NEWSLETTER Das Monatsmagazin des Österreichischen Weltraum Forums.
Aouda.X und Aouda.S (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
INHALT Das Österreichische Weltraum Forum (ÖWF) ist ein Netzwerk für Raumfahrtspezialisten und Weltrauminteressierte. Es arbeitet mit nationalen und internationalen Forschungseinrichtungen, Industrie und Politik zusammen.
Science Bulletin No. 1 GLXP Rover Puli, MEDIAN Project, Magma White Mars Analog Rover, Biomedical Studies
Science Bulletin No. 2 DELTA Experiment, RSS Team, AnalogAstronauts, Cliff Reconnaissance Vehicule
Science Bulletin No. 3 Geoscience Experiments, Flight Plan Design, Deployable Shelter, Infrastructure & Dangers
Team & Kooperationspartner Group Photos & Interviews with Team Members of the “MARS2013” Mission
Literarische Begleitung für die Mission Autoren über Mars und Raumfahrt: Andreas Eschbach philosophiert über Träumer
Presseberichte & TV-Beiträge Über die Mission „Mars2013“ erschienen zahlreiche Berichte in Printmedien, im Web & TV.
MARS2013 Science Workshop Analysis of the data generated at the MARS2013 Analog Expedition in Morocco
MARS2013: Science Bulletin No. 1 Science Bulletin Issue 01, 15th of Feb. 2013: MARS2013 is an integrated Mars analog field simulation in the Northern Sahara near Erfoud, Morocco. MARS2013 is organized by the Austrian Space Forum in partnership with the Ibn Battuta Center in Marrakesh.
Camp Weyprecht in the Morroccan Desert near Erfoud (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
From the 1st to 10th of February, the field crew including three analog-astronauts prepared for the simulation, which officially started on Monday 11th of February 2013. Until the 28th of February the 10-person crew will conduct 16 experiments from various fields (life sciences, engineering and infrastructure, geosciences, rover & spacesuits). The Mars Simulation is backed by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. All communication during the â€œin SIMâ€? phase (in SIM phase is declared just before the start of an EVA (extra-vehicular activity) and finishes with the end of an EVA) between Morocco and Austria is delayed by 10 minutes, to gain operational experience about communicating with a time-delay. To achieve a proper time delay, all transferred data e.g. audio, text chat, webcam viewings, gets a time stamp and is instructed to wait for 10 minutes before proceeding automatically.
Media Day in Camp Weyprecht (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
During the first simulation week the following experiments were conducted: Aouda.X spacesuit simulator, DELTA, Long-term medical monitoring system (LTMS), MAT/SEG/MEDINC physiological and psychological variables tests, Microsphere and Endospore viability assay (microEVA), Magma White rover, GLXP Puli rover, Small rovers exploration capabilities (SREC), ERAS C3, Deployable Shelter, Geosciences, Hunveyor-4, MEDIAN Methane detection. 3
Hungarian GLXP Rover Puli team on their past week: “As Mars2013 simulation is our first remote field test with our I2 Puli rover, we have tested the basic abilities of our rover such as communication, navigation and movement. We encountered some problems during some test runs due to the lack of WiFi signal depending on our position. Currently we are trying to figure out the source of the problem and find a solution for the next runs. We have had a strange situation when moving forward continuously for 5 minutes: our rover made a 180° turn while obeying a simple forward movement. We guess it was a stone or a hole that blocked the way of the rover and turned it back towards the starting point.”
Puli Rover in the Moroccan Desert (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux) “The Puli rover is controlled by our Mission Control Center in Budapest, Hungary and the Mission Control Team structure works smoothly; resources are well distributed according to our first runs. Straight and long runs on rocky field can divert the rover from the straight line, so we should monitor a movement like that by taking photos continuously or by issuing shorter commands at once. During the first week we have made some changes in our Mission Control Software according to the first runs. More tests, information and experience are needed for further advancements.” “Our next plans are to test the climbing abilities of the rover on hills, sand and rocky field. And in addition we are planning a WiFi measurement experiment with the help of the field crew.”
Jane MacArthur, MEDIAN Principal Investigator summarizes the last two weeks: “Project MEDIAN ran four times during the preparation week and twice this week. The preparation week was very useful for dealing with various anomalies, fixing the biggest problem of a malfunctioning detector and repeating a test that did not work properly the first time. After receiving photos from the field, I have noticed that the gas bottle was not close enough to the ground. Therefore, the field crew in Morocco buried the tank in the sand and refined the diffusion of the gas from the outlet through a bottle, which should improve the experimental results.” “I am happy from results so far that all four detectors are functioning correctly and have performed according to baseline expectations. I look forward to my experiment running regularly for the next two weeks, running the detectors in a variety of positions to build up a good quantity of data, to see how helpful they can be in locating the source of the gas.”
Old setup with gas bottle too high.
New setup gas bottle buried.
Short preliminary report of the two studies run by the Biomedical Engineers (BME) of MARS 2013 (by A. Stadler & T. J. Luger) AMPS-MEDINC study: The preliminary data of this study, approved by the Ethics Committee, including 68 participants (until today 15.02.13) shows no major illness or trauma interventions within the first two weeks. However, some minor incidents and near accidents occurred. That is observed more in the crew living in the field (representing Mars) than in the members of the MSC (representing Earth). Even under the conditions in the Sahara the telemetry of the Aouda.X and Aouda.S show stable reproducible parameters, especially the analog astronauts have only a few minor deviations. This study is not yet finished. AMPS-SEG study: This Ethics Committee approved study investigating emotions, stress, and group dynamics during MARS 2013 has started and was welcomed by the crew in the field and the members of the Mission Support Center and is continuing. We are looking forward to the upcoming data analysis after this mission. (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
Mateusz Jozefowicz, Project Lead of the Magma White Mars Analog Rover: “The Magma White is for the first time controlled remotely over the internet from another continent. We have some Austrian-American payload installed which will get tested, with a laser and optical system for detecting life traces on rocks. To establish the communication system, we were four days in Morocco and during the first Simulation week, we have been practicing setting the exact position of the life module and taking test samples from the rocks.” “By the end of the mission, we hope to have following things tested: the correlation of our GPS coordinates, with two separate GPS systems (one on-board GPS system and a SPOT device); the remote operation - each with and without the time delay; collecting reliable samples for the life instruments with the help of the field crew or without them depending on how far we go; driving capability of the rover on medium, harsh and easy terrain. Especially on medium to harsh terrain it will probably be hard to drive remotely. There are no scientific results yet but we would like to calibrate the distance measurement, the distance to a rock and the speed of approaching a rock.”
Magma White with Aouda.X (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
Learn more about MARS2013 and all experiments and partners on http://mars2013.oewf.org
MARS2013: Science Bulletin No. 2 Science Bulletin Issue 2, 22nd of Feb. 2013: Testing the complexity of working in a spacesuit. Exploring Martian cliffs with rovers. Mapping data from a Mars simulation mission. During the second simulation week of the Mars analog field simulation the following experiments were conducted: CLIFFBOT, ERAS, SREC, DELTA, Puli Rover, Hunveyor, MAGMA, MASC, MEDIAN, Deployable Shelter, GESU, Aouda.X, Aouda.S, Geoscience, Yellow. Testing the complexity of working with a spacesuit A spacesuit like the one used by Apollo astronauts is essentially a spaceship that is worn for the protection of the astronaut. It will not be any different on Mars one day. But the many layers of protective material impact the visibility, agility and movability of the astronaut. By how much exactly? DELTA will provide an answer. The DELTA Experiment quantifies the extra time needed when performing tasks with the PolAres Aouda.X space suit simulator, as compared to a non-suit scenario. The output of DELTA will be for the first time a statistically derived mean value of time delay as function of Aouda.X operations. This value will be instrumental for improved flight planning during future missions.
The DELTA Experiment: Setting up obstacles for the analog-astronauts (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
DELTA requires a complex set-up: it is based on the repetition of six dummy experiments which reflect activities typically undertaken during a standard EVA, such as soil sample collection, the set-up of a surface science station or the repair of a rover (human-machineinterface). In order to allow repeatability, the experiments are carried out on an artificial “obstacle path” that is set up in the desert of Morocco and that forces testers into specific motion patterns. DELTA PI Alexander Soucek explains his satisfaction with DELTA so far: “I told our analog astronauts in the beginning: You will be going to hate DELTA. For a sound statistical baseline, we need to do the experiments again and again, by each astronaut, at each time of the day, with and without the space suit and always following very precise procedures. We are not yet at the number of runs we must have, but with each data transmission from the field, new time values drop in, and we are on a good way.” 7
Mapping data from a Mars simulation mission. Back at the Mission Support Center (MSC), the Remote Science Support (RSS) team offered us a remarkably interesting sneak peak into the map they are working on using GoogleEarth, a map that compiles a lot of interesting scientific information. The RSS team receives daily the science log from the field containing GPS coordinates and the execution details from each experiment. Due to bandwidth limitations in such a remote site and the tenminute communication delay, experiment data is uplinked overnight, ready for the RSS team in the morning at the Mission Support Center. (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
Mike Rampey, leader of the RSS team: â€œThe RSS team is supposed to be the nerve center that handles all of the scientific data that come back from Morocco or simulated Mars. For the most part thatâ€™s an exercise that is being done because in a real Mars mission the scientific results would be of great importance. That would be the main driver of the mission, besides going there, which is a great accomplishment of itself already, but getting the scientific data would be an equally important aspect of such a mission.â€? Experiments can be comprised of runs and/or samples. For example, one experiment can consist of several runs and collect varying amounts of samples per run. This is dependent on the activities as defined by FlightPlan, technical constraints (like the power available) and the most influential factor: the weather! MSC in Innsbruck where the experiments are planned, monitored and the data is being analyzed (OeWF/Daniel Foeger)
The RSS team monitors closely the latest weather predictions for the area where the MARS2013 team is based to give advance notice of any adverse changes so the crew can protect themselves and secure the experiments. RSS actively supports the team in the field, bearing in mind that they are a Mission Support Center, not a Control Center and thus the field crew has a significant amount of autonomy just like on a real Mars mission due to the distance and time delay. 8
RSS Team on the toughest challenge of their work: “To be as close as possible to a Mars mission, where the terrain cannot be explored by the RSS team in advance, RSS was restricted to remote sensing imagery and digital elevation models to assess the suitability for each experiment to be carried out in a certain location. Google Maps is used as an open source tool, which can be shared amongst the different teams and extended/edited for post-mission analysis. RSS uses a map to suggest suitable and avoid non-suitable locations for each experiment. However, the field team on the ground decides the exact daily operations.” At the same time, RSS is creating a map full of scientific data, which, in the end, will be an accurate visual representation of the entire mission. A snapshot of the map can be seen in the image on the right. The image displays all the cumulative experiment runs conducted during the mission up until now marking out their exact locations, as well as the terrain explored by the crew (via a wearable GPS), and planned traverses for the upcoming day.
Mapping data: Everything gets recorded (OeWF)
The colours show which suit was used (Aouda.X or Aouda.S) for the experiment or alternatively if the experiment was unsuited (a rover or a weather station). The lines show the planned route, any bonus exploration and subsequently the planned locations as well as the actual location of each experiment run. Everyone on the MARS2013 mission team can use the map to gain an excellent overview of each experiment and the date and location where it was carried out – the map can be filtered by anything the user would like: date/experiment/planned/actual/suited/unsuited. The RSS team on the mission: “MARS2013 was the toughest mission yet done by OeWF with amazing participation from 23 nations. When there will be a Mars mission, we will know that part of the way was accomplished now in Austria.” 9
Exploring Martian cliffs with rovers Cliffs provide access to layers telling the story of millions of years of geological, meteorological and possibly biological activity. One solution to explore such an area is to use a cable-suspended rover. The Cliff Reconnaissance Vehicule (CRV), also known as Cliffbot, involved in the Mars2013 mission is precisely testing a vertical exploration robot that can be lowered down by a human to explore steep terrain. Alain Souchier, CRV PI, on the challenges raised by the Morocco desert environment, which would be similar on Mars “The Morocco desert environment presents cliffs and slopes similar to what may be found on Mars. The traps that could endanger the vehicle operations, such as cracks in the rocks, overhangs, big blocks, are probably similar as well as the dust environment.” Cliffbot had to face several challenges during the simulation.
The Cliff Reconnaissance Vehicule (CRV) exploring steep terrain (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
“We had some difficulties in operating the vehicle and the study of these difficulties is one of the main objectives of the experiment. The vehicle was always safely retrieved. Once the rope slipped into a vertical crack in the cliff, increasing the forces needed to pull up the Cliffbot. Another time the rod which links the vehicle to the rope became itself slightly twisted between two protruding rocks in a vertical cliff, precluding down or up motion and the vehicle had to be manually pushed up to free the rod.”
The experiment already brought new insights into what the rover can do: “Cliffbot was equipped with a new HD camera, compared to its configuration in the Dachstein cave simulation in April 2012. The picture shows far better details. Numerous fossils were seen on the videos (even if shell fossils are not expected on Mars!). Also on some Cliffbot runs performed on 6 February, strange blue rocks that were not visible from the top of the cliff were discovered. As a fun fact, the last test conducted that day by Gernot Groemer in the Aouda Spacesuit was the 100th since experimentation began in 2001.” In terms of ideas for future improvements, Alain says: “I always considered that other instruments than cameras could and should be installed on Cliffbot. A ground sounding radar developed by the LATMOS laboratory for the Exomars ESA rover was tested on a Cliffbot during the Dachstein simulation. Also more cameras should be used and pictures sent to the operator up hill in order to assess the vehicle situation. To avoid the blockage by a rock protruding between spokes, plain wheels would be efficient, but the vehicle was designed to be disassembled and stored in a suit case, which had some consequences on the design.” On the MARS2013 mission, Alain says: “I am always impressed by the organization and the amount of work that is behind the ÖWF simulations. Also the team is very motivated and the mood is professional and at the same time very friendly. A lot of extraordinary discoveries lie in front of us in the solar system and particularly in Mars exploration. Science and adventure fit together well in this endeavor which will shape our future as humankind.”
Analog-Astronaut in the Morrocan desert (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
Daniel Schildhammer, about the conditions in the desert: “It is an exciting experience to be in the desert for already two weeks now and sleeping in tents in these cold nights. As an Analog-Astronaut you don´t realize how the temperature is during the day, because inside the spacesuit simulator you’ll have your own little environment and can’t feel the temperature outside. It is really interesting and fascinating to do this huge amount of experiments together with a great and well organized team.”
MARS2013: Science Bulletin No. 3 Science Bulletin Issue 3, 28th Feb. 2013: Performing geological experiments on Mars. Designing the Flight Plan for a mission to Mars. Protecting astronauts against unpredictable events. During the third simulation week of the Mars analog field simulation the following experiments were conducted: Aouda.X, Aouda.S, CLIFFBOT, ERAS, MASC, SREC, DELTA, Puli Rover, Hunveyor, LTMS, LIFE, MEDIAN, Deployable Shelter, Yellow. Performing geological experiments on “Mars” Performing geological studies is one of the most important scientific activities during every planetary exploration mission. It is the only way we can understand the mechanisms of past and present evolution of a planet. Thus, geological research was a core part of all Lunar and Martian missions, and it plays an important role in the MARS2013 mission too.
Analog-Astronaut performing geological fieldwork (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
The “Geoscience” experiment, consisting of GESU and MASC simulates basic geological investigations under space flight conditions and makes it possible to setup an archive of samples that will be analyzed on “Earth”. Since none of our analog astronauts were geologists, all of them received training before the mission. Even though we already trained astronauts to perform geological experiments for the Apollo missions, all future Mars explorers will have to have some education in geology. 12
Since the geology of Moon and Mars are very different, the training will also have to be different compared to the Apollo era. In preparation for visiting the red planet, astronauts will have to be provided with information and skills directly related to the most important scientific questions that we hope to answer on Mars: the ones linked to the search for life and water. The best way for the astronauts to learn these concepts is to study them in areas on Earth very similar to the Martian environment, such as the site in Morocco studied and explored during MARS2013. The geological experiment consisted of two parts. Firstly, we aimed at obtaining a general understanding of the area surrounding the camp supported by geological descriptions of the outcrops and collected samples to be studied after the end of the mission. Secondly, we wanted to understand how well non-geologists perform geological fieldwork and collect samples wearing suits that significantly limit their ability to observe their surroundings. Four different analog astronauts went along the same path that crosscut multiple easily visible rock layers and collected samples. After the experiment is completed we will analyze how analog astronauts chose their sampling spots, how similar their choices were, and how the wearing of the suit influenced their performance.
Collecting samples for geological research (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
Another expedition, which was carried out at a southern location, was called MASC â€” Mars Analog Sample Collection. The experiment aimed to compare the concretions found by the MSL rover in the Gale crater on Mars with terrestrial analog materials from Morocco and from the proximity of the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah. This will be used to gain a better understanding of the diagenetic processes on Mars and Earth.
Designing the Flight Plan for a mission to Mars The Flight Plan (FP) team of a mission is the connection between Remote Science Support (RSS), Principal Investigators (PI) and Media on one side and Flight Control and Field Crew on the other side. The Flight Plan team at the Mission Support Center in Innsbruck gets requests and proposals for activities and tries to match them with the available resources. This results in an optimized schedule that ensures maximum scientific output within the given limitations. FP also gets feedback from the Field Crew regarding problems, inconveniences and suggestions resulting from the planned activities, which are then considered and integrated in further plans. Additionally, FP also performs traverse planning — allocating the safest, shortest and scientifically most interesting paths between two experiment locations in order to further optimize the schedule and to ensure the safety of the analog astronauts. All this information is then passed on to the executive part, represented by the Flight Director, as the Daily Activity Package, which - after approval - will be sent to the field for execution.
Test the forward contamination with the microEVA experiment (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
Sebastian Hettrich on the many variables that go into a flight plan: “Each experiment has its own requirements and specifics, such as run times, special locations, bandwidth, how many astronauts it needs to be conducted with, and many more. Then we have our resources, which is manpower, skills and abilities of the field crew personnel, time, the suits, the vehicles available, the bandwidth infrastructure and a few others. Finally we experience certain limitations for the planning, such as the battery run time or the Wi-Fi coverage area, which can be easier dealt with by relocating the antennas once an area has been explored. As Flight Planners we have to keep track also on what experiments were already successfully conducted and where we have to re-plan.“ 14
Flight Plan team on the challenges of their work: “One of the biggest challenges is to keep track of all the variables and to create an Activity Plan that is as stable as possible, but at the same time as flexible as necessary if urgent replanning requests come in. Most of the time we have to make compromises between stability and flexibility to make it work. Another challenge is that sometimes we cannot know in advance all the variables needed, which is where we base the planning on educated guesses until we get feedback from the field crew.”
Field Activity Plan (OeWF/Matthias Schmitt)
The complexity of their work is beautifully illustrated by the image above, showing their Field Activity Plan and excerpts from the Daily Activity Packages, which are simplified schedules used for visualizing planned activities. The color-coding was introduced to distinguish more easily between different kinds of activities. For example, yellow represents preparation and set-up activities, blue indicates travel and traverse times, light green means scientific experiments, dark green is the suit support, pale orange is for safety activities, orange means verifying or checking equipment, violet is for the permanent monitoring, red indicates activities to be conducted by everyone and purple is for media activities. Sebastian Hettrich on the MARS2013 mission: “It has been a busy and challenging time, but with the help of an excellent team, we managed to make the planning more efficient and user-friendly. We also learned a lot of lessons, some of which we have already applied and some which will definitely be considered for planning following missions. The smoothness in the planning and execution of the MARS2013 Mission that we experience right now is the result of the good collaboration, excellent work, enthusiasm and passion for space exploration that all members of the Austrian Space Forum share! It’s a great pleasure to be part of this mission!” 15
Protecting astronauts against unpredictable events The Mars surface infrastructure as anticipated for future human missions includes habitation, rover and infrastructure facilities, but equally important is the safety of astronauts in case of an emergency situation or unpredictable event. Away from their base camp, how can astronauts protect themselves? The Deployable and Portable Multipurpose Shelter Prototype is trying to offer a solution in that respect. Weighing 18 kg, which is the equivalent of 6kg on Mars, the current prototype being tested during the MARS2013 mission was developed between October and December 2012 by Dr.-Ing. Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger, DI San-Hwan Lu and DI Polina Petrova from the Vienna University of Technology, together with many dedicated Master Students. During the MARS2013 mission, three students, Zuzana Kerekretyova, Nikolaus Gutscher and Stefan Kristoffer together with Polina Petrova tested the operability (deployment and retraction), the durability (multiple deployments), function (human/equipment shelter) and adaptability (functional usability). Issues that were especially explored included its spatial usability, ergonomic suitability to actions and individual perception of comfort in relation to the activities, leading to an evaluation of the design goals.
The Deployable and Portable Multipurpose Shelter Prototype is being tested (OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux)
The material requirements for the prototype differ from those for a ready-to-use deployable shelter on Mars. The outer garment of this mock-up is for example permeable to air, because of its use in the hot desert. “This would not be the case for the Martian version. ‘Inflatable structures’ used in space are composed of several layers of high-tech materials, such as Kevlar and Vectran to withstand the rigorous requirements of such an extreme environment” says Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger, the PI of the experiment. 16
Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger on the shelter design: “The actual shelter that would be used on a mission should not weigh more than 20 kg, which is equivalent to 6.6 kg on Mars. The shelter has to be compactly packed, lightweight and carried by one astronaut, similar to a “rucksack” or “suitcase” typology. It has to be easy to deploy and able to accommodate up to two astronauts (with space suits), for e.g. one injured astronaut and one astronaut helping the other. The shelter has to temporarily provide a breathable atmosphere for a minimum duration of up to 48h until rescue arrives (rover, other astronaut) or immediate emergency cases (successful first aid, change of conditions). It also contains additional air supply, an emergency power supply for the space suit, an emergency food supply, and an emergency toolkit.” Following the Apollo missions, NASA developed inflatable temporary shelters for the Lunar Module and several habitation design studies foresee deployable structures for building a base (Lunar or Martian) because they offer a number of advantages for space structures, such as volume and weight efficiency, but also flexibility. Although deployable structures have been developed and used on Earth and space, their actual use for habitation purposes beyond Earth is still minimal.
“In contrast to other studies, we chose a minimalistic approach, similar to a space-suit extension. Our primary objective was to develop a portable and deployable shelter that can adapt according to the needs of the emergency situation. This is a new and innovative approach,” says Sandra Häuplik-Meusburger. Based on an analysis of human activities during an emergency, the team has developed several emergency scenarios that demand different usages of the shelter. Not all scenarios need additional air supply for example. If necessary, astronauts can use an oxygen mask with a rebreather system. For the internal pressure in the shelter, the Mars atmosphere is used. To adapt the structure to different human activities, compressed Martian atmosphere can be pumped into inflatable cushions of the structure or to stabilizing cushions. While the shelter prototype was especially developed for emergency situations on Mars, due to its structural adaptability it can be adjusted to various (emergency) situations. One of the next goals could be to adapt this shelter to Antarctic test conditions for further design evaluation. In the process new ways of protecting humans right here on Earth could also be discovered and developed. While reaching to explore outer space, research has always advanced the technologies we use on our home planet. 17
MARS2013: Team & Kooperationspartner Ein Teil der 端ber 100 Mitarbeiter und Kooperationspartner:
Alle Interviews mit den Teammitgliedern: http://blog.oewf.org/tag/menschen/ 18
MARS2013: Autoren begleiten die Mission Autorinnen und Autoren haben die Mission mit Statements, Kurzgeschichten und Gedanken literarisch begleitet. Einer davon war Andreas Eschbach: Immer wieder sahen Träumer zu den Vögeln hinauf und seufzten: „Wenn wir doch auch fliegen könnten …!“ Und immer war jemand nicht weit, der sie zur Ordnung rief, jemand, der vernünftig war, jemand, der die Welt und das Leben kannte, jemand, der sagte: „Menschen können nun mal nicht fliegen, findet euch damit ab. Es ist so, wie es ist, und Träume ändern daran nichts.“ Dann gab es einmal einen Mann namens Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger, der so sehr davon träumte, zu fliegen wie die Vögel, dass er sich Flügel baute. Als man ihn nötigte, vor Hunderten von Zuschauern und dem König zu fliegen, stürzte er elendiglich in die Donau und galt von da an als Witzfigur, genannt „Schneider von Ulm“. „Seht ihr“, sagten die Vernünftigen den Träumern, „wir haben es euch ja gesagt. Es hat keinen Sinn.“ Dann gab es einmal zwei Brüder namens Wilbur und Orville Wright, die eine Flugmaschine bauten, die mit einem Motor ausgestattet war. Und tatsächlich flog. Erst ein paar Meter. Dann ein paar hundert Meter. Dann ein paar Kilometer. Und irgendwann von Kontinent zu Kontinent. „Natürlich kann man mit einer Maschine fliegen“, sagen die Vernünftigen heute. „Es folgt aus den Formeln. Eine reale Sache.“ Die Vernünftigen spekulieren heute mit Flugzeugaktien und tauschen Tipps, wo man Flüge am billigsten bucht. Immer wieder sahen Träumer zu den Sternen hinauf und seufzten: „Wenn wir doch nur zu anderen Planeten gelangen könnten …“ Und immer war jemand nicht weit, der sie zur Ordnung rief, jemand, der vernünftig war, jemand, der die Welt und das Leben kannte, jemand, der sagte: „Der Weltraum ist uns nun einmal verschlossen, der Aufwand an Energie und Geld zu hoch für solche Reisen, findet euch damit ab. Es ist so, wie es ist, und Träume ändern daran nichts.“ Dann gab es eine Gruppe von Menschen, die so sehr davon träumten, zum Mars zu reisen, dass sie beschlossen, in einer Wüste, die ganz ähnlich aussah wie der Mars, zumindest schon einmal auszuprobieren, wie es wäre, dort zu sein … Es ist, wie es ist. Und nur Träume können jemals etwas daran ändern. (c) 2013 Andreas Eschbach Alle Autoren-Beiträge: http://blog.oewf.org/author/fstummer/
MARS2013: Presseberichte & TV-Beiträge
Web "Sneak Preview" auf bemannte Marsraumfahrt science.apa.at – 11. März 2013.
Innsbruck (APA) - Am 28. Februar ging die bisher größte Simulation einer WeltraumMission zum Mars unter europäischer Leitung zu Ende. Über vier Wochen führten Forscher aus 23 Nationen den Test in der marokkanischen Sahara durch. Federführend an der "Marokko Mars Simulation 2013" (Mars2013) beteiligt war auch das Österreichische Weltraumforum (ÖWF). Weltraumforum startete Mars-Simulation in Marokko mit „Landing Day“ wienerzeitung.at. – 11. Februar 2013. Weblink Mit dem sogenannten "Landing day" hat das Österreichische Weltraumforum (ÖWF) am Montag seine "Marokko Mars Simulation 2013" (Mars2013) in der nördlichen Sahara gestartet.. Sternzeit: Österreich fliegt zum Mars Deutschlandfunk – 3. Februar 2013
In diesem Monat führt das Österreichische Weltraumforum eine bemannte Mission zum Planeten Mars durch - natürlich nur in einer Simulation. Als Trainingsumgebung dient eine Wüstengegend in Marokko, wo viele geologische Strukturen der Landschaft auf dem Roten Planeten ähneln. einer Mars-Simulation in der Wüste Marokkos. Austro-Mars-Mission in der marokkanischen Sahara derstandard.at – 31. Januar 2013.
Internationales Team unter Leitung des Österreichischen Weltraumforums soll Erfahrung für künftige Marsbesuche sammeln. Keime im Weltall diepresse.com – 26. Januar 2013.
Die Raumfahrt hat eine technisch-künstliche, fast sterile Aura. Dabei ist sie eine"schmutzige" Sache, Langstreckenflüge könnten deswegen sogar lebensgefährlich sein. Countdown für Tiroler Marslandung hat begonnen tt.com – 24. Januar 2013.
Am Samstag machen sich die Forscher zu einer besonderen Mission unter Tiroler Führung auf: einer Mars-Simulation in der Wüste Marokkos. Bei Marsflug zahlt sich Waschmaschine aus Science.orf.at– 22. Januar 2013.
Ein Flug zum Mars stellt nicht nur enorme Herausforderungen an die Technik, sondern auch an Astronauten - "auch bei Fragen der alltäglichen Hygiene", wie der Astrophysiker Gernot Grömer bei einer Veranstaltung erklärte.
Presse International Marocco, simulazioni di Marte Corriere della sera - 23.März 2013
Presso Erfoud, nel Sahara marocchino, si è svolta una simulazione con la tuta spaziale Aouda, progettata per una missione su Marte (Reuters/OeWF/Katja Zanella-Kux). La misión que recreó una exploración humana en Marte El Tiempo.com - 22.März 2013
La simulación fue realizada al pie de las dunas del desierto de Merzouga, en el sureste de Marruecos. Misión recrea exploración humana en Marte El Nacional (Venezuela) - 22.März 2013
Durante febrero 2013, el Foro Espacial Austriaco (OeWF) en conjunto con el centro Ibn Battuta de Marrakech, llevaron a cabo una simulación integral de una exploración de terreno en Marte. Astronautas simulam viagem a Marte em deserto marroquino Veja.abril.com.br – 01. März 2013
Terminou nesta quinta-feira, 28, uma missão que isolou astronautas e técnicos, na maioria austríacos, no deserto de Merzuga, no sudeste de Marrocos. A experiência, que teve o apoio do governo marroquino e colaboração da Nasa, durou pouco menos de um mês e teve como objetivo imitar ao máximo as condições para exploração humana em Marte. Astronautas se aislan en el desierto marroquí para simular viaje a Marte Mexico.cnn.com – 28. Februar 2013 Weblink El experimento mostró que el uso de trajes especiales para explorar la superficie marciana representa enorme presión física y psicológicas. Austrian Space Forum plans mission simulation in Morocco ShanghaiDaily.com – 12. December 2012
A one-month Mars simulation is planned to be carried out in the Moroccan desert in February 2013, the Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) said in Innsbruck Tuesday. Scientists working on suit for walking on Mars NBC Today Show – December 7, 2012
Mars has long held a fascination for those of us on Earth, but recent NASA pictures of Martian landscapes are giving us a much better understanding of the red planet...
Presse: International – continued MARS2013-Austria prepares for Mars: Morocco Mars Simulation MarsToday.com – 27. September 2012
Between the 1st and the 28th of February 2013, the Austrian Space Forum, in partnership with the Ibn Battuta Center in Marrakesh, will conduct an integrated Mars analog field simulation... MARS2013-Austria prepares for Mars: Morocco Mars Simulation Spaceref.com – 27. September 2012
Between the 1st and the 28th of February 2013, the Austrian Space Forum, in partnership with the Ibn Battuta Center in Marrakesh, will conduct an integrated Mars analog field simulation...
TV „Energie und Physik ,spezial‘ – mit Norbert Frischauf Mars – 3x hin und zurück! – Die Mission“ Bayern Alpha Österreich - 25.März 2013, 19:30 (45 min)
Steine, Sand, Staub. Erloschene Vulkane und Fossilien, Temperaturgegensätze von -5 bis über +30°C - die Sahara ist alles andere als lebensfreundlich. Trotzdem war sie im Februar 2013 der Brennpunkt der internationalen Wissenschaft, genauer gesagt der Raumfahrt, als das Österreichische Weltraum Forum(ÖWF) mit 23 Partnerländern in der Nähe der Stadt Erfoud in Marokko seine Marsanalogmission MARS2013 unternommen hat. Hubble – Mission Universum, Experiment Mars ServusTV - 17.März 2013, 22:10 (50 min)
Wissenschaftler testen einen in Innsbruck entwickelten Marsanzug in der Wüste. Wie kann der Mensch auf dem roten Planeten überleben? Einen Monat lang simulieren rund 100 Forscher aus der ganzen Welt, unter Leitung des österreichischen Weltraumforums, eine Marsexpedition in Marokko. Die Wissenschaftler wollen herausfinden, ob man mit heutigen Labormethoden tatsächlich Leben auf dem roten Planeten finden kann. Welche Eigenschaften braucht ein Marsanzug, um Forscher in lebensfeindlicher Umgebung zu schützen? Hallo Mars Tirol Heute - 20. Februar 2013, 19:00 (ca. 3 min) Bericht über Marokko Mission inklusive Interview Flight Director Christoph Ragonig Scientists working on suit for walking on Mars NBC Today Show – December 7, 2012
Mars has long held a fascination for those of us on Earth, but recent NASA pictures of Martian landscapes are giving us a much better understanding of the red planet. 22
MARS2013 SCIENCE WORKSHOP
Austrian Space Forum
25-26 May 2013, Vienna University of Technology The MARS2013 Analog Expedition in Morocco generated an enormous amount of valuable data. The aim of the workshop is to discuss the efficient exploitation of the data and to coordinate the analysis. To facilitate the multidisciplinary approach to planetary exploration it is intended to provide the participants with the opportunity to strengthen their network of scientific and technical cooperation.
Photos:OEWF / Katja Zanella-Kux / TU Vienna
WHERE? The workshop is hosted by the Institute Hochbau 2, Vienna Univ. of Technology Grand Cupola Hall, Main building, Stair 6, 4th floor Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna, Austria
WHEN? From: Saturday, 25 May 2013, 09:00 To: Sunday, 26 May 2013, 16:00 Networking meeting: Friday, 24 May, 14:00-17:00 (invitation only)
REGISTRATION Email to: firstname.lastname@example.org Registration Deadline: 10 May 2013 / Abstract submission by: 14 May 2013 (150 words max) Details & Programme: mars2013.oewf.org 23
MARS2013 Sondernewsletter mit allen Infos rund um die im Februar durchgeführte Mars Analog Feld Simulation in Marokko. #simulateMars