭼـﺎﭖ ﺍﻭﻝ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻬـﺮﺍﻥ ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮕﻲ ﺭﺳﺎ ‪١٣٧٧ ،‬‬ ‫‪» -٢‬ﻣﻘﻴﺎﺱ ﺳﻨﺠﺶ ﺳﺒﻚ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ « ﻣﺮﻛﺰ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻲ ﻭ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ﺁﺯﺍﺩ ﺍﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺳﺎﻭﻩ ‪١٣٧٩‬‬ ‫‪ -٣‬ﻋﺒﺪﺍﻟﺤﺴﻴﻦ ﺁﺫﺭﻧﮓ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﭼﺎﭖ ﻭ ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ ﻓﺮﻫﻨﮓ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺷﺎﺩ ﺍﺳﻼﻣﻲ ‪١٣٧٨ ،‬‬ ‫‪ -٤‬ﺍﻧﺘﻮﻧﻲ ﺍﺳﻤﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﮊﺋﻮﭘﻮﻟﺘﻴﻚ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ‪،‬ﭼﺎﺏ ﺩﻭﻡ ‪ ،‬ﺗﻬﺮﺍﻥ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺳﺮﻭﺵ ‪١٣٦٩ ،‬ﺹ‪١٠٩‬‬ ‫‪ -٥‬ﻋﻼﻗﻪ ﺑﻨﺪ ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺷﻲ ‪ ،‬ﭼﺎﭖ ﺍﻭﻝ ﺍﺭﺩﻳﺒﻬﺸﺖ ‪ ، ١٣٧٤‬ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺩﺍﻧﺸﮕﺎﻩ ‪ ،‬ﭘﻴﺎﻡ ﻧﻮﺭ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪٣٣‬‬ ‫‪ -٦‬ﺑﻬﺮﻧﮕﻲ ‪ ،‬ﻣﺤﻤﺪﺭﺿﺎ ‪ ،‬ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻓﻨﻮﻥ ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻳﻚ ‪ ،‬ﺍﻧﺸﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﻛﻤﺎﻝ ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﺹ‪٤٦-٥٠‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ ﻻﺗﻴﻦ‬ ‫‪7- Robbins , stephen p., The Administrative process , new Delhi prentice Hall , 1982‬‬ ‫‪8- Acoff , RL , Management misinformation systems – Management science14 , (4) ,‬‬ ‫‪December 1967.‬‬ ‫‪9- March , JG and simon , HA – organisations – New york: Wiley , 1958‬‬ ‫‪10- Gorgory Morhed , Ricky W.Griffin , “organizational Behavior” Houghton Mifflin‬‬ ‫‪com , Boston , new york , 1998‬‬ ‫‪11- Kenneth C.Laudon and others , “information technology and society” Wadworth ,‬‬ ‫‪|Inc .1994 , 37 – 48‬‬ ‫‪12- Gorge w.Ronalds , “information for management” , Third Edition new york west‬‬ ‫‪publishing co. , 1999‬‬

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