Staff of the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs Alberto Figueroa-GarcĂa, MBA, Assistant Director Sherry T. Wynn, Senior Program Associate (202) 336-6029 (202) 336-6040 FAX (202) 336-6123 APA TDD firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/index.aspx
The cover is an artistic depiction of an indigenous medicine wheel. For more information about the symbolism and use of the American Indian (Lakota) medicine wheel, see video. Cover page designed by David Spears
IN THIS ISSUE… OEMA UPDATE Bertha G. Holliday, PhD, Former Senior Director. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
SPECIAL SECTION Indigenous Peoples: Promoting Psychological Healing and Well-Being ASSOCIATION REPORTS Implicit Bias May Make Evenhanded Application of New Immigration Law Impossible, Psychologist Says. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 The APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs A Fond Farewell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Council of National Psychological Association for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI) Farewell & Congratulations!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Commission on Ethnic Minority, Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology 2 TaskForce (CEMRRAT2) Goodbye, Dr. Holliday…Thanks for the Memories!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2010 ProDIGs Awardees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Recipients of the 2010 Division 45 Awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Congratulations to Members of Color Elected as Division and SPTA Officers or C/R Representatives in 2010!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Call for Nominations CNPAAEMI Henry Tomes Awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY Public Policy Update Public Interest Government Relations Effort On Ethnic Minority Issues.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 APA President-Elect Vasquez and PI-GRO Take to the Hill to Discuss Immigration Issues.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
FOR YOUR INFORMATION ANNOUNCEMENTS K UDOS! Asuncion Miteria Austria Receives Distinguished Scholar Award. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Miguel Gallardo Appointed to California Board of Psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 S PECIAL OPPORTUNITIES Diversity and Leadership Presidential Initiative â€” Division 45. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Request for Survey Response on Healthcare, Social Services, and Community Organizing Needs LGBT People of Color. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 RESEARCH AND TRAINING ISSUES SCHOLARSHIPS, FELLOWSHIPS, GRANTS, AND INSTITUTES
Diversity Postdoctoral Fellowship Program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Foundation for Child Development 2011 Young Scholars Program.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Postdoctoral Residency in Child & Adolescent Consultation/Liaison Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Post-Doctoral Fellowship Pace University Counseling and Personal Development Center.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 CALL FOR PAPERS AND PROPOSALS
Call for Papers: Special Issue on the Secondary Analysis of the National Latino Asian American Study (NLAAS) for the Asian American Journal of Psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
FOR YOUR INFORMATION Call for Proposals: Race, Radicalism, and Repression on the Pacific Coast and Beyond. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Call for Papers – Special Issue: Intersections of LGBT, Racial/Ethnic Minority, and Gender Identities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Call for Papers The State of African American Studies: Methodology, Pedagogy, and Research. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Call for Papers: Precious and Push. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 CALL FOR NOMINATIONS AND AWARDS
Call for Nominations APA Ad Hoc Committee on Psychology and AIDS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 UPCOMING CONFERENCES AND CONVENTIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 IMPORTANT RESOURCES BOOKS
Latina/o Healing Practices – Mestizo and Indigenous Perspectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Royalties to Novel The Summer of Pomba Gira Donated to American Indian Organizations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 ON THE WEB
New Report Yes We Can Shows America¹s Public Schools Fail Over Half the Nation's Black Male Students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council Issues Guide Ethics. . . . . . . . . . . 30
OEMA UPDATE Good-Bye! Bertha G. Holliday, PhD OEMA Former Senior Director I retired as Senior Director of APA’s Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) effective July 15, 2010 after 16 years of service. However, I will continue to provide service to the Association as a consultant on Association-wide diversity efforts. My 16 years at APA, directing OEMA, constituted the most fulfilling and satisfying experience of my professional career. Many have asked me, “How can you continue to engage in all those meetings, and deal with the resistance APA often displays towards ethnic minority issues?” The answer to that question, and the source of my joy of the job, is you — the constituents of OEMA. For 16 years, you have graciously shared your steadfast passion and vision that psychology in general — its knowledge, research, interventions, professional applications, and access to millions of students — and APA specifically — its prestige, resources, programs, and advocacy — can and should be powerful tools for not only diversifying the knowledge, activities and personnel of psychology, but also for empowerment and healing of communities of color. And I have witnessed the enormous voluntary and professional efforts you have provided to individuals, community groups, and to APA, on behalf of that vision. For 16 years, I have been honored and privileged to be entrusted both with your life stories and those of your acquaintances and families, and with your values and perspectives. I have witnessed your willingness to be challenged, the tenacity involved in your successes and sometimes your deep disappointments — and I have listened as you explained how these are all related to your vision and passion for psychology. Your sharing has humbled and enriched me enormously. For 16 years, the OEMA staff and I have tried to listen; to give voice and visibility to you and your stories, to lend credence to your concerns and visions. We have tried to devise means for effecting greater responsiveness and understanding by APA and its members. We have tried to devise strategies for increased empowerment of psychologists of color not only within APA, but also within various institutional and professional settings, and legislative and community venues. With your constant inspiration, collaboration and support, we have sought to have some impact on psychology’s knowledge-base, its education and training procedures and content, its valuing of diversity, and its salience of multiculturalism in research and professional practice procedures. Sometimes we made progress; sometimes we didn’t. But the process of trying, with your assistance and support, was always exciting and invigorating. It more than made up for the meetings and the resistance.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ However, now OEMA has 33% of the staff it had in 2008, and less than 70% of the budget (not including $75,000 in eliminated CEMRRAT grant funds). Thus, hard-won funding, programs and FTEs have been eliminated or substantially reduced due in part to revenue shortfalls, and things have become a bit less exciting. I think this is the perfect time for new OEMA leadership that can rebuild budgets, programs and staff in support of a relatively large, ambitious cohort of ethnic minority and multiculturally-trained early-and mid-career psychologists, who have lots of ideas, concerns and visions — and quite a bit of juice! It has been a wonderful tenure for me — and for that, I thank you, the constituents of OEMA. I said it before, and I will say it again: You have been the wind beneath my wings!! Below you will find the official notice of my retirement. As always, I wish you health and peace and power.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Bertha G. Holliday, PhD , has decided to retire after 16 years of service to the Am erican Psychological Association (APA) and its Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA). Following her retirem ent, she has agreed to serve as an independent consultant to APA. In this role she will build upon her expertise and provide guidance to APA regarding Association-wide activities and procedures related to the im plem entation and assessm ent of APA's Diversity Plan, and grantsm anship efforts — especially those pertaining to diversity/inclusion and m ental health needs and services to diverse populations. Bertha notes, "I am absolutely delighted by the prospect of continuing m y service to APA and prom oting its national leadership of the technology of diversity, while increasing m y voluntary com m unity service efforts, and spending m ore tim e at m y Chesapeake Bay house writing, reading, and of course, relaxing!" Norm an B. Anderson, PhD, APA Chief Executive Officer, stated that "W e are grateful for the 16 years of dedicated service Dr. Holliday has provided the Association, which has helped us significantly advance ethnic m inority issues in psychology. I look forward to working with her in this new role and wish her m uch happiness in her retirem ent." As OEMA Director, Bertha has m any notable achievem ents including staffing the Com m ission on Ethnic Minority Recruitm ent, Retention and Training (CEMRRAT) and adm inistering the award of m ore than 170 CEMRRAT Grants totaling m ore than $620,000; securing and serving as Project Director for nearly $5 m illion in grants and contracts — including the AP A/NIGMS (National Institute of General Medical Sciences) Project which over a 13 year period, provided intensive biom edical research m entoring and academ ic support to m ore 650 ethnic m inority undergraduate students at 15 institutions; significantly increasing the content, stature and .. readership of OEMA's Communiqué Newsjournal; establishing the ProDIGs health disparities research grants for early career psychologists at m inority-serving institutions; and staffing a six m em ber delegation to Durban, South Africa for the UN W orld Conference Against Racism that successfully advocated for inclusion of language related to m ental health aspects of racism in the conference's final report, which was adopted by the UN General Assem bly. She also initiated num erous program s and services to m em bers such as the 1997 Mini-convention on Psychology and Racism , which involved m ore than 120 events; and staffed APA's Com m ittee on Ethnic Minority Affairs and several diversity/inclusion-related Task Forces. Bertha observes: "My years at APA have been extrem ely professionally and personally satisfying. I learned m uch from m y exceptionally talented colleagues in APA's Public Interest Directorate and throughout APA. And I am indebted to the support provided m e by OEMA's constituents who were a constant source of inspiration. My deepest regret in retiring is leaving m y staff. I have worked daily with program Associate Sherry W ynn for m ore than 21 years and with Assistant Director Albert Figueroa-Garcia, MBA, for m ore than 16 years. Throughout those years, I have been astounded by their com m itm ent to excellence and service to m em bers of others, and their willingness to work far beyond their job descriptions. I wish to publicly and form ally express to Sherry and Alberto m y deepest appreciation and adm iration for their professional com petence, their visions and passion for the work of OEMA, and their personal support of m e.
SPECIAL SECTION TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I OVERVIEWS Is There Such a Thing as Indigenous Mental Health? Implications for Research, Education, Practice and Policy-making in Psychology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III Promoting the Wellbeing of Indigenous People in Mental Health and Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND SPIRITUAL ISSUES The Chamorro People of Guam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII Unbodies of Water: The Health Effects of Extinction and Genocide — Arawak Perspectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVII The Indigenous Peoples of Alaska: Appreciating the Role of Elders in Shifting Toward a Strength-Based and Culturally-Appropriate Approach to Mental Health. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIII Indigenous Healing en La Comunidad Latina. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXVIII Contextual Understanding of Two-Spirit Peoplehood.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXXII GUIDANCE FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE Pivotal Protocols: The Spirit Dimension in Indigenous and Western Psychologies. . . . . . . . . . XXXV Cultural Health Beliefs and Conceptualization of Illnesses Among Haitians. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XLI Respecting Traditional Healing: A Journey of Understanding Where Spirituality and Cultural Competence Intersects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XLVI EXEMPLARY TARGETED INTERVENTIONS Legislative Efforts to Eliminate Native-Themed Mascots, Nicknames, and Logos: Slow but Steady Progress Post-APA Resolution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XLVIII Wuyámush (Be Happy, Be Well – Pequot): Adapting a Mental Health and Healing Experience to a Southeast New England Native American Community. . . . . . . . . . . LV Honoring Children, Making Relatives: Indigenous Traditional Parenting Practices Compatible With Evidence-based Treatment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LX Teaching American Indian Children about Mental Illness: Developing a Culturally Sensitive Curriculum about the Science of Mental Illness.. . . . . . . . . . LXIV The Society of Indian Psychologists. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LXVIII
Introduction We Bear the Fruits of Our Histories Bertha G. Holliday We bear the fruits of our histories. Indeed, our post-modern world is shaped and defined by the contacts that Europeans initiated with other cultures throughout the world during the 15 th through 19 th centuries. Those contacts were not merely adventuresome and exploratory: They were deliberate conquests of land, resources, people, and cultures with the intent of transforming and using all of these for the benefit of the conqueror and his/her and enrichment and empowerment. Such intents, as conquerors are well aware, are always met with resistance — hence the need for oppression of “conquered” people and cultures. We now recognize that the scars and wounds of oppression on descendants of both the conquerors and the indigenous people and cultures “conquered”, as well as their multi- racial/ethnic/cultural descendants , are profound and multi-generational, resulting in continuous enactments of micro and macro symbolic and psychological vignettes of the original conquest/resistance. We bear the fruits of our histories. We further have come to recognize that despite oppression and its historical trauma, globalism, instant world communication, Madison Avenue — people and their cultures are durable, resilient, and persistent yet adaptable. And it is these characteristics — in the face of the legacies of conquests, trauma, and social-historical transformations, — that are at the nexus of health and well-being. Cultural beliefs and practices, family, kingroup, and ancestors are the “source” to which many return for centeredness, authenticity, and strength. And nowhere is this more vividly clear than in the responses of the world’s indigenous peoples to their current challenges related to psychological healing and well-being. This special section seeks to increase psychologists’ understanding of such issues. Three months ago, OEMA disseminated a call for brief articles: W e seek papers from psychologists that address 2 or more of the following issues: (a) the history and culture of an indigenous culture; (b) the contemporary challenges faced by that culture and related effects on mental illness and well-being; (c) traditional indigenous perspectives on mental illness, mental health and/or other "special" populations (e.g., lesbian/gay/bisexual, elders, persons with disabilities, etc.); (d) contemporary culture-specific practices (i.e., those that are responsive to traditional beliefs and practices) for the treatment and/or promotion of well-being of persons with mental illness or other "special" populations; and, (e) related implications for psychological research, training and practice.
The response was unexpected in its enthusiasm, enabling OEMA to produce this Special Section of 15 articles. Collectively, these articles are broad in scope, describing a panorama of indigenous cultures throughout the Americas and the Caribbean and their approaches to healing and well-being. Among the indigenous groups addressed are Alaska Natives, American Indians, Arawaks, Chamorros of Guam, First Nations people of Canada, Haitians, Latinos of Cuba, and others. Equally as varied are the specific topical foci of the articles. But what is most striking is the communality of themes and concerns across the various articles and cultural groups, and the differences between these communalities and major thematic concerns of Western (U.S.) psychology. The Special Section is divided into four subsections focusing on: (a) overviews of indigenous mental health issues and related implications for psychology; (b) critical indigenous cultural, historical, and spiritual issues; (c) guidance for clinical practice with indigenous peoples; and, (d) exemplary targeted interventions. OEMA hopes this Special Section will promote increased multiculturalism in psychological education and training, research, practice, and advocacy. Doing so is an imperative, as we bear the fruits of our histories.
Is There Such a Thing as Indigenous Mental Health? Implications for Research, Education, Practice and Policy-making in Psychology Carlota Ocampo, PhD Washington Trinity University There is little question that mental and physical health are top priorities for Indigenous and First Nations' peoples' well-being globally. Ask First peoples themselves: On a National Aboriginal Health Association survey undertaken in Canada (Silversides, 2010), Inuit, Metis and other First Nations peoples identified mental health and substance abuse among their top five health issues (with cancer, diabetes and diet and nutrition). Suicide is prevalent in First peoples' communities. Estimates vary, but the U.S. Indian Health Service consistently reports that suicide rates are much Carlota Ocampo, PhD higher (i.e., up to 70% higher) among American Indians and Alaska Natives than the general population, particularly for young men and boys (see IHS suicide prevention website). Grief and trauma responses are also prevalent among First peoples (Bryant-Davis & Ocampo, 2006). The observation that mental health issues are rampant in Indigenous communities is nothing new. And yet: "Research into Indigenous health …our mental health frameworks, when has been largely focused on applied among First peoples, may result non-Indigenous, rather than Indigenous, in further trauma and perpetuate, rather notions of health" (King, Smith & Gracey, than address, their problems. 2009), while at the same time, "counseling of Indigenous patients from mainstream perspectives may perpetuate oppression" (Duran & Duran, 1995). In other words, our mental health frameworks, when applied among First peoples, may result in further trauma and perpetuate, rather than address, their problems. What to do? I call on psychologists to take a leading role in promoting evidence-based, culturally relevant mental health practices that emerge from a constructionist framework rooted in Indigenous psychologies. Black psychologists have identified constructionism as a culturally relevant paradigm that goes beyond redefinition of Eurocentic models for use among people of color (or oppressed peoples) but that constructs unique psychological models and practices from the homogenous individual cultural and historical experiences of oppressed peoples (Jones, 1998). To this end, I would like to outline several key elements researchers, educators, practitioners and policy-makers must consider in enhancing the psychological well-being of -III-
First Nations peoples. Keep in mind that globally, there is wide diversity among First Nations' peoples and their cultures. Each culture and individual within a culture must be approached as unique. At the same time, themes emerge from shared experiences of genocide, bondage, colonization and alienation that have affected and continue to affect First Nations peoples worldwide. !
Identity/Self: Many First Nations peoples embrace a shared group identity whose substance is formed not just by one's relationship to the community but also to the land and one's ancestors, which may include plants, animals and other elements of nature. For example, traditional Native Hawai'ians consider the taro, a root staple that nurtures them, a physical ancestor now under their guardianship. Thus, reduction or dispossession of land/loss of stewardship of one's traditional plants and animals is experienced as an alienation or unmooring from the self, and in some communities is directly correlated with suicide (i.e., among the Guarani of Argentina - see Robinson, 2008). Psychologists must identify and investigate evidence-based practices that reverse this erosion of the self among First Nations' peoples. (Please note that this is a tricky political proposition as Indigenous land dispossession is ongoing in many parts of the world, and restoration of the self theoretically would accompany Indigenous sovereignty.)
Historical Trauma: Many First Psychology must designate historical, peoples suffer not only from the inter-generational and racist proximal traumas of emotional, incident-based trauma symptoms as legitimate trauma sequelae and do a physical and sexual abuse and/or family better job of leadership in the areas of violence but also from intergenerational research and policy-making around trauma inherited via shared experiences acknowledging and healing historical of genocide, colonization, and traum a, of Indigeno u s a nd other alienation. Psychology must designate oppressed peoples. historical, inter-generational and racist incident-based trauma symptoms as legitimate trauma sequelae and do a better job of leadership in the areas of research and policy-making around acknowledging and healing historical trauma, of Indigenous and other oppressed peoples.
Cultural-specific Mental Health and Well-being Practices: First Peoples have traditional psychological systems and healing practices, often based in spirituality, ceremony and ritual (e.g., "limpias" or spiritual cleansings among Mayans in Guatemala), but also relevant are language, harmony with the community and the environment, and cultural practices. While much anecdotal evidence exists that such models are beneficial for First peoples, we need more reliable data regarding evidence-based practices that really work, perhaps in combination with psychological and psychiatric approaches (such as CBT and medication). We especially need evidence -IV-
regarding effective approaches for acculturated (i.e., dispossessed and alienated) urban Indians and Indigenous peoples. !
Cultural Mistrust: Psychologists must find a way to measure and address the cultural mistrust that many First peoples feel toward government (i.e., colonized) medical services. For example, at a recent conference Inuit leaders reported they would not allow travel "south" (off the reservation) for medical care, due to past experiences where children disappeared and were never heard from again (as in the 1950's tuberculosis epidemic in Canada) (Silversides, 2010). Cultural mistrust is a particularly tricky proposition when psychology is a product of the culture of the colonizers and even Indian or Native psychologists must receive training within the colonial education system.
Empowerment: Recruit more Indians, Alaska and Hawai'i Natives, and global Indigenous peoples into the field of psychology as researchers, educators, practitioners and policy-makers. Empower them with the necessary tools to elucidate and develop evidence- based culturally relevant mental health constructs and paradigms that are community specific. This requires financial investment, i.e., more money.
Political Action: Psychology must stand up for the dispossessed but also support political movements that preserve the existing way of life of traditional Indigenous communities. The age of colonization is not yet over, and we must use our education and our power to resist it. This would be a primary prevention approach to Indigenous mental health issues â€” address them before they are created.
Indigenous people are just as much a part of the complex modern world as any of us, and Indigenous psychologies are equally complex and important. They may not look like our psychologies; they may be different, they may be unique, but they must be nurtured, respected and allowed to emerge. A key concept psychology must focus on in Indigenous mental health: empowerment.
Is there such a thing as Indigenous mental health? I hold that we do not yet fully know what such a construct will look like, other than restoration of the Indigenous to an uncolonized state. Yet even this conceptualization has its limitations - it must not be viewed through the lens of romantic naivete which many in our mainstream culture use to gaze in simplistic nostalgia on the "primitive". Indigenous people are just as much a part of the complex modern world as any of us, and Indigenous psychologies are equally complex and important. They may not look like our psychologies; they may be different, they may be unique, but they must be nurtured, respected and allowed to emerge. A key concept psychology must focus on in Indigenous mental health: empowerment. As Nathan Obed, the director of social -V-
and cultural development for Nunavut Tunngavik, Inc, an Inuit group, told a recent body of conference-goers: "The definition of normal must be changed" (Silversides, 2010). References Bryant-Davis, T., and Ocampo, C. (2006). A therapeutic approach to the treatment of racist-incident-based trauma. Journal of Emotional Abuse, 6, 1 (22 pgs). Duran, E. & Duran, B. (1995). Native American post-colonial psychology. Albany: State University of New York Press. Jones, R. (1998). African American mental health. Hampton, VA: Cobb & Henry. King, M., Smith, A. and Gracey, M. (2009). Indigenous health part 2: Underlying causes of the health gap. The Lancet, 374, 76 (10 pgs). Robinson, K. (2008). Guarani suicide. The Argentimes.com: http://www.theargentimes.com/feature/guarani-suicide-/ Turner, S., and Pope, M. (2009). North America's Native Peoples: A social justice and trauma counseling approach. Journal of Multicultural Development, 37, 194 (12 pgs). Silversides, A. (2010). Inuit health system must move past suicide prevention to "unlock a better reality", conference told. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182, p. E46. Smith, B., Sabin, M., Berlin, E., and Nacherud, L. (2009). Ethnomedical syndromes and treatment-seeking behavior among Mayan refugees in Chiapas, Mexico. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 33, 366 (16 pgs). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Indian Health Service. (n.d.). IHS American Indian and Alaska Native suicide prevention website. URL: http://www.ihs.gov/nonmedicalprograms/nspn/ Carlota Ocampo, PhD is associate dean of the College of Arts & Sciences at Trinity University in W ashington, DC where she also holds the position of tenured associate professor of Psychology and Human Relations. She received her PhD in Neuropsychology from Howard University in 1997. Her teaching and research interests encompass cultural diversity, psychology of oppression, and health psychology.
Promoting the Wellbeing of Indigenous People in Mental Health and Education Innocent F. Okozi, MA, EdS Chair, APAGS – CEMA, Seton Hall University Andrea Zainab Nael, MEd APAGS-CEMA – Oklahoma State University Maria Cristina Cruza-Guet, MEd APAGS Member at Large – Lehigh University Historically, American Indians have been victimized and discriminated against by generations of immigrants as well as Federal and State governments (Yellow Bird, 2006). Unjust and demeaning acts committed against this ethnic group include the forceful seizure of their lands and resources, attempts to eliminate their cultural heritage, broken promises and breach of contracts, wars, and betrayals of trust (Yellow Bird, 2006). Even though overt discrimination against this cultural and ethnic group is illegal, it is still possible to identify vestiges of Innocent F. Okozi, MA, EdS oppression toward American Indians in current educational and mental health practices. Thus, the purpose of this article is to highlight some contemporary challenges facing indigenous peoples including American Indians and Alaskan Natives. In addition, we will outline some strategies to begin addressing these problems. Socioeconomic and Health Disparities The United Nations Development Program noted that the countries regarded as the developed world are consistently at the top of the Human Development Index (HDI), which is a measure of the economic, educational, and health status of a population (Webber, 2007). However, the indigenous peoples residing in these developed nations exhibit poorer health and live in conditions that are substandard than those of their non-indigenous counterparts (Webber, 2007). In the United States, the
According to SAMHSA's statistics, the American Indians and Alaska Natives face multiple challenges such as: (a) suicide rates that are more than twice the national average, (b) pervasive substance abuse problems (e.g., more than 70% of the mentally ill indigenous population suffer from an addiction), (c) inadequate financial resources to respond to the needs of this population, and (d) lack of family and consumer support services …
American Indians and Alaska Natives are among the populations identified as being disproportionately affected by health disparities (Office of Minority Health and Health Disparities: OMHD, 2009). According to SAMHSA's statistics, the American Indians and Alaska Natives face multiple challenges such as: (a) suicide rates that are more than twice the national average, (b) pervasive substance abuse problems (e.g., more than 70% of the mentally ill indigenous population suffer from an addiction), (c) inadequate financial resources to respond to the needs of this population, and (d) lack of family and consumer support services in their communities (Bearsheild, Dolchok, & Griffin, 1993). Educational Obstacles
Andrea Zainab Nael, MEd
Sadly, it is not only American Indian and Alaska Native adults who are affected by social challenges, but also their children and families (Bearsheild, Dolchok, & Griffin, 1993). In a recent survey, school teachers from South Dakota and Montana were asked to report the obstacles faced by American Indian students. Results of this survey indicated that American Indian students experience pressure to assimilate the American dominant culture, while remaining loyal to their own traditions (Werdel, 2010). According to this survey, American Indian students also experience oppression and are the subject of cultural misunderstandings. Further, their educational development is hampered by the negative attitudes of parents and/or grandparents towards the formal education system (Werdel, 2010).
The attitudes of parents and grandparents In fact, only 7 % of American Indian are often based on negative, but real s tu d e n ts a tte n d in g p o s tse c o n d a ry personal experiences and poor educational institutions graduate annually (Office of outcomes. In fact, only 7 % of American Educational Research and Improvement, Indian students attending postsecondary 2003). institutions graduate annually (Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 2003). This statistic illustrates the often insurmountable difficulties that this population encounters in educational institutions. Other reasons for the low educational outcomes are related to socioeconomic disadvantages, disparities in access to educational resources and differences in learning styles. Research studies show that American Indians and Alaska Natives prefer concrete experiences and reflective observation as their primary means of learning (Ornstein, and Hunkins, 2004). Unfortunately, most educational institutions still maintain Eurocentric methods of teaching that do not benefit ethnic minorities.
Challenges Related to Mental Health Systems American Indians have not received enough attention in the mental health area. Their worldviews regarding mental illness and healing have been frequently ignored in the psychological and psychiatric literature. It was only in the early 1990's, for instance, that the American Psychiatric Association began placing more emphasis on investigating this ethnic group's understanding of mental illness, and systematically incorporating relevant information in its publications (Mezzich, Kleinman, Fabrega, & Parron, 1996). In 1994, an appendix on culturally-bound syndromes was included in the fourth revision of the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual in an attempt to address the gap between Indigenous and Western practices, (Mezzich et al., 1996). In 2002, the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a set of Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists (APA, 2003) to ensure that American Indian and Alaska Natives (and other minority groups) receive appropriate psychological services. Although current psychological A m erican Indian s a n d A la s k a N atives… practices strive to advocate and understand "wellness" holistically, that is, in p r o m o te th e w e ll b e in g o f terms of a combination of physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual elements. Illness is seen indigenous people, the methods a s a n im b a la n c e betw e e n th e s e b a s ic utilized by psychologists have elements…Healing practices …attempt to restore historically failed to take into the natural balance…through spiritual ceremonies account the beliefs about health and and herbal remedies…Treatment for mental illness healing held by this population. also revolves around storytelling, teaching and American Indians and Alaska sharing circles, sweat lodges, and vision quests. Natives, as many other indigenous peoples throughout the world, understand "wellness" holistically, that is, in terms of a combination of physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual elements (Patel, 1995; Rice, 2003). Illness is seen as an imbalance among these basic elements that is brought about by ancestral spirits, bad airs, and witchcraft. Healing practices, on the other hand, attempt to restore the natural balance among soul, mind, and body through spiritual ceremonies and herbal remedies prescribed by community elders and cultural healers (Poonwassi & Charter, 2005). Treatment for mental illness also revolves around storytelling, teaching and sharing circles, sweat lodges, and vision quests (Poonwassi and Charter, 2005). In spite of marked differences between indigenous healing practices and traditional psychology, as illustrated in these examples, the Western study of mental illness has rarely considered cultural or contextual factors in its conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment (Mezzich, Berganza, & Ruiperez, 2001).
What Psychologists Can Do? American Indians and Alaska Natives are resourceful and resilient. Despite the insidious and persistent predicaments that they have experienced, they continue to strive to maintain their cultural identities and heritage as well as overcome the socio-economic challenges impacting their communities. In the 21st century, much effort is required to address the social issues affecting indigenous peoples. The responsibility for the improvement of the psychological and physical wellbeing of these people should be, however, shared by everyone. Maria Cristina Cruza-Guet, MEd
Psychologists working in educational institutions can promote a welcoming environment for indigenous peoples and develop programs of study that are relevant to the growth of their communities. Studies have shown that American Indians and Alaska Natives benefit from educational environments that are consistent with their cultural norms and are respectful of their ethnic identity (Korkow, 2009). Their level of connectedness with their families and communities has been identified as a persistent factor for staying in college until graduation (Guillory, 2003). Further, research assessing what motivates American Indians to attend college suggests that they hold a desire to "give back" to their communities upon the completion of their degrees (Guillory, 2010). Specifically, they want to help their families to escape poverty and unemployment (Brown and Lavish, 2006). Psychologists working in governmental and philanthropic institutions can continue creating and implementing programs that facilitate the development of researchers and clinicians with expertise in indigenous people. SAMHSA and other governmental (Federal, State and Tribal) agencies already support the educational initiatives of students from indigenous backgrounds. An example of this type of programming is that of Werdel (2010), who set out to implement a strategic plan that facilitates the recruitment and retention of American Indian students in the South Dakota region. Funded by the US Department of Education, this strategic plan attempts to (a) increase academic achievement, (b) improve the recruitment and retention of highly qualified teachers, (c) integrate the local culture (Lakota-Dakota-Nakota) into the State Standards of education, and (d) develop a dynamic informational website regarding American Indian education in South Dakota. Psychologists working in clinical settings can improve their efficacy in working with indigenous peoples by familiarizing themselves with the belief systems and treatments of mental illness utilized by these varied populations. It is our hope the APA continues to foster partnership programs that facilitate access to mental healthcare and the education of students from indigenous backgrounds. We encourage APAGS members to strive to complete their -X-
externships and/or internships in regions identified with indigenous populations, as well as to participate in the mentoring of American Indian and Alaska Native students. We encourage both psychologists and APAGS members to firmly commit to promoting the well being of these populations. References American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines for multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist, 58, 377-402. Bearsheild, W., Dolchok, M., & Griffin, R. (2010). The journey of Native American people with serious mental illness executive summary. Retrieved 06/06/10 from http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/CS00-0003/resolution1.asp Brown, C., Lavish, & L. A. (2006). Career assessment with Native Americans: Role salience and career decision-making self-efficacy. Journal of Career Assessment, 14(1). Campion, J. & Bhugra, D. (1998). Religious and indigenous treatment of mental illness in South India- a descriptive study, Mental Health, Religion & Culture 1(1), 21-29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2009). Office of Minority Health and Health Disparities (OMHD): An overview. PowerPoint presentation on OMHD. Retrieved November 16, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/omhd/About/about.htm#Reorganization Guillory, J. P. (2010). Diverse pathways of "giving back" to tribal community: Perceptions of Native American college graduates. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 33-66. Guillory, R. M. (2003). Factors related to Native American students' persistence in higher education: A comparative analysis of student and state and university officials' perceptions. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 24-57. Indian Nations at Risk Task Force, US Department of Education. (1991, October). Indian Nations at risk: An educational strategy for action. 70 pp. Retrieved 06/06/10 from http://www.tedna.org/pubs/nationsatrisk.pdf Korkow, J. (2009). Native American success in college. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences, 38-56. Mezzich, J.E., Berganza, C.E. & Ruiperez, M.A. (2001). Culture in the DSM-IV, ICD-10, and evolving diagnostic systems. Cultural psychiatry: International perspectives. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 24, 407-419. Mezzich, J.E., Kleinman, A., Fabrega, H., & Parron, D.L. (Eds.). (1996). Culture and psychiatric diagnosis: A DSM-IV perspective. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI). (2003). The Bridge Project: A Project of the Stanford Institute for Higher Education Research. Retrieved June 6, 2010, from http://www.stanford.edu/group/bridgeproject/bridge_brochure.pdf Ornstein, A., & Hunkins, R. (2004). Curriculum, 4th ed. Boston: Pearson Education. Patel V. (1995). Spiritual distress: An indigenous model of nonpsychotic mental illness in primary care in Harare, Zimbabwe. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 92, 103-107.
Poonwassi, A. & Charter, A. (2005). Aboriginal worldviews on healing: Inclusion, blending and mending. In: Integrating Traditional Healing Practices into Counseling and Psychotherapy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Rice, B. (2003). Articulating Aboriginal paradigms: Implications for aboriginal social work practice. Native Social Work Journal, 5, 87-97. Webber, B. (2007, Dec). Improving quality of life for indigenous peoples. Medical News Today. Retrieved 06/06/10 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/92358.php Werdel, L. (2010). Letter from the director. Retrieved 06/06/10 from http://doe.sd.gov/secretary/indianed/index.asp Yellow Bird, M. (2006, June 30). Yellow Bird: Open letter to all indigenous peoples. Retrieved 06/06/10 from http://www.coloradoaim.org/blog/2006/06/yellow-birdopen-letter-to-all.html. Innocent F. Okozi, MA, EdS is graduating in August 2010 from the Counseling Psychology program at Seton Hall University, NJ. He is the Chair of APAGS Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) from 2008-2010. Andrea Zainab Nael, MEd is a third-year doctoral student at Oklahoma State University. As a Regional Diversity Coordinator for APAGS CEMA, she was involved in the outreach program for the ethnic minority graduate students in her region. She is a Fellow of APA's Minority Fellowship Program. Maria Cristina Cruza-Guet, MEd is currently a post-doctoral fellow at Yale University Department of Psychiatry. She was a Regional Diversity Coordinator for APAGS CEMA from 2007 to 2009. She is currently the APAGS Member at Large - Communication Focus.
CULTURAL, HISTORICAL, AND SPIRITUAL ISSUES
The Chamorro People of Guam Patricia L. G. Taimanglo, PhD Tamuning, Guam Chamorros are the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands of which Guam is the largest and southernmost on an island chain. Archeological evidence identified civilization dating back 5,000 years. Historical Background In recorded history, the Chamorro people have, as a community experienced traumatic periods that remain unresolved (Pier, 1998). These include the near total genocide and colonization by the Spanish (1521-1898). It had been a possession of the United States from 1898 to 1941 until Guam was attacked and occupied by Japanese forces from 1941–1944. The island was once again assaulted by the United States to recover Guam from the Japanese, but what followed was more destructive than any of actions made on the island previously, including death and destruction wrought by war. It was reoccupied in 1944 and in 1950 became an unincorporated territory of the United States. Consequently, Guam is one of the few remaining colonies of the world and as a colony has no power. The destructive effects of colonization, … the current po litical status include possession, and Guam's current political numerous losses — especially the loss of the status include numerous losses — cultural practices such as the arts, crafts, and especially the loss of the cultural those practices passed on by men…The loss of the language was destructive to their practices such as the arts, crafts, and identity…Loss of the Chamorro people's those practices passed on by men, as the voices continue to be evidenced as their focus of genocide was directed toward concerns are consistently ignored and their control and elimination. The silenced throughout history. Worst yet, they gradual elimination of the dances, are not invited or considered in the current chants, and songs of the past was also arena in which the United States and Japan are at the table deciding the destiny of the painfully noted. The loss of the island… language was destructive to their identity and how Chamorros viewed themselves within the dominant culture, as English was strictly imposed as the language of instruction and business. Loss of the Chamorro people's voices continue to be evidenced as their concerns are consistently ignored and silenced throughout history. Worst yet, they are not invited or considered in the current arena in which the United States and Japan are at the table deciding the destiny of the island without regard to the effect on the people of Guam and specifically on the Chamorros. This loss of power is one of the most destructive effects of colonization. -XIII-
Current Predicament Negotiations have been waged between the United States and Japan in the last few years and most significantly in this last year. The focus had been the relocation of 8,000 Marines and their dependents from Okinawa to Guam. These negotiations are without input from the indigenous people of Guam. In order to accomplish this massive build-up, the U.S. military will require the importation of people to make the relocation possible. In other words, the build-up includes a projected population increase by some 80,000 people in 2014. This constitutes a 45% increase from Guam's current population of 180,000 people. Patricia L. G. Taim anglo, PhD
The federal Environmental Protection Agency has stated their concerns related to the significant and adverse environmental and social impact. The social impact includes overcrowding and over use of limited resources including the educational system, as well as social/human service agencies. Competition for housing, jobs, medical care, psychological and psychiatric care will further exaggerate the gap between that haves and the have nots. In addition, the plans for the build-up include taking of more land. Most indigenous people have a deeply The projected land taking includes taking rooted and emotional relationship to the land in an area called Pagat. This location land and sea. Both provide sustenance; encompasses the richest and largest hold the stories and way of life of the archeological evidence of the Chamorro people, their way of life, as well as a fresh people that are passed on from one water source. Incredibly, this land is generation to the next. The projected land earmarked for use as a firing range. taking includes taking land in an area called Pagat. This location encompasses the richest and largest archeological evidence of the Chamorro people, their way of life, as well as a fresh water source. Incredibly, this land is earmarked for use as a firing range. The disregard for the meaning of such sacred sites is abhorrent to the people of Guam and has been the focus of the collective and historical hurts and energies. Open forums to educate the islanders of the impending change evidenced calmly articulated responses to highly and emotionally charged accounts of why the islanders are in favor of or in opposition to the military build-up. Interestingly, these forums were scheduled after decisions have been made about the build-up.
Social and Cultural Responses: Pathways to Healing Some Chamorro people sleep soundly on the pillows of denial, lack of awareness, and/or struggling to meet their family's basic needs. Others work intensely to address the history of losses and to the meet the challenges of the present and future. To address the loss of language, Chamorro language instruction is a part of the educational curriculum in the public schools. Chamorro language competitions are held annually. To address the loss of cultural practices, a cultural renaissance is evidenced in the use and making of shell jewelry by artists whose art is based on archeological evidence. Several cultural groups that nurture the development of a positive ethnic and cultural identity have blossomed throughout the island. These groups encourage the youth and adults to learn about the Chamorro history, culture, songs, and dances. Such groups also provide a natural venue to practice and speak Chamorro. Cultural activists have been a part of island life over the years, however, the need to address concerns were not wholly embraced by all members of the Chamorro community. Ironically, the anticipated military build-up has elicited growing collective voices and presence of young and older Chamorro people who are willing to share their thoughts and feelings from a passionate as well as objective perspective. The act of speaking out, although historically viewed as negative behavior within the Chamorro culture, is now viewed as acceptable. The young Chamorro people are at a great advantage because they are bicultural and not bound by the strict rules of behavior that include silence and accepting directives from authority without question — both behaviors, ironically, that enabled Chamorros to survive over the centuries. These young people are educated in both cultures, and are armed with the skills of media and technology. In addition, the fourth year of a Chamorro conference that is inclusive of the Chamorros living in the Mariana Islands, is a forum for learning, sharing, and support to nurture a psychologically healthy and informed Chamorro people on Guam and throughout the Mariana Islands. The greatest benefit of the military build-up is that people are standing up and e x p re ssin g their thoughts among themselves but also at national and international forums to inform others of our current plight. It has promoted increased awareness, empowerment — both pathways to healing as a people.
The greatest benefit of the military build-up is that people are standing up and expressing their thoughts…to inform others of our current plight. It has p ro m o te d in creas e d a w a re n e s s , empowerment — both pathways to healing as a people.
References Pier, Patricia Taimanglo (1998). An Exploratory Study of Community Trauma and Culturally Responsive Counseling with Chamorro Clients. A dissertation submitted to the Graduate School of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Patricia L.G. Taimanglo, PhD is a Chamorro woman of the Island of Guam. She currently resides on her island home and has a vibrant private clinical practice.
Unbodies of Water: The Health Effects of Extinction and Genocide — Arawak Perspectives 1 M. C. L. Provost University of Toronto M. Quintana Taíno del Norté Overview Arawaks, one of the first Peoples of the Circum-Caribbean, southern North America, Central America and northern South America, are falsely said to be extinct (Provost, 2001), and this leads to the challenge of non-existence. How can we articulate Arawak perspectives on health if we must conduct our lives in a foreign grammar and language where we must speak of ourselves in the third person? What are the health effects of being extincted? Is extinction the same as genocide? 2 M. C. L. Provost The noun genocide refers to mass killings of people on account of their racial origin. The adjective extinct describes beings who were killed off, leaving no living representatives. The verb forms are to extinct and to be extincted. The Arawak language we use is based primarily on J. P. Bennett's (1984; 1994) language work. In that language, extinction might be translated as yakosa – to extinguish (the fire/life - literally, "resemble/allow eye" – a type of 'heart'). From this comes yakosahe – the state of being extinguished (homicide); and, yakosoa – to extinguish oneself (suicide). Yakosa is related to yahoda - to die, and aiyada - to weep. Wholeness of 'eye-heart' is key to Arawak well-being. The language provides a kind of sonographic ecology through myth and song, so that being "out-of-[eye-]heart" has an adverse health effect (Taylor, 1951), as in Guahayona's story below.
Portions of this paper were previously presented at side events of the 6th session (2007) of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Peoples I and the 9th Session (2010) of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues.
United Nations Convention on Genocide, Article 2 (1948), includes 5 areas that apply to cultural genocide. -XVII-
The challenges to achieving this ecology of healthfulness began with the invasions of foreign Empires (i.e., Spain, France, Portugal, Netherlands, & Britain) at First Contact (1492). Each invasion was like the collision of two tectonic plates of Earth's surface breaking or shifting then colliding (Provost & Quintana, 2007). Earth is alive and earthquakes and aftershocks are evidence of her search for balance and equilibrium. But the cumulative damage of earthquakes increases in logarithmic increments, not by simple multiplication. Arawak identity is closely linked with all bodies of water and a waterquake would be a hurricane (Húrakan — a Divine name and attribute). M. Quintana
The Problem of Non-Existence: Zombification Genocide psychology is well known from stories of the Holocaust, but Extinction creates extreme difficulty in telling one's story, particularly in one's occupied homelands. The closest analogy is zombification. A zombie is a 'living-dead' – an unbody – created in one of two ways: (a) the zombies of Vodun by use of Tetradotoxin from the Puffer Fish;3 or (b) the zombies by isolation from one's home-family culture and socialization to an alien one.
…Extinction creates extreme difficulty in telling one's story, particularly in one's occupied homelands. The closest analogy is zombification. A zombie is a 'living-dead' – an unbody – created in one of two ways: (a) the zombies of Vodun by use of Tetradotoxin from the Puffer Fish ; or (b) the zombies by isolation from one's home-family culture and socialization to an alien one.
Similar violations and traumas occur in both forms, rupturing the self and its relationships. Zombies must live in this world without being of this world, as they do not really exist and are 'not-human' beings and this causes a sense of disembodiment.
Vodum, though commonly known as a Afro-Caribbean religion, is actually a syncretism of Arawak with African and Christian iconography, known across the region also by other names. Tetradotoxin reduces bodily functions to an imperceptible state so that the individual, appearing dead, could be buried alive but may be exhumed and enslaved. Tetradotoxin use was publicized by W. Davis (1994) in Passage of Darkness, based on his work for an American pharmaceutical firm — but from indigenous perspectives, his report was a form of theft. -XVIII-
The Colonial Disease The Colonial Disease — our term for the The Colonial Disease — our term for the spectrum of ill-being due to the spectrum of ill-being due to the Euro-colonial social experiment — E uro-colonial social experim ent — negatively impacts all the social negativ e ly im pacts all the social determinants of health due to a several determinants of health due to a several factors: identity-loss; substance abuse; factors: identity-loss; substance abuse; changes in diet, lifestyle and environment; changes in diet, lifestyle and environment; pollution, and gender construction which pollution, and gender construction which may be imposed or self-initiated as may be imposed or self-initiated as life-strategies of last resort. The "cure" for life-strategies of last resort. The "cure" for the Colonial Disease always involves some form of ceremonial self-recovery the Colonial Disease always involves through self-study of the languages, some form of ceremonial self-recovery s to ry in g -a rts , a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l through self-study of the languages, knowledge. s to ryin g -a rts , a n d e n v iro n m e n ta l knowledge. We describe the Arawak sense of Participation as Imekohe andábo kake — "Willingly joining together for life, we awaken" -with an agitated awareness and an impetus to learn. Imekohe andábo kake korokodawa involves becoming whole in heart, as well as a moment when we ceremonially enact the myths across the generations. Then, positive emotions evoked by ceremonial tribal family arts rekindle the fires of the Ancestors and the Divine in our own shared embodied 4 myth-dreams. This Arawak deeper-identity is heard throughout the myths (Provost & Quintana, 2009). We have seen that Arawak grandparents and great-grandparents, who live generally healthy and well-adjusted lives in the Hinterlands of Guyana, do still possess a certain level of immunity and resistance to the Colonial Disease. Their environment and ways of life make this possible, even though they honor their adopted religions alongside their Indigenous beliefs. The grandparents see the Colonial Disease as a threat to the younger generations while the young may not yet perceive it as such. The young tend to begin losing their Arawak identity (i.e., attachment) as they come under the illusions of affluence (i.e., individuation) through education and schooling in European /non indigenous languages, entertainment or work.
The body tends to respond to learning the arts with health-producing chemical reactions rather than toxic ones, with a resulting sense of loving oneself, others, and of being loved. Arts therapies and arts interventions have therefore become a growing trend amongst non-natives. -XIX-
The Example of Guahayona's Story The Family Principle of Giving is expressed in different ways but as Imekohe andábo kake korokodawa, it is violated in Guahayona's story as reported by Ramón Pané: Guahayona (literally "we cried [for] them"), the brother of an Arawak chief, sent one of the men to gather digo (an herb used for healing skin conditions and curative baths by Surinam Arawaks) … Later Guahayona said to the women in Cauta (a place where Cauta trees grow, which have inedible fruit and resemble another tree with edible fruit), "Leave your husbands … leave your little ones (here by the stream) … I will come back for them, and we will take with us only the güeyo" (coco plant — once a staple food — but now cocaine is made from it). Guahayona took the women to Matinino (literally "Without Fathers") island and abandoned them there. He did not go back for the children. The little children abandoned by their mothers were hungry and began crying out for food. And so they became frogs, who cry until this day"Toa, toa, toa" (a term for self, the eye-heart, food for a journey, the song of frogs and thunder). A while later, Guahayona becomes ill and Guabonito (Deep Waters Woman), a celibate, teaches him how to heal by bathing in the sea. He goes to live with his father Hiauno (the name for an aggressive predator parrot) and takes a new name: Albeborael Guahayona (translated by some — as "henceforward Guahayona" — but the authors transliterate the name as "Steals + We Cry [for] Them") and then he brings all knowledge to future generations. What is wrong with this picture? Knowing our story-patterns and the nature of myth, we can distinguish various editorial impositions by Ramón Pané, a Catalan friar, and subsequent writers. Let us review: Traditionally, the woman's and man's voice would be present for balance and to avoid invalidity, but the woman's perspective is missing throughout Pané's account. Guahayona also breaks all the traditional principles. He deposed his own brother, misused his knowledge of Arawak Healing Medicines by over-harvesting güeyo and digo, and taking much of the 'medicine' of guanin (a precious metal) from the island of the same name. He misused his charisma to manipulate the women into deceiving themselves, by drawing upon their love for child and family, so that they abandoned their husbands and children. But he departed from the teachings of family and so his immune system attacked him and ego-greed manifested itself in his illness. The children, abandoned, regress to a pre-verbal animal state. The abandoned women have no way to recover their families or to begin new ones. The abandoned husbands lose their sense of being spouses and fathers. Guahayona, a self-appointed messiah-type, overcomes his infirmities and returns to live in his father's home. Enter the idea of celibacy in a place of solitude and a means for healing the disrupted self. But this is not a teaching for Arawak health; it is a Catholic religious intervention — and these types of transformations create individual and cultural invalidity.
Pané and later writers, in demonizing Arawak sexuality and family life, wrongly assume Guahayona's disease is syphilis; this is evident from a closer reading. Guabonito's prescription that the ill Guahayona bathe in the sea subsumes Arawak ritual bathing in Catholic baptism, yet he becomes mysteriously healed of his sores. After his spiritual rebirth, Guabonito presents him with gifts of guanin and ciba (precious stones) and he is cast as a hero to his People. But the missing children — embodiments of the fire of eye-heart — are never found. The women, exiled in a place without spouses or children become a type of the celibate woman Guabonito. This is the ideal of La Virgen (Spanish – the Virgin) for whom self-annihilation involves giving up her child and husband. But in pursuing their personal good as being for the good of all, the women and Guahayona have forsaken the reality that: "Willingly joining together for life, we awaken". The result is ill-health and ill-being for all except Guahayona who eventually becomes a self-made man. Breaking the principle of Breaking the principle of family health perpetuates family health perpetuates Extinction. Arawak self-identity embodies deep and Extinction. Arawak multi-faceted relations with ancestors, family members, the environment and cosmos, with whom we are one being. self-identity embodies deep Andábo (joining) creates individual self-identities as well as and multi-faceted relations family self-identities, simultaneously. But separating the with ancestors, family family (individuating) creates self-annihilation. members, the environment and cosmos, with whom we are one being. Andábo (joining) creates individual self-identities as well as family self-identities, simultaneously. But separating the family (individuating) creates self-annihilation. The Colonial Disease does result in non-existence, death and dismemberment, orphaning, alienation and wounding. And because many of us are now a people of mixed-blood-and-culture, we must balance fragmented and divided identities. Thus an Arawak faces many deaths in Eurocentric society as her/his 'joining' self becomes socialized to 'separating'. An Arawak also has several other 'hearts' as we discuss elsewhere. Losing any one of these 'hearts' is like experiencing brain-death, cardiac-death or spiritual-death. Arawaks can hope to achieve health where Earth is also 'heart', for wholeness requires that we willingly join together for life and awaken — wa'imekohe andá kake korokoda. References Audiovisual Library of International Law. United Nations. (1948) Paris. "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the C ri m e of Genocide". (Online: http://untreaty.un.org/cod/avl/ha/cppcg/cppcg.html) Bennett, J. P. (1984; 1994). Arawak English Dictionary. Georgetown, Guyana: Walter Roth Museum. Davis, W. (1988) Passage of Darkness: The Ethnobiology of the Hatian Zombie. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. -XXI-
DeFilipps, R,, Maina, S. and Crepin, J. (2004). Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Dept. of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution: Washington, DC. (Retrieved Online May 28, 2010, Patnic-AG Technical Services: http://patnic.org/documents/Guyplants.pdf) Desmangles, L. (1992). Faces of the Gods: Vodou and Roman Catholicism in Haiti. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. Pané, R. (1498; 1999). Arrom, J. (Trans.) Relación acerca de las Antigüedades de Los Indios. Duke University Press: London & Durham. Provost, M. C. L., Quintana, M. & Feng, I. (2010). Who Are You Really, Anyway? — Indigenous Self-Study, Self-Identity, Learning &Patterning in Our Mother Language. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Peoples, Ninth Session: New York City. Provost, M. C. L. & Quintana, M. (2009). Learning to Pattern: "Jumping Over" Stories in Taíno and Other Multi-racial Childhoods. In Findlay, R. (Ed.) "L'adulte en miniature : une vie privée d'enfance". Civilisations/Civilizations Review. no. 9. Toulouse: Presses de l'Université des Sciences Sociales de Toulouse. Paris, France. Chapter. Provost, M. C. L. & Quintana, M. (2007). "Jumping Over Stories": Bauxite and Cassava Cultural Management. Side Event. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Peoples. New York. Indigenous Teaching and Learning Circle. Online: April 162010 at http://purl.oise.utoronto.ca/itle Provost, Turchetti, L. (2000), When Earth Becomes Heart. Seventh Annual Stabilizing Indigenous Language Conference Proceedings, St. John's N. B Author-Presenter. Taylor, D. (1951). The Black Carib of British Honduras (now known as Belize). Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, No. 17. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation. M. Christine Lois Provost is a Taíno Arawak mother of Xamaykano ancestry (Jamaica) and storying-artist in education. Since the 1990s , she has dedicated space to patterns of narrative in orature, storying arts and song text of Arawak mixed people for learning to pattern wholeness as wellness in family cultural contexts. She also works in Aboriginal Languages and Literacy, Music Education, Children's Culture, Creativity and W ellness, and Historical Memory connected with the sociology of Indigenous Knowledges, at the University of Toronto where she is a Doctoral candidate (ABD) in Family Sociology and Child-spirit Life. Machisté Quintana, a Taíno Arawak father of Borikano ancestry (Puerto Rico), is a researcher, educator, actor, writer, director and artist. His areas are Arawak and related languages and orature with reference to Indigenous Knowledges and W ays of Life. He has researched the language family for more than thirty years towards re-establishing the spoken form and Myth as Truth, the understanding that within myth is a poetic language of imagery centered around the truths within. As Director of Taíno Del Norte, Inc. in New York City, he has spoken at various institutions on Indigenous Identity and Education
The Indigenous Peoples of Alaska: Appreciating the Role of Elders in Shifting Toward a Strength-Based and Culturally-Appropriate Approach to Mental Health Jordan Lewis, PhD Tina Marie Woods, MS Ruth Zuniga, MA E. J. R. David, PhD University of Alaska Anchorage Background Although often simplistically regarded as "Alaska Natives," Alaska's indigenous peoples are highly diverse, composed of seven groups including Eskimo (Yup'ik, Cup'ik, Sugpiaq/ Alutiiq, & Inupiaq) Aleut/Unungan, Eyak, Athabascan, Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian (Roderick, 2008). Alaska Native peoples have inhabited Alaska for over 10,000 years and depended on the land for resources. The land provided Alaska Native peoples subsistence needs such as food, clothing, and shelter. Thus, Alaska Native values, beliefs, and traditions are geared toward maintaining a respectful and harmonious relationship with the land.
Jordan Lewis, PhD
In the 1700s, Russians, Europeans, and Christian missionaries colonized Alaska. In 1867, Russia sold Alaska to the United States. This colonial history is when Alaska Native peoples began to experience oppression such as Christianization and the loss of their indigenous beliefs, Westernization of their behaviors, values, and ideals through boarding schools, and the slavery of Aleuts in the 1860s and their internment during World War II. Such oppression negatively affected Alaska Native peoples. For instance, prior to Western contact, the Alaska Native population was approximately 100,000. However, after the Great Death, the population decreased to 26,000 (Boraas, 1991). Furthermore, despite the …prior to Western contact, the Alaska Native population was approximately 100,000. However, after the Great Death, the population decreased to 26,000. Furthermore, despite the benefits of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Alaska Native peoples still lost millions of acres of ancestral land and, consequently, many aspects of their culture that are closely tied to the land. This…oppression, …[is] linked to the mental health issues faced by Alaska Native peoples today.
benefits of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, Alaska Native peoples still lost millions of acres of ancestral land and, consequently, many aspects of their culture that are closely tied to the land. This historical and contemporary oppression, along with cultural loss, are linked to the mental health issues faced by Alaska Native peoples today (Napoleon, 1996; for a review, see Sullivan & Brems, 1997). Psychological Issues in Alaska Native Communities Significant attention has been paid to the mental health concerns of Alaska Native peoples, with emphasis on alcoholism and suicide. The alcoholism rate among Alaska Native peoples is double the national average (Division of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, 1999). Alcohol is related to high crime rates (Alaska Department of Health and Social Services, 2007), and Alaska Native peoples experience five times more alcohol-related deaths than any other group (Alaska Behavioral Health Survey, 2002). The suicide rate among Alaska Natives is also twice the national average and 117% higher than any other indigenous American group (Morgan & Tina M arie W oods, M S Freeman, 2009). Relatedly, this group also has high rates of depression and psychological distress (Alaska DHSS, 2007). Among Alaska Native adolescents, high rates of school drop-outs and pregnancies have also been reported (Sullivan & Brems, 1997). However, despite such concerns, Alaska Native individuals seek mental health services at very low rates. Indeed, only 11% to 13% of American Indians and Alaska Natives have sought professional help (Novins et al., 2004), suggesting that many Alaska Native individuals have unmet mental health needs. A Shift in Approach: Appreciating Alaska Native Elders The common reasons for the lack of The common reasons for â€Ślow rates of effectiveness of existing efforts, and the service utilization among Alaska Native low rates of service utilization among peoples, are the services' lack of cultural Alaska Native peoples, are the services' sensitivity and deficit-based approach. â€ŚOne way to incorporate Alaska Native strength lack of cultural sensitivity and and culture into our efforts is to collaborate deficit-based approach. A shift toward with Alaska Native elders. incorporating Alaska Native strength and culture into our conceptualization of and interventions for the issues they face may improve our understanding of their experiences and the effectiveness of our services. One way to incorporate Alaska Native strength and culture into our efforts is to collaborate with Alaska Native elders. Generativity is a cultural value among Alaska Natives, and the -XXIV-
idea of leading and caring for the next generation impacts elders' sense of purpose. For elders, having a role in one's community and being involved in decision-making are keys to successful aging (Lewis, 2009). Resilience-based approaches are effective alternatives for improving health (Saylor, Graves, & Cochran, 2006). Alaska Native elders are examples of resilient individuals who have experienced historical and contemporary oppression, who have taken control of their well-being, and who may serve as role models for the younger generations. Elders are also culture bearers who are often the source of guidance in Alaska Native communities. Thus, efforts can be guided by elders to ensure that cultural values and ways of knowing are considered. In this sense, Alaska Native elders may be Ruth Zuniga, M A instrumental in broadening our understanding of success to also include culturally-valued skills such as beading and hunting, instead of western-based indicators such as school grades and drop-outs. Such cultural skills may also serve as protective factors against other behavioral concerns among youth such as substance use, unprotected sex, and many others. Alaska Native elders also view life with optimism, a cultural value that maintains a positive outlook regardless of difficulties (Lewis, 2009) which possibly makes Alaska Native elders healthier than their counterparts from other ethnic groups. For instance, suicide among Alaska Natives over 55 years-old is low to nonexistent. In contrast, individuals over 55 in the general population have the highest suicide rates among all age groups (Sullivan & Brems, 1997). Thus, there is plenty to learn from elders regarding the problem of depression and suicide.
E. J. R. David, PhD
Many elders also continue to use herbs and circles (Lewis, 2009), and thus, can also be instrumental in integrating Western and traditional healing. This is one manner in which services can become more culturally-sensitive, and one way in which service utilization rates can be improved. Finally, given that alcoholism is considered as the most concerning issue among Alaska Native communities, it is often overlooked that this population also has the highest rate of alcohol abstinence in the country, and many who abstain from alcohol are elders. Thus, there is plenty to learn from elders as well in terms of identifying factors that facilitate sobriety.
Conclusion As more efforts take into consideration the words, stories, and knowledge of Alaska As more efforts take into consideration the words, stories, and knowledge of Alaska Native elders, there will continue to be a Native elders, there will continue to be a shift towards a strengths- based and shift towards a strengths-based and culturally-appropriate approach to health. culturally-appropriate approach to health. What is perhaps the best example of how â€ŚThis shiftâ€Śand the realization that elders successful an elder-guided, strength-based, are the sources, models, and bearers of strength and culture - are needed in order and culturally-appropriate effort can be is to improve the effectiveness of our the People Awakening Project (Mohatt et services. al, 2004), showing that change is already beginning to take place. This shift toward incorporating the strength and culture of Alaska's indigenous groups - and the realization that elders are the sources, models, and bearers of strength and culture - are needed in order to improve the effectiveness of our services. References Alaska Behavioral Health Survey (2002). Health Risks in Alaska Among Adults: 1999 Annual Report. Alaska Department of Health and Human Services. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. (2007). Alaska Health Care Data Book: Selected measurements 2007. Retrieved from http://www.hss.state.ak.us/dhcs/healthplanning/publications/healthcare/default.htm#download on May 20, 2010. Boraas A. S. (1991). Peter Kalifornsky: A Biography. In J. Kari, & A. S. Boraas (Eds.), A Dena'ina Legacy - K'tl'egh'i Sukdu: The Collected Writings of Peter Kalifornsky. Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Division of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse (1999). A summary of recent findings regarding substance abuse in Alaska. Juneau, AK: Department of Health and Social Services Lewis, J. (2009). Successful aging through the eyes of Alaska Native Elders. What it means to be an Elder in Bristol Bay, AK. Published dissertation. Mohatt, G. V., Hazel, K. L., Allen, J., Stachelrodt, M., Hensel, C., & Fath, R. (2004). Unheard Alaska: Culturally anchored participatory action research on sobriety with Alaska Natives. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33, 263-273. Morgan, R. & Freeman, L. (2009). The Healing of Our People: Substance Abuse and Historical Trauma. Substance Use & Misuse, 44:84-98 Napoleon, H. (1996). Yuuyaraq: The way of the Human Being. Alaska Native Knowledge Network: Fairbanks, AK. Novins, D. K., Beals, J., Moore, L. A., Spicer, P., Manson, S. M., & AI-SUPERPFP Team (2004). Use of biomedical services and traditional healing options among American Indians: Sociodemographic correlates, spirituality, and ethnic identity. Medical Care, 42, 670-679. -XXVI-
Roderick, L. (2008). Do Alaska Native people get free medical care? Anchorage, AK: University of Alaska Anchorage and Alaska Pacific University. Saylor, B., Graves, K., & Cochran, P. (Spring/Summer 2006). A Resilience-Based Approach to Improving Community Health. Northwest Public Health. Sullivan, A. & Brems, C. (1997). The Psychological Repercussions Of The Sociocultural Oppression Of Alaska Native Peoples. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 123, 4, 411-440. E. J. R. David, PhD was born and raised in the Philippines and moved to Alaska when he was 14 years-old. He obtained his Bachelor's Degree in Psychology from the University of Alaska Anchorage, his Master's Degree in Psychology from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and his Ph.D. in Clinical-Community Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is currently an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Alaska Joint PhD Program in Clinical-Community Psychology, where he conducts research on the psychological impacts of colonialism and oppression. Jordan Lewis, PhD was an Assistant Professor with the Department of Alaska Native Studies and Rural Development at the University of Alaska Fairbanks where he also received his doctoral degree in Cross-Cultural Community Psychology in December 2009. Dr. Lewis did his research with Alaska Native elders in the Bristol Bay region to establish an Alaska Native definition of successful aging. His research interests include indigenous gerontology, Alaska Native and rural community health, circumpolar health, and indigenous community sustainability. Tina Marie Woods, MS is Unungan (Aleut) from St. Paul Island, Alaska. She obtained a Bachelor's and a Master's Degree in Psychology from the University of Alaska Anchorage, and she is currently a doctoral candidate in the University of Alaska Anchorage & University of Alaska Fairbanks Joint Ph.D. Program in Clinical-Community Psychology with a Rural Indigenous Emphasis. Her research interests focus on utilizing the "talking circle" as a traditional method for healing historical trauma. Ruth Zuniga, MA was born and raised in Costa Rica. She obtained a Bachelor's degree in psychology from the Universidad Latina de Costa Rica and a Master's degree in Counseling and Human Services from the University of Idaho, and is currently a doctoral candidate in the University of Alaska Anchorage & University of Alaska Fairbanks Joint Ph.D. Program in Clinical-Community Psychology with a Rural Indigenous Emphasis. Her primary research interests include mental health of immigrants and experiences of Hispanic women in counseling and other therapeutic services.
Indigenous Healing en La Comunidad Latina Brian W. McNeill, PhD Washington State University Cultural Roots of Latino Healers
Brian W. McNeill, PhD
Walking down the calle (street) in Havana, Cuba, you encounter a modest residence and are directed to a private room filled with sacred objects and symbols, some of which appear to resemble various catholic saints. You are then introduced to Orlando, the healer or Santero who asks you to describe what is bothering you and listens attentively as you describe your situation in an attempt to understand. The Santero asks you about your relationships with friends and family, and perhaps your personal or work history. At the end of the consultation or registo, you are given a "homework" assignment to visit the shrine of San Lazaro. You then leave a monetary offering. Your visit to the shrine precipitates reflection upon your life circumstances, which results in feelings of relief and calmness.
Such encounters with practitioners of La Religión (The Religion) known as Santería occur not only on a daily basis in the barrios (neighborhoods) of Cuba, but also in Cuban-American communities in the United States. Similar spiritual healing traditions exist for the variety of Latina/o American peoples in the form of Curanderismo for Mexican-Americans or Espiritismo for Puerto Ricans. While such practices often serve as a complement to conventional psychological treatment, in many cases the Santero/a, Espiritista/o, or Curandero/a is the primary healer one turns to in cases of both physical and/or psychological illness, especially when one lacks monetary resources, health insurance, or when previous conventional treatments have been ineffective. These healers may possess any number of special areas of expertise, and are often knowledgeable in the use of herbal remedies for emotional problems or particular cultural syndromes. Latina/os are mestizo (mixed) peoples both culturally and genetically as they represent an amalgamation of influences, practices and worldviews. For example, Santería is an Afro-Cuban mix of magic rites of the Yoruba and the traditions of the Catholic Church in which the catholic saints have been syncretized with deities known as Orishas (McNeill, Esquivel, Carrasco, & Mendoza, 2008). Espiritismo combines pre-Columbian, African, Catholic, and European spiritual/religious practices to fulfill the spiritual and psychocultural needs of Puerto Rican people (Torres-Rivera, 2005). Similarly, Curanderismo reflects the -XXVIII-
mutual influence of the Spanish/Iberian and Native/Nahuatl cultures in the Americas (Ortiz, Davis, & McNeill, 2008). All of these traditions represent holistic systems of healing that addresses communal, physical, and psychological, as well as spiritual aspects in treatment. However, it is the spiritual/religious aspects that are not well understood by conventional mental health practitioners. Underlying Worldviews Many segments of the Latina/o population Many segments of the Latina/o population hold a worldview that includes beliefs that hold a worldview that includes beliefs that illness and health are strongly influenced illness and health are strongly influenced by spiritual and religious factors that may by spiritual and religious factors that may ultimately affect therapeutic outcomes. ultimately affect therapeutic outcomes. These include the belief that religion and spirituality permeate human experience, as an individual's life is a spiritual phenomenon, where humans, animals, plants, and the natural world are interrelated, with God being the driving force. Many of these beliefs are Many of these beliefs are part of complex part of complex medicine systems that medicine systems that originated in pre-Columbian times and continue to be originated in pre-Columbian times and represented in the mestiza/o worldviews continue to be represented in the mestiza/o of Latina/as (Ortiz et al., 2004). worldviews of Latina/as (Ortiz et al., 2004). Thus, it is vitally important that mental health professionals who wish to be effective in their work with Latina/os attempt to become familiar with these worldviews in order to understand, treat, and communicate with Latina/os. Practices consistent with the mestiza/o worldview may include the seeking of a traditional healer who is known in one's barrio, or through a visit to a Botรกnica or store that sells spiritual and religious products where a healer may practice. Interventions may take the form of the previously mentioned registo, herbal remedies, limpias (ritual cleansings), and communication with the supernatural through prayer or mediumship, as well as other healing rituals. Universal Healing Principles Why is the traditional healer often effective? For decades, Jerome Frank (e.g., Frank & Frank, 1991) has argued that all healing practices share (a) an emotionally charged, confiding relationship with a healer; (b) a healing context in which the therapist has the power and expertise to help and a socially sanctioned role to provide services; (c) a rationale or conceptual schema to explain problems, and (d) a ritual or procedure consistent with the -XXIX-
treatment rationale. Fisher, Jome, and Atkinson (1998) provide evidence for what they term "universal healing conditions" in a culturally specific context, which includes the therapeutic relationship, a shared worldview, client expectations, and a ritual or intervention. Recent research in factors responsible for psychotherapy effectiveness by Wampold (2001a, 2001b) supports the view that all healing traditions share common healing factors responsible for effectiveness. Wampold also presents a strong case for the lack of evidence supporting the medical model of psychotherapy where specific therapeutic treatments or "ingredients" (e.g., empirically supported treatments) are assumed to be primarily responsible for the effectiveness of psychotherapy. Perhaps for these reasons, traditional healing practices continue to survive and serve vital functions for Latina/o communities. The work of these researchers has recently had an influence on conventional mental health policy in the form of the 2006 report of the APA Presidential Task Force on Evidence-Based Practice (EBPP) defined as "the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences" (APA, 2006, p.273). EBPP also "involves consideration of the client's values, religious beliefs, world views, goals and preferences for treatment with the psychologist's experiences and understanding of the available research" (APA, 2006, p. 278). Conclusion Thus, within this context, it is crucial for practitioners to be open and accepting of a mestizo/a worldview which incorporates traditions with which practitioners may be unfamiliar. Healing traditions such as Curanderismo, Santería, and Espiritismo are experiencing a resurgence in Latina/o communities as they provide strength, resilience, and comfort during difficult times and life transitions. It is gratifying that organized Psychology is beginning to acknowledge these traditions. As the practitioners of Santería say "hay muchos caminos" (there are many ways). References American Psychological Association (2005). Evidence-based practice in psychology. American Psychologist, 61, 271-285. Fischer, A. R., Jome, L. M., & Atkinson, D. R. (1998). Reconceptualizing multicultural counseling: Universal healing conditions in a culturally specific context. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 26, 525-588. Frank, J. D. & Frank, J. B. (1991). Persuasion and Healing: A Comparative Study of Psychotherapy (3rd). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. McNeill, B. W., Esquivel, E., Carrasco, A. & Mendoza, R. (2008). Santería and the healing process in Cuba and the United States. In B. W. McNeill & J. M. Cervantes (Eds.). Latina/o healing traditions: Mestizo and Indigenous perspectives. New York: Routledge.
Ortiz, F. A., Davis, K. G., & McNeill, B. (2008). Curanderismo: Religious and spiritual worldviews and indigenous healing traditions. In B. W. McNeill & J. M. Cervantes (Eds.). Latina/o healing traditions: Mestizo and Indigenous perspectives. New York: Routledge. Torres Rivera, E. (2005). Espiritismo: The flywheel of the Puerto Rican spiritual traditions. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 39, 295-300. Wampold, B. E. (2001a). Contextualizing psychotherapy as a healing practice: Culture, history, and methods. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 10, 69-86. Wampold, B. E. (2001b). The great psychotherapy debate: Models, methods, and findings. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Brian W. McNeill, PhD is a professor and director of training for the Counseling Psychology Program at W ashington State University. He is the co-editor of The Handbook of Chicana and Chicano Psychology and Mental Health, and is a licensed Psychologist in the states of W ashington and Idaho where he practices and consults.
Contextual Understanding of Two-Spirit Peoplehood Mark Standing Eagle Baez, MA, CSP, LCDC Native American and First Nation (Canada) gay and bisexual people are a misunderstood and misrepresented group. This paper is a basic overview and a historical look at Native American and First Nation communities and their embracing of the "Two-Spirit" personhood. According to Sabine Lang, author of "Man In tribal societies, m odern Native as Women, Women as Men," the American gays and lesbians regard the terminology of "Two-Spirit" originated in combination of masculine and feminine 1989 during an international/intertribal potentials as a more abstract, "spiritual" q u a lity in h e re n t, o r in b o rn , in gathering of gay and lesbian Native homosexuals. Americans. Native American lesbians and gays have long been struggling to find an identity and to develop self- identifying terms appropriate to them. Although we understand there is increased acceptance of "Two-Spirit" societies, hate crimes continue to persist. They seek terms reflecting both their sexual orientation and their specific ethnic heritage. In tribal societies, modern Native American gays and lesbians regard the combination of masculine and feminine potentials as a more abstract, "spiritual" quality inherent, or inborn, in homosexuals (Lang, 1998). A Historical View of Two-Spirit in Native America An extensive study of the "berdache" culture among Native Americans was conducted by Walter L. Williams (1986, 1992). In Williams' research, he describes the "berdache" as practice, social roles, and history, and also as an understanding of belief in sin and prejudice of sexual diversity from Europeans. Will Roscoe (1998), author of Changing Ones: Third and Fourth Genders in Native North America, said that upon arriving in the New World, explorers learned of cultures that did not adhere to the same social mores. Roscoe goes on to say that the notion of three, four, or even an infinite amount of gender Mark Standing Eagle Baez, MA, CSP, LCDC categories was the norm (1998). Roscoe also points out that men who lived as women, or "Two-Spirit Men," were not necessarily ostracized by their societies. In fact, some of these "Two-Spirit Men" were regarded as spiritual leaders (Roscoe, 1998; Williams, 1992; Lang, 1998). Williams (1986, 1992), states that many tribes see the berdache's role as signifying an individual's gifts as a -XXXII-
dreamer and a visionary. For example, among the Papagos, these qualities are accepted as a compelling gift for the supernatural world (Williams, 1986,1992). Dr. Wesley Thomas, a professor at Dine' College and co-author of "Two-Spirited People," and expert on the subject of the Navajo nádleehí tradition, describes the five genders recognized by the Navajo. The first is the feminine woman ('asdzaan). The second is the masculine man (hastiin). The third is the male-bodied person who has a feminine essence (nádleeh). The fourth is the female-bodied person who has a masculine essence (nadleeh). The fifth is the androgynous/hermaphrodite (nadleeh) (Jacobs, Thomas and Lang, 1997). Most tribes were aware of the persistence of "Two-Spirit" people, and many still have a name in their traditional language. For example, the Dine' (Navajo) referred to two spirited people as nádleehí , the Lakota (Sioux) as winkte, the Mohave as alyha, the Zuni as lhamana, the Omaha as mexoga, the Aleut and Kodiak as achnucek, the Zapotec as ira' muxe, the Cheyenne as he man eh, and the Hopi as Ho va (Roscoe, 1988a). The Lakota, according to Williams (1986, 1992) believe that the white buffalo calf is a "berdache." The Lakota word winkte is composed of win "women," and kte, would become. One way one may become a winkte is to be put on the hill by a medicine man for a vision or to have a vision given by a winkte from the past (Williams, 1986, 1992). Today's Two Spirit in Native American Communities Today's societal standards look down on feminine males and this prejudice has found its way into Native society. Thomas states that much of the western world has adopted the term "berdache" to describe the "Two-Spirit," however this is actually considered offensive by traditional Native Americans. "Berdache" was a term coined by the French for "Two-Spirit" members of tribe. It meant "kept boy; male prostitute, catamite," from the Arabic bardaj. (Jacobs, Thomas & Lang, 1997). Adam Armstrong is a member of the "Two-Spirited" people often feel Northeast Two-Spirit Society and works something else, something more than professionally in a healing capacity as a merely to whom we are sexually attracted: a strong and inherent connection to either New York City Fire Department Paramedic feminine or masculine energies, with and Hazardous Materials Technician. He some feeling a balance of both energies. states that today, "many Two-Spirited people begin their journey by identifying as le sb ian, gay, b ise x u a l, o r a s intersex/transgendered" (Armstrong, 2007). He goes on to say that "Two-Spirited" people often feel something else, something more than merely to whom we are sexually attracted: a strong and inherent connection to either feminine or masculine energies, with some feeling
a balance of both energies (Armstrong, 2007). Today there are many "Two-Spirited" societies throughout the United States and in Canada. According to Gilley (2006), the use of the The "Two-Spirit" have been with us for term "Two-Spirit" has increased in centuries and accepted in Native popularity, thus making more people to feel communities. However, the Western idea has imposed the identity of "Two-Spirit" connected to their indigenous tradition as deviant and has harmed many Native (Gilley, 2006, p. 30). There has been kids. movement by Native people to reclaim the term "Two-Spirit" as a cultural identity separate from the White mainstream gay and lesbian society. Although we understand there is increased acceptance of "Two-Spirit" societies, hate crimes continue to persist. As a Native practitioner, I support the idea that the "Two-Spirit" have been with us for centuries and accepted in Native communities. However, the Western idea has imposed the identity of "Two-Spirit" as deviant and has harmed many Native kids. References Armstrong, A. (2007, Spring Issue 2 volume 1). Two-Spirit Today. Drawing from the past, living in the present, p. 2. Gilley, B. (2006). Becoming Two-Spirit: Gay Identity and Social Acceptance in Indian Country. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Jacobs, S. E., Thomas, W., & Lang, S. (1997). Introduction. Two-Spirit People: Native American Gender Identity, Sexuality and Spirituality, 1-18. Lang, S. (1998). Men as Women, Women as Men. Austin: University of Texas Press. Roscoe, W. (1998). Changing Ones: Third and fourth genders in Native North America. New York: St. Martin's Press. Roscoe, W. (Ed.). (1988). North American Tribes with Berdache and Alternative Gender Roles. Living The Spirit: A Gay American Anthology, 217-222. Roscoe, W. (1991). The Zuni Man Woman. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Williams, L. W. (1986, 1992). The Spirit and the Flesh: Sexual diversity in American Indian culture. Massachusetts: Beacon Press. Mark S t a n d in g E a g le Baez, MA , CSP, LCDC, CART is of Mohawk/Pawnee/Coahuiltecan/ Mexican descent. He received his BA from Our lady of the Lake University in San Antonio and his Masters (Psychology) from North Central University in Prescott AZ. He also holds a second Masters as a School Psychologist. He has provided numerous presentations and trainings that make use of traditional Native American culture and beliefs and highlight the importance of effective stress management and a well-balanced spiritual life for developing health and wellness in personal and community life.
GUIDANCE FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE
Pivotal Protocols: The Spirit Dimension in Indigenous and Western Psychologies Suzan McVicker, MA, LPC Madison, Wisconsin Variants of these conditions [spirit possession states] have been described in nearly every traditional society on every continent. ("Dissociative Trance Disorder" listed in Appendix B, Criteria Sets and Axes Provided for Further Study, DSM-IV-TR, pp. 783-785). It [spirit possession states] shifts the question from "How is it that other peoples believe the self [person] to be permeable by forces from without?" to "How is it that Western models have repeatedly denied such permeability? "(Boddy 1994, p. 427). The Best of Both Worlds Side-by-Side As the American Indian "patient" explores Accustomed for centuries to traveling the meaning of well-being in the 21st back and forth betw een cultures, Century, providers involved are offered a A m erican Indians increasingly see parallel opportunity. Indigenous peoples are concurrent dual treatment protocols as a currently telling researchers how they means to find relief from the accumulating envision attaining well-being. Accustomed sufferings resulting from the devastations for centuries to traveling back and forth in history and acculturation. between cultures, American Indians increasingly see concurrent dual treatment protocols as a means to find relief from the accumulating sufferings resulting from the devastations in history and acculturation. As trust is rebuilt between practitioner groups with two epistemologies, American Indian healers and Western psychologists, best practices may occur side-by-side. Culturally-derived tandem approaches may heighten understandings of well-being in each worldview better than highly collaborative climates. When one culture fosters consciousness of its own identity's strengths and limitations, a compassionate embrace of a different culture becomes possible. W e ll-b e in g in m o s t In d ig e n o u s communities includes the overlapping relationship between humans and forces in the spirit world. Generally, this blending of dimensions respects a permeable boundary which organizes the seen, physical human world on one side and the unseen spirits on the other.
W e ll-b e in g in m o s t Indig e n o u s communities includes the overlapping relationship between humans and forces in the spirit world. Generally, this blending of dimensions respects a permeable boundary which organizes the seen, physical human world on one side
and the unseen spirits on the other. In many Indigenous cultures it is also a normal interface for a spirit force to manifest itself in a human body. Here, in the mingling point of the unseen with the seen, is an elegant coherence between long-held Indigenous cosmology and new Western sciences. The logical mind is capable of grasping some of the mysteries embedded in contemporary explorations of non-linear time; cause and effect relationships based on universal connectedness of all existence; and the power of consciousness to impact non-local physical reality (Braden 2008, Emoto 2004, Parry 2006). How, then, does this mingling of dimensions inform culturally-derived approaches for American Indians who want concurrent healing modalities from their own traditions and Western psychology? Prior to the current era for Western psychology, one of the biggest gaps a Western trained psychologist had to leap was into the American Indian everyday experience which seamlessly includes a spirit dimension. Notions of isolating, measuring, and manipulating discreet parts of reality believed to be separate, inert, and non-impacting on other areas of reality hampered the jump. Today, providers working side-by-side Suzan McVicker, MA, LPC using different protocols with no expectation to dominate or convert may enjoy a natural outgrowth of research investigations and sharing of best practices which emerge in the interest of their patients. Consciously sharing the whole universe in mysterious movement with all living beings in an interactive, fluidly interconnected relationship is quickly becoming common ground for informing best practices in both Indigenous and Western psychologies. Patients who live in Indian Country and the U.S., citizens of nations within a nation, might feel supported by providers who authentically consider reality to be both manifest and unmanifest. A Center from Which to View the Whole The root metaphor of the circle contains valuable perspectives for viewing, naming, and exploring effective practices for restoring well-being after generations of trauma transmission. Each part of the circumference of a circle is a point of information connected with the center, a central viewpoint. The available intelligence in this intersection of central location carries the potential for an equal influence with the perspective from each unique part. Useful for organization of the whole in a visible, physical community or circle, this metaphorical center also serves as a pivotal point for turning inward to understand psychological and spiritual unseen reality. Passed down from many empowering Indigenous sacred languages are terms which describe the human center: This profound, universal
essence is translated as sacred space, heart, zero point, self, no-self, the void, source, within direction, and more. Deeply held across American Indian cultures is the belief that all living beings possess a center essence which is in connection with the center essence of each human. Transgenerational spirit or soul wounding is increasingly understood to cascade the poison of its impacts down the descending familial, kinship, and community line into measurable maladies like addictions, anxiety, depression, and violence. Genuine interactive familiarity with the impacts of the unseen dimensions on the visible, measurable world leads to fruitful dialogue about best practices for the treatment of historical trauma. The center-to-center connections inherent in all forms of the natural world and all manifestations of the inner world have been described by Indigenous and Western scholars in terms which link all domains with the Center of the Cosmos in a universal dimension. Confronted with such a worldview of time-free enmeshment of all dimensions, Western psychology is drawn to new perspectives. If inner forces are interactive with external life and the Heart of the universal Cosmos simultaneously, the possibilities for understanding spirit or soul wounding in a context of historical trauma open further. Spirit possession, described in the DSM-IV-TR as a ubiquitous tenet of Indigenous cultures, is less a leap and more a natural step into understanding American Indian well-being. Transgenerational spirit or soul wounding is increasingly understood to cascade the p o is on o f its im pacts dow n th e d e s ce n d in g fa m ilia l, k in s h ip , a n d community line into measurable maladies like addictions, anxiety, depression, and violence. Genuine interactive familiarity w ith the im pacts of the unseen dimensions on the visible, measurable world leads to fruitful dialogue about best practices for the treatment of historical trauma.
The circle metaphor can be helpful again for deepening the concept that nothing is outside of core human essence. Spirit possession is a state of consciousness which is altered by the replacement of a customary sense of personal identity by another identity. This new identity is attributed to the influence of a spirit, power, deity, or other person who overpowers the self of the host person.1 The invasive spirit at times takes over in order to get something which a human can obtain: alcohol, revenge, or the familiarity of returning to an earthbound environment, for example. Based on a permeable construct of self (heart, center, source, essence, or within direction), spirit depossession is the practice of conducting the overpowering spirit safely back to its place of origin. This departure liberates the patient. Unlike the specters of forceful banishment raised by the term "exorcism", spirit depossession accomplished with skill and compassion does not induce increased trauma, but rather, results 1/
Many cultures make room for alliances between human beings and spirit beings which are consensual and positive within permeable boundaries. -XXXVII-
in the reclamation of separate boundaries for both the conscious human host and the possessing spirit. Both, in a real external and internal sense, are patients. Reestablishment of separate boundaries for each restores personal identities and holistic balance for the host and the formerly possessing spirit. Depossession, then, may be conceptualized as one form of unburdening, clearing, or transmuting the overpowering spirit. By understanding human core essence through the root metaphor of the center, Indigenous and Western psychologies may find a continuum of approaches for effective tandem work. When the overlaps of the human world and forces of the spirit are considered to be normal occurrences, American Indians may enter into psychotherapy feeling more assured of being understood, respected, and knowledgeably treated. For example, in a routine case of unwanted spirit possession, it is important to authentically grasp the context of a cosmos without borders. If presenting indicators are mistaken for a serious psychiatric disorder, the patient could suffer intensely with incorrect treatment while proper care for spirit depossession would not be considered. The Center Sets the Field for Pivotal Protocols Qualities of the center, heart, or self set the As researchers link brain states with field for psychotherapeutic protocols which well-being, patterns appear which affirm are finding effectiveness in treating ancient knowing: Inner states of historical trauma and its transgenerational compassion, calm, and clear, settled impacts. As researchers link brain states ability to witness all which exists in the mind and deep in the within direction with well-being, patterns appear which have a healing effect, in turn, on body, affirm ancient knowing: Inner states of mind, spirit, and energy. compassion, calm, and clear, settled ability to witness all which exists in the mind and deep in the within direction have a healing effect, in turn, on body, mind, spirit, and energy. Across traditional Indigenous cultures is agreement that healing arises from the inside. Wisdom and teachings to access centered states are once again emerging to be shared after the recent centuries when American Indian healing practices were actually prohibited by U.S. law. In particular, the teachable skills that open the doors to a centered state are described in the vocabulary of psychotherapy protocols. Therapeutic trance states, mindfulness meditation, and schools teaching awareness for inner dialogue have brought terms such as "going inside" and "inner parts" into common parlance. Jung, the seminal scholar and practitioner whose body of work influenced the models of both Schwartz (1995, 2001) and Duran & Duran (1995), embraced the spirit dimension in psychology. Schwartz' Internal Family Systems (IFS) model trains practitioners in holding an energy field of centeredness with a specific language for exploring the within direction. In case studies describing his "hybrid" -XXXVIII-
Post-Colonial Psychology which fuses Indigenous and Western bases, Duran & Duran use language to directly address the spirits that upset the harmony and balance of well-being. "Direct access", a term to describe vocalizing a spirit's communication through the voice of the patient, has since ancient times been a way of communicating across the porous boundary between humans and spirits. Both Indigenous and Western psychologies are vast, complex systems which provide treatments to maintain well-being. The language, skills, and worldview inherent for practitioners who support spirit depossession in their work naturally cultivate strong abilities to communicate with those who are different. Beginning treatment protocols by setting the energy field with an invitation for centering, for example, is an implicit understanding of sacred space. Welcoming Indigenous language is an empowering support for transcending theoretical conflicts. Differentiating the human patient from the spirit force; tracking the spirit's progress as it makes its way "home"; continuing care after re-establishing harmonious boundaries; supporting cognitive and behavioral pattern change once the spirit influence is cleared: Practitioners carrying these skills increase their capacity to serve American Indian populations who are at risk from the exponentially multiplying wounds of historical trauma. References Alegria, M. & McGuire, T. (2003). Rethinking a universal framework in the psychiatric symptom-disorder relationship. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44 (Sept.) 257-274. American Psychiatric Association, (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. Braden, G. (2008). The Spontaneous Healing of Belief: Shattering the Paradigm of False Limits. Carlsbad: Hay House. Boddy, J. (1994). Spirit possession revisited: beyond instrumentality. Annual Review of Anthropology (24) 407-434. Buchwald, D., Beals, J., & Manson, S.M. (2000). Use of traditional health practices among Native Americans in a primary care setting. Medical Care, 38 (12) 1191-1199. Corbett, S. (2009, September 16). The holy grail of the unconscious. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com. Christiansen, M. (n.d.). Diagnostic criteria in clinical settings: DSM-IV and cultural competence. American Indian and Alaska Mental Health Research: The Journal of the National Center. Duran, E. & Duran, B. (1995). Native American Postcolonial Psychology. Albany State University of New York Press. Duran, E. (2006). Healing the Soul Wound: Counseling with American Indians and Other Native Peoples. New York: Teachers College Press of Columbia University. Emoto, M. (2004). The Hidden Messages in Water. Hillsboro: Beyond Words Publishing. Garrett. J. T. (2001). Meditations with the Cherokee: Prayers, Songs, and Stories of Healing and Harmony. Rochester: Bear & Company. Goodman, L. (2010). Between two worlds: Malidoma Soma on rites of passage. The Sun, 415/July 2010, 4-11. -XXXIX-
James, J. (2009). The sacred feminine in Cherokee culture: healing and identity. L. J. Lefler (Ed.), Under the Rattlesnake: Cherokee Health and Resiliency. (pp. 102-124). McCabe, G. H. (2007). The healing path: A culture and community-derived indigenous therapy model. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 44 (2) 148-160. Parry, G. A. (2006). Native wisdom in a quantum world. Shift: At the Frontiers of Consciousness, (9) Dec/Feb 2006. Petri, H. (2003). Dances of Ecstacy. Luna Pictures Production. Rabasca, L. (2000). Listening instead of preaching. Monitor on Psychology, 31 (3). Reifel, N. (2001). American Indian views of public-health nursing, 1930-1950, In C.E. Trafzer & D. Weiner (Eds.), Medicine Ways: Disease, Health, and Survival among Native Americans (pp. 95-107). Rhoades, E. R. & Rhoades, D.A. (2000). Traditional Indian and modern western medicine. In E. R. Rhoades (Ed.), American Indian Health: Innovations in Health Care, Promotion, and Policy (pp. 401-417). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Sams, J. (1998). Dancing the Dream: The Seven Sacred Paths of Human Transformation. New York: Harper Collins. Schwartz, R. (2004). The larger self. Psychotherapy Networker, May/June 2004. Schwartz, R .C. (1995). Internal Family Systems Therapy. New York: The Guilford Press. Schwartz, R. C. (2001). Introduction to the Internal Family Systems Model. Oak Park: Trailheads Publications. Weithaus, U. (2008). Foundations of First Peoples' Sovereignty: History, Education & Culture. New York: Peter Lang. Suzan A. M. McVicker, MA, LPC is in private practice as a psychotherapist in Madison, W isconsin. She recently completed the new Culturally-Based Native Health Program offered by the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians and W estern Carolina University; is earning a PhD in Human and Organizational Development at Fielding Graduate University; and continues to learn experientially with Indigenous healers. She is a Cherokee descendant.
Cultural Health Beliefs and Conceptualization of Illnesses Among Haitians Guerda Nicolas, PhD María José Rendón University of Miami It is well documented that the integration of indigenous cultural beliefs in the treatment of migrant and ethnic minority groups is not only important but necessary (Bernal, Jiménez-Chafey & Domenech Rodríguez, 2009). Indeed, cultural notions of health and illness progression have been noted to influence people's health behaviors and treatment choice (Pan American Health Organization, 2007). However, mental health care in the United States still falls short from integrating indigenous notions of health and mental health progression and treatment. Guerda Nicolas, PhD
This paper provides a brief overview of the indigenous health model for a particular cultural group, Haitians. Along with this overview, we propose strategies that practitioners can use to incorporate their clients' health beliefs model, as well as the participation of family and community partners into the treatment. As culturally-sensitive care for Haitians involves a much broader knowledge of the etiology and manifestation of mental health illnesses within this group, we refer readers to the work of Nicolas and colleagues (Nicolas, Schwartz & Pierre, 2010; Nicolas, DeSilva, Beltrame, 2009; Nicolas, DeSilva, Prater & Bronkoski, 2009; Nicolas et al., 2007; Nicolas, DeSilva, Grey & Gonzalez-Eastep, 2006) which present more in-depth information on this topic. Conceptualization of Health, Illness and Treatment Among Haitians Among Haitians, "good health" is constructed as being able to maintain a good internal equilibrium between cho (hot) and fret (cold), being strong and plump, having good color, and in general, being free from pain. This state of well-being is moreover, acquired through good diet, hygiene, sleeping habits, physical activity, and spiritual practices (Colin & Paperwalla, 1996; Kirkpatric & Cobb, 1990;
Among Haitians, "good health" is constructed as being able to maintain a good internal equilibrium between cho (hot) and fret (cold), being strong and plump, having good color, and in general, being free from pain. …Illnesses may come about due to the disruption of good habits…but may also be attributed to unnatural courses of illness, such as a curse.
Laguerre, 1984; Miller, 2000, in Nicolas, Hirsh & Beltrame, 2009). Illnesses may come about due to the disruption of good habits, as described above, but may also be attributed to unnatural courses of illness, such as a curse. When people get sick (either mentally or physically), illness progression is tracked across four stages. An illness often begins with the person reporting Kom pa bon ("I do not feel well"), a stage with mild, rather than severe symptoms. The next stage is characterized by a decrease in activity, confinement to home and the patient reporting moin malad ("I am sick"). In the next stage, severe symptoms are accompanied by confinement to bed, and a report of moin malad anpil ("I am very sick"). The final stage is accompanied by hopelessness about ever getting better, in which the person reports moin pap refe ("I am dying") (Angel & Guarnaccia, 1989; in Nicolas, Hirsh & Beltrame, 2009).
María José Rendón
The treatment of illnesses among Haitians is very much linked to spiritual and folk medicine practices such as consulting with a leaf doctor that may provide the appropriate herbs for the specific symptoms suffered. Cultural healing rituals with a Hougan or Mambo (Voodoo priest or priestess, respectively) are also regarded as necessary when the illness is attributed to a curse. Within Haitian communities in the U.S., healers are certainly accessible and sometimes collaborate with medical doctors to provide clients with the best care possible (Prince, 2005, in Nicolas, Hirsh & Beltrame, 2009). Working with the Haitian Client For Haitians, the idea of seeing a psychologist is rather extraordinary, if not stigmatized, as is the case in many other cultural minority groups. Moreover, Haitians often experience stress as physical, rather than mental, which may further delay their search for psychological services (cf. Nicolas et al., 2007). When (and if) a Haitian patient arrives at a clinician's office, it is only after attempts at recovery through other resources in the lakou (extended family), church, Voodoo and folk medicine, have failed. Recognizing the journey that these patients have traveled to get to us is hence necessary to build a strong foundation to the therapeutic relationship. For Haitians, the idea of seeing a psychologist is rather extraordinary, if not stigmatized,…When (and if) a Haitian patient arrives at a clinician's office, it is only after attempts at recovery through other resources in the lakou (extended fam ily), church, V oodoo and folk medicine, have failed.
As discussed above, developing a culturally-congruent treatment necessitates an integration of indigenous health beliefs. Though ways to engage the client into this conversation may vary, we offer some strategies to facilitate dialogue: 1.
Health beliefs may be inquired through questions such as "How do you think these symptoms came about?", "What meaning do you make of them?" and "Why do you think that these things are happening to you now?"
Sense of illness progression and severity may be inquired through questions such as "How does the symptom feel like?", "When and where in the body does it start? When and where does it feel stronger? and How long does it last, when it comes?"
Client's beliefs surrounding appropriate treatment may be a more sensitive subject to discuss. As previously stated, being familiar with the role of folk medicine and spiritualism in the cultural group of the client can facilitate the sense of safety clients need to explicate their story. Questions such as "What actions have you taken to relieve your symptoms so far?", "Have you been to a priest, a healer, or other resource in the community?" and "In your culture, what is the best way to treat the symptoms that you have described?" are a good start to these conversations.
In bridging indigenous practices with westernized models of treatment, it is sometimes useful to partner with, and consult with local herbal doctors or Voodoo practitioners, depending on the illness, level of acculturation, and interest of the client. Although consultation with indigenous healers may become necessary, the process for establishing such partnerships in the community may be daunting to many clinicians. Whereas other authors (Trimble & Fisher, 2006; Goodenough, 1996) provide specific strategies for making those connections, it is sufficient to say that the more involved clinicians are in the community of interest, the more they will learn how to make those contacts, and whom to contact. When in doubt, seek the guidance of the leaders of the community.
Conclusion Many years of clinical practice and … treatment that fails to integrate clients' research experience with Haitian clients culture will also fail to elicit positive has taught us that treatment that fails to behavioral change. Hence, we strongly integrate clients' culture will also fail to recommend that treatment of Haitians be elicit positive behavioral change. Hence, informed by the cultural traditions of the we strongly recommend that treatment of Haitian people, be integrated with community resources, and be linked to Haitians be informed by the cultural traditional folk remedies… traditions of the Haitian people, be integrated with community resources, and be linked to traditional folk remedies that are central to the healing process within their culture. References Bernal, G., Jiménez-Chafey, M., & Domenech Rodríguez, M. (2009). Cultural adaptation of treatments: A resource for considering culture in evidence-based practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 40(4), 361-368. Colin, J. M., & Paperwalla, G. (1996). Haitians. In J. G. Lipson, S. L. Dibble, & P. A. Minarik (Eds.), Culture & nursing care: A pocket guide (pp. 139-154). San Francisco, CA: University of California, Nursing Press. Etienne, C. (2007), Conference address. In "Cultural Diversity Presents Special Challenges for Mental Health." Retrieved June 6, 2010, from http://www.paho.org/english/dd/pin/pr071010.htm. Goodenough, W. H. (1996) "Culture" Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. New York: Henry Holt. Kirkpatrick, S. M., & Cobb, A. K. (1990). Health beliefs related to diarrhea in Haitian children: Building transcultural nursing knowledge. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 1, 2-12. Laguerre, M. S. (1984). American odyssey: Haitians in New York City. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. Miller, N. L. (2000). Haitian ethnomedical systems and biomedical practitioners: Directions for clinicians. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 11, 204-11. Nicolas, G., Schwartz, B. & Pierre, E. (2010). Weathering the storms like Bamboo: The strengths of Haitians in coping with natural disasters. In A. Kalayjian, D. Eugene, & G. Reyes (Ed.) International handbook of emotional healing: ritual and practices for resilience after mass trauma. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. Nicolas, G., DeSilva, A., Grey, K., & Gonzalez-Eastep, D. (2006). Using a Multicultural lens to understand illnesses among Haitians living in America. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 702-707. Nicolas, G., Desilva, A. M, Prater, K., & Bronkoski, E. (2009). Empathic Family Stress as a Sign of Extended Family Connectedness in Haitian Immigrants. Family Process, 48, 135 - 150.
Nicolas, G., Desilva, A., Subrebost, K., Breland-Noble, A., Gonzalez-Eastep, D., Prater, K., et al. (2007). Expression of depression by Haitian women in the U.S.: Clinical observations. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 61, 83-98. Prince, L. (2005). Medsen fey (leaf doctor). Retrieved September 4, 2008, from http://www.geocities.com/medsen_fey/index.html. Trimble, J. E., & Fisher, C. B. (2006). Handbook of ethical considerations in conducting research with ethnocultural populations and communities. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Guerda Nicolas, PhD – As a multicultural (Haitian American) and multilingual psychologist (Spanish, French, and Haitian Creole), Geurda’s research is reflective of her background and interests. Her current research centers on partnering with ethnically diverse and immigrant communities to develop culturally effective mental health interventions to combat depression, address issues of racism and racial discrimination stress, enhance the racial and ethnic identity development of children and adolescents, and promote individual, family, and community well-being. María José Rendón is a third-year student in the Counseling Psychology PhD program at the University of Miami. María José's research focuses on cultural adaptation of measures and treatments for ethnic and cultural minorities.
Respecting Traditional Healing: A Journey of Understanding Where Spirituality and Cultural Competence Intersect Patricia Isaac, PhD Empire State College â€“ SUNY Three years after leaving the Navaho Reservation, where I was once employed as a school psychologist, I find the knowledge I gained while being there is with me still. In retrospect, my life was changed forever. My personal worldview was challenged and expanded with every encounter. A large part of my responsibility comprised of spending countless hours in Individualized Education Program-IEP meetings. During these meetings, parents and students shared the advice they sought from a traditional Patricia Isaac, PhD healer. Through my multicultural counseling lens I understood why traditional healing was important and of value to the family. Yet I felt woefully inadequate in my ability to truly understand the profundity of traditional healing. It was my desire to learn more in a respectful manner because the situation demanded it. In truth, one does not go about asking such direct and personal questions about healing ceremonies in an IEP meeting. Over time I learned about traditional healing through sustained personal contact and friendships with my fellow school psychologists, the mental health counselors, native teachers and staff, administrators, friends and the families I served. I was fortunate enough to be trained by a school psychology supervisor, who I consider to be one of my greatest teachers, Dr. Cecelia Yazzie. Under her firm and watchful eye, I navigated through the intricate cultural norms of the Navaho. I learned to listen quietly and wait until all the speaking was done before I spoke. I did not always get this right. There were several occasions where Dr. Yazzie admonished me for speaking too directly or sustaining eye contact too long. It was expected that I visit students at their homes. In those conversations with a translator I learned how to enter the home respectfully. I learned to let the family tell me their story. Up until January 2007, my understanding of traditional healing was still more cerebral. However, all of that changed when I was in a second car accident in less than a year. My brother, Mark Standing Eagle Baez, told me I needed a ceremony and I didn't take him seriously after the first accident. He insisted after the second accident that I have a ceremony and I acquiesced. In fact my Director, Assistant Director and close friends insisted as well. I cannot describe the ceremony, but will discuss what I brought from it. It was a fellowship -XLVI-
where close friends brought their good intentions. I had not felt so loved and cared for as I did that cold January night. We formed very deep bonds of friendship that still connects us today through space and time. My reason for sharing this personal account is two-fold: first to honor those individuals who patiently helped and befriended me during my stay on the Navaho reservation; and second is to share my experience of being an outsider and the importance of being culturally responsible. I formulated guidelines on being culturally responsible based on these experiences; and continue to use them in my work with teachers and in diverse communities. The Importance of Being Culturally Responsible ! ! ! ! ! ! !
It is very important to enter the community in a respectful manner by not bringing your expectations, judgments or making assumptions about the community Quietly observe and wait until you are approached by members in the community (in some communities) Ask questions when appropriate Offer a hand when appropriate Understand your purpose for being there Be respectful of their use of spiritual healing Be respectful of sacred places and where ceremonies take place Patricia Isaac, PhD earned her Doctorate in Educational Psychology â€“ School Psychology from Northern Arizona University. Prior to her work on the Navaho reservation she was involved in a school-wide behavior program on the Havasupai reservation and did her doctoral practicum on the Hopi reservation. Presently, Dr. Isaac is on faculty with SUNY Empire State College in the Master of Arts in Teaching Program where she trains pre-service teachers and mentors teachers in high need schools.
EXEMPLARY TARGETED INTERVENTIONS
Legislative Efforts to Eliminate Native-Themed Mascots, Nicknames, and Logos: Slow but Steady Progress Post-APA Resolution Jesse A. Steinfeldt, PhD Indiana University Lisa Rey Thomas, PhD University of Washington Mattie R. White, MS, MEd Indiana University APA Resolution Calling for the Immediate Retirement of Native-Themed Mascots Of most concern to those opposed to the In A ugust, 2005, the A m erican adoption of the resolution was the Psychological Association Council of scarcity of scientific evidence of the harm R epresentatives adopted the APA …One has to wonder at the irony of this Resolution Recommending the Immediate concern. Academic institutions have a Retirement of American Indian Mascots, long history of ethnocidal, if not Symbols, Images, and Personalities by genocidal, practices directed towards Native people…Thus, this scarcity of Schools, Colleges, Universities, Athletic scientific evidence makes sense — …why Teams, and Organizations (APA, 2005). would a Native community agree to The adoption of this resolution represents participate in research conducted by the the courage, dedication, and grit of many very institutions that have, and do, who engaged in complex and difficult perpetrate harm on their members? discussions with APA governance and membership. Of most concern to those opposed to the adoption of the resolution was the scarcity of scientific evidence of the harm perpetrated on American Indian and Alaska Native people by the use of Native-themed mascots, nicknames, and logos. One has to wonder at the irony of this concern. Academic institutions have a long history of ethnocidal, if not genocidal, practices directed towards Native people beginning with the boarding school era (Brave Heart & DeBruyn, 1998; Witko, 2005) and continuing today where Native people are subjected to racism, stereotyping, and marginalization in many, if not most, academic settings. Thus, this scarcity of scientific evidence makes sense — why would a Native community agree to participate in research conducted by the very institutions that have, and do, perpetrate harm on their members?
Still, this is a journey of hope and commitment for those psychologists and allies dedicated to the right of all people to be psychologically healthy and to live in our society free from violations of civil rights. Of note is the recent increase (albeit slow and inadequate) of American Indian and Alaska Native psychologists who are developing research partnerships with Native communities that are responsive to the research needs of the communities and inclusive of the issues surrounding the impacts of racism, stereotyping, prejudice, and, yes, Native-themed mascots. As these research partnerships move forward, we will continue to see Jesse A. Steinfeldt, PhD more scientific evidence emerging in the literature that addresses the harms experienced by Native communities as well as the strengths and resiliencies that have kept Native communities healthy. The APA Resolution Recommending the Immediate Retirement of American Indian Mascots, Symbols, Images, and Personalities by Schools, Colleges, Universities, Athletic Teams, and Organizations represents an important step in this journey of hope and commitment. This brief article will describe recent legislation that is another important and historical step on this journey toward the eradication of Native-themed mascots, nicknames, and logos. American society is inundated with stereotypic representations that appropriate American Indian culture (Merskin, 2001). One need not look further than the aisles of a grocery store (e.g., Land o' Lakes Butter), the local YMCA (e.g., Y-Princess camps), cars on the street (e.g., Jeep Cherokee), the floor under one's feet (e.g., Mohawk carpet), or simply turn on ESPN to see the highlights of the Washington Redskins game. These omnipresent images perpetuate misinformation and stereotypes about American Indians, including the stereotype of the noble savage, Lisa Rey Thomas, PhD the bloodthirsty savage, and that American Indians are a historic race that only exists in past-tense status. These stereotypes threaten the psychological functioning of American Indians and remind American Indian communities of the narrow view that society has of them (Fryberg, Markus, Oyserman, & Stone, 2008) One of the most prominent mechanisms of perpetuating societal stereotypes and misinformation about American Indians is the use of American Indian names, culture, and imagery in sports (King, Davis-Delano, Staurowsky, & Baca, 2006). According to scholars from a variety of disciplines outside of psychology, sports-related representations of -XLIX-
American Indians (e.g., Redskins, Braves, Indians, Fighting Sioux) are problematic because they (a) misuse sacred cultural symbols and spiritual practices; (b) perpetuate racist stereotypes of American Indians; (c) deny American Indians control over societal definitions of themselves; and (d) create a racially hostile environment for all students (Baca, 2004; Fenalon, 1999; King, Staurowsky, Baca, Davis, & Pewewardy, 2002; Pewewardy, 1991; Russel, 2003; Staurowsky, 2004; Staurowsky, 2007; Williams, 2006, 2007). In 2005, the American Psychological Association validated these interdisciplinary contentions by passing a resolution recommending the immediate retirement of American Indian mascots, symbols, images and personalities by schools, colleges, universities, athletic teams and organizations because this practice (a) undermines the educational experiences of members of all communities; (b) establishes an unwelcome and hostile learning environment for American Indian students; (c) has a negative impact on the self-esteem of American Indian children; (d) undermines the ability of American Indian Nations to portray accurate and respectful images of their culture; and (e) may represent a violation of the civil rights of American Indian people (APA, 2005). Emerging psychological research (e.g., Fryberg et al., 2008; Kim-Prieto, Goldstein, Okazaki, & Kirschner, 2010; Steinfeldt & Wong, 2010; Steinfeldt et al., in press) has supported this resolution by investigating and reporting the negative psychological effects of these race-based mascots, nicknames, and logos. In spite of emerging psychological research and institutional condemnation (in addition to APA, over 115 professional organizations have produced similar resolutions), the longstanding omnipresence of stereotypic images of American Indians in society (Merskin, 2001) creates the impression that these images must be acceptable (King et al., 2006). These images in sport have been hegemonically woven into the fabric of society, often disallowing a discussion about the possibility that this practice could be offensive, racist, or harmful to American Indians. Thus, although research and education are essential components for effectuating long-term attitudinal change, legislative enforcement is needed to penetrate this hegemony so that education, research, and the perspective of others can become a part of the discussion. There are a variety of legislative mechanisms that have been designed to effectuate change at multiple levels of sport in society. For example, at the level of professional athletics, a lawsuit has challenged the trademark of the Washington Redskins. At the collegiate athletic level, the NCAA enacted a policy in 2005 that prohibits teams with Native-themed mascots from participating in postseason play. However, at the level of high school, middle school, and grade school athletics, there has been no state-wide legislation to address this issue-until now. On May 5, 2010, Wisconsin made national history when Governor Jim Doyle signed Senate Bill 25 (WI SB-25) into law. As a result, Wisconsin became the first state to enact legislation that intends to offer a fair process to address the use of race-based mascots, nicknames, and logos in schools. Prior to this legislation, if a community member were to raise the issue that a school's Native-themed mascot, nickname, or logo is offensive or produces negative -L-
psychological outcomes, their claim is often rejected — often in a hostile manner — by the local school administration, community, and school board. Even if one were to be granted a hearing-and presented an armory of legitimate evidence — the school board often chooses to reject their claim, usually based on their own desire to maintain tradition and based on false contentions that this practice honors American Indians.
On May 5, 2010, Wisconsin made national history when Governor Jim Doyle signed Senate Bill 25 (WI SB-25) into law. As a result, Wisconsin became the first state to enact legislation that intends to offer a fair process to address the use of race-based mascots, nicknames, and logos in schools. …In this process, scientific evidence can be held up against contemporary arguments of honor and tradition that are often used as trump cards…
However, this new legislation seeks to change this dynamic so that members of racial or ethnic minority groups no longer bear the burden of proof in matters where they face racial discrimination and educational disenfranchisement. According to WI SB-25, if a resident of a school district files a complaint that indicates that the school mascot, nickname, or logo promotes (a) discrimination; (b) pupil harassment; or (c) stereotyping, this law now requires the matter to go to an external third party (i.e., State Superintendant, Department of Public Instruction) where a more legitimate process can conceivably occur. In this process, scientific evidence can be held up against contemporary arguments of honor and tradition Mattie R. White, MS, MEd that are often used as trump cards in the discussion at the local level about why the race-based mascot, nickname, or logo should be retained. It is important to note that this law does not directly ban race-based mascots, nicknames, or logos. Instead, this law intends to initiate a fairer and less biased process to critically examine this issue. If this process determines that a school district's mascot, nickname, or logo does promote discrimination, pupil harassment, or stereotyping, then the school district can be fined up to $1,000 per day until they remove the mascot, nickname, or logo in order to be in compliance with the law. Legislation such as WI SB-25 can be considered a complementary extension of APA's 2005 resolution, and this legislation can be used as a template for other states to initiate a fairer process to evaluate if the practice of race-based mascotery promotes discrimination, pupil harassment, and/or stereotyping. This process is important because people who raise this issue to the local power structure often face discrimination and retribution for their complaints, and the local school board often minimizes the issue and claims that American Indian communities should focus their attention on more serious issues they are facing (e.g., -LI-
alcoholism, Type II diabetes). However, according to Davis (2002), if mainstream Americans can't understand the problem of Native-themed mascots, nicknames, and logos, they can't understand sovereignty or other issues affecting the quality of life for American Indian communities. As it relates to psychologists, an awareness of the marginalization of American Indians through the practice of race-based mascotery can help mental health professionals examine their own stereotypes and gain a more comprehensive understanding of their American Indian clients by including unique aspects of their reality that may contribute to their worldview and even their presenting concerns (Steinfeldt &Wong, 2010). Conclusion In sum, emerging legislative enforcement …emerging legislative enforcement (e.g., (e.g., WI SB-25) can enhance the WI SB-25) can enhance the effectiveness effectiveness of professional organizational of professional organizational resolutions (e.g., APA, 2005), scientific psychological resolutions (e.g., APA, 2005), scientific research, and educational efforts that aim psychological research, and educational to end the use of mascotery.. Doing so efforts that aim to end the use of mascotery. can hasten the process by which this As a result, it becomes a reasonable contem porary practice becom es a question to ask — in 30 years, how will we historical footnote… look back at this period of history, and how will we judge our society's continued engagement in this racist practice of appropriating another culture for use as sports mascots, nicknames, and logos? Similarly, it seems so obviously objectionable when we use hindsight to look back at the period in our history when Blacks were not allowed to drink from the same drinking fountains as Whites. However, it is important to understand that at the time, this too was a practice that was hegemonically woven into the fabric of society — it was seen by the majority of people as part of the normal order of society, and it took legislative efforts (e.g., Civil Rights Act) to accelerate the process of change. Thus, legislation like WI SB-25 can be an important component of a multifaceted approach to encourage people to stop the practice of appropriating and marginalizing another culture through the use of race-based mascots, nicknames, and logos. Doing so can hasten the process by which this contemporary practice becomes a historical footnote about stereotypes and civil rights violations, rather than an ongoing practice of stereotyping and violating the civil rights of a group of people. References American Psychological Association (2005, October 18). APA resolution recommending the immediate retirement of American Indian mascots, symbols, images, and personalities by schools, colleges, universities, athletic teams, and organizations. Retrieved online from http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/policy/indian-mascots.pdf. Baca, L. R. (2004). Native images in schools and the racially hostile environment. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 28, 71-78. -LII-
Brave Heart, M. Y., & DeBruyn, L. M. (1998). The American Indian Holocaust: Healing historical unresolved grief. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 8, 56-78. Davis, L. R. (2002). The problem with Native American mascots. Multicultural Education, 9, 11-14. Fenelon, J. V. (1999). Indian icons in the World Series of racism: Institutionalization of the racial symbols of Wahoos and Indians. Research in Politics and Society, 6, 25-45. Fryberg, S. A., Markus, H. R., Oyserman, D. & Stone, J. M. (2008). Of warrior chiefs and Indian princesses: The psychological consequences of American Indian mascots. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30, 208-218. Kim-Prieto, C., Goldstein, L.A., Okazaki, S., & Kirschner, B. (2010). Effect of exposure to an American Indian mascot on the tendency to stereotype a different minority group. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40, 534-553. King, C.R., Davis-Delano, L., Staurowsky, E., & Baca, L. (2006). Sports mascots and the media. In A. A. Raney & J. Bryant (Eds.), Handbook of Sports and Media (pp. 559-575). Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum and Associates. King, C.R., Staurowsky, E. J., Baca, L., Davis, L. R., & Pewewardy, C. (2002). Of polls and prejudice: Sports Illustrated's errant 'Indian Wars'. Journal of Sport & Social Issues, 26, 381-402. Merskin, D. (2001). Winnebagos, Cherokees, Apaches, and Dakotas: The persistence of stereotyping of American Indians in American advertising brand names. Howard Journal of Communications, 12, 159-169. National Collegiate Athletic Association (2005). Native American mascots. Retrieved online from http://www.ncaa.org/wps/portal/ncaahome?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/wps/wcm/conne ct/ncaa/NCAA/Media%20and%20Events/Press%20Room/Current%20Issues/General%20In formation/native_american_mascots.html Pewewardy, C. D. (1991). Native American mascots and imagery: The struggle of unlearning Indian stereotypes. Journal of Navajo Education, 9, 19-23. Russel, S. (2003). Ethics, alterity, incommensurability, honor. Ayaangwaamizin: The international journal of indigenous philosophy, 3, 31-54. Staurowsky, E. J. (2004). Privilege at Play: On the legal and social fictions that sustain American Indian sport imagery. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 28, 11-29. Staurowsky, E. J. (2007). "You know, we are all Indian": Exploring White power and privilege in reactions to the NCAA Native American mascot policy. Journal of Sport and Social Issues, 31, 61-76. Steinfeldt, J. A., Foltz, B. D., Kaladow, J. K., Carlson, T., Pagano, L., Benton, E., & Steinfeldt, M. C. (in press). Racism in the electronic age: Role of online forums in expressing racial attitudes about American Indians. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Seinfeldt, J.A., & Wong, Y. J. (2010). Multicultural training on American Indian issues: Testing the effectiveness of an intervention to attitudes toward Native-themed mascots. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16, 110-115. Williams, D. M. (2006). Patriarchy and the 'Fighting Sioux': A gendered look at racial college sports nicknames. Race, Ethnicity, & Education, 9, 325-340. Williams, D. M. (2007). Where's the honor? Attitudes toward the "Fighting Sioux" nickname and logo. Sociology of Sport Journal, 24, 437-456. Witko, T. (2005). In whose honor: Understanding the psychological implications of American Indian mascots. California Psychologist, January Issue. -LIII-
Jesse A. Steinfeldt, PhD is a Counseling Psychologist of Oneida descent and an Assistant Professor in the Department of Counseling and Educational Psychology at Indiana University. In addition to receiving clinical training at the Oneida Behavioral Health Center and conducting research on the psychological effects of Native-themed mascots/nicknames/logos, Dr. Steinfeldt has given presentations on race-based mascotery at both Tribal Colleges and Predominantly W hite Institutions (PW I). Jesse's professional identity is also influenced by his degree in Sport Psychology and his interests in counseling student-athletes and training graduate students to provide psychological services within the athletic domain. Lisa Rey Thomas, PhD (Tlingit) is a Research Scientist at the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute at the University of W ashington and has 20 years of experience working with American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) communities with a focus on community based and culturally grounded research that emphasizes strengths and resiliencies. Dr. Thomas serves on numerous committees and task groups, including the American Psychological Association's (APA) Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (Chair, 2007), APA Div 18 Psychologists in Indian Country Section (Chair, 2007-2009), Immediate Past Co-Chair for the Native Research Network, and Member-at-Large of APA's Division 45 Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues. She is a member of APA Divisions 18, 27, 45, and 56, is also a member of the Society of Indian Psychologists, and serves on the planning team for the 2011 and 2013 National Multicultural Conference and Summits. Mattie R. White, MS, MEd is the Assistant Athletic Director for student services at Indiana University (IU) and a first-year doctoral student in the IU Counseling Psychology program with plans to specialize in Sport Psychology. Mattie received both her bachelor's degree in journalism (2002) and master's of education (2004) from Ohio University, and completed a second master's degree in athletic administration (2008) at Indiana University. Prior to coming to IU, Mattie served as the Assistant Director of campus programs for multicultural life at Macalester College where she was responsible for campus wide multicultural programming, advising all cultural student organizations, and overseeing the Cultural House.
Wuyámush (Be Happy, Be Well – Pequot): Adapting a Mental Health and Healing Experience to a Southeast New England Native American Community Gretchen Chase Vaughn, PhD Vaughn Associates, New Haven, CT Michele Scott, BA Executive Project Director, MPTN Circles of Care Project Mashantucket, CT
Tribal Com m unity Members Who Have Taken Part in the MPTN Circles of Care Project
Overview Native American children in southeastern New England have to confront many stereotypes, myths and barriers that have been perpetuated over four hundred years: first, being part of the "invisible minority" and confronting the mythology that there are no Indians east of the Mississippi. Since colonial times the systematic process of dispossessing Native Americans from their land and relabeling them racially — coined "pencil genocide" (Richmond, 2010) — so as not to acknowledge Native American racial/ethnic identity (Mancini, 2008), has lingered in this community as an invisible pain. Our community is now
Since colonial times the systematic p ro c e s s o f d is p o s s e s s in g N a tiv e Americans from their land and relabeling them racially — coined "pencil genocide" (Richmond, 2010) — so as not to acknowledge Native Am erican racial/ethnic identity, has lingered in this community as an invisible pain. However, the counter narrative…is the ability …to transcend colonial boundaries and make strategic decisions to maintain ethnic identity culture, and physical, mental, spiritual and environm ental well-being.
confronting how this historical, intergenerational trauma impacts on the health and well being of our youth. However, the counter narrative to this part of history is the ability of the southeast New England Native American (SNENA) community to transcend colonial boundaries and make strategic decisions to maintain ethnic identity culture, and physical, mental, spiritual and environmental well-being. The Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation's Circle of Care (MPTN COC) is a three year planning project funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration( SAMHSA). The project is led by a Native American Advisory Board to help southeastern Connecticut Tribal communities collaborate with providers in order to design a culturally appropriate mental health service model for youth and families. We listened to the voices of our community. Our elders advised us that the historical and cultural adaptive practices should be used to help the youth and families today. Our youth recommended Gretchen Chase Vaughn, PhD that we link popular contemporary art forms with mental health awareness through poster and logo contests, poetry, video, music, photography. Providers suggested the need for ongoing dialogue where mental health providers learn about the community needs and culture, and community members learn about services. In response to these strategic goals the MPTN COC has sponsored a Mental Health Awareness Fair for the past two years in conjunction with National Children's Mental Health Awareness Day (NCMHAD) sponsored by SAMHSA. Mental Health Awareness Day This event was designed to engage the community in the vision of the MPTN COC - that southeast New England Native American youth and families will have complete access to comprehensive, culturally appropriate mental health services with linkages to agencies collaborating in a system of care. A planning committee was formed which included Tribal community members, providers, parents, youth and elders. During bi-monthly meetings held before the event, community members and providers were able to interact as equals and worked to develop interactive booths which would be informative about both mental -LVI-
Michele Scott, BA
health and cultural healing practices. There were informational tables and interactive booths addressing various mental health issues (including a booth representing the National Indian Child Welfare Association, NICWA). Booths included disabled bowling, yoga, meditation, communication exercises, team building, good touch/bad touch, listening to popular songs to identify the mental health themes, drawing and journaling about feelings, etc. Mental health providers were able to meet and describe their services to Native American youth and families in a non-threatening environment. Raffle prizes were awarded to youth who visited each booth. Cultural Adaptation SNENA traditions of adaptation, passing SNENA traditions of adaptation, passing knowledge through oral history, and knowledge through oral history, and maintaining inter- and intra- Tribal maintaining inter- and intra- Tribal community connections were used to adapt community connections were used to adapt the Children's Mental Health the Children's Mental Health Awareness Awareness Day activities.…The cultural Day activities. The planning committee interactive booths allowed youth to not decided that the event should always only acknowledge problems in our include cultural stations/activities. The community , but to also recognize the cultural interactive booths allowed youth traditions and cultural practices that can be used to heal those problems. to not only acknowledge problems in our community , but to also recognize the traditions and cultural practices that can be used to heal those problems. Our follow-up feedback indicated that the youth seemed the most engaged with the cultural stations, such as the following. !
Pequot Language & Art Project – youth drew a picture of something that made them feel happy. They also learned the imperative "Be Happy/Be Well" in Pequot (Wuyámush) [adapted from the "My Feelings are a Work of Art" component of NCMHAD].
Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center (MPMRC) provided displays and treats from the exhibit that dealt with "tricky treats" that included diabetes prevention stories for Native American children [Eagle books diabetes prevention stories were developed by the Center for Disease Control].
Foods of Our Culture – youth learned about the foods that sustained the community hundreds of years ago and how to incorporate them into everyday living now so that the youth can remain healthy. The Mashantucket Pequot Cultural Department Coordinator explained to the youth that certain foods improve a person's brain function and mental health and that these foods were essential to our tribal history and traditional ceremonies and events.
Family Tree Exercises – Eastern Pequot and Mashantucket Pequot Elders were present to teach our youth how closely the two Tribal families are connected.
Storytelling – a Native American elder was able to tell stories to youth and parents and explain the healing power of storytelling.
Conclusion This activity has been a highly successful method to bring attention to both mental health and traditional cultural practices as resources for healing in our community. Over the past two years with support from the Native American Advisory Board, Tribal Councils, Tribal government departments, and local providers, approximately 400 community members have participated. Local providers also had the opportunity to meet with and learn from members of the southeastern New England Native American community. References Brave Heart, M. Y. H. (2005). Substance abuse, co-occurring mental health disorders, and the historical trauma response among American Indians/Alaska Natives. Research Monograph, Bureau of Indian Affairs, DASAP, Washington, DC. Cross, T.L. (2003). Culture as a Resource for Mental Health. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, V. 9(4), 354-359 Mancini, J.R. (2008). "In contempt and oblivion": The Transformation of Connecticut's Indian Population in the Era of the American Revolution. In D. Naumec (Ed.), Proceedings of the Northeastern Native Peoples & the American Revolutionary Era: 1760-1810. Mashantucket: Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center. Lamb-Richmond, T. (2010). Teaching about American Indians of the Northeast: Who is telling the story? Workshop Presentation, Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, Mashantucket, CT. April 24, 2010.
Gretchen Chase Vaughn PhD is a clinical psychologist and principal of Vaughn Associates, a consulting firm which focuses on behavioral health, evaluation and culturally competent practice to improve the lives of underserved communities of color. She received her doctorate from The George W ashington University and currently serves as the Evaluator for the MPTN Circles of Care Project. Michele Scott BA, is an enrolled member of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation. She received her Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and American Studies from Columbia University. She is currently the Executive Project Director of the MPTN Circles of Care Project and is dedicated to program development focusing on mental health, cultural competency and social justice.
Honoring Children, Making Relatives: Indigenous Traditional Parenting Practices Compatible With Evidence-based Treatment Dolores Subia BigFoot, PhD Beverly W. Funderburk, PhD University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center Cultural/Historical Background The Indian Country Child Trauma Center designed a series of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN)1 transformations of evidence-based treatments. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an effective treatment model for parents who have either difficulty with appropriate parenting skills or children with behavior problems, was examined within the cultural framework of AI/AN parenting teachings. Honoring Children - Making Relatives, embeds the empirically based, assessment driven PCIT model within a framework that honors AI/AN traditional beliefs of wellbeing and parenting practices. Present day disparities within AI/AN populations can be traced to changes in the political, economic, social, cultural, and spiritual pathways that previously served to hold tribal or village groups together and provided the structure for family relations and social order. Boarding schools, missions, military conflict, broken treaties, oppression, exploitation, and removal undermined the structure of that order. Major concerns remain about the ability of vulnerable AI/AN parents to parent their children in a stable, healthy, non-violent
Present day dis pa ritie s w ithin A I/A N populations can be traced to changes in the political, economic, social, cultural, and spiritual pathways that previously served to hold tribal or village groups together and provided the structure for family relations and social order. Boarding schools, missions, military conflict, broken treaties, oppression, exploitation, and removal undermined the structure of that order.
American Indian and Alaska Native terminology is used to describe the Indigenous people of the continental United States; other terms use in the literature include Indians, Treaty Indians, Tribal, Native Villages, Alaskan Native Villages, Native Corporations, Native American, Native, First Americans, Tribal Nations, First Nations, Indigenous Nations, American Indian Tribes, plus other terms; more information can be found at the websites listed in foot note 2. -LX-
environment.2 Honoring Children - Making Relatives recognizes the old wisdom that was applied to parenting and family relationships for many generations, the teachings and practices that were interrupted when the structure of the Indigenous social composition was almost destroyed. Examination of components of traditional parenting practices reveals that PCIT, an evidence-based treatment which combines elements of social learning, family systems, and play therapy techniques, actually reflects some traditional practices. PCIT uses live coaching of the parent during a play/discipline situation to attain specific skills in nurturing parent/child play interactions, effective instructions and consistent consequences. AI/AN cultural consultants assisted with the adaptation process to assure that the beliefs, practices, and understandings incorporated were consistent with AI/AN cultures. Developers or leading trainers of the treatment models were included to maintain fidelity to the model and clarify their perspectives. Dolores Subia BigFoot, PhD
PCIT Reflects Indigenous Traditional Ways The nurturance practices in PCIT target goals compatible with traditional AI/AN beliefs about the "planting of good seeds," i.e., directing a child's thoughts and actions. Indigenous beliefs assumed that each child possessed qualities to develop into a worthwhile individual with caregivers encouraging correct behavior by acknowledging traits that would be helpful as the child grew older. For example: "My son brings me pride because he helps keeps the shelter warm through his willingness to help with the fire," or "My daughter is considerate of my old bones because when I move about, she watches and helps me as I rise." Even small efforts by children were honored by family members who "tended that good seed." The use of praise to encourage positive actions is an old AI/AN method of rearing children (BigFoot, 1989).
American Indian and Alaska Native people's service needs are well documented in Profiles of American Indian and Alaskan Native Populations in Various Settings, (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). This publication presents the wide variation in demographic characteristics for all tribes, villages, and rancherias, and includes descriptors of housing, population, sources of income, employability, education level, household members, and primary providers. Additional information on the mental health needs of American Indian and Alaska Native population can be found at www.ihs.gov; www.icctc.org; www.nihb.org; Additionally, proceedings on these same are available by the U.S. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs at http://indian.senate.gov/. For specific information on individual tribes or Native corporations, please visit their respective websites. -LXI-
In the typical PCIT protocol, there is little or no discussion of family traditions and family values, particularly regarding discipline. The Honoring Families Making Relatives approach allows for discussion of traditions and beliefs about discipline. Children were not granted unlimited freedom in traditional AI/AN practices (BigFoot, 1989). A concept that has been widely described in AI/AN cultures is that of non-interference - let things happen the way they are meant to be. While the concept of non-interference is important in the traditional context of living in close quarters, maintaining peaceful relations with extended family, or allowing natural consequences to happen, non-interference was never intended to result in inaction in the face of grave potential harm. Presenting an alternative to an unsuccessful condition is not interfering but allowing a person to have choices. Historic skills in negotiations, treaty making, and especially tribal protocol, demonstrate that there is a place for active resolution of problems in AI/AN traditions. It is helpful to view discipline as the teaching of self control as opposed to only punishment. For many Tribes, self discipline is highly prized, as demonstrated by traditions of fasting, vision quests, endurance during ceremonies, or self denial in ceremonies. In the typical PCIT protocol, there is little or no discussion of family traditions and fam ily values, particularly regarding discipline. The Honoring Families Making Relatives approach allows for discussion of traditions and beliefs about discipline.
Adaptions for Engagement of AI/AN Families There is great beauty in American Indian There is great sophistication in tribal Plains dancers in full regalia with twin protocol depending on status (chief, bustles made of Eagle feathers and h e a d m a n , e ld e r , v is ito r ), a c t i v i t y (ceremony, meals, blessing), or purpose coordinated beadwork on leggings, (recognition, sacrifice). Following protocol armbands, and moccasins. There is not only to accomplish a positive outcome is not form but there is function to their new for Indigenous people. Thus, it is movements. There is great sophistication in helpful for many families to describe tribal protocol depending on status (chief, PCIT,â€Śas a structured protocol that h ead m an , e lder, visitor), activity provides boundaries and encourages respectful behaviorsâ€Ś (ceremony, meals, blessing), or purpose Beverly W. Funderburk, (recognition, sacrifice). Following protocol PhD to accomplish a positive outcome is not new for Indigenous people. Thus, it is helpful for many families to describe PCIT, or indeed any evidence-based treatment, as a structured protocol that provides boundaries and encourages respectful behaviors in much the same way a traditional dancer complies with dance protocol. Once AN/AI parents understand the structure and sequence of the protocol (e.g., behavioral coding, learning specific words, and
meeting criteria) that serves to accomplish the broad outcome of improved warmth, cooperation, and mutual respect, they tend to not be distracted by it. With the mindset of following a proven protocol to achieve a desirable goal, the individual components of the EBT can be discussed using words that avoid jargon and incorporate familiar terms. For example, the PCIT clinical term, Behavioral Description (an important skill acquired in PCIT) was reframed as telling the story of the child's play. Another difficult requirement of PCIT is that of giving very specific praise to the child. Culturally, recognition of accomplishments often is given indirectly in AI/AN families. For example, a parent might say "Your Uncle will be proud when I tell him how well you listened today." Using culturally appropriate praise words like "honor" or "respect" or calling a child after a namesake, i.e., "little grandma" or "little grandpa" might be comfortable labeled praises for the Indigenous adult to use. This is another method in which a transformation of the wording was used while the basic intent and outcome remain unchanged.
Beverly W. Funderburk, PhD
Cultural Accommodation Process The cultural transformation of PCIT, Honoring Children-Making Relatives, did not change the basic PCIT tenets; rather the foundation is observed from a world view that can honor the teachings and the practices that have been part of AI/AN understandings for generations. Old wisdom does not lose meaning; its deeper truths only become more relevant with time. References BigFoot, D.S. (1989) Parent Training for American Indian Families. Unpublished manuscript. Dolores Subia BigFoot, PhD is an enrolled member of the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma and is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Pediatrics, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Dr. BigFoot is recognized for her efforts to bring traditional and spiritual practices and beliefs into the formal teaching and instruction of American Indian and Alaskan Native people and to the professionals who work with American Indian and Alaskan Native populations. Beverly W Funderburk, PhD is an Associate Professor of Research at the Center on Child Abuse and Neglect in the University of the Oklahoma Health Sciences Center's Department of Pediatrics. She conducts treatment and training in Parent-Child Interaction Therapy. Research interests include issues of training and dissemination in PCIT.
Teaching American Indian Children about Mental Illness: Developing a Culturally Sensitive Curriculum about the Science of Mental Illness Rebecca K. Dogan, MA, PLMHP William J. Warzak, PhD Maurice Godfrey, PhD Munroeâ€“Meyer Institute and The Department of Pediatrics University of Nebraska Medical Center Background The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has established a program to provide science education to children K-12. Entitled, "Science Education Partnership Award" (SEPA). This program funds initiatives throughout the country. Since 2005, Maurice Godfrey, PhD, Associate Professor at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC), has served as Principal Investigator for a SEPA program entitled: Breaking Barriers: Health Science Education in Native American Communities. Through the efforts of Dr. Godfrey and colleagues, initiatives to enhance science education have Rebecca K. Dogan, MA, been provided to teachers and students in some sixteen schools on six Indian reservations in Nebraska and South Dakota. In 2009, NIH provided a supplement to the primary SEPA award to address issues related to mental illness and healthy behaviors. With William Warzak, PhD, Professor of clinical psychology at Monroe-Meyer Institute, UNMC, serving as Co-PI, we adapted curricula initially developed by the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS), an NIH/NIMH supported non-profit program that is focused on designing educational science curricula Through the efforts of Dr. for teachers and students. Our primary curriculum, G o d frey a n d c o lle a g u e s , The Science of Mental Illness, strives to enable initiatives to enhance science students to make informed decisions regarding their education have been provided to own health and the health of others in the teachers and students in some community by providing information about the sixteen schools on six Indian reservations in Nebraska and science underpinning mental health and mental South Dakota. illness. Given the NIH initiative, the goal of the current project was to develop a mental health curriculum sensitive to American Indian values.
Developing a Culturally Sensitive Curriculum Curriculum development presented a number of unique challenges, not the least of which was reconciling American Indian beliefs about mental illness with current research and commonly accepted scientific understanding of mental illness. Our efforts to present a science curriculum sensitive to American Indian cultural beliefs required a multi-month effort to obtain a) relevant cultural research, b) needs assessment and feedback from local tribal representatives regarding initial drafts of the curriculum, and c) tribal representatives to deliver a portion of the curriculum. It is important to note that the curriculum was not focused on mental health issues in the Native American community; but rather, was focused on the science of mental illness in general, while being sensitive to tribal and cultural issues perhaps not considered by the scientific community at large. Nevertheless, American Indians are at a higher risk for a number of psychological problems including suicide, substance abuse and depression (Gone, J. P., 2004), and these issues were addressed by the curriculum. O ur efforts to present a science curriculum sensitive to American Indian cultural beliefs required a multi-month effort to obtain a) relevant cultural research, b) needs assessment and feedback from local tribal representatives regarding initial drafts of the curriculum, and c) tribal representatives to deliver a portion of the curriculum.
Review of the Literature An extensive literature review was completed to better understand how American Indians perceive mental illness, including etiologies and interventions. Indeed, American Indian views of traditional health care, which is a reflection of the dominant culture, often influence the extent to which Native Americans choose to access typical health care services (Plawecki, H. M., Sanchez, T. R., & Plawecki, J. A., 1994). For example, for many American Indians there is a link between spirituality, physical health, and healing that requires living in harmony with nature. Disharmony may result in illness (Sanchez, T. R., Plawecki, J.A., & Plawecki, H. M., 1996). As a result of these beliefs, tribal members may seek assistance from designated tribal members who can address disharmony William J. Warzak, PhD through sacred ceremonies. Nevertheless, there are those who will seek treatment from both health care professionals and traditional healers (Sanchez, T. R., Plawecki, J. A., & Plawecki, H. M., 1996).
It should be noted that American Indian culture is not monolithic (Jervis, L. L. & AI-SUPERPFP Team, 2009). Indeed, beliefs among different tribes may vary widely, thereby introducing another level of complexity in developing a curriculum anchored in science but sensitive to the cultural needs of several different tribes and traditions. Furthermore, providing education to American Indian students regarding the science of mental illness is not to dissuade people from the use of traditional practices but rather to reduce the stigma of mental illness and provide empirical evidence that disease does not develop from disharmony alone. With this understanding and additional knowledge American Indian children will be more capable of making informed decisions in the future about their health regardless of their choice of Native or Western treatment. Needs Assessment and Feedback from Community Members In addition to reviewing native health care beliefs and practices, a needs assessment was completed by 85 administrators and teachers in seven schools throughout Nebraska and South Dakota. The participants self-identified as Caucasian or affiliated with one or more of the following tribes: Santee, Yankton, Wichita, Ponca, Rosebud, Blackfeet, Winnebago, Sioux, Cheyenne, Prairie Band Potawatomi, Omaha, or Sisseton-Wahpeton. Assessment items included queries regarding whether or not the school had a mental health curriculum, if faculty were interested in addressing the science of mental health as a curriculum (e.g., current concepts and potential interventions for various disorders). In addition, participants were asked what issues may be controversial or Maurice Godfrey, PhD should be addressed with particular sensitivity given the cultural experiences of the students. Results from the needs assessment identified further interests of the participants, such as information regarding developmental disabilities, and suggested additional resources pertinent to students from specific tribes. Lastly, feedback regarding the initial curriculum was obtained from representatives of the local American Indian community. Obtaining Native Presenters Obtaining guest speakers to address various topics, particularly those related to historical trauma and how it relates to current beliefs about mental illness and mental health was crucial. Furthermore, supplemental readings from the Journal of the National Center on American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research were provided and reviewed daily. These articles provided information applicable to American Indian culture while investigating mental health concerns from both Native cultural and scientific perspectives. -LXVI-
The Final Curriculum The BSCS curriculum ultimately was enhanced by UNMC and community professionals to include presentations on Mood Disorders and Suicide, Developmental Disabilities, Addiction and Historical Trauma, among others, as well as a discussion of tribal resources available in local communities. It is our hope that this enhanced science curriculum will extend the awareness of mental illness by American Indian students and teachers. It is our goal to provide current scientific concepts regarding causes and treatments of mental health disorders while demonstrating respect for individual beliefs and Native American cultural identity. This work was supported by the Science Education Partnership Award (SEPA) from the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) #1 R25 RR022707. References Gone, J. P. (2004). Mental Health Services for Native Americans in the 21st Century United States. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35, 10-18. Jervis, L. L. & AI-SUPERPFP Team (2009). Disillusionment, faith, and cultural traumatization on a Northern Plains reservation. Traumatology, 15, 11-22. Plawecki, H. M., Sanchez, T. R., & Plawecki, J. A. (1994). Cultural aspects of caring for Navajo Indian clients. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 12, 291-306. Sanchez, T. R., Plawecki, J.A., Plawecki, H. M. (1996). The delivery of culturally sensitive health care to Native Americans. Journal of Holistic Nursing, 14, 295-307. Rebecca Dogan, MA, PLMHP is a Predoctoral Research Fellow at Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center. She has provided services to a variety of populations including but not limited to children with developmental disabilities, foster and kinship caregivers, as well as at-risk children from immigrant families. William J. Warzak, PhD is Professor of Psychology at Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center. He has provided clinical services to a variety of children, including Native American children through the Indian Health Service. Brain injury and elimination disorders comprise his primary research interests with an additional focus in graduate and professional training. Maurice Godfrey, PhD is an Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Nebraska Medical Center. He is the Principal Investigator of the SEPA grant, described above and has a longstanding interest in science education. In addition, he has a distinguished history as an investigator of connective tissue disorders and is considered an international expert in Marfan Syndrome.
The Society of Indian Psychologists Gayle Morse, PhD Utah State University Pamela Deters, PhD SIP President Jacqueline Gray, PhD SIP President Elect The year 2010 marks the 23rd annual retreat and convention (June 25-29 in the Logan, Utah area) of the Society of Indian Psychologists (SIP), which is primarily comprised of Native A m erican psychologists, psychology graduate students, and friends of Native people. SIP was developed solely for the purpose of bringing together Indigenous psychologists and mental health providers to advocate for the physical and mental well-being of Native peoples by increasing the knowledge and awareness of issues impacting Native mental health. Moving from a small group of Native mental health providers, SIP is now a well-established national organization and is one of four national ethnic minority psychological associations recognized by the American Psychological Association ( APA). The SIP annual convention has regularly been financially supported by APA, specifically the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA), Indian Health Service (IHS), and Utah State University's American Indian Support Project (USU AISP). SIP was developed solely for the purpose o f b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r In d ig e n o u s p s y c h o lo g is ts a n d m e n ta l h e a lth providers to advocate for the physical and mental well-being of Native peoples by increasing the knowledge and awareness of issues impacting Native mental health.
This gathering is of utmost importance to us â€Ś th e c o m m u n ity o f In d ig e n o u s not only as psychologists but as a Native Psychologists is a very small membership community. During the retreat and convention of approximately 250 clinically trained we take the opportunity to renew, American Indian and Alaska Native reinvigorate, and recommit ourselves to psychologists. Native people represent only 0.3% of 84,883 psychologists;â€Ś Native health and wellness. The three-day retreat sets the tone for the convention and embodies ceremony, spirituality, and community. While at the retreat we take the time to hike ancient mountains and ride on horseback as our ancestors have done for generations. Our main goal during the retreat is to come together as multiple Indigenous Nations, and receive the guidance and mentoring of our elders and spiritual leaders. -LXVIII-
Immediately following the retreat the two-day annual convention begins. The convention centers on research questions focused solely on indigenous issues. It is a warm and welcoming program for students to present their research ideas, as well as meet with Native mentors and nationally known Indigenous psychologists. These connections are important because the community of Indigenous Psychologists is a very small membership of approximately 250 clinically trained American Indian and Gayle Morse, PhD Alaska Native psychologists. Native people represent only 0.3% of 84,883 psychologists; therefore, this is an opportune time for students to meet with Native professionals who work with communities, who conduct research, and who are engaged in obtaining their college degrees (SAMHSA 2004). This convention at Utah State University (USU) has multiple purposes including time to get acquainted, renew old friendships, and discuss ideas, as well as disseminate knowledge and new information relevant to Native People. We are guided by our elders, while seasoned Native psychologists support new emerging native leaders, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Our students come from multiple American Indian and Alaska Native Indian into Psychology programs across the country Jacqueline Gray, PhD including University of North Dakota, Oklahoma State University, University of Montana, University of Alaska and Utah State University. It is an honor to watch our students blossom from unsure undergraduates to confident graduate students who are eager to help their communities. This maturation process underscores the importance of mentoring programs to ensure the success of our American Indian students. At this year's meeting, SIP created a journal to train American Indian student scholars, created a committee to help students negotiate the bewildering world of student funding, and affirmed its commitment to students at the general meeting of the SIP members. The students and psychologists have agreed to work toward an even stronger association through their membership in SIP, to support student involvement in the annual convention of the SIP, to mentor student involvement in the national American Psychological Association (APA), and to help students better -LXIX-
Pam ela Deters, PhD
understand possible funding for their education as psychologists. In addition, this year we were joined by Indigenous faculty and students from New Zealand who have experienced many of the same difficulties American Indians have. We were able to embrace our New Zealand relatives to create ties and projects that will cement our international relationships and support our mutual advantage. We look forward to the growth of SIP and future retreats and conventions. For more information on SIP, go to: http://aiansip.org/. Gayle Skawennio (Nice Flowing Words) Morse, PhD is the Co-Director of the American Indian Support Program, a licensed Psychologist and assistant professor at Utah State University. She has conducted research in the areas of environmental health, Native American Culture, and mental health. She has presented findings in peer reviewed articles, as well as at international and national conferences. Pam Deters, PhD (Cherokee/Choctaw) is the current president of the Society of Indian Psychologists (SIP). She formerly worked at the University of Alaska Fairbanks as an Associate Professor and Director of the Alaska Natives into Psychology (ANPsych) program. Dr. Deters now works in private practice in Louisiana. Jacqueline Gray, PhD is president-elect for the Society of Indian Psychologists, a career navigator and mentor for the North Dakota IDeA Network for Biomedical Research Excellence, and an assistant professor in the Center for Rural Health at the University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Her work is in the areas of native health and mental health, suicide prevention, and ethical research in American Indian communities.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS Implicit Bias May Make Evenhanded Application of New Immigration Law Impossible, Psychologist Says Arizona recently adopted a new law giving police the authority to inquire about a person's immigration status during a stop, detention, or arrest. The APA interviewed social psychologist John Dovidio, PhD, of Yale University about the new law. Dr. Dovidio studies issues of social power and social relationships including the influence of explicit and implicit bias. APA
The new law gives broad powers to police officers yet we know from research that all people including police officers have automatic or implicit bias about some racial or ethnic groups. What is implicit bias?
Implicit biases are beliefs (stereotypes) and feelings (prejudice) that are activated without intent, control, and often conscious awareness. These are habits of mind that develop through cultural as well as personal associations. Whereas most people no longer consciously endorse stereotypes and prejudice, the majority of people still harbor implicit biases.
Will this new law lead to racial profiling within the state?
Stereotyping, prejudice, and biases in how people perceive and react to members of other groups typically occur automatically and with limited conscious control. These automatic processes are even more influential when people feel threatened or are under time pressure - common experiences for police officers - and thus will lead to systematic and racially/ethnically biased profiling.
What are the effects of racial profiling beyond the individual; i.e. are there effects on the whole community?
Social identities are important for everyone, but members of traditionally disadvantaged groups generally identify particularly strongly with their group and are vigilant to being treated unfairly because of their group membership. Racial profiling is precisely the kind of injustice that offends not only the people directly involved but also the community as a whole. Moreover, because these incidents are perceived as group based, they erode trust and good will toward the majority group and to the police, as well. 4
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ APA
The Arizona governor has said that police in the state will be trained to properly apply the law. Will police officers in the state be able to overcome their implicit or unconscious bias?
Training of the type that is being proposed cannot consistently mitigate the effects of these implicit, and often unconscious, biases. Training may make people more aware of the potential for biased implementation of the law and help them understand better what they should be doing, but research has shown that training by itself cannot eliminate the systematic forces of implicit bias that operate unintentionally, often without awareness and the ability to control it. Training should help limit blatant abuses, but implicit biases will still play an important role in how the new police powers actually play out on the street.
A second new law in Arizona is also creating controversy; this one has to do with courses that are designed primarily for students to teach them about their cultural heritage. What is the importance of knowing one's group history and appreciating the cultural heritage of others?
Having a stronger sense of group connection and identity can buffer feelings of depression and distress typically produced by perceptions of discrimination. However, for more positive and productive intergroup relations today, it is important not only to recognize and value one's heritage but also to know that one's group is respected by other groups and that there is common connection, identity and interdependence among the different groups in our society. Educating young people about their own heritage as well as the heritage of their classmates is one way to foster that respect and connection.
ASSOCIATION REPORTS The APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs A Fond Farewell 2010 APA CEMA — Kevin Cokley, PhD (Chair); Rose L. Weahkee, PhD; Josette G. Harris, PhD; Pratyusha "Usha" Tummala-Narra, PhD; Derald Wing Sue, PhD; Miguel E. Gallardo, PsyD The Committee of Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) is once again enduring change. It’s senior staff liaison, Dr. Bertha G. Holliday, Senior Director of the APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) has retired. Change is not always easy; however, it is an important process that, like the seasons of year, remind us what has been, what is important, and what we may look forward to. Experiencing the setting sun amidst a glorious panorama such as the Grand Canyon often brings mixed emotions and feelings of joy, excitement, and even a bit of sadness to the surface. CEMA is experiencing those feelings and emotions at this important crossroad of change. Yet, one only needs to be reminded of the bright horizon of tomorrow’s dawn to know that the future is filled with extraordinary potential. CEMA’s work will go on; it’s mission unchanged. The Committee is very grateful that Dr. Holliday shared her talents, expertise, knowledge, and friendship with us these past 16 years. Dr. Holliday will be missed but her legacy will endure. Not unlike the great leaders of the past, Dr. Holliday was inspiring, honest, fair, and visionary. She understood the importance of cooperation and the value of collaboration to the success and accomplishment of the work CEMA deemed necessary and essential. A longtime governance member herself, Dr. Holliday’s experiences and expertise enabled CEMA to sustain its presence and grow its influence throughout and across many levels of organized psychology’s expansive staff and governance structures. For example, during her early years as OEMA’s director, Dr. Holliday encouraged CEMA to refocus the purpose and goals of its annual invitational breakfast during the APA convention. Rather than an opportunity for ethnic minority psychology’s state psychological associations leadership to come together, Dr. Holliday’s influence helped the breakfast to become the major ethnic minority public policy legislative advocacy event that it is today. Similarly, her efforts enabled CEMA to continue and expand its visibility and presence at the APA convention by encouraging CEMA to partner with other governance groups and Divisions on topics of mutual concern. This is particularly noteworthy given the continued reduction in convention programming hours allocated to governance groups over the years and the challenges faced by CEMA when soliciting time from its parent board, the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest (BAPPI) in recent years. 6
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Dr. Holliday also was a superb champion of negotiation and diplomacy. Through her efforts CEMA successfully developed and secured APA Council of Representatives adoption of several important resolutions: (1) The 2005 APA Resolution Recommending the Immediate Retirement of American Indian Mascots, Symbols, Images, and Personalities by Schools, Colleges, Universities, Athletic Teams, and Organizations; and (2) The 2001 APA Resolution on Racial/Ethnic Profiling and Other Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Law and Security Enforcement Activities, in partnership with the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (APA Division 45). As a member of the official APA delegation of the United Nation’s 2001 World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia, and Related Intolerance (WCAR), Dr. Holliday collaborated with other delegates, including CEMA’s Dr. William D. Parham, to ensure that psychology’s voice, for the first time, would be included in a major United Nation’s Declaration.
2010 CEM A M embers and Liaisons Front Row Left to Right: Rose L. W eahkee, PhD; Pratyusha "Usha" Tummala-Narra, PhD; Kevin Cokley, PhD (Chair); M aria T. Schultheis., PhD (Liaison) M arkeda Newell, PhD (Liaison) Back Row Left to Right: M iguel E. Gallardo, PsyD; Derald W ing Sue, PhD; Torrey W ilson, PhD (Liaison) Not Pictured: CEMA Member: Josette Harris, PhD
ASSOCIATION REPORTS Dr. Holliday also has been a great friend! Her good humor, exciting stories, and invigorating banter made CEMA’s meetings and the many meals we shared together meaningful and worthwhile. She helped shape CEMA’s half day-long new member orientation session into an experience that enabled new members to see CEMA’s purpose, feel excitement about the possibilities of CEMA’s mission, and most importantly feel welcome to the strange and sometimes confusing world that can be APA’s governance structure. CEMA has been the gateway that many of APA’s and psychology’s ethnic minority leaders have passed though. Dr. Holliday helped the experience be just a little less daunting and a bit more “family”oriented. CEMA’s challenge will be to build upon Dr. Holliday’s legacy of cooperation, collaboration, leadership, and friendship to enable APA’s ethnic minority psychology agenda in general, and CEMA’s mission in particular to prosper and grow! CEMA and others celebrated and honored Dr. Holliday’s 16 years of service to APA at the recent APA Annual Convention in San Diego, California. Fond Farewell Dr. Holliday! Although CEMA will miss your presence, your vision endures!
The Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI) 2010 CNPAAEMI Members — Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, PhD, Asian American Psychological Association; Edward Anthony Delgado-Romero, PhD National Latina(o) Psychological Association; Linda James Meyers, PhD, Association of Black Psychologists; Pamela B. Deters, PhD Society of Indian Psychologists; Manuel J. Casas, PhD, Division 45 Farewell & Congratulations! The Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI) takes this opportunity to acknowledge and applaud the leadership of the APA Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA) by the retiring Senior Director,
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Dr. Bertha G. Holliday. After 16 years of service to APA Dr. Holliday will be leaving her current post. However, we will look forward to continuing to work with her in her new role as Chief Consultant on the APA Diversity Implementation Plan. Dr. Holliday’s stewardship of the APA Office of Ethic Minority Affairs (OEMA) has supported the Council in evolving from its once a year, breakfast gathering during the APA annual convention to its current, initiatives-focused, mission-driven two meetings per year; one often convened in connection with an event of one of the five major ethnic minority psychological organizations. Dr. Holliday has contributed to CNPAAEMI’s implementation of its mission of mutual collaboration and cooperation. For example, Dr. Holliday was instrumental in the development and production of CNPAAEMI’s publications series. To date, CNPAAEMI has produced three publications, Guidelines for Research in Ethnic Minority Communities (1999); Psychological Treatment of Ethnic Minority Populations (2003); and Psychology Education and Training from Culture-Specific and Multiracial Perspectives: Critical Issues and Recommendations (2009). The fourth publication in this series is currently in development and will focus on tests and assessments in communities of color. The creation, development, and implementation of CNPAAEMI’s Henry Tomes Awards for Distinguished Contributions to the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Psychology, is further evidence of Dr. Holliday’s support in and commitment to fostering collaboration.
CNPAAEM I members, from left to right: Gordon C. Nagayama Hall, PhD; M anuel Casas, PhD; Pamela B. Deters, PhD; Linda James M eyers, PhD; Edward Anthony Delgado-Romero, PhD
ASSOCIATION REPORTS Dr. Holliday has been an inspiring visionary to many, understanding the importance of cooperation and the value of collaboration to the success of an initiative involving multiple stakeholders. Her actions and counsel within APA has often been the difference between prompt action or continuing discussions. In 2006, the Asian American Psychological Association honored Dr. Holliday by awarding her and OEMA a Presidential Award for “outstanding commitment to social justice and coalition building.” Dr. Holliday’s legacy has enabled APA’s ethnic minority psychology agenda in particular to prosper and grow, and supported CNPAAEMI’s mission in general! CNPAAEMI will miss Dr. Holliday, but looks forward to the possibility of enhanced attention to and action on diversity and multicultural issues/concerns by APA and its leadership. The APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) and CNPAAEMI acknowledged and celebrated Dr. Holliday’s 16 years of service to APA at the recent APA Annual Convention in San Diego, California. Farewell & Congratulations Dr. Holliday!
Commission on Ethnic Minority, Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology 2 TaskForce (CEMRRAT2) Goodbye, Dr. Holliday…Thanks for the Memories! 2010 CEMRRAT2 Task Force – James E. Freeman, PhD (Chair); Jessica Henderson Daniel, PhD; Frederick T. L. Leong, PhD; Ena Vasquez-Nuttall, EdD The Commission on Ethnic Minority Recruitment, Retention, and Training in Psychology (CEMRRAT) and its successor the CEMRRAT2 Task Force, owe a great debt of gratitude and much appreciation to Dr. Bertha G. Holliday for her exemplary management and leadership of the many projects, activities, and initiatives associated with CEMRRAT’s mission, goals, and objectives over the years which have touch many across and throughout the Association. Therefore, it is fitting that upon her retirement on July 15, 2010, as Senior Director of the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs (OEMA), the Task Force adds its voice to the chorus of many who have reaped the rewards of Dr. Holliday’s exceptional counsel,
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ trusted guidance, and warm friendship during her 16 year tenure at APA. Dr. Holliday’s unwavering commitment and steadfast dedication to CEMRRAT’s vision reflects great credit upon her, the Association, and psychology. In 1994, when Dr. Holliday began her stewardship of OEMA, CEMRRAT was merely an idea in the minds of many. The passage of the 1993 APA Resolution on Ethnic Minority Recruitment and Retention, sponsored by the APA Board of Education Affairs (BEA) stating that the Association “...places a high priority on issues related to the education of ethnic minorities” helped to shape the concept. Soon thereafter the Board of Directors and the Council of Representatives allocated resources for CEMRRAT’s creation, and the rest, is history! Since CEMRRAT’s early days, Dr. Holliday has been an outstanding champion for the development, dissemination, implementation, and continued funding of CEMRRAT’s many products, programs and activities. CEMRRAT has produced two major reports, three substantive information booklets, seven education and training brochures, and a directory of experts in multicultural psychology. The CEMRRAT Implementation Grants Fund, one of CEMRRAT’s signature programs, has awarded over $400,000 to fund 134 of the 232 proposals submitted from its inception in 1999 to 2006. Moreover, this funding was instrumental in leveraging no less than $370,000 in additional support. In addition, CEMRRAT’s Richard M. Suinn Minority Achievement Award, another CEMRRAT signature program, has become a prestigious award coveted by many psychology graduate training programs across the United States. CEMRRAT’s impact on psychology’s ethnic minority recruitment, retention, and training pipeline has been significant. Dr. Holliday’s understanding of the importance of cooperation and the value of collaboration to the success and accomplishment of the programs and initiatives involving multiple stakeholders were critical elements of CEMRRAT’s achievements. She can easily be considered among the stellar pioneers and trailblazers that have influenced and contributed to the formation, development, implementation, and maintenance of psychology’s education and training pipeline. CEMRRAT is extremely fortunate to be able to count her among its colleagues and friends. The APA Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs (CEMA) and the CEMRRAT2 Task Force celebrated and honored Dr. Holliday’s 16 years of service to APA at the recent APA Annual Convention in San Diego, California. Goodbye Dr. Holliday, and thanks for the memories! 11
ASSOCIATION REPORTS 2010 ProDIGs Awardees The Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs seeks to increase APA’s’ outreach to and strengthen its relationship with psychology departments/programs at ethnic minority serving institutions through its Psychology in Ethnic Minority Serving Institutions (PEMSI) initiative. One of the most visible aspects of this initiative is the Promoting Research and Training on Health Disparities Issues Grants (ProDIGS). This program awards small grants (approximately $6500 each) to early career psychology faculty at ethnic minority serving institutions who are interested in establishing a research or training program focused on a health disparities. Grants are to be used for efforts (e.g. pilot studies) that are preliminary to and will help to strengthen a subsequent major grant application to a federal agency or private foundation. It is expected that ProDIGs awardees will complete their project within 18 months after grant award and submit a research/training proposal to a federal agency or foundation within 24 months after the award of the ProDIGs award. In addition to receipt of small grants, ProDIGs awardees also are funded to attend a 7-day professional development institute organized by APA’s Minority Fellowship Program that includes a variety of mentoring activities and critique of awardees’ proposals by senior researchers and federal and foundation grant program officers. ProDIGS is funded by APA’s Academic Enhancement Initiative funds. Four 2010 ProDIGs awardees have been selected. Maureen A. Allwood, PhD, a psychologist at CUNY’s John Jay College of Criminal Justice will focus on “Stress, trauma and physiological reactivity among minority youth” and seek to further our understanding of the developmental aspects of stress response by examining trauma exposures, posttraumatic stress symptoms, delinquent behaviors and psychophysiological stress reactivity among 4 groups ( trauma-exposed, delinquent youth, a combined group, and controls) of 12 to 17 year old urban youth. Russ Espinoza, PhD, a counseling psychologist at California State University, Fullerton, proposes to examine “Latino student usage of counseling and health services at California State University, Fullerton”. Dr. Espinoza seeks to both determine why Latino students significantly underutilize university counseling and health services, and test an intervention for increasing such usage. Deborah J. Walder, PhD, is affiliated with the Department of Psychology at CUNY’s Brooklyn College. Dr. Walder’s project, “Actualizing potential, training and career development in health disparities and STEM research among under-represented and minority students in transition” will focus on developing a program on research training in 12
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ health disparities related to neuroscience and associated behavioral issues that emphasizes collaboration with Brooklyn’s Colleges existing minority research training initiatives and community-based research training opportunities. Mariann Weierich, PhD, a psychologist at CUNY’s Hunter College, proposes to focus her efforts on “Race-related differences in neural process of affect in trauma-exposed adults”, and training students to fully incorporate ethnicity and race within a comprehensive clinical neuroscience approach to trauma-related stress. The study will focus on examining neural processing of affective information in African American and Caucasian adults without PTSD who are exposed to trauma through use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Join OEMA in congratulating and supporting these early career scholars!
Recipients of the 2010 Division 45 Awards The Division 45 Awards Committee has completed its selection of award recipients for 2010. These award recipients were formally recognized and received their awards during the Division 45 Business Meeting & Awards Ceremony on August 13, 2010 during the APA Annual Convention in San Diego, California. Lifetime Achievement Award: Pat Gurin Distinguished Career Contribution to Service Award: Diane Willis Charles & Shirley Thomas Award: Kevin Cokely Emerging Professional Award: Yuri Jang, Meifen Wei Distinguished Student Research Award: Rachel Ishikawa A. Toy Caldwell-Colbert Distinguished Student Service Award: Bryana French
ASSOCIATION REPORTS Congratulations to Members of Color Elected as Division and SPTA Officers or C/R Representatives in 2010! The 2010 ballots to elect Division Officers and Division and SPTA Council Representatives were mailed on April 15. The ballots have been counted; and the results certified by the Election Committee. Individual tally sheets are available from the APA Elections Office upon request. The following members of color were elected. Division 6 President-Elect: Mauricio R. Papini, PhD
Division 44 President-Elect: Mark L. Pope, PhD Member-at-Large: Peter Y. Ji, PhD Council Representative: Terry S. Gock, PhD
Division 7 Fellows Committee: Margarita Azmitia, PhD
Division 45 President-Elect: Justin Douglas McDonald, PhD Member-at-Large: Jennifer Manly, PhD Council Representative: William D. Parham, PhD
Division 13 Domain Leader-Create: Rodney L. Lowman, PhD Division 15 Member-at-Large: Sandra Graham, PhD
Division 48 President-Elect: Gilbert Reyes, PhD Council Representative: Kathleen H. Dockett, EdD
Division 17 President-Elect: Y. Barry Chung, PhD Treasurer: Michael Mobley, PhD V.P. for Communications: Ruperto “Toti” M. Perez, PhD Council Representative: Helen A. Neville, PhD
Division 51 Member-at-Large: Joel W ong, PhD, Francisco “Cisco” J. Sanchez, PhD Division 52 Member-at-Large: Andres J. Consoli, PhD
Division 22 President-Elect: Jay M. Uomoto, PhD
Division 56 Member-at-Large: Sylvia A. Marotta, PhD
Division 31 Member-at-Large: Dinelia Rosa, PhD
California Psychological Association Council Representative: David M. Lechuga, PhD
Division 42 Council Representative: Josephine D. Johnson, PhD Division 43 V.P. for Education: Stephen Cheung, PsyD V.P. for Public Interest & Diversity: Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD
CALL FOR NOMINATIONS CNPAAEMI Henry Tomes Aw ards For Distinguished Contributions To The Advancement Of Ethnic Minority Psychology The Henry Tom es Awards for the Advancem ent of Ethnic Minority Psychology, nam ed in honor of one of the leaders and pioneers of ethnic m inority psychology, are awarded every other year at the National Multicultural Conference and Sum m it. Funded by the m em ber Associations of the Council of National Psychological Associations for the Advancem ent of Ethnic Minority Interests (CNPAAEMI), the Tom es Awards honor psychologists from each ethnic m inority com m unity — African Am erican, Alaska Native/Am erican Indian, Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander, Latina/o Am erican — on a rotating basis. The 2011 Tom es Awards will recognize one Asian Am erican /Pacific Islander psychologist in each of the two categories: A.
Senior Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander Psychologist who has been in the field for 20 or m ore years and whose work dem onstrates distinguished contributions for the em powerm ent of ethnic m inority individuals and com m unities in all of the following arenas: (a) the developm ent and prom otion of ethnic m inority psychology in the areas of research, training, practice, and/or policy; (b) advocacy in the interests and psychological well-being of individuals across m ultiple ethnic m inority com m unities: African Am erican, Am erican Indian/Alaska Native, Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander and Latino/a Am ericans; and (c) leadership in institutions and organizations to advance ethnic m inority interests in the practice, science, and/or education of psychology.
Em erging Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander Psychologist who has earned a doctoral degree no earlier than 2000 (i.e., 10 years post-doctorate), and whose work has already influenced and dem onstrates prom ise for distinguished contributions towards the em powerm ent of ethnic m inority individuals and com m unities in the following arenas: (a) developm ent and prom otion of ethnic m inority psychology in two of the four following areas — research, training, practice, policy— with em erging efforts in the rem aining two; (b) advocacy in the interests and psychological well-being of individuals in one of the following ethnic m inority com m unities: African Am erican, Alaska Native/Am erican Indian, Asian Am erican/Pacific Islander and Latino/a Am ericans with em erging contributions to at least one other ethnic m inority com m unity; and (c) leadership in institutions and organizations to advance ethnic m inority interests in the practice, science, and/or education of psychology.
Nom ination packets m ust include the following: (1) a nom ination letter; (2) three letters of endorsem ent; and (3) the candidate's current curriculum vita. Materials should be addressed to CNPAAEMI and sent to the Office of Ethnic Minority Affairs, Am erican Psychological Association, 750 First Street, NE, W ashington, DC 20002-4242. The deadline for receipt of nom ination m aterials is September 1, 2010. The winners of the 2011 CNPAAEMI Henry Tom es Awards will each receive an award trophy and a cash honorarium of $500.00 that will be presented during the evening Opening Reception of the National Multicultural Conference and Sum m it in Seattle, W ashington January 26, 2011.
PUBLIC POLICY AND ADVOCACY Public Policy Update Public Interest Government Relations Effort On Ethnic Minority Issues On July 20 and 22, 2010, PI-GRO staff conducted an advocacy training and Capitol Hill day for over 25 Minority Fellowship Program (MFP) fellows. Participants received a presentation on the federal legislative process and how to effectively advocate as emerging psychologists and leaders. In addition, MFP fellows were briefed on APA legislative priorities and current activities related to health disparities reduction and elimination. Participants advocated for increased funding for MFP and full authorization of the program during their Capitol Hill visits coordinated by PI-GRO. In addition, PI-GRO works in collaboration with Education GRO to spearhead the Mental Health Workforce Coalition, which is comprised of the interdisciplinary groups that are currently funded to administer the MFP. The Coalition works to achieve common MFP legislative goals and facilitate collaboration with SAMHSA to enhance program effectiveness.
APA President-Elect Vasquez and PI-GRO Take to the Hill to Discuss Immigration Issues On June 10, APA’s President-elect Melba Vasquez, PhD, visited Capitol Hill with PI-GRO staff to meet with key policy makers to discuss her upcoming 2011 Presidency and immigration issues. Dr. Vasquez met with Congressman Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ) and staff from the Congressional Mental Health Caucus in Congresswoman Grace Napolitano’s (D-CA) office. Dr. Vasquez briefed the Congressman and staff on some of the initiatives that she will be undertaking at APA, including the formation of a Presidential Task Force to review psychological literature on the experience of immigration and its impact on society. These visits served as a follow up to previous outreach efforts by PI-GRO staff to members of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the Congressional Mental Health Caucus regarding mental health and immigration-related issues.
FOR YOUR INFORMATIONâ€Ś Announcements Kudos! Asuncion Miteria Austria Receives Distinguished Scholar Award Asuncion Miteria Austria, PhD, Chair and Director of clinical training of the graduate program in Clinical Psychology, received the Cardinal Stritch University 2010 Distinguished Scholar Award. The award "recognizes and honors a faculty member whose scholarly activities, research or other creative works are at the forefront of her/his respective discipline. The Award is a distinction which befits the best of the academic faculty at Cardinal Stritch University." Additionally, she co-edited, A Handbook for Women Mentors: Transcending Barriers of Stereotypes, Race and Ethnicity (Praeger Publishing, 2010). She and her daughter, A. Marie M. Austria, PhD, also co-authored a chapter in the book, Enhancing Capabilities of Women and Ethnic Minorities, and co-presented at a symposium on, Mother and Daughter on Mentoring and Being Mentored at the 118th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association in San Diego. The book was released at the Convention in San Diego.
Miguel Gallardo Appointed to California Board of Psychology California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger announced on August 12, 2010 that Miguel Gallardo, PsyD has been appointed to the Board of Psychology. Dr. Gallardo has served as the director of Research and Training at the Orange County Multi-Ethnic Collaborative of Community Agencies since 2009. He has been associate professor for Pepperdine University Graduate School of Education and Psychology since 2008, where he was previously an assistant professor from 2005 to 2008. He has provided independent and consultation services as a licensed psychologist at the Neurobehavioral Clinic and Counseling Center since 2007. Gallardo was a counseling psychologist and lecturer at the University of California, Irvine from 2001 to 2006. He is a member of the American Psychological Association, California Psychological Association, California Latino Psychological Association, and National Latino Psychological Association.
Special Opportunities Diversity and Leadership Presidential Initiative â€” Division 45 Does race, ethnicity, and gender influence the exercise of leadership? One's effectiveness as a leader? Access to leadership positions? The Division 45 Presidential Initiative on Diversity and Leadership will examine these questions in a study and several division activities about leadership styles and experiences of diverse individuals in leadership positions. It builds on a GLOBE comprehensive study identifying different cultural patterns and leadership attributes were associated with the exercise of leadership across 62 cultures/countries. Not surprising, organizational cultures were found to reflect societal cultures. A special issue on Diversity and Leadership edited by Jean Lau Chin (American Psychologist, April 2010) identifies gaps in existing
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ leadership literature, and current issues toward advancing our understanding in this area.. Sign in to participate in survey. or join a discussion on Linked In about Diversity and Leadership. Request for Survey Response on Healthcare, Social Services, and Community Organizing Needs LGBT People of Color A team of researchers is mounting an endeavor titled the Social Justice Sexuality Initiative. A key part of this enterprise will be a large repeated cross-sectional national survey that will investigate the sociopolitical experiences of Black, Latina/o, as well as Asian and Pacific Islander lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. More specifically, this undertaking seeks to increase understanding of how identity enhances or inhibits the experiences of this target population around four major themes: (1) accessing health - and community - based services; (2) participating in civic and social engagement, more specifically organizing and mobilizing both within and across varying racial and sexual identity based groups; (3) family formations and dynamics; and (4) religious participation, experiences, and attitudes. This entire project will be implemented with a clear effort to involve and impact three key communities: the community of organizers, advocates, and policy makers; the community of practitioners; and the community of academicians and researchers. The survey can be accessed at: http://www.socialjusticesexuality.com/. For more information, contact: Juan Battle, Professor of Sociology, Public Health & Urban Education, CUNY â€“ Graduate Center, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10016; email@example.com; http://web.gc.cuny.edu/jbattle. (212) 817-8775.
FOR YOUR INFORMATION…
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Research & Training Issues Scholarships, Fellowships, Grants, and Institutes Diversity Postdoctoral Fellowship Program The Office for Equity and Diversity (OED) at the University of Minnesota is accepting applications for the University of Minnesota Diversity Postdoctoral Fellowship Program in partnership with the Departments of African & African American Studies, American Indian Studies, and Chicano Studies. The postdoctoral period will be a nine-month appointment beginning August 30, 2010 to May 30, 2011. Postdoctoral Fellows will be provided an office, a computer, a salary of $45,000 plus benefits, and $1,000 in research expenses. For more information and to apply go to: http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/employment/.
Foundation for Child Development 2011 Young Scholars Program The Foundation for Child Development Young Scholars Program focuses on understanding the changing faces of the nation’s children as reflected in the current demography of the United States. The goals of the program are (a) to stimulate both basic and policy-relevant research about the development of children in immigrant families from birth to age 10, particularly those who are living in low-income families, and (b) to support young investigators -- from the behavioral and social sciences or an allied professional field -- who are untenured but in tenure-track positions or who have received tenure in the last 4 years from a U.S. college or university. Eligible researchers will have earned their doctoral degrees within the last 15 years and be full-time faculty members of a U.S. college or university. Up to four fellowships of up to $150,000 will be awarded competitively. The duration of awards is generally 1-3 years, but awards for up to 5 years may be granted if a compelling case is made. Individuals with tenure-equivalent positions are not eligible for the fellowship. The application deadline is November 3, 2010.
Postdoctoral Residency in Child & Adolescent Consultation/Liaison Service This full-time fellowship in pediatric psychology provides a particular focus in consultation/liaison at Connecticut Children’s Medical Center (CCMC), an acute-care children’s hospital The fellow works closely with an experienced pediatric psychologist and two child & adolescent psychiatrists with specialty practice in consultation/liaison. Advanced training is provided in the understanding of major pediatric illnesses and the comorbidity of psychiatric problems in the medical population The fellow participates in all clinical assessments and the management of recommendations for hospitalized patients The fellow is encouraged and supported to take a leadership role with other trainees, including psychology interns, general psychiatry residents, and medical students The fellow participates in establishing and revising treatment plans Skills in the role of consultant and managing systems needs are emphasized. Please send a letter of interest, curriculum vitae, and 3 letters of reference to: James DeGiovanni, PhD, Director of Psychology Training, Institute of Living, Butler Building, 200 Retreat Avenue, Hartford, CT 06106.
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… Post-Doctoral Fellowship Pace University Counseling and Personal Development Center Pace University Westchester is re-opening its search for one (of two) 12 month, full-time fellowship position available on our Westchester Campuses, beginning August 26, 2010. Fellows will have the opportunity to gain intensive experience and training in short and longer term (up to a year) psychotherapy with a diverse college and graduate student population. In addition, the fellowship year includes specialized training in hypnotherapy, group psychotherapy, intake assessment, crisis intervention, campus consultation and outreach, and facilitation of accommodation services for students with disabilities. Fellows participate in intensive supervision, case conferences, and weekly seminars. We offer a competitive stipend and generous benefits. Require PhD/PsyD in Clinical/Counseling Psychology from an APA-approved program. W ill consider ABD candidates. Visit our web site for more information. To apply, please email: Cover Letter, CV, and names and telephone numbers of three references to Amanda Michael, PsyD, Director of Clinical Training at AMichael@pace.edu<mailto:AMichael@pace.edu>. Written letters of recommendation and an official transcript are requested but may be forwarded by mail. An online application will be required at a later date.
Call for Papers and Proposals Call for Papers: Special Issue on the Secondary Analysis of the National Latino Asian American Study (NLAAS) for the Asian American Journal of Psychology For many decades, there was a dearth of community-based epidemiological studies of mental health problems among Asian Americans despite the NIMH Epidemiological Catchment Area (ECA) program of study from 1980-1985. The field was restricted to clinical case studies and treated prevalence studies. The NIMH funding of the National Latino Asian American Study (NLAAS) was a pioneering step in correcting that situation. The National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) is “a nationally representative community household survey that estimates the prevalence of mental disorders and rates of mental health service utilization by Latinos and Asian Americans in the United States”. It also contains variables that allow for the comparison of “social position, environmental context, and psychosocial factors with the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and utilization rates of mental health services”. This is a call for papers for a special issue of the Asian American Journal of Psychology that will be devoted to empirical studies based on the NLAAS dataset. Studies using comparative data from other datasets within the CPES with those from the NLAAS dataset will also be permitted. Authors interested in submitting articles on this topic for the special issue should first email the AAJP Editor with an indication of interest by August 1, 2010. Final manuscripts will need to be submitted through the AAJP web portal by December 1, 2010 and will undergo the usual peer review process. A cover letter indicating that the submitted ms is for the NLAAS special issue should also be included with the submission. Questions regarding this special issue may be directed to Editor of AAJP by email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Call for Proposals: Race, Radicalism, and Repression on the Pacific Coast and Beyond The Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest and the Harry Bridges Center for Labor Studies at the University of W ashington invite panel and paper proposals on any aspect of race, radicalism, and repression within or somehow related to the Pacific Coast of North America, including linkages to peoples, ideas, and movements across the oceans and continents. Proposals that seek to reorient the study of race and politics in U.S. and world history are especially sought. In addition to the conference, the University of Washington Press will publish a collection of essays selected and revised from the conference presentations. George Lipsitz of the University of California, Santa Barbara, will deliver the keynote address. All proposals must include a title and an abstract of each presentation (no more than 300 words) and a brief CV of each presenter (no more than two pages). Panel proposals must also include a title and a description of the session (no more than 250 words). Please submit all materials as email attachments (Microsoft Word or pdf) to email@example.com by September 30, 2010.
Call for Papers – Special Issue: Intersections of LGBT, Racial/Ethnic Minority, and Gender Identities — Guest Editors: Mike C. Parent, Cirleen DeBlaere, Bonnie Moradi Sex Roles: A Journal of Research invites manuscript proposals for a special issue on intersections of LGBT identity, racial/ethnic minority identity, and gender to be compiled by guest editors Mike C. Parent (University of Florida), Cirleen DeBlaere (Lehigh University), and Bonnie Moradi (University of Florida). Researchers investigating such intersections of identity are cordially invited to submit their work. We are interested in empirical research with LGBT racial/ethnic minority persons that includes substantive attention to gender, gender-related experiences, or gender identity. Approaches to attending to the role of gender may include, but are not limited to, attention to transgender identities and experiences, investigation of gender moderation effects, conceptualization and enactment of gender roles across and within groups, and the impact of gender stereotypes among the group or groups sampled. Authors are encouraged to clearly frame the project through a lens of intersectionality; authors are encouraged to consult the special issue of Sex Roles on intersectionality (2008, volume 59, number 5-6) for guidance in intersectionality frameworks. Theoretical and review papers on the intersections of identity that make substantive advancements to the understanding of LGBT identity, racial/ethnic minority identity, and gender intersectionality will also be considered. Qualitative studies are welcomed; please follow the guidelines for qualitative research found on the web site for Sex Roles. Authors who plan to submit manuscripts are asked to submit a letter of intent emailed to the first guest editor by July 1, 2010 that includes: a) a tentative manuscript title, b) contact information for corresponding author, c) names and affiliations of all authors, and d) a brief description of the manuscript content (up to 600 words). Authors who do not submit letters of intent by the deadline may still submit manuscripts (no later than November 1, 2010, but these will be considered for the special issue only as space and time allow. Manuscripts should between 25 and 40 pages, double-spaced (including abstract, tables, figures, and references).
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… All manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with the editorial guidelines of Sex Roles and should be submitted via the online submission site. Please indicate in the notes to the editorial office that the paper is to be considered as a contribution to the special issue “LGBT, Race/ethnicity, and Gender.” All papers will be peer reviewed and an invitation after proposal review does not guarantee final acceptance for publication. For further inquiries, please contact Mike Parent (firstname.lastname@example.org).
Call for Papers The State of African American Studies: Methodology, Pedagogy, and Research The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture and the Institute for Research on the African Diaspora in the Americas and the Caribbean at the City University of New York extend a call for papers for their regular conference on the state of scholarship in African American Studies. Entitled, The State of African American Studies: Methodology, Pedagogy, and Research, the conference will take place on January 6 – 8, 2011 at the Schomburg Center, located at 135th Street and Malcolm X Boulevard in Harlem, and the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, located at 365 Fifth Avenue. Complete panels and individual paper submissions related to the theme - broadly conceived – are invited from scholars and graduate students. In addition to papers in your academic areas of expertise, and on teaching and research methodologies, we particularly welcome submissions on labor, community engagement, gender, sexuality, visual culture, and relations in the diaspora. Proposals should be submitted electronically and must include your name, title of the paper, panel, or roundtable, and an abstract of 150 words. They should also include the institutional affiliation of each presenter, phone numbers, and email addresses. Submit proposals by November 1, 2010 to: Aisha al-Adawiya; State of African American Studies; Schomburg Center For Research in Black Culture; 515 Malcolm X Boulevard, New York NY 10037-1801; email@example.com.Please consult the Schomburg Center’s website for information on travel and hotels. Registration $20, Students: Free
Call for Papers: Precious and Push Black Camera invites submissions for a special issue or section of a future issue devoted to a critical assessment of the Film Precious and the Novel Push by Sapphire (upon which Precious is based) to be published in Fall 2012. The editors invite essays from various disciplines and encourage intellectual provocations and arguments that address Precious and Push, either together or singularly, from a range of critical, theoretical, political, and aesthetic perspectives. Essays that pivot between and extend beyond the formal frames of both the film and the novel and that stage intertextual and comparative dialogues with related works of film, literature, visual culture, photography, or theory are especially welcome. In addition, suggested areas of inquiry include but are not limited to the following: the Dialectics and/or Intertextualism of Film Adaptation; “Canonicity” and Critical Censorship; Comparative Approaches to Precious and Push that thread their relation to other projects with which they have been or can be aligned (The Color Purple, for example, is mentioned several times in Push as are several singers — Aretha Franklin, Bob Marley, Al B. Sure, Bobby Brown); Psychoanalytic dimensions of Precious and Push; Semiotics, Suturing and Memory; Analogization — Visual and Aural; Abstraction and the Fantastic; the Aesthetics of Cinematography and Musical Scoring; Set Construction.
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ Submit completed essays, a 100-word abstract, a fifty-word biography, and a CV by October 25, 2011. Submissions should conform to the Chicago Manual of Style, 15th Edition. Please see journal guidelines for more on submission policy: Direct all questions, correspondence, and submissions to guest editors Suzette Spencer (University of W isconsin, Madison) and Carlos Miranda (Yale University) at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Call for Nominations and Awards Call for Nominations APA Ad Hoc Committee on Psychology and AIDS The American Psychological Association (APA) Ad Hoc Committee on Psychology and AIDS (COPA) is seeking nominations for two new members whose term will begin on January 1, 2011, and end on December 31, 2013. The mission of COPA, an ad hoc committee that reports to the Board for the Advancement of Psychology in the Public Interest (BAPPI), is to guide the development and implementation of APAâ€™s organizational responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. COPA members are required to attend two, face-to-face meetings per year in Washington, DC, with expenses reimbursed by APA, and to participate in monthly conference calls. Between meetings, members are expected to devote a substantial portion of time to COPA projects, provide consultation to APA Office on AIDS staff, and participate in advocacy activities as needed. Each of the face-to-face meetings begins on a Friday morning at 8:30 a.m. and ends on Sunday morning at noon. On average, in addition to the time associated with the 1-hour monthly conference calls and the time associated with the two face-to-face meetings each year, members spend approximately 2 to 4 hours per month on COPA business. Candidates should have demonstrated expertise in dealing with HIV/AIDS issues as a researcher, practitioner, educator, and/or policy advocate. COPA seeks to involve a diverse group of psychologists, including persons of color and individuals who are living with HIV. COPA is particularly interested in candidates with expertise in the following areas: (1) mentoring behavioral scientists with an interest in developing HIV/AIDS-related research careers focusing on ethnic minority communities; (2) clinical and practitioner issues associated with working with people affected by HIV/AIDS; (3) HIV prevention and care for people with serious mental illness; and/or (4) public policy pertaining to HIV/AIDS prevention and care. Nomination materials should include a summary of the nominee's qualifications, a letter from the nominee indicating a willingness to serve on COPA, and a curriculum vita. Self-nominations are encouraged. Materials should be sent by mail or e-mail to Cherie Mitchell, Office on AIDS, 750 First Street, NE, W ashington, DC 20002-4242 (phone: 202-336-6042; e-mail: email@example.com). All materials must be received by no later than September 10, 2010.
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… Upcoming Conferences and Conventions September The 2010 International Conference on Aging in the Americas: Critical Issues in Hispanic Health and Aging: Issues of Disability, Caregiving and Long-term Care Policy September 15 – 17, 2010 AT&T Executive Education and Conference Center , The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas The 2010 International Conference on Aging in the Americas (CAA) is the fourth installment of a successful series of meetings on health and aging in the Hispanic population. This latest conference, co-organized by Drs. Jacqui Angel, Kyriakos Markides, Fernando Torres-Gil, and Keith Whitfield emphasizes issues pertaining to disability, caregiving, and long-term care policy for older Hispanics in the United States and Mexico. For additional information regarding the conference please visit: http://www.utexas.edu/lbj/caa/2010.
Practical Strategies to Address the Behavioral Health Needs of Children and Families in Rural America September 21 – 23, 2010 Renaissance Glendale Hotel, Glendale, Arizona This symposium will focus on practical strategies that build upon the innovations and strengths of rural communities and address the behavioral health needs of their children and families. The purpose is to disseminate information on how to create and sustain services and supports for children and their families in rural America. Partnerships at the Federal, state and community levels are key to sustainability, particularly during these challenging economic times. Innovative partnerships can help reduce the impact of behavioral health problems and promote a good quality of life for the entire community, including those with behavioral health challenges. For more information about the Rural Behavioral Health Symposium, please contact: The N ational T A C enter for C hildren’s M ental H ealth at G eorgetow n U niversity RuralSymposium2010@yahoo.com; (202) 687-5000; or visit the conference website.
Purdue Conference for Pre-Tenure Women Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana September 23 – 24, 2010 Purdue University announces its inaugural Conference for Pre-Tenure Women. This conference is designed to enhance the success of female faculty. The Purdue Conference is targeted to appeal to post-doctoral and pre-tenure women. There will be specific breakout sessions focused on underrepresented women in STEM, however most of the sessions are designed to appeal to women from all disciplines. The overall conference goal is to provide educational opportunities to help women identify strategies to enhance their success for promotion and tenure. Registration for the event is open, and fellowship applications are available online. Please contact firstname.lastname@example.org<mailto:email@example.com> with any questions. Log onto the conference website for more information.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ Latino Behavior Health Institute 16th Annual Latino Behavioral Health Conference — Advancing Latino Behavioral Health: From Margin to Mainstream Hilton Los Angeles — Universal City, California September 22 – 24, 2010 Advancing Latino Behavioral Health: from Margin to Mainstream, is taking place in the midst of important changes in our country. These challenges include new approaches to behavioral health, and health care in our country. These changes provide our community an opportunity to seek positive advances in eliminating disparity in Latino services and workforce representation. By working together during these national changes we may influence a positive outcome for issues important to our community! The 16th annual conference considers each of these critical changes in talks to be delivered by Ms. Pamela Hyde, President Obama’s recently appointed Administrator of SAMHSA and Dr Westley Clark Director of CSAT. Additionally, a panel consisting of Dr Steve Mayberg, Director of California Department of Mental Health, Dr. Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Professor of Internal M edicine UC Davis and Mr. John Viernes, Director of Los Angles Alcohol and Drug programs will explore the interface of Mental Health, Physical Health and Substance Abuse. Dr. Marvin J. Southard Director of LACDMH will addresses the crucial issue of cultural considerations in rehabilitation of mentally ill persons. The forty workshops of the program continue LBHI’s tradition of offering excellence in Latino Behavioral Health. For conference information logon to the Latino Behavior Health Institute website.
2010 SACNAS National Conference: Science, Technology & Diversity for a Sustainable Future Anaheim Convention Center - Anaheim, California September 30 – October 03, 2010 For more information log on to: http://www.sacnas.org/confNew/confClient/.
October The 10th Annual Diversity Challenge: Race and Culture in Teaching, Training, and Supervision Boston College –Boston, Massachusetts October 15 – 16, 2010 The theme of Diversity Challenge 2010 is race and culture in teaching, training, and supervision. The two-day conference includes panel discussion/symposia, workshops, structured discussions, a poster session, and individual presentations by invited experts and selected guests including educators, administrators, researchers, mental health professionals, and community organizations. Areas of emphasis include: community activities and activism, developments in research, professional practice, education, and/or social justice initiatives as they pertain to race, culture, and racial identity. For more information see the conference website.
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… November American Studies Association of Turkey 34th International American Studies Conference: The Art of Language: Cultural Expressions in American Studies Alanya, Turkey November 3 – 5, 2010 Information will be posted on the conference Website at: http://simplifyurl.com/4b0.
11th Conference of the Americas – Creative Agents of Change: Facing Challenges in our Communities Brooks College of Interdisciplinary Studies – Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan November 4, 5 and 6, 2010 The Cultural Agents Initiative at Harvard University investigates and promotes the role art and artists play in helping their communities deal with challenges of pursuing sustainable development, reducing social and economic inequality, and expanding accessible healthcare, among other issues. For more information log on to the GVSU website or contact Zulema Moret, GVSU Latin American Studies Program Director (616) 331-2286; firstname.lastname@example.org or Barb Blankemeier, GVSU Area Studies Center, (616) 331-8110; email@example.com.
National Latina/o Psychological Association( NLPA) Biennial Conference 2010: Latinas: Celebrating the Psychological Strengths and Resilience of Latina Women and Girls The Westin Riverwalk, San Antonio, Texas November 11 –13, 2010 The National Latina/o Psychological Association (NLPA) announces its fourth national conference to be held in San Antonio, Texas. The event will include one pre-conference (Thursday, November 11th) and two main conference days (Friday & Saturday, November 12th- 13th) of paper sessions, symposia, roundtables, posters, and keynote discussions. The program will contain both research and practice-oriented foci with presentations by clinicians, researchers, practitioners, and students. The theme of the conference will highlight the strength, resilience, and unique aspects of the Latina experience, from girlhood through elderhood, across many domains of psycho-socio-cultural functioning. Working from a scientist-practitioner model, the conference seeks to foster the communication of scientific findings and scholarship among service providers and agencies, policy makers, academicians and researchers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students, in order to bring about a better understanding of the perspectives and needs of Latinas. For more information on the National Latina/o Psychological Association Conference, see: www.nlpa.ws.
OEMA COMMUNIQUÉ The first annual Critical Mixed Race Studies Conference: "Emerging Paradigms in Critical Mixed Race Studies" DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois November 25 – 10, 2010 For additional information log on to: http://las.depaul.edu/aas/About/CMRSConference/index.asp
January 2011 The National Multicultural Conference & Summit (NMCS) The NMCS will be held January 27–28, 2011 at the Westin–Seattle Hotel (www.Westin.com/Seattle). A half-day pre-conference and kick-off reception for Wednesday, January 26, and community service projects for Saturday, January 29 are also planned. The 2011 theme is “Unification through Diversity: Bridging Psychological Science and Practice in the Public Interest.” The Call for Programs can be found at http://www.multiculturalsummit.org/.
February 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science Annual Meeting: "Science Without Borders" Washington, DC February 17 – 21, 2011 The Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is the most important general science venue for a growing segment of scientists and engineers who are interested in the latest advances as well as multidisciplinary topics and the influence of science and technology on how we live today. For conference information see: http://www.aaas.org/meetings/.
For an extended listing of psychological conferences around the world, visit the APA Office of International Affairs' website.
FOR YOUR INFORMATION… Important Resources Books Latina/o Healing Practices – Mestizo and Indigenous Perspectives Brian McNeill and Joseph Cervantes Editors This edited volume focuses on the role of traditional or indigenous healers, as well as the application of traditional healing practices in contemporary counseling and therapeutic modalities with Latina/o peoples. The book offers a broad coverage of important topics, such as traditional healer’s views of mental/psychological health and well-being, the use of traditional healing techniques in contemporary psychotherapy, and herbal remedies in psychiatric practice. It also discusses common factors across traditional healing methods and contemporary psychotherapies, the importance of spirituality in counseling and everyday life, the application of indigenous healing practices with Latina/o undergraduates, indigenous techniques in working with perpetrators of domestic violence, and religious healing systems and biomedical models. The book is an important reference for anyone working within the general field of mental health practice and those seeking to understand culturally relevant practice with Latina/o populations. ISBN 978-0-415-95420-4; Hardback; $65.00; 360pp; May 2008. To order visit Routledge Mental.
Royalties to Novel The Summer of Pomba Gira Donated to American Indian Organizations The Summer of Pomba Gira is a fictional paradigm shifting novel. It follows the stories of two Chicago families who encounter one another in crisis. A story of relationships, it weaves the lives of those struggling with family conflict and addiction with the influence of spiritual intercessions and transformative moments. The author weaves in themes of internalized racism and internalized sexism with the power of the stories believed and those forgotten in the lives of the characters. Oleander Main is a Generation X author. She will be donating all of the author royalties from the sale of the book to two American Indian organizations whose express purpose is in improving the lives of community members and students through their enrichment and opportunities. The book may be purchased directly from Xlibris.com. The author's website is located at www.oleandermain.com. Her blog is at www.oleandermain.blogspot.com. Her email is firstname.lastname@example.org.
OEMA COMMUNIQUĂ‰ On The Web New Report Yes We Can Shows AmericaÂšs Public Schools Fail Over Half the Nation's Black Male Students The Schott Foundation released a fourth state-by-state data set showing an overwhelming majority of U.S. school districts and states are failing to provide the resources black males need to close the national racial graduation gap. The report also highlights measures needed to address this national crisis. The report can be accessed at the Schott Foundation website.
Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council Issues Guide Ethics Over the years there has been a lot of research undertaken in Australia's indigenous communities into aspects of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health and well being. Sometimes the outcomes from this research have not always benefited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and communities. Keeping Research on Track: A guide for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples about health research ethics is about helping people to become familiar with the stages in the research journey. It helps indigenous peoples to understand the steps that need to be followed in order to make the research work for them. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have a right, and indeed a responsibility, to be involved in all aspects of research undertaken in their communities and organisations. See the Australian Government's National Health and Medical Research Council's website for more information.