Association of Journalists of Navarra Pozoblanco St, 15, 1º Tel.: 948 22 40 79 email@example.com www.periodistasdenavarra.es
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Edition Pamplona City Council Citizen Participation and New Technologies Area Culture and Tourism Area Government of Navarra Culture and Tourism Department Association of Journalists of Navarra Editorial staﬀ, design and layout International Press Oﬃce 2011: Josune Arévalo Carlos Lezana María Monreal Imanol Osácar Mayte Romero Translation: Lucinda Poole Printing NovaPrinter Legal deposit 2080-2011
The IPO Coordinator welcomes you 24 Hours of Fiesta 6th of July - El Chupinazo 7th of July - ¡Viva San Fermín! ¡Gora San Fermín! 8th of July - Encierro 9th of July - Giants and their Entourage 10th of July - Fair of the Bull 11th of July - Fun in every corner of the city 12th of July - Jai Alai and Rural Sports 13th of July - Gastronomy and music 14th of July - Pobre de mí Data from 2010 Useful Guide
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PAMPLONA Pamplona at a glance Pamplona and History Pamplona´s monuments A stroll along the walls Entrance to the “Way to Santiago”
64 65 65 67 69 71
NAVARRA Discovering Navarra in Summer Navarra in favor of tourism related to culture and nature Navarra awards its tourists
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Some basic rules for journalists Glossary
The IPO Coordinator welcomes you The Association of Journalists of Navarra is celebrating its onehundredth anniversary. It was the 26th of June in 1911 when the Association of the Press of Navarra, as it was then called, was created to provide healthcare assistance and special economic help for those journalists in need. During the past 100 years, the Association has changed with the times but continues promoting San Fermín and its ﬁesta throughout the globe, making it the most international ﬁesta in the world. For this reason, the International Press Oﬃce (IPO), which is part of the Association, wants to help you enjoy Sanfermines with a look back at other times by way of extraordinary San Fermin posters of a priceless cultural value. San Fermín is here again, and the IPO team hopes that you make our oﬃce your home away from home during these nine days in which Pamplona becomes front page news. This year, during Sanfermines, we are located on the Avenida de Roncesvalles, 4, in front of the Monument to the “Encierro”. Our goal remains the same, to help you with your work- whether it be with a microphone, a camera or computer and paper. We wish to thank you all for carrying our ﬁesta throughout the world. Welcome to the International Press Oﬃce in 2011 and for the next 100 years. Enjoy! Fátima Ruiz Vice-President of the AJN Coordinator of the IPO
24 Hours of Fiesta Sanfermines allows you to be all 24 hours of the day in the streets, enjoying music, food and good atmosphere. Here we propose 24 hours of a mixture of “have to” events throughout the nine days of the ﬁesta. 6:30 “Caldico”: It is very important to settle your stomach in the bars of the old section of Pamplona with a serving of hot broth after a very long night. 6:45 “Dianas”: The municipal band, “La Pamplonesa” marches through the streets starting in the plaza in front of the Town Hall – “la Plaza Consistorial” – waking the city up with the joyful sound of its music. 7:00 Cattle Fair (July 7th): Located in the Polígono de Agustinos, more than 2,000 heads of cattle are sold, coming from all over Spain. Their owners settle in for a long day of bargaining until 15:00. Free entrance. 8:00 “Encierro”: July 7th through July 14th. Runners should be on the inside of the fences by 7:30. At 8:00 on the dot, the ﬁrst rocket is the sign that the six bulls are on their way up the “La Cuesta de Santo Domingo”, and the running has begun. 8:15 Breakfast: The typical breakfast is hot chocolate and sugary “churros” served in any cafeteria on Estafeta Street or in the main plaza- “Plaza del Castillo”. The most famous “churros” are those sold in the “Churrería de la Mañueta”, located on the street of the same name. This institution only opens during Sanfermines and every Sunday in October. 9:00 The Dance of the “Alpargata”: Everyday in the Nuevo Casino Principal, located in the “Plaza del Castillo”, number 44. Its name comes from the times when people began to go to the dance after the “encierro”, wearing typical espadrilles – a shoe that is still extremely popular. Unfortunately you cannot enter unless you are a member of the Casino or have an invitation from a member. Ever
since 1999, the Principal Casino also rewards a prize to the best “encierro” of the year with the “Alpargata de Honor”. 9:00-9:30 The Giants and their big-headed friends leave the bus station and “walk” through the city to the delight of children and the elderly. 10:00 “Procesión de San Fermín” (July 7th): This day is dedicated to the Saint. The town and church oﬃcials walk to the Chapel of San Fermín in San Lorenzo Church where there is a mass celebrated in his honor, presided by the Archbishop of Pamplona and Cathedral oﬃcials with music by the Orfeón of Pamplona and the Chapel´s musicians. 11:00 Spectacles with young men who risk serious injuries thrilling the spectators by jumping over young bulls or by other shows of bravery and daring. (July 10th) 12:00 Noon. Folklore and sports. You can watch rural sports, the improvised singing of “bertsolaris”, jota singing or dancing in the Plaza de la Cruz or in the Plaza de los Fueros as well as in the Gayarre Theatre. Consult your guidebook. 13:00 “Apartado”: Bulls to be fought that day by each matador are driven into their slots. Originally this act only interested the 2010
Author: Koldo Villarreal
Many gastronomic societies and clubs serve a traditional dinner on each of the days that the popular San Fermin song names: January 1st, February 2th, March 3rd, April 4th, June 6th and July 7th: “Long live San Fermín!”. These dinners are called the ladder of San Fermín (escalera), and last year, Escalera&Twitts made its debut on Twitter to help everyone begin throughout all 12 months to prepare for this famous ﬁesta which is right around the corner.
men of conﬁdence of the bullﬁghters who drew lots for the bulls before the “apartado”, but today it has become a crowded social event. You can buy tickets on July 5th from 10:00 to 1:00 or on a day by day basis at the bullring ticket window. Go early to ﬁnd a place and do not forget to buy a “ﬁno” – sherry - to wash down bull testicle tapas. Apart from the bulls, there are also many journalists present. Sooner or later every celebrity who visits Pamplona goes there. 13:30 Aperitif and lunch: It is a must to try the many delicious and prize-winning tapas in any bar in the old section of Pamplona. The triangle formed by Estafeta, Duque de Ahumada street- Espoz y Mina is one of the most popular areas to ﬁll up and drink it down. 14:30 “Momentico” or the small moment (July 7th): At the end of the “Procesión” honoring San Fermín, the Town Hall members accompany the Church oﬃcials back to the Cathedral. Their arrival amidst bells ringing, music and dancing “Giants” twirling their skirts is one of the least known to foreigners and best loved by those from Pamplona. 17:30 ”Mulillas” are really horses decorated to the hilt in a parade that takes them and their riders from the Town Hall Plaza to the bullring, accompanied by music from the ”Pamplonesa”. 18:00 The ﬁesta is also for children: Theatre, puppets, dances and diﬀerent types of music can be found in the Taconera park, Conde de Rodezno street or in the Plaza de San José. (Consult your program). 18:30 Bullﬁght: The oﬃcial Fair of the Bull takes place from the sixth of July to the 14th. On July 5th, there is what is called a “novillada” for young bullﬁghters. July 6th – bullﬁghting on horseback followed the next day by the seasoned matadors on foot and bulls that have run the “encierro”. Finding a ticket is a great accomplishment, but be very careful with those men wandering around the ring trying to sell you tickets. At the end of the ﬁght, the “Peñas” leave the ring to the sound of their own animated bands.
20:30 Regional Music: Every day in the Bosquecillo. 21:00 “Txistularis” and “gaiteros” or Basque ﬂutes and bagpipes: Every day in the central Plaza del Castillo. Also look for fun on Carlos III Avenue. 22:00 The Fire Bull: While others are having dinner in bars, restaurants and eating societies, the ﬁre bull waits to chase excited children along a perfectly safe mini “encierro” taking place behind the Town Hall in the Plaza de Santiago. There is also an amusement park drawing hundreds of little ones around mid-afternoon to rides and other fun in the Runa Park. 23:00 Fireworks: Fireworks from around the world compete from the 6th to the 14th of July in the International Fireworks Contest. They are launched into the sky from the park in the Ciudadela. 23:00 The “Encierrillo” or smaller version of the “encierro” is when the bulls that will be fought the following morning are led in total silence from the Gas corrals up to the corrals of Santo Domingo where they stay until the real running of the bulls. It takes place at the same time from the 6th to the 13th of July. 23:30 – 24:00 Concerts and dances under the stars: The weather may be diﬃcult to predict, but the oﬃcial program includes concerts in the Plaza de los Fueros (23:30), Plaza del Castillo (24:00), Plaza de San Francisco, Antoniutti (00:30 until 03:00), Plaza de los Burgos and the Taconera park. (Consult your program for locations). “Pobre de Mi” or Poor Me ( July 14) at midnight. The plaza in front of the Town Hall – the Plaza Consistorial – is ﬁlled to the brim with sad ﬁesta-goers holding candles in an oﬃcial goodbye to Sanfermines. There is also a bit of happiness because the countdown to next year´s ﬁesta has just begun.
El Chupinazo The ﬁesta of San Fermín begins on July 6th at 12 noon when the “Chupinazo” or rocket is ﬁred from the main balcony of the Town Hall announcing the oﬃcial beginning. The person in charge of lighting the fuse is a member of the Town Hall Corporation or someone very close to the city. This year the honor belongs to Enrique Maya, the new Mayor. The “Chupinazo” is one of the most emotional moments for everyone in Pamplona because it means the start of uninterrupted hours of Sanfermines until its end at midnight on July 14th. This is one of the most typical and unforgettable acts of the ﬁesta that somehow ﬁts more than 12,500 people in the Plaza of the Town Hall whose size is only 2,502 square meters. Following a few words of welcome, the rocket is launched, and the mass of ﬁesta-goers quickly tie on their scarves, dance and cool oﬀ with bottles of cava. According to tradition, each year a diﬀerent member of the Town Hall Corporation – from the political party who holds the majority to the one with the least representatives – lights the fuse with trembling hands. This norm has been followed for more than 30 years, although other important sports ﬁgures like the captain of the Osasuna soccer team, César Palacios; and the president of the Portland San Antonio handball team, Fermín Tajadura, have also been invited to light the July 6, 1941 Joaquín Ilundáin, assistant mayor, launched the very ﬁrst oﬃcial “Chupinazo” or rocket, announcing the start of the ﬁesta from the Town Hall of Pamplona. Author: Pedro Lozano de Sotés Photo page 10: Image OIP
fuse. Last year, in honor of the 150th anniversary of the paper mâché Giants and their court, the one chosen to ﬁre the rocket was Mari Ganuza, president of this much loved group. Watching the “Chupinazo” from the plaza in front of the Town Hall does have certain risks. You will be pushed, stepped on and drenched with cava, not to mention the broken glass that carpets the cobblestones. It is recommended that you wear comfortable clothes and very resistant shoes – never ﬂip ﬂops or sandals. Photographers should protect their lenses with waterproof coverings. To avoid crowds, you should be in place at least one hour ahead of time. The “Chupinazo” can also be followed from other parts of the city by way of gigantic screens the Town Hall installs in the Paseo de Pablo Sarasate, the Plaza de los Fueros and in Antoniutti park as well as in the Plaza del Castillo where many young people gather to celebrate the “Chupinazo” in their own way. Three minutes before 12 noon, the person responsible for lighting the fuse appears on the balcony accompanied by one from the Town Hall and a representative from the ﬁreworks company, Valencia Caballer, that makes the rocket. “Los mozos” – name given to man or woman who is young at heart or young in age – chant, “San Fermín!, San Fermín!, San Fermín!” and wave the red scarves that will be worn around their necks the second the rocket is ﬁred. Trumpeters are there to announce the moment, and, after the traditional shout in both Spanish and in Euskera of “People of Pamplona, Long live San Fermín!, Gora San Fermín!”, the rocket is launched and the ﬁesta explodes with joy.
¡Viva San Fermín! ¡Gora San Fermín! Nine days of intense ﬁesta and joy. Pamplona celebrates its great international festival from the 6th of July to the 14th to honor San Fermín, who together with San Francisco Javier, are the patron saints of Navarra since 1657. The legend tells us that San Fermín was beheaded, and that is the reason why a red scarf is worn, tied around your neck, during these nine days of ﬁesta. Fermín was the son of Firmus, a senator of the Roman city of Pompaelo – today, Pamplona. Firmus put a priest named Honesto in charge of Fermín´s religious education, and he was converted to Christianity along with all his family. Fermín began preaching in Gaul, and at the age of 24, was named Bishop of Toulouse, France. He travelled to Aquitania, Auvernia, Anjou and Amiens. The Roman Governor, Sebastián, wanted to renew the worship of Jupiter and Mercury so he had Fermín thrown into prison and then executed with a sword on the 25th of September. San Fermín´s remains rest in the Cathedral of Amiens, but his cult did not begin until the 12th century. Pilgrims on the way to Santiago “Camino de Santiago” brought with them the news that this Saint was worshiped in Amiens. Several relics arrived in Pamplona. The most famous were those that the Bishop Pedro de Paris brought and are now kept in the Cathedral of Pamplona and in the image of the Saint in San Lorenzo Church. The statue of San Fermín is a reliquary from the 15th century that was covered in silver in 1687. Inside an oval in his chest, you can see more reliquaries. The evolution of the ﬁestas. In the Middle Ages each 10th of October, in remembrance of San Fermín´s arrival in Amiens, religious ceremonies were held in the Saint´s honor. These acts were followed by a copious meal for the poor of the city. Little by little, music, dancing, jugglers and other shows began to appear in Photo page 14: Antonio Urtasun
the parade. Nevertheless, the ﬁesta did not become oﬃcial until the 16th century. In 1591, due to the unpredictability of the fall weather, the Town Hall changed the date of the celebrations to the 7th of July, making it coincide with a tradesman fair. This would attract many more buyers and sellers – especially when a bullﬁght was also organized. Progress in later years of the media, transportation and tourism has helped to generate a massive amount of visitors who come to Pamplona to celebrate the ﬁesta. The North American writer, Ernest Hemingway, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1954, opened the ﬁesta to the world with his well-known novel, “The Sun Also Rises”. San Fermín´s Cult. Today, three religious ceremonies honor the Saint: Vespers, the Procession and “la Octava”. All three are very important moments during which San Fermín is, beyond any doubt, the protagonist. “Vísperas” or Vespers, sung in honor of the Saint, make up the ﬁrst religious act of the ﬁestas. It is celebrated on July 6th at 20:00 in the Chapel of San Fermín. Members of the Town Hall wear formal clothes: the men with tails, gloves and top hats and the women with traditional dresses inspired by clothes once worn in the valleys of Roncal, Salazar and Aézcoa in Navarra. Along with the members of the Town Hall, those present attend a special mass in which the Chapel of Music of the Cathedral of Santa María sing, accompanied by the Symphonic Orchestra of Navarra and the Escolanía of Loyola. The Procession on the 7th of July begins at 10:00 and is dedicated to the Saint. The Mayor 1931
Author: A. Cerezo Vallejo
The “Peña Veleta” began dressing in red and white.
and the corporation, dressed formally as in the Vespers ceremony, leave the Town Hall and go to the Cathedral to meet the Church oﬃcials who have the privilege of heading up the Procession in honor of the Saint. They go together to the Church of San Lorenzo to receive the statue of San Fermín and then begin the Procession. They are accompanied by the paper màché giants and companions as well as by diﬀerent groups playing trumpets, mace-bearers, Basque ﬂutes with dancers, kettle drums and representatives of historic guilds: La Hermandad de Pasión, and the Congregation of Mariana. Music from the Municipal Band, “La Pamplonesa” is at the end of the Procession. Back at the Church of San Lorenzo, the Archbishop celebrates mass. Then, everyone returns to the Cathedral. It is here that the “Momentico” or Little Moment takes place. The Giants dance in the interior patio of the Cathedral to the sound of txistus and bagpipes, while the bells ring and music ﬁlls the air from the bugles and the municipal band. Route: San Lorenzo, Rincón de la Aduana, San Antón, Zapatería, Calceteros, Plaza Consistorial, San Saturnino and Mayor streets. The religious act of the “Octava” or Octave of the ﬁesta of the Saint holds a mass in honor of the Saint on the 14th of July at 10:45 in the chapel of San Fermín located in San Lorenzo Church. This is the last religious ceremony in the oﬃcial program of the ﬁestas, and it has been celebrated since 1689. Town Hall authorities, dressed formally, walk in a procession to the chapel, accompanied again by the giant ﬁgures with their court, the municipal police and the band, “La Pamplonesa”. Flower oﬀering. On the Day of the Children, the 8th of July, they take ﬂowers to San Fermín in the Rincón de la Aduana. This is one of the loveliest acts of the ﬁestas. Following this event the group of beloved Giants, bands of music and dancers parade down to the Plaza de los Burgos.
El Encierro “To San Fermín we ask, as our patron Saint, to guide us in the “encierro”, giving us his blessing.” Those who are going to run with the bulls ask for San Fermín´s guidance in this short prayer while standing in front of a niche built into the wall of Santo Domingo, where a lighted altar with ﬂowers around a statue of the Saint is located. This prayer is chanted ﬁrst at 7:55, then at 7:57 and lastly at 7:59. At the end, they shout, “Long live San Fermín! Gora San Fermín!”. From the 7th of July until the 14th of July, this tradition is repeated. Immediately afterwards, a rocket announces the beginning of the “Encierro”. A total of 848.6 meters must be run by both “mozos” and bulls until their arrival at the Plaza de Toros of Pamplona. Adrenaline, nerves and respect – a great deal of respect – all are mixed together in those who are going to measure themselves against the bulls. The “Encierro”, as we know it today, in which “mozos” and animals run together in front of the bulls was quite diﬀerent at one time. At the beginning of the 19th century, the “encierro” was only a means to an end: transferring the animals from outside the city up to the bullring. A group of men on horseback led them. As the years passed, July 11, 1959
Author: T. Vicente
The longest running of the bulls or “Encierro” in the last century took 30 minutes. A Miura bull became separated from the herd, and it was only possible to lead the bull into the corral when he was bitten by a dog.
Photo page 18: Antonio Urtasun
others joined on foot – especially the butchers. By the end of the 19th century, the tradition had been born. The herd was led by runners. Since 1922, the year of the inauguration of the present bullring, the “encierro” route was what is known today. Before that and because of the location of other bullrings in the capital of Navarra, the bulls and men ran in other points in the city. The present route is divided into seven stretches: Santo Domingo. The run begins at the bottom of an inclined street called Image: Ricardo Badenes Santo Domingo and goes from the corrals to the Town Hall plaza. It has always been considered the most dangerous stretch because the bulls tend to run together at a high speed and are immediately on top of the runners. 280 meters. Plaza Consistorial-Mercaderes. The widest part of the route is here so that good runs are possible. It is one of the least dangerous sections of the “Encierro”. 100 meters. Mercaderes curve. The short street of Mercaderes ends in a 90 degree curve on the right side. Bulls have a tendency to slip and fall here. Ever since the street was specially treated to avoid slides, the situation has improved. Estafeta Street. The most popular and crowed stretch, it can be divided into two parts: Estafeta-Bajada de Javier with a slight incline of 2% and the Bajada de Javier where the herd tends to separate. 304 meters. Curve at Telefónica. Here the street widens and good, but daring runs in front of the bulls are possible. The herd may be separated here with a greater danger for the participants. 100 meters. “Callejón”. It is the tunnel-like entryway leading to the bullring, and
the ground slopes downwards. The risk of falling and becoming part of a pileup of bodies and bulls is very high. In the past few years, the runners can take refuge in security holes on the sides of the “Callejón”. 25 meters. “Plaza de Toros” or Bullring. Once inside the ring, everyone should fan out to allow the bulls to enter the corrals in a straight line. Danger, however, has not disappeared until the last animal leaves the ring. Not one of the bulls that run the “encierro” repeat it the next day because they face death in the afternoon. The ﬁghts that are celebrated in the ring feature bulls from eight diﬀerent bull ranches corresponding to each “Encierro”. Each “Encierro” is run by six bulls together with two groups of steers. The ﬁrst group of eight steers begins the “encierro” with the bulls at 8:00. Two minutes later, three steers follow up Santo Domingo to pick up any bulls that have strayed from the pack in order to lead them to the ring. The steers are easily recognized by the bells around their necks and for their calm, easy-going nature. Their job is only to ease the herd of ﬁghting bulls along the route until they enter the ring. Four rockets announce the “Encierro”. The ﬁrst rocket to be ﬁred takes place at 8:00, synchronized with the bells from the Church of San Cernín. The second rocket is launched when every bull has left the corral to begin the run, and the third signals that both steers and bulls have reached the plaza. The last rocket indicates that all the animals have entered the corrals. 1962
Author: Alonso Astarloa
Runners begin for the ﬁrst time to sing to the Saint: “A San Fermín pedimos…”This is called the “cántico”.
Safety in the “Encierro” is essential, and hundreds of people are in charge of this. Police. Approximately 160 policemen including 120 Municipal Policemen of Pamplona. Beginning at four in the morning, they begin to clear people from the route of the “Encierro” so that those in charge of cleaning those streets can do their jobs and also the carpenters have access to the route in order to put the barricades in place. They also remove any spectators who are sitting on top of the ﬁrst line of barricades, which is strictly reserved for healthcare services, police and accredited media. In addition, they clear the route of anyone incapable of running due to drunkenness or other impediments. Healthcare. Approximately 165 healthcare workers, 9 ﬁrst aid stations and 16 ambulances (7 regular ones and 9 with doctoral care). They are stationed at strategic points, ready for any accident that might happen. In addition to the doctors, there is First Aid staﬀ, volunteers of the DYA and even ﬁre trucks. The hospitals of Pamplona are prepared and on alert for anyone with injuries who needs their services.
Image: Ricardo Badenes
Runners. The majority of the runners who are veterans of the “Encierro” have an outstanding physical preparation. They approach the “Encierro” with a clear head, having rested and avoided any excesses that might interfere with their runs. The average age of a runner is around 28, although there are some whose age passes 60. Runners are able to stay in the route on an average of 100 meters of the 848 that it takes to reach the ring. “Pastores” or shepherds. They are highly respected by all who participate in the “Encierro”. A team of 11 shepherds have the most important task of all: leading the bulls towards the plaza as quickly as possible. They carry long, thin rods and always run behind the bulls. They see that the runners do not distract the animals and make them stop or turn around. They can be easily recognized by their dark green polo shirts with the word, “Pastor” printed on the backs. “Dobladores”. You will see these four men only in the bullrings of Navarra. Holding their pink and yellow capes in one hand and in front of the bulls, they try to lead them into the corrals as fast as they can to avoid any injuries to runners. Barriers. These wooden barriers are the greatest safeguard for the “encierro”. They July 2, 1967 A local newspaper, “El Pensamiento Navarro” organized the ﬁrst “Encierro” race. The winner was J.M. Azcona del Boscos.
Author: Fernando Galle
were used for the ﬁrst time in 1776 to mark the route. During the ﬁrst days of June, three workers from the carpentry company, Aldaz Remiro, begin their installation. All along the 848.6 meter route to the ring, there are a total of 2,700 planks of wood, 900 posts, 40 entranceways, 200 metallic barriers to prevent the public from climbing up onto the barricades in some stretches, and 2,400 wedges of wood to keep the posts steady. Everyday 15 more planks are prepared and placed at diﬀerent intervals along the route in case one of those used is broken.
The “Encierro” in numbers •Average time: 3 minutes and 55 seconds. •Speed of the bull: 24 kilometers per hour. •Longest “Encierro”: 30 minutes (July 11, 1959). •Most tragic “Encierros”: July 10, 1947- a bull named “Semillero” from the Urquijo ranch killed 2 runners and July 13, 1980- a bull named “Antioquío from the Guardiola Fantoni ranch killed 2 runners. •Number of runners: 2,000 on the average and almost 3,500 on weekends. •Most dangerous bulls: From the Guardiola Fantoni ranch. Two deaths in 1980 and one in 1969. •Number of injuries each year: Between 200 and 300. Only 3% are serious ones.
There are diﬀerent ways to watch the “Encierro”. One, of course, is at street-level and is free. Nevertheless, if you want to see without any problems, it is necessary to ﬁnd a place along the barriers for spectators at least two hours ahead of time. Another option is the bullring itself. For about ﬁve euros, you can see the “encierro” on two gigantic screens as well as the arrival of runners and bulls. After the “encierro”, heifers are released into the ring for the enjoyment of all. Estafeta street has no barriers at all, but its balconies provide a perfect place to watch what is happening. They are rented and include the price of breakfast. On the other hand, many prefer television or the radio along with commentaries from experts on the “Encierro”.
Image: Ricardo Badenes
“Encierrillo” At twilight and in complete silence, the “encierrillo” or little “encierro” is the ﬁrst contact that the bulls have with the streets of Pamplona. The six bulls that will be starring the next day´s real “Encierro” and bullﬁght are moved from the Gas corrals – where they have been resting since their arrival in Pamplona - to the corrals of Santo Domingo, the starting point of the “Encierro”. Unlike the “Encierro”, this spectacle is watched in total silence, and there are no runners. Along with the shepherds and the steers, the bulls run the 440 meters that separate the two corrals. Two hundred free daily passes are given out. It takes place from July 6th until July 13th at 23:00. These passes may be obtained a few days before the beginning of the ﬁesta at the Town Hall. These few moments, unknown to many visitors, represent one of the enchantments of the ﬁesta.
Image: Ricardo Badenes
Giants and their Entourage These strange characters are the oldest and most beloved ﬁgures in Sanfermines. Throughout the ﬁesta, the group, formed by the “Giants”, the “Cabezudos,” “Kilikis” and “Zaldikos” are anxiously awaited by both parents and children, reminding the elders of their younger days and giving the children a “delicious” scare. Giants. These paper màché giants have been known about since the 16th century, but in 1780, Charles III of Spain prohibited the parades and the ﬁgures because he believed that they distracted the public and made them forget the religious element of the festivities. In 1860, the Town Hall of Pamplona wanted to revive them after a century of having been forgotten. They ordered the artisan, Tadeo Amorena, to make the four royal couples you can see today: kings and queens who represent the four continents known in those times: Europe, Asia, America and Africa. The giants measure 3.85 to 3.90 meters in height and weight around 60 kilos. The rest of the ﬁgures were added to the entourage in successive years, which explains their diﬀerent styles. Cabezudos. These big-headed ﬁgures are the most serious and digniﬁed ones. They do not dance and walk very slowly. Félix Flores built these ﬁve “cabezudos” in 1890. They stand out precisely for their very large heads: more than a meter in height and more than two meters around. They weight 14 kilos, and their objective is to open the way for the Giants as they solemnly shake hands with the children. The men are called the “Mayor”, the “Councilman” and the “Japanese”. They walk carrying a cane with a metallic head. The women ﬁgures are the “Grandmother”, who carries a sun umbrella and the “Japanese lady” who holds a fan. The Town Hall of Pamplona paid 450 pesetas (2.70 euros) for the construction of the ﬁve ﬁgures. Photo page 28: Antonio Urtasun
Kilikis. There are six kilikis in the group. They accompany the ediles as if they were guards, all of them carrying soft, foam rubber “weapons” with which they good-naturedly frighten. They weight 13 kilos and their names are “Vinegar Face”, “Warts”, “Napoleon”, “Potato” and “Beard”. At the time of their origin in the 16th century, they were known as little giants. Around the 19th century, they were called “big heads” and today, kilikis. Not much if anything is recorded about the reason for the changes. Zaldikos. Six similar horses whose weight are more than 30 kilos each. Their aim is the same that kilikis´ mission: to chase the children and bop them with a foam rubber ball. Zaldikos were joined to the troupe in couples in 1860, 1912 and 1941. Bagpipes and Basque ﬂutes. The music of bagpipes, although not really a part of the entourage, plays for the dances of the giants. Each giant is accompanied by two men playing bagpipes and a drum except for the American queen who dances the grand ﬁnale to the sound of Basque ﬂutes and small drums. The farewell. Beyond a doubt, this is one of the most emotional moments of the ﬁesta. From 1972 and up until last year, the farewell to the giants took place in the old bus station. Now you must go to the plaza in front of the Town Hall to see it. After ﬁnishing their stroll along their routes, there 1965 The paper mâché giants and their companions, the cabezudos travelled to New York for the International Fair. Author: Nicolás Ardanaz
is a ﬁnal and last dance at 14:00 in the afternoon. It is typical that the children give their dummies to their favourite giant. The entourage is formed by a hundred people, counting those who carry the ﬁgures and the bands. In smaller festivals such as San Fermín “Txiquito” in September and on the day of San Saturnino, the patron Saint of Pamplona, these ﬁgures dust oﬀ their dresses and return to the streets with music from bands – almost as if they cannot stay away from their loving public.
July 14, 1972 This day marked the ﬁrst time that children and parents began the tradition of saying goodbye to this strange, beloved group in the bus station where the giants would rest until next Sanfermines. Author: Fermar
Image: Antonio Urtasun
Fair of the bull The Fair of the ﬁghting bull celebrates its 53rd edition this year starring both well-known matadors and young promises. The author of the poster announcing the Fair is a painter from Murcia, María Franco, a distant member of the family of the famous poet and painter, Rafael Alberti. With a budget of 3.6 million euros, 30 % is destined to the bulls and 70 % to the matadors. The Fair of the Bull also maintains the same price of entrance tickets as last year because of the economic crisis that has luckily not aﬀected the quality of the matadors or the bulls. Afternoons of bulls and bullﬁghters: July 5 at 20:00: “Novillada” (Bullﬁght with young bulls). “Novillada” of El Parralejo for Jiménez Fortes, Sergio Flores and López Simón. July 6 at 18:30: Fighting on horseback. Six bulls whose horns have been ﬁled down from the ranch of San Mateo for the horseback matadors, Pablo Hermoso de Mendoza, Sergio Galán and Roberto Armendáriz. July 7 at 18:30: Six bulls from the Torrestrella ranch for the matadors, Rubén Pinar, Arturo Saldivar and Esaú Fernández. July 8 at 18:30: Six bulls from Herederos de Don José Cebada Gago for the ﬁghters, Francisco Marco, Morenito de Aranda and David Mora. July 9 at 18:30: Six bulls from the ranch of Doña Dolores Aguirre Ybarra for the matadors, Salvador Cortés, Alberto Aguilar and Joselillo. Poster page 32: María Franco
July 10 at 18:30: Six Miura bulls for the matadors, Juan José Padilla, Rafaelillo and Serafín Marin. July 11 at 18:30: Six bulls from the ranch of Fuente Ymbro for the matadors, Antonio Ferrera, César Jiménez e Iván Fandiño. July 12 at 18:30: Six bulls from Don Victoriano del Río Cortés for the matadors Curro Díaz, El Juli and Miguel Ángel Perera. July 13 at 18:30: Six bulls from El Pilar for the matadors, El Cid, El Fandi and Daniel Luque. July 14 at 18:30: Six bulls from the ranch of Núñez del Cuvillo for the matadors, Juan Mora, El Juli and Sebastian Castella.
Buying Tickets Entrance tickets for each bullﬁght are put on sale at the ticket windows of the bullring. Seats located on the sunny side of the ring cost 22 euros and those in the shade are 28 euros. On July 5th, tickets for the “novillada” and for the bullﬁghting on horseback can be bought from 10:00 to 13:00. After 18:00 only for the “novillada”. On the 6th of July, tickets may be bought starting at 10:00 am, and on other days, tickets for the following day will be sold at the end of each bullﬁght. On the day of the ﬁght, if any seats remain, the tickets can be bought from 10:00 to 14:00 and after 16:00.
Everything related to the bullﬁghting world is surrounded by a festive, happy atmosphere during Sanfermines. At midday there is a more social color in Pamplona – visiting celebrities and all that. Bands to follow all over the city and in the afternoon, fans can still live the bullﬁght atmosphere even outside of the ring. They do it with the “apartado”, the “mulillas” and the “encierrillo”. The apartado The “apartado” or separating the bulls into their individual stalls has become a social gathering. An act you attend if you want to try and see the bulls below you or, if you arrive too late, the backs of people who jealously guard their places along the walls. Artists, politicians, ranch managers, ranch owners, and sometimes even bullﬁghters make appearances and are happy to be interviewed by the press. All fans hope to see the animals that will be fought a few hours later, and, at the same time, enjoy “tapas” and “ﬁnos” at the crowded bar. In the “apartado”, the bulls are guided by steers through a series of wooden doors to their individual stalls to rest and wait. The “apartado” takes place every day from the 5th of July to the 14th of July at 13:00 in the back of the bullring. On July 5th from 10:00 to 13:00, entrance tickets can be bought for all the “apartados” together, and from the 5th to the 14th at the July 7, 1922
Author: Andrés Briñol
Inauguration of today´s bullring. A mountain of runners had formed at the mouth of the ring when the bulls climbed up and over the mass, leaving 100 injured. The bullﬁghters Marcial Lalanda, “Saleri II” and Juan Luis de la Rosa faced the bulls from the ranch of Vicente Martínez that afternoon in the new and still unused ring.
same hour, you can buy each day’s entrance ticket (8 euros). The “apartado” is reached by going through the doors that lead to the “patio de caballos” of the bullring. “Las mulillas” These particular “mulillas” are horses rather than small mules. Every day at 17:30 a festive parade takes place, beginning in the plaza in front of the Town Hall and ending in the bullring. Two horsemen or “alguacilillos” lead the parade, dressed in black and wearing capes as did mounted oﬃcials in the 17th century. Behind them go two groups of three “mulillas” with bells and colourful pennants attached to their harnesses. They are led by 14 “mulilleros”, followed by the Municipal Band and anyone else who wants to take part. Later, these “mulillas” will drag each dead bull from the ring to the bullring´s slaughterhouse at the end. Contest of “cortes” with the bulls This exciting event takes place on Saturday, July 9th at 11:00 in the ring and consists of a contest between young men and bulls. The men run at the bull and then cut to the side at the last minute as well as other breathtaking feats. The price for adults is 15 euros
Image: Oscar Anta
and for those less than 12-years-old, 8 euros. Contest - Bull Ranches of Navarra Pairs of young men try to place the greatest number of rings on the horns of heifers from Navarra. The time is Sunday, July 10th at 11:00. Prices are the same as those of the contest of cutting in front of the bulls.
Image: Antonio Urtasun
Fun in every corner of the city The ﬁesta of San Fermín spreads its fun and attractions throughout the city. The most popular one is the amusement park, installed in the Runa park. It is known as the “Barracas”. Another crowded attraction is the “Tómbola”, located in the Paseo of Sarasate, and where thousands of prizes are awarded to lucky ticket-holders. Las Barracas This amusement park called the “Barracas” by townspeople is to be found in the Runa park of the Rochapea neighbourhood, near the Old Part of town. They remain open from July 4th until July 15th, crowded and full of laughter. It occupies a space of 35,000 square meters full of rides and restaurants. There are the traditional shooting booths, bumper cars, Ferris wheel, merry-go-rounds, “tómbolas” – it is all there, including the newest rides. If you eat as you go, you will also ﬁnd stands selling French breaded sandwiches and any other food you can think of. The Tómbola Testing your luck at the “Tombola” is yet another traditional San Fermín attraction. It is organized by Cáritas Diocesana of Pamplona and Tudela for charity and it goes back in time to 1944. You can ﬁnd it on the Paseo de Sarasate, located between the Old Part and the II “Ensanche” of the city. Money obtained from buying the “tómbola” tickets – around 1.6 million euros- makes up 10 % of these charitable organizations´income and all goes to help the poor. You can buy tickets from 10:00 to 14:00 and from 17:00 to 22:00 at the “Tómbola”. In June on every Wednesday and Friday, there is music Photo page 38: Ruﬁno Lasaosa
and dancing at 20:00. Two million tickets are sold at the price of 80 centimes each for a chance at 360,000 prizes. These prizes are donated by local businesses, and every day computers, bikes, motorcycles, electrical appliances, whole hams and countless other surprises are awaiting a lucky owner. Fireworks Every night during the ﬁesta at 23:00, the sky lights up with the incredible magic of ﬁreworks. Firework companies from all around the world show oﬀ their ﬁnest collections during the ﬁesta of San Fermín. In all, there are nine diﬀerent collections of ﬁreworks. The ﬁreworks are launched from the walls of Santa María in the Ciudadela at 23:00. You can watch them sitting in the grass of the Vuelta del Castillo, on Yanguas y Miranda Street and in the Plaza de los Fueros. There have been ﬁrework attractions during San Fermín since the 17th century, but it was not until the year 2000 that the Town Hall began to promote this competition internationally.
July 7, 1944 Pamplona´s “Tómbola” is opened for the ﬁrst time with the possibility to win wonderful prizes for the cost of a ticket.
Author: Manuel León Astruc
The companies participating in the 2011 edition are: •Pirotecnia Vicente Caballer, on July 6th •Pirotecnia Vulcano, on July 7th •Pirotecnia Valenciana Manuela Crespo Vidal, on July 8th •Parente Fireworks, on July 9th •Pirotecnia Tomás S.L., on July 10th •MC Pyro Klangfeuerwerkskunst, on July 11th •Pirotecnia Zaragozana S.L., on July 12th •Pirotecnia Valeca Pir S.L., on July 13th •Focs d’artiﬁci Europlá S.L, on July 14th
Fun for txikis Children can enjoy inﬂatables, theatre in the street, clowns and the little ﬁre bull. One of the most characteristic attractions is the puppet show, put on by Maese Villarejo, that narrates the adventures of Gorgorito. The puppet show has not missed coming to Sanfermines since 1954. The times are July 7th through July 13th from 11:30 to 14:00 and from 18:00 to 21:00 in PLaza Conde Rodezno. The little ﬁre bull congregates hundreds of children every night who want the excitement of running from a harmless and legless bull with tiny ﬁreworks popping on its back. It is carried by young men and leaves the plaza of Santiago at 22:00, and as a novelty this year, also runs up Mercaderes and Chapitela streets to avoid too much crowding on Estafeta street.
Jai Alai and rural sports There is also plenty of time for sports during Sanfermines. Contests and displays of rural sports can be seen from the 7th of July through the 14th of July each morning in the Plaza de los Fueros. Fans of pelota also have games to watch in the Frontón Labrit. Jai Alai is such an important tradition in Navarra that it is diﬃcult to ﬁnd a town or village without a court. It is possible to play on any one of them by making a previous reservation. The court. The best-known courts are those of Labrit in Pamplona and Euskal Jai Berri- Reyno de Navarra – this last one located on the outskirts of Pamplona in the town of Huarte. Diﬀerent categories are played such as pelota, paddle and “remonte” – a “cesta” or basket is a long, curved wicker scoop strapped to one arm in Labrit. In Euskal Jai Berri-Reyno de Navarra, mainly “remonte” is played. This version of the game comes from Navarra and has more than 100 years of history. Each of these versions oﬀers diﬀerent spectacles that require particular elements and courts even though the common name of “pelota” or ball is used for all of them. They are still made by hand.
June 24, 1952 The Fronton Labrit is inaugurated.
Author: Castro Atucha
Photo page 42: OIP
XXXVII San Fermín Pelota Tournament The 37th edition of this tournament is one of the most important sports events of the ﬁestas. Six pairs of players face each other in a round-robin tournament from July 7th until July 14th. The timetable is diﬀerent depending on the days: at 11:00 and 22:15, on July 7th, at 22:15 on July 8th, at 17:00 on July 9th and 10th and at 22:15 hours from July 11th to 14th. On the court. Placing bets in Pelota games is an old tradition in which family homes, herds of cattle and tracks of land have been lost. Entrance tickets for the games vary between 20 and 60 euros although in the ﬁnals, the price may triple. Those under 25 years of age can enter without paying in the Euskal Jai Berri-Reyno de Navarra. Remonte. In 1904 Juanito Moya a short pelota player from Pamplona invented a basket that was stronger and faster than the men wearing leather gloves could hurl the ball with one hand. In this version, the ball is scooped up by the basket at the height of the hand and then thrown out from the tip. In Navarra, “remonte” is
Image: Irene Viseras
played mainly in Euskal Jai Berri-Reyno de Navarra. In addition to pelota, rural sports trace their origins back to work done in the ﬁelds. In Sanfermines, each day at noon in the Plaza de los Fueros, competitions and shows of diﬀerent types and with men and women participating can be seen. Aizkolaris. “Aizkolaris” – or tree trunk choppers in Basque – chop several trunks that weigh between 2.4 and 2.8 kilos. The trunks lay on the ground in a horizontal position so that the “aizkolari” can stand on the trunks while cutting them. The origin of these competitions comes from the exploitation of forests for building and the production of coal. Tronzalaris and motozerralaris. The “tronzalaris” practice a variation of the above, cutting slices of tree trunks using a doubleedged saw and two men. The winners are those who cut through ﬁrst. The “motorzerralaris” use chain saws to cut diﬀerent ﬁgures in the trunks. Harrijasotzailes. The “harrijasotzailes” lift a huge stone that can reach the weight of 300 kilos from the ground to one of their
shoulders and then put it back down without dropping it. The blow to the ground is softened by a sack of sand. In the individual version, the “harrijasotzaile” tries to beat some of the records that have been set previously. In the collective contests, the man who lifts the rock the most number of times is the winner. These rocks can be of many geometric forms and shapes. Lifting bales. In this event, the sportsmen try to lift bales weighing 45 kilos – “lasto altxatzea” in Basque – as many times as they can in two minutes. Racing. The championship of “txinga-eroate” consists of carrying in each hand weights that look like the milk jugs that were carried to rural areas many years ago. The winner is he who manages to go the fartherest. In “lokotxas” races, the participants must pick up these objects and put them into a basket. Sokatira.In this sport, two teams of 8 people each pull on the ends of a thick rope – “soka” in Basque – and try to pull the opposing team onto their side.
2002 The fourth edition of the world’s championship of “Pelota” is held in Pamplona in the Fronton Labrit, the Euskai Jai Berri and at the Tennis Club. Image: Enrique Royo Romeo
The famous pelota player, Juliรกn Retegui. Image: OIP
Gastronomy and music In Navarra, gastronomy occupies one the most important places among its inhabitants. Pamplona, as capital of Navarra, and Sanfermines as its grandest ﬁesta have converted “eating well” into more a priority than a necessity. To truly enjoy Sanfermines, it is imperative to keep hydrated and eat healthily. What you eat depends on the time of day. Bars and restaurants are open almost 24 hours a day to serve you, and you are only limited by the amount of change you carry in your pocket. You can ﬁnd home-cooking in the eating societies and fancy food in any of the restaurants of Pamplona that serve up exquisite dishes based on the best that Navarra has to oﬀer. Between 6:30 and 7:45. From the ﬁrst hour of the morning and before breakfast, those who have partied all night and those who cannot wait to jump out of bed have the opportunity to recover their strength with a cup of hot broth before the “encierro”. Made with calf and chicken meat and vegetables, you can ﬁnd it in almost every bar in the center of town. Another option for people who drink is “Sol y Sombra” – or Sun and Shade –a mixture of anis and cognac strong enough to revive the dead. Between 8:15 and 9:00. After enjoying the “Encierro” it is time for breakfast, and there is nothing better than a steaming cup of chocolate with “churros” –donut sticks covered in sugar. Look for them in Estafeta street or in the Plaza del Castillo or, best of all, in the “churrería” of the Mañueta, located on the street of the same name. Between 9:30 and 11:00. It is time for the midmorning snack or “almuerzo”. Counters of bars in the Old Part are brimming with temptations. There are fried eggs with sausage, pork with tomato sauce or lamb tripe. The typical pre-lunch takes place on July 6th. The place has long been reserved because 204 hours of San Fermín
Photo page 48: Félix Rodríguez
are waiting, and you cannot go hungry. Between 12:30 and 14:00. It is still not lunchtime, but, after enjoying the giants parade, slip into any bar and try out those delicious delicacies from Navarra called “pinchos”. The more traditional ones are croquets, fried food with peppers or egg, potatoes with hot sauce, bits of sausage or more sophisticated combinations. Between 14:00 and 15:30. Finally you can sit down for a huge lunch and the best that Navarra has to oﬀer. Filling dishes like “pochas” or beans, or lighter fare such as asparagus, vegetable stew, lettuce hearts from Tudela, scrambled eggs with mushrooms or special red peppers ﬁlled with codﬁsh. Your second course could be trout with ham, bull stew, lamb in sauce, hake in green sauce, or tuna with fries. For desert, make your choices among cheeses, home-made yogurts, pastry, custards, fried milk or a truly delicious dish called “goshua” made with pastry cream. Finish your lunch with a glass of good pacharán for its digestive properties. Between 19:00 and 19:30. It is time to eat again, and there is no better place than the bullring. After the third bull has been fought, the “peñas” clubs bring out their picnics. Anything goes. Huge shrimp, snails, bull stew, codﬁsh stew, pork with tomato. The drinks form a very important part of this ritual: kalimotxo, sangría, cava, pacharán, etc. Between 21:30 and 23:30. Days are long, and nights are too. A good dinner is in order if you want to enjoy the night. The oﬀer is more varied than in the morning and you can choose whatever you have not yet tried. Drinking well is very important now. Wines from Navarra are a delight – red, white or rosé. Pacharán causes visitors to ask for another. It is a sweet liqueur, typical of Navarra, and made from blue coloured berries. Naturally there is also beer, kalimotxo or cider.
Sanfermines is about having fun and especially about music. It does not matter where you are, there will be typical music playing. The oﬃcial program of Sanfermines lists several that are in the open air. There is dancing in Antoniutti, the Dance of the Era and many more which end with the sound of the “Dianas”. The entire city is a stage with all kinds of music – folkloric, electronic, jazz, pop-rock or jotas.
Image: Antonio Urtasun
Mornings 6:45. The Dianas. Every day the municipal band, La Pamplonesa, marches through the streets of the city to warn that the time of the “encierro” is near…and to wake everyone up. It stands for the moment when night and day meet – those who are beginning the ﬁesta, those who have ﬁnished and those who plan to run with the bulls. 12:00. From the 8th until the 14th of July at noon, there will be recitals of jotas in the Paseo de Sarasate. This year´s oﬀerings include Estampa Navarra (July 8th), Escuela de Jotas de Tudela (July 9th), Raíces Navarras (July 10th), Voces del Ebro (July 12th), Voces
Navarras (July 13th) and La Ribera Canta (July 14th). Yoar and Jus la Rocha will take the stage on the 11th of July – a day dedicated to the elderly. Afternoons 20:30. A summer dance in the Paseo de Sarasate. A magniﬁcent opportunity for everyone – children, adults and young people to dance to the sound of music until 23:00. 21:00. Music from here. The Plaza del Castillo is the scene of a wide variety of music representative of Navarra´s folklore. The sound of the txistu and the bagpipes ﬁll the air. This summer dance ends with a shared “Dance of the Era”, a typical end of ﬁestas in this type of entertainment. Various types of dances are performed while dancing around the central bandstand. Night time 23:30. An outside dance in the Plaza de la Cruz where many elderly people like to congregate. Traditional music with dancing until 1:30 in the morning. 00:00. An outside dance in Antoniutti Park. Diﬀerent orchestras invite you to join in until 3:00 in the morning. Modern music mixed
Image: Antonio Urtasun
with the classical in an interesting mix. 00:00. Plaza abierta in the Plaza del Castillo, is the scene of music from diﬀerent cultures and of diﬀerent styles. Iguana Tango (July 6th), Revoluciones (July 7th), Celtos Cortos (July 8th), La Máquina del Tiempo (July 9th), La Musicalité (July 10th), Pignoise (July 12th) and La Guardia (July 13th). 00:00. Municipal bands leave from the Town Hall plaza and play traditional music at diﬀerent points of the old section. 00:00. Euskal Musika. These conciertos take place in the Taconera park and familiarize visitors with the sound of Basque instruments. 23:30. Rock Concerts. Directly in front of the Plaza de los Fueros: Def con dos and Arima Sutan (July 6th), La Pegatina y Brigada Improductiva (July 7th), Mago de Oz and Rock Star (July 8th), Söber and Pete Bombastic (July 9th), Txarrena and Eraite (July 10th), A pelo y tu and Radiofunders (July 11), Vendetta and Sueños Rotos (July 12th) and Koma and Khous (July 13th). The Uproar of Iruña It is only necessary to bring anything that makes a great deal of noise and go to the back of the Town Hall before midnight. The Uproar is not in the oﬃcial program and all can join in. There is never a set date for this event, but it always takes place during the week at the equator of the ﬁesta. 23:59. At the sound of the beloved “Agur Jaunak”, immediately everyone with an instrument marches through diﬀerent streets of Pamplona for three or four hours. Riau, Riau 16:30. This traditional act, once believed dead and gone, is rising from its ashes. It takes place on July 6th and is when young people accompany the representatives from the Town Hall to the church of San Lorenzo from there to attend Vespers in honour of San Fermín. The waltz of Astráin is played by The Pamplonesa band, and everyone dances. After many problems and incidents, the Riau,
Riau was suspended oﬃcially in 1991. In 2002, various associations of retirees and the peña Mutilzarra began working on the organization of a new Riau Riau. It is a nonoﬃcial act so far, but the Town Hall has not acted against this initiative although they do not participate in it as they did before it was suspended. Bands of the peñas During Sanfermines, each peña or club has its own band called the “charanga”. They walk up and down the old section of town ﬁlling the air with the potent music of their “charangas”- trombones, trumpets and a great number of drums. Their songs are happy ones, composed especially for them by Manuel Turrillas in the 30s. They are extremely popular, and the peñas continue to sing them, for example, on leaving the bullﬁght. 20:30. The peña clubs begin to leave the bullring. Each peña has its own band, and the young at heart dance with them. They march up and down parts of the old section of Pamplona until they ﬁnally reach their own club headquarters. The Pamplonesa The Municipal Band of Pamplona adds the most important musical notes to the ﬁesta. This band is present in every oﬃcial act. Following the “Chupinazo” the band strolls through the old section of town, adding to the festive 1994 The municipal band, “La Pamplonesa” received the gold medal of the city of Pamplona. Author: Enrique Martín González
atmosphere that has just begun. On July 7th, they accompany the Saint in the Procession and on July 14th, they are responsible for music in the Octava service of San Fermín. The Pamplonesa is also responsible for the early morning Dianas. They accompany the mulillas on their way from the plaza in front of the Town Hall to the bullring. And, of course, are present in the ring to play when matadors´ capes begin to twirl. Dance of the Espadrille The Nuevo Casino Principal in the main plaza holds this traditional dance at 9 am for members and their guests of all ages, ready to start the day on the right foot. The dance has this name because many years ago after the “Encierro”, everyone attended while wearing espadrilles.
Image: Antonio Urtasun
Pobre de mí The “Pobre de Mí” or Poor Me marks the end of the oﬁcial ﬁesta of Sanfermin. It takes place at midnight on July 14th in the plaza of the Town Hall. There only exists the consolation that in fewer than 12 months, Sanfermines will return to Pamplona. The “Pobre de mí” is the farewell of all farewells. All day long ﬁesta goers have been saying their goodbyes: the last “Encierro”, the goodbye to the Giants and their Entourage at noon and the last bullﬁght of the Fair in the afternoon. With red scarves still tied around their necks and lit candles in their hands, hundreds of people stand under the starry sky of Pamplona in front of the Town Hall to say goodbye to the Saint and to his ﬁesta. Municipal authorities standing on the balcony announce the oﬃcial ending of Sanfermines and then immediately proclaim that “Ya falta menos” or the countdown for next year has already begun. One of the emotional moments comes at midnight when those present slowly untie their scarves and hold the ends of them up into the air. They then sing the “Pobre de mí”, other San Fermín songs and the “Ya falta menos”. The ﬁesta of San Fermín has ended. July 14, 1968 The last oﬃcial act, “El Pobre de Mí” or “Poor me” is included in the program of Sanfermines for the ﬁrst time.
Author: Fernando Galle
Photo page 56: OIP
Apart from the Town Hall plaza, this act can also be watched on a giant screen placed in the main Plaza del Castillo. The “peñas” usually choose to be here for their goodbye to the ﬁesta. Following the “Pobre de mí”, many townspeople and visitors then go to the gate of the church of San Lorenzo – in whose chapel rests the Saint – to leave their candles and scarves in his honour.
Image: Diario de Navarra
The “encierro” of July 15th or the “encierro” of the “villavesa” On July 15th at 8:00, those who still cannot bring themselves to say goodbye to Sanfermines ﬁnd a spot on the slope of Santo Domingo where the “encierro” has its beginning. Until a few years ago, they awaited the arrival of the city bus (known in Pamplona as the “villavesa”) and then ran out in front of it as if bulls were behind them. This bus route changed, but now almost anything will do: a man riding a bike, a person disguised as a bull, or any car that happens along. So far no one has been gored.
Data from 2010 The actual ﬁesta of San Fermín 2010 went smoothly, and unlike 2009, no deaths occurred that were directly related to the “encierro”, bullﬁghts or nocturnal celebrations. One event followed with great interest in 2010 and on the giant screen in the plaza was the World Cup for soccer held in South Africa in which the Spanish team was declared the winner. It can also be said that the weather was unusually good during the ﬁesta with no rain. Maximum temperatures ranged from 33 to 34 degrees Celsius. Numbers of the ﬁesta According to data from the Town Hall of Pamplona, last year there were 3.2% fewer visitors present at the ﬁesta, and hotel occupation was 90%. In spite of this, 1,500,000 people participated in some of the organized events listed in the oﬃcial program. This represents a slight increase over 2009. Those who triumphed were, without any doubt, the gigantes and the cabezudos. More than 225,000 people gathered to watch their parades and dances. A total of 470,000 enjoyed the ﬁreworks from Yanguas y Miranda street, making the second most popular event. As for safety concerns, the Town Hall stated that oﬃcial complaints were down 14%, although the police had to intervene in 11.5% more ﬁghts. It was also noted that in 2010, 7% less glass and trash had to be cleaned from the streets of the city. More press coverage than in 2009 Data compiled by the Town Hall and by the OIP during Sanfermines concerning the number of accreditations awarded reﬂect that in 2010 more members of the media visited Pamplona than in 2009, but fewer professionals of communication.
Last year 126 members of the press came to cover Sanfermines (15 more than in 2009). They were from the United States, México, New Zealand, Japan, Great Britain, Switzerland, Turkey, France, Italy, Germany, Holland, Finland, Bulgaria, Ireland and Spain. The Town Hall gave out 681 accreditations. In 2009 the number was 778. 414 accreditations were given for the “encierro”, 158 for the “chupinazo” and 109 for the “Pobre de Mí”. Press accredited for the “encierro” opted for watching the event from the barricades. Only 8 % covered the race from the “Casa Seminario”. The daily average for professionals was 230 which is the number of spaces they are permitted to use. Countries of accredited media Beneath these lines, a graph shows the number and type of media that covered Sanfermines with accreditation from the Town Hall. Apart from those in the graph, more members of the press from diﬀerent countries travelled to Pamplona without accreditation: Australia, Scotland, Belgium, El Salvador, South Korea and Poland. The International Press Oﬃce attended them as well as possible with any information they might request.
Type of media
Countries of media
Useful Guide SOS NAVARRA: 112 (emergency) Safety: Local Police : 092 Foral Police: 112 - 948 42 68 30 National Police: 091 - General Chinchilla Street, 3. Guardia Civil: 062 or 948 29 68 50 - Galicia Avenue, 2. Guardia Civil (Traﬃc) : 948 23 47 00 Healthcare: Red Cross: 948 22 27 66 DYA: 948 17 17 17 Hospital de Navarra: 848 42 21 00 - Irunlarrea Street, 3. Hospital Virgen del Camino: 848 42 94 00 - Irunlarrea Street, 4. Doctor San Martín Medical Centre: 848 42 21 00. San Fermín Street, 29. Others: Citizen Service: 010 Lost objects: Monasterio de Irache Street, 2. Phone: 948 42 06 12. Tourism Oﬃce of Pamplona: Roncesvalles Avenue, 4. Open from 6th to 14th July, from 9:00 to 14:00 and from 15:00 to 18:00 h. Baggage room: Plaza San Francisco. 24 hours opened. Post oﬃce: Central: Paseo de Sarasate, 9. Telephone: 948 20 72 17 Phone telegrams: 948 22 20 00 Working hours: from 8:00 to 20:30 and Saturdays from 9:30 a 13:00. Sunday and 7th July closed. Parking: It is strongly recommended not to use the car in San Fermín, given that many streets are cut and it is not easy to ﬁnd space to park. The best option is any of the many parkings that are free or paid. Blue Zone does not operate but the crane does.
Bus: There are plenty of options during the ﬁestas. Also, it is possible to ﬁnd night buses. http://www.mcp.es Taxi: they have oﬃcal taxes. We recommend you to look for a taxi stop or call them. Tele Taxi: 948 23 23 00/ 948 35 13 35 and Radio Taxi: 948 22 12 12. Regional Houses in Navarra: Andalucía: 948 35 49 35. Asturias: 948 24 11 12. Cantabria: 948 17 68 20. Castilla y León: 948 21 15 38. Extremadura: 948 14 71 38. Valencia: 948 07 45 67. Consulates: Italy: 948 22 28 22 – Parque Taconera Street, 12. Uruguay: 948 25 27 09 – Monasterio de Urdax Street, 15 Croatia: 948 26 11 40 – Pío XII, 31 Avenue, oﬃce 7 France: 948 22 66 00 – Hotel Tres Reyes Peñas: Aldapa: www.aldapa.soy.es Anaitasuna: www.anaitasuna.com/pena/pena Los de Bronce: www.losdebronce.com Donibane: www.donibanesanferminera.150m.com S.D.R.C. La Jarana: www.lajarana.com Oberena: www.oberena.net Sanduzelai: www.sanduzelai.net/talde/pena La Única / Alegría de Iruña: www.alegria.ws Armonía Txantreana: www.armoniatxantreana.150m.com El Bullicio Pamplonés: www.elbulliciopamplones.com S.C.D.R. Irrintzi: www.irrintzi.com S.C. Muthiko Alaiak: www.muthikoalaiak.org Rotxapea: www.larotxa.com El Txarco: www.elcharco.net 7 de Julio San Fermín: www.7dejuliosanfermin.com
Pamplona at a glance •198,565 inhabitants. •334,830 people live in its metropolitan area (half of Navarra). •12.6% of the population is immigrant. •123 nationalities. •Two universities with a total of 25,000 students. •Life-span in Pamplona is 85.5 years of age. •Four million square meters of green areas. In ten year’s time, there has been an increase of 14 to 20 square meters per inhabitant. •Average temperature of the city is 12.4 degrees Celsius. •Pamplona and Navarra are in favour of renewable energy. Some 65% is wind energy. •Pamplona has 1,117 bars, restaurants and hotel accommodations. More information at www.pamplona.es. Telephone: 010.
Pamplona and History The Geographic location of Pamplona, nestled in a valley surrounded by mountains, has long favored human settlements. Centuries of history, of battles and reconciliations sum up our city´s past. Stone tools, dating back some 75,000 years have been found in the terraces of earth of the Arga river and around the ﬁrst millennium B.C. archaelogical evidence points to a ﬁrst settlement of people called Vascones who lived where Pamplona is today. The Basque name for Pamplona is Iruña which in Euskera meant “Hiria” or city. The Roman general Gaenus Pompaelo Magnus or Pompey the Great named the city, Pompaelo, in 75 B.C. In the second century,the son of the Roman senator, Firmo was born, and this son, Fermín, became San Fermín.
Photo page 64: Church of San Saturnino Image: City Council of Pamplona
Between the fourth and ninth centuries, Pamplona fell into the hands of Visigoths, Moors and then Franks. Carlomagno destroyed Pamplona in 778 before he was defeated in Roncesvalles. Under the reign of Iñigo Arista in the 9th century, the Kingdom of Navarra was created. During the Middle Ages, instead of one city, there were three which were divided opposing “burgos” or boroughs, separated not only by walls but also by diﬀering laws and social organization. In the “burgo” of the ancient city, Navarrería, lived Vascones, descendents of the original population. The Franks, who were for the most part members of the middle classes, and merchants lived in the “borough” of San Cernín and San Nicolás was populated by a mixture of peoples of diﬀerent origins and social classes. This conﬂictive and sometimes violent situation between the “boroughs” lasted for more than two centuries until King Charles III, the Noble One, in 1423 the Privilege of Uniﬁcation and uniﬁed the three areas into one. The King had a court house built as well as the creation of a coat-of-arms for the city. It was forbidden to construct any more interior fortiﬁcations. Walls, Reforms and Wars
Following the conquest of Navarra and its incorporation into Castille between 1512 and 1515, Pamplona was given a new role as outpost of the Spanish Crown against France. The “Ciudadela” or Citadel and the newly walled areas (16th to 17th centuries) conﬁgured Pamplona more than ever before as a fortress with the impossibility of growing horizontally. Neoclassic reforms modernized the city after 1750 with a new town hall, sewers, channels for running water, fountains and a neoclassical facade for the Cathedral. An urban explosion was interrupted by the Napoleonic invasion of 1808. During the 19th century, even the wars of Independence, Realists and Carlists could not prevent the growth of the city. The ﬁrst city enlargement or “Primer Ensanche” took place in 1888. In 1915 part of the walls that still encircled Pamplona were torn down to permit the second
city enlargement or “Segundo Ensanche”. Pamplona did not want to be restricted either by politics or by city planning. The central government tried, in 1893, to reduce Navarra´s ﬁscal autonomy, provoking a widespread mobilization against this measure. The “Monumento de los Fueros” is a symbol of the city´s independent spirit.
Pamplona’s monuments Discovering Pamplona´s cultural landmarks of stone – its buildings, its churches and walls is to journey through the history of past times of a city that was the gateway to the “Camino de Santiago” or Way to Santiago. Also, the visitor can also enjoy its most modern buildings as well. Bridges
Crossing the Arga river by way of the “Puente de la Magdalena” of
Puente de la Magdalena. Image: City Council of Pamplona
romanic origin and built in the 15th century – and continuing through the “Portal de Francia” or Zumalacárregi is, perhaps, the most beautiful manner to reach Pamplona´s monumental and historic center. Rocks of Faith
The Gothic Cathedral, Santa María La Real, with a Neoclassic facade,
contains a beautifully ornamented and secluded French Gothic cloister, which is the treasured gem of the Cathedral. The churches of San Nicolás and San Saturnino are a return to the Pamplona of the three antagonistic boroughs, representing in their architecture religious, social and defensive functions. The churchfortress of San Nicolás is Cistercian with the exception of its apse and Gothic vaults. The two defensive towers of San Saturnino and its weathervane in the shape of a rooster are extremely original. Cultural Buildings
“El Museo de Navarra” or the Navarra Museum, former Hospital of Our Lady of Mercy and the Palace of the Kings of Navarra now houses the General Archive of Navarra. This is a remarkable place not only for its architecture but also for its functional cultural spaces. The museum contains archaeological and artistic collections related to Pamplona and Navarra, such as a Roman mosaic of Theseus, Romanesque capitals from Pamplona´s Cathedral, a chest from Leyre and a portrait of the Marqués of San Andrián, painted by Goya. For the past two centuries and still, today, the porticoed Plaza del Castillo or Plaza of the Castle has served as a stage for some of the important events of Pamplona: a bullring, stage for ﬁestas, military parades, and social, political and
Children in La Plaza del Castillo. Image: City Council of Pamplona
popular concentrations. The Plaza´s name comes from the old medieval castle which stood on this site until the conquering of Navarra by the Kingdom of Castille in 1512. San Fermín
The Town Hall of Pamplona and the church of San Lorenzo are aﬀectionally linked by the ﬁesta of San Fermín and for their architectural styles. The “Casa Consistorial” or Town Hall was built in 1752 and has a lovely Baroque facade. The “Capilla de San Fermín” or the Chapel of San Fermín , located inside the Church of San Lorenzo, is also Baroque. Pamplona and the buildings of Eusa
The architect, Víctor Eusa, born in Pamplona in 1894, is the central ﬁgure of architecture in Navarra during most of the 20th century. From 1920, the year in which he ﬁnished his studies in Madrid, until well into the 70s, almost a thousand buildings and projects were drawn by his hand. The Casa Goicoechea at Francisco Bergamín, 1 street was built in for 1924 For the Goicoechea family. It is a small palace, one of the few examples of its type that remain in this part of the city. The Ediﬁcio de viviendas Fernández Arenas, 4 was done by Victor Eusa in 1924. In 1943 Eusa, himself, added another ﬂoor with a new top- a large copy of a fortiﬁed tower, less interesting than the original. The Ediﬁcio de Vivendas Fernández Arenas 4 is one of Eusa´s master creations with a sculpture of stone on one corner and was built in 1932.
A stroll along the Walls The fortiﬁcations remaining to be seen in Pamplona were built between the 16th and 18th centuries and ﬁgure in with the best conserved bulwarks in all of Europe. The wall of Pamplona, a barrier in its day for defensive reasons, is today a place for relaxing and an element that joins cultural patrimony with the environment of Pamplona.
Since the beginning of this year, you may visit the “Centro de Interpretación de las Murallas” or a center which explains the history of the walls. The center, located in the small fortress of San Bartolomé has four bomb-proof vaults. Inside the ﬁrst of these, you can watch a video that tells the story of Pamplona´s fortiﬁcations in the 13th century. In the second vault, there are 25 vaults that show the evolution of the walls as artillery and strategies of attack also evolved. In the third vault, the human side of the fortiﬁcations is featured with video testimonies of people such as the mayor of Pamplona in 1915, Alfonso de Gaztelu and the poet Guillaume de Annelier. Inside the fourth and last vault, audio visual projections tell the story
La Ciudadela. Image: City Council of Pamplona
of other fortiﬁcations in the world. It tells of constructions such as border towns, bulwarks and pentagonals, with the oldest example being the “Ciudadela” of Pamplona. It dates from the 16th century and was built under the reign of Philip II. On the outside, an interactive totem has been placed for children so that they can play and learn at the same time. In addition, guided visits can be arranged along various stretches of the walls. The ﬁrst, Fortín S. Bartolomé to Portal Nuevo is adjacent to the Cathedral and is the oldest front-line of the wall as well as being one of the most beautiful walks in the city. It is the longest stretch of the three zones in which the fortiﬁcations have been divided and has
its origin in the ancient city of the “Navarrería”. The opening to the public around 1960 of the old walk and its steady recuperation have meant that Pamplona, once again, overlooks the Arga river from its height as the impressive City-Fortress that it was in other times. Distance: 1.760 m “Ciudadela”: Moats and Defence. The extensive, sloping land, free of any constructions outside the walls, that circled the “ciudadelas” of the Renaissance was changed, in Pamplona´s case. When the fortiﬁcation lost its military necessity, it was transformed into a grand, English-type park called the “Vuelta del Castillo”. The moats are now farther downwards, and now it is quite normal to see the people of Pamplona enjoying the green space: the largest and closest to the center of our city. Distance: 2.800 meters More information at http//www.murallasdepamplona.com
Entrance to the “Way to Santiago” Pamplona is the ﬁrst city on the Jacobean route that enters through Roncesvalles. It goes from North to South, crossing the bridge of the Magdalena and leaving the city by the University of Navarra to continue on towards Cizur Menor. During Holy Years or “Años Santos”, the number of pilgrims greatly increases. This happens when, on July 25, the festival of Santiago the apostle falls on a Sunday. Last year, in 2010, the dates concurred, and “The Way” was ﬂooded with more pilgrims than in previous years. The Hostel of Roncesvalles, the only oﬃcial source of information for the Department of Culture and Tourism of the Government of Navarra, counted more than 56,000 pilgrims – an increase of 7.2% more than in 2009. Of the stamps that were sealed, 55.7% were for foreigners and
the majority took part in the months of May, August and September. These numbers do not include the pilgrims who passed through Roncesvalles without having their seals stamped (about 10-15%) nor the pilgrims who took the Aragon route and were estimated to be 5,000 in 2010. Navarra oﬀers 42 hostels for pilgrims. With the opening of hostels
Saint James Way. Image: Turismo
in Zariquiegui and in Torres del Río in 2009, there are now 1,812 available lodgings for pilgrims. There are two main ways to reach the beginning of the “Way to Santiago” in Navarra. One is Roncesvalles, reached from France, that heads for Pamplona and then on to Puente la Reina and Viana before leaving Navarra and entering La Rioja. This way is known as the “French Way” and has 37 hostels for pilgrims. Thirteen of these are open all year and the rest are open from March to October and closed November to February. The second important route is through Aragon, part of Somport in Huesca. It crosses several towns and arrives from the east to the Monastery of Leyre and Sangüesa, in direction to Puente la Reina where it joins the French route. Pilgrims will ﬁnd 5 hostels along this way between Sangüesa and Obanos. Three are municipal, one belongs to a club and another, to a parish church.
“Albergue” or hostal de José y María •Adress: Compañía Street, 4 •Telephone: 662 570 716 •e-mail: email@example.com •Number of beds: 114 •Open: from March to October “Albergue”or hostal Casa Paderborn •Adress: Camino Molino de Caparroso •Telephone: 948 21 17 12 •Number of beds: 26 •Open: from March to October
Saint James Way. Image: City Council of Pamplona
Discovering Navarra in Summer Between the 6th and the 14th July, music, people and tradition are on the streets, bars, restaurants, the bullring and the gastronomic societies. Besides the celebrations, the Sanfermines are the right moment to mix with the beauty and quiet from Navarra. No matter where you go, always it is possible to enjoy the natural and monumental heritage accompanied by the extraordinary gastronomy, sports, cultural activities and popular “ﬁestas”. The Pyrenees and their landscape allow the visitor to stay in contact with the nature and peace from the Selva de Irati, Pyrinees valleys and the rural charm of their villages. Aézkoa and its horreos, Baztán and its palaces, the Ultzama Valley and many more things, are waiting for being discovered. Also, Navarra has legendary and historics places: the Real Colegiata from Roncesvalles, the ﬁrst step of the Way to Santiago in Navarra or San Miguel de Aralar, a Romanic sanctuary. The outskirts of Pamplona have a wide range of culture, leisure and sports activities. The Perdón Mountain, the Arteta Spring, Ollo and Ultzama Valleys oﬀer the chance of practicing climbing, paragliding, trekking, horse riding or golf. The middle area of Navarra is full of rich monumental heritage: Olite, Sangüesa, Puente la Reina, Estella and Ujué. Near these places it is the Foz of Arbayún, the most incredible and wide throat of Navarra: 5,6 kilometres. The Bardenas Reales, a semi desert in the South of Navarra, has been declared a Bioesphere Reserve from UNESCO. It is curious because of the plentiful rivers across this area. Tudela is the main city of the zone. Photo Page 74: Caves in Zugarramurdi Image: Deparment of Turism
Navarra in favor of tourism related to culture and nature The Foral Community has renewed its oﬀers for tourists, concentrating this year on active and cultural tourism. Ecotourism and the restoration of monuments such as the monuments of Ujué, “la Ciudadela” and the walls of Pamplona make up the principal novelties for 2011. One of the most important oﬀers in Navarra for the year of 2011 is nature tourism and active tourism. It is considered a true kingdom for ecotourism with 50% of the territory of Navarra made up of diﬀerent landscapes cared for by the government – from the Pyrenees mountains to the deserts in the South, forests, meadows and lakes. This extensive area of natural, protected areas includes three entire reserves, 38 natural reserves, 28 enclaves, 2 recreation areas, 13 zones for special protection for birds, 14 areas for protection of plants, and 3 natural parks: the “Señorío de Bertiz”, the mountain ranges of Urbasa and Andía and the Bardenas Reales that were declared in 2000 the World Reserve of the Biosphere. There are also two wetlands of international importance: the lagoon of Pitillas and the lagoon of Las Cañas.
Agroturismo. Image: Turism of Navarra
Active Tourism and the pelota route Nature tourism oﬀers the possibility to take part in a wide range of activities including: agro tourism, walking down grassy paths, observing animals and bird watching. The visitor can experience at ﬁrst hand what it means to live in a rural world. The walkers can opt for day excursions or for several day excursions like the GR 11, also known as the “Senda Pirenaica” or Pyrenees Trail or they can follow the part of the “Way to Santiago” that passes through Navarra. Tourists who enjoy the observation of animals and birds have the possibility to ﬁnd a large variety of species in these open spaces. There are more than 310 birds catalogued, although some of them have almost disappeared in Europe, still can be seen here. A club called “Birding Navarra” has selected a series of recommended bird watching stations and has shown them to guides, agencies and hotels so that they can inform interested visitors. The Adventure Park, “Senda Viva” in Arguedas and the parks of Lekunberri, Auritz/ Burguete or Narbarte are only some of the many places to visit. Newly refurbished caves in Mendukilo, Zugarramurdi and Urdazubi/Urdax take the visitor underground to discover their natural treasures. Those who enjoy bicycle tourism will ﬁnd many trails, grassy paths and roads on which to learn about Navarra. Another option is horseback riding. Finally, the visitors who come to the Foral Community during 2011 can Remonte. Image: Turism of Navarra
follow the pelota route, which is signalled in Spanish, Euskara, English and in French. The route, structured in six diﬀerent itineraries, points to 40 places in Navarra and tells the history of pelota on signs. Restoration of groups of monuments Diﬀerent collections of architecture with a great historical and artistic value have been or are being restored so that visitors can discover all of Navarra’s patrimony. Among these collections the “Ciudadela” and the facade of the Cathedral stand out as well as the church-fortress of Santa María de Ujué, the hostel for pilgrims in Orreaga/Roncesvalles, the Romanic church of San Pedro de la Rúa de Estella and the facade of Santa María la Real in Sangüesa. The exterior rehabilitation of the walls of the Ciudadela of Pamplona cost 6 million euros. The restoration of the ravellin of Santa Clara has been completed, and those of Santa Isabel and Santa Ana will be ﬁnished in the next few months. In spring, the doors of the Center of Interpretation of the Walls open and are to be found in the recently restored Fortín de San Bartolomé. This is a center where you can follow step by step the evolution of the walls of Pamplona inactively and live the centuries of defensive strategies. The Cathedral’s facade in Pamplona has been recently restored at a
View of the walls of Pamplona. Image: Turism of Navarra
Cathedral of Pamplona. Image: Turism of Navarra
cost of 2.5 million euros. The Cathedral´s museum, 40 years after its opening, have a new image after a series of reforms made the space more accessible and lighted, especially its principle room, located in the refectory. An investment of 6.3 million euros has been made in the church of Santa María de Ujué, one of Navarra´s jewels. During this year, more work has been completed on the inside of the church where the heart of King Charles II is guarded. Other restorative labor has been carried out in the Casa Abacial. In the town of Estella in San Pedro de la Rúa, restoration has been carried out in the interior of the church, bringing to light the discovery of a crypt in which the heads of the army of the ancient kingdom were buried until the 18th century. This ﬁnding has uncovered one of the best exponents of romanic art in Navarra in one of the most emblematic monuments on the Way to Santiago.
The Romanic door of the church of Santa María la Real of Sangüesa has been restored by using a metallic reinforcement in the form of an inverted “U”. The stonework of the facade has been cleaned, returning it to its original splendour with the opportunity to see more clearly its sculptures. The temple, built in the last decades of the 12th century was declared a National Monument in 1889 and is considered to be one of the important stops on the Way to Santiago. Important work is also being done in the castle of Marcilla and in the Monastery of Fitero, which was the ﬁrst Cistercian monastery founded in the Iberian Peninsula in 1140. It was declared an Historic-Artistic Monument in 1931 and is considered to be one of the principal artistic groups in Navarra. Until the beginning of October, the Monastery of Fitero is holding the “Palafox” exhibit: his writings, his portraits and his prayers. This is a commemorative exhibit in honour of the bishopViceroy Juan de Palafox who will soon be named a saint.
Monastery of Fitero. Image: Turism of Navarra
Other cultural options this summer include the Festival of Classic Theatre of Olite, from the 15th until the 31st of July with its palace as background. Another program called “Cultur” (July 15th to 28th of August) will feature concerts of chamber music, choirs, jazz and folk as well as art exhibits, dance, rural sports and craftsmanship. Also, not to be missed, are the Cycle of Music for the Organ (between August and September) and the Week of Ancient Music in Estella that will take place from the 31st of August until September 11th. This is its 42nd edition and oﬀers the best of Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance and Baroque music, interpreted by groups of chamber music and a capella at an international level. This year a homage has been planned for Tomás Luis de Victoria on the 9th of September with the Chamber choir of Pamplona interpreting the “Oﬃcium defunctorum” under the direction of Josep Cabré. Navarra has begun a campaign to help tourists and visitors with important discounts in lodging, restaurants, visits and tourist activities. This year the Foral Community will center its projects on cultural and active tourism. The restoration of monuments (such as the group of
Navarra awards its tourists monuments of Ujué, la Ciudadela and the walls of Pamplona) as well as ecotourism are the most important novelties. The campaign, called “Navarra is free for you”, in which around 850 companies oﬀer the possibility to save up to 31 euros by the following ways: A 20% discount in lodging with a maximum of 13 euros per person and three discounts of six euros (18 euros per person) in restaurants, visits and activities for tourists. If four days are spent in a tourist lodging linked to the campaign, the discounts per person increase to 62 euros – which means that a group of four people can obtain a total discount of 248 euros.
These three discounts of six euros in restaurants, visits and activities are not cumulative except for visits to restoration sites. This way, in a meal costing between 36 and 54 euros per person two vouchers can be applied (with a discount of 12 euros per person) and for a meal costing 54 euros or more, three vouchers can be used (with a discount of 18 euros per person).
The possibility of enjoying discounts in a hotel of enchantment, a rural house, camp grounds or any other establishment and savoring NavarraÂ´s delicious food are only a few of the reasons to visit the Foral Community. There is a wide range of proposals from guided routes around old sections of town and monuments, entrances to museums, the tapas route, relaxing in a spa, exploring caves, sailboat rides, adventure parks, BBT circuits as well as guided tours to learn about the processing of olive oil, wine and cheese, natural walks with experienced guides and many, many other options.
Obtaining vouchers may be carried out on the web www.navarraterecibegratis.com or on the web page of NavarraÂ´s Tourist Agency, www.turismo.navarra.es Once reservations have been made for lodging, tourists can download their vouchers directly from the web. The discounts will be sealed in the lodging establishment and will be valid from that moment on. For more information on tourism in Navarra, please consult www.turismo.navarra.es or call the information telephone line for tourists: 848 420 420.
Some basic rules for journalists 1. The language. If you come from a non- Spanish- speaking country, it is important to learn a few important phrases. Not everyone speaks English here, and, especially for directions, it is a good idea to study up on some Spanish before coming. 2. The ﬁesta. It is impossible not to be drawn into having fun in Sanfermines, but try to work and play with moderation. 3. Be careful about what you are told. Most people have an opinion about the ﬁesta, but as a good journalist does, compare and contrast your sources. If you have some doubts about what you have been told, ask oﬃcial sources. 4. Be careful about what you publish. The ﬁesta can be interpreted in many ways, and not all of what you hear or see are even remotely connected to Sanfermines. On many occasions, articles have been published about Sanfermines that have been totally false, leading some to come to the ﬁesta with wrong ideas about what it really is. We respectfully ask you to help us spread the truth. No censorship intended. 5. Risk with the crowds. All experienced journalists know to watch out for liquids that can damage equipment, but you should also be aware that, as in any place of this size, there are some risks involved in going into certain areas at certain times. 6. Plans. In spite of being a small city, the crowds may slow you up. Plan ahead of time for what you plan to cover. Remember that Pamplona´s population multiplies by eight its number of inhabitants during Sanfermines, and activities are going on all 24 hours of the day.
7. Before and After. It is interesting to see Pamplona before the ﬁesta begins. After the rockets are launched, it will look like you are in a diﬀerent place. If you have time to stay before or after the end of the ﬁesta, try to take a better look at what the city has to oﬀer. 8. Clothes. Although it certainly is not obligatory, we would like to recommend that you dress in our typical red and white clothes. You will feel more a part of the ﬁesta and will stand out less in the crowd. Do not forget to wear a red scarf around your neck. 9. Accreditations. Journalists who are accredited have accepted certain norms that apply to their work. It is very important to respect them and follow the guidelines. If you have a question, you can always ask a companion, the municipal police or other oﬃcial sources. 10. Information. Do not worry about having everything under control – especially when it comes to the “Encierro”. The International Press Oﬃce helps hundreds of journalists from many countries in their work, and facilitates news of the “Encierro” as rapidly as possible. We are there every day for you so if you have any questions, do not hesitate to visit or contact. •Roncesvalles Avenue, 4 (Tourism Oﬃce) •848 420 420/ 660 067 100 •firstname.lastname@example.org •Facebook: Oﬁcina Internacional de Prensa de Navarra •Twitter: OIP_Navarra
Glossary Ajoarriero: A typical dish from Navarra based on codﬁsh, peppers and onions. Cabezudos: Five characters with very large heads who form a part of the Entourage of the Giants: a Japanese man, a Japanese woman, the Councilman, the Mayor and the Grandmother. Bugler: A person who plays the bugle, a wind instrument of metal, similar to the trumpet, but smaller and with sharper notes. It is played at the launching of the rocket from the balcony of the Town Hall. Criadillas: Cooked bull testicles. A typical dish from Navarra. Dantzari: Dancer who interprets traditional music such as the “Zortziko”, the “Aurresku” or the “Paloteado de Cortes”. Divino: Experienced runner of the “Encierro” who looks upon this event quite seriously as a tradition. Critized by the rest of the runners. Corrida vascolandesa: Spectacle with acrobats who jump over and around brave heifers. Charanga: Band of music with wind and percussion instruments. Each band is associated with a “Peña” of young men. Chistorra: Cured meat from Navarra that looks like chorizo, but is thinner and cured for a shorter period of time: between one and 25 days before it can be eaten fried or cooked. It is made up of pork, bacon and lard and is seasoned with salt, pepper, sugar and garlic.
Chupinazo: Rocket launched from the balconies of the Town Hall, announcing the beginning of the ﬁestas of San Fermín on July 6th at 12 noon. Encierrillo: The six bulls to be fought the next day are led from the Gas corrals to those of Santo Domingo where the “Encierro” will begin. It takes place around 23:00 in total silence and with no runners. Gigantes: Huge cardboard ﬁgures, carried on the shoulders of very strong men. Guiri: Coloquial word to refer to foreing people. Jarretes: The upper part of a lamb´s leg, cooked with peppers. Jota: A very popular dance and music typical of Navarra and Aragón. Kalimotxo: An alcoholic drink made with red wine and cola and drunk during Sanfermines. Kilikis: Characters from the Entourage of the Giants, armed with soft foam rubber balls, who will tap both laughing children and adults with their “weapons”. There are six of them: “Vinegar”, “Pigtail”, “Napoleon”, “Warty”, “Beard” and “Potato”. Lo Viejo: An expression naming the old section or historic center of Pamplona. Macero: The macebearer who walks in front of some of the authorities. Menudicos: The intestines, hooves and blood of the bull cooked together. Montón: A human barricade is formed when many runners trip and fall on each other and prevent the bulls from continuing on. It is
especially dangerous when it happens at the entrance to the bullring. Movement of July 15th: A group of townspeople who are in favor of the popular nature of the ﬁestas. Since 2003, this movement has worked to save traditions such as running in front of a public bus as if they were in the “encierro” but without the horns. Pincho: A tapa or bit of food eaten in bars and cafeterias before meals. Peñas: Associations whose main objective – although not the only one – is to join together its members for Sanfermines and for the rest of the year. They attend the bullﬁghts every day, carrying the “merienda” or food to be eaten while the third bull is fought. The “Peñas” will later ﬁll the streets with music from their own bands. San Cernin: In French, Saint Cernin, in Spanish, San Saturnino, the patron saint of Pamplona. He was the bishop of Toulouse, and in the middle of the ﬁrst century baptized 40,000 people with water from a well in front of the present church. San Saturnino: A translation to Spanish of San Cernin the patron saint of Pamplona. Little ﬁre bull: This structure resembles a bull with no legs. Small ﬁreworks go oﬀ from its back that burn up as it runs from one side to the other chasing happy children. It is carried by one person. Txistu: A wooden ﬂute with a pointed mouthpiece that is played in the Basque Country and in Navarra. Txistulari: Person who plays the “txistu”.
Timbalero: Person who plays the kettle drum with one pedal in a metal frame. Usually two play at once to harmonize. Verga: Foam rubber object kilikis and zaldikos hit children with. Zaldikos: Characters who are half horse and half human and belong to the Entourage of the “Giants”. These ﬁgures “hit” both young and old their foam rubber weapons to the delight of everyone.
Image: Antonio Urtasun
Produced by the International Press Oﬁcce. Initiative by the Association of Journalists of Navarra (AJN). Editorial staﬀ, design and layout Josune Arévalo Carlos Lezana María Monreal Imanol Osácar Mayte Romero Translation: Lucinda Poole Financed by Government of Navarra Work Service of Navarra with the European Social Fund Institutional Relationship Department through the General Direction of Comunication Culture and Tourism Department through Tourism section Pamplona City Council Citizen Participation and New Techlologies Area Culture and Tourism Area Images OIP and transfered by Tourist Marketing Service of the Government of Navarra Comunication Service of Pamplona City Council Photographers: Antonio Urtasun, Ruﬁno Lasaosa, Irene Viseras, Ricardo Badenes, Félix Rodríguez and Oscar Anta. Gratitudes Culture and Tourism Department of the Government of Navarra Tourist Marketing Service of the Government of Navarra Comunication Service of the Government of Navarra Citizen Participation and New Techlologies Area of Pamplona City Council Comunication Service of Pamplona City Council Casa de la Misericordia de Pamplona Nuevo Casino Principal IPO. Pamplona, June of 2010 91
San Fermin Fiesta. Press Dossier