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OECD AT #COP21

INSIDE... 1. Countdown to #COP21 - dates, events, products 2. OECD #COP21 Workspace - timetable 3. Key #COP21 Outputs 2015 4. OECD Contributions to #COP21 5. #COP21 Contacts

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è COUNTDOWN #TOP 21 DATES, EVENTS & PRODUCTS : SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER 8 September Climate Change Experts Group Forum (CCXG), Paris Papers on transparency, non-state actors, INDCs, mitigation cycles 16 September Agriculture for Climate Conference, Paris Jointly organised by OECD and France - public policies & practices 21 September Report Launch, Paris Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support & Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels 21-27 September UN Climate Week & Summit on SDGs, New York OECD Secretary General Angel Gurría participating 5 October Report launch, Paris Policy Approaches to droughts and floods in Agriculture 7 October Climate Finance Ministerial Meeting, Lima Report by OECD & Climate Policy Initiative on Climate Finance and the USD 100 Billion 16 October Roundtable of Mayors and Ministers, Mexico City The Metropolitan Century: Policies for Resilient & Inclusive Cities 19-23 October Ad Hoc Working Group on Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP 2-11), Bonn OECD CCXG participation 20 October Report launch, Bonn Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Progress 26 October Report launch, Paris Environment at a Glance 2015 3 November Report launch, Paris Economic Consequences of Climate Change (CIRCLE)


OECD report

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OECD engagement

9 November Report launch, Paris OECD Economic Outlook (with chapter on climate change) 13 November Countdown to #COP21, Paris Media event showcasing key OECD contributions to #COP21 15 November Report launch, Paris Abating Carbon Emissions through Price-based Policies 15-17 November G20 Summit, Antalya OECD Secretary General Angel Gurría participating 17-18 November IEA Ministerial Meeting, Paris Report launch: IEA World Energy Outlook (10 Nov) 19 November Long-term Investment Financing Conference, Paris Jointly organised by OECD & Euromoney featuring a session on clean energy finance 6 December 6th Annual World Climate Summit: Road to Paris, Solutions for COP21, Paris OECD Secretary General Angel Gurría participating 7-9 December 6th Edition of the International New York Times Energy for Tomorrow, Paris OECD Secretary General Angel Gurría participating 9 December Pathway to a Low-carbon Economy, OECD & University of Cambridge Side-event, Paris OECD Secretary General Angel Gurría participating 9 December High-level Breakfast “Institutional Investors & Low-carbon Transition”, Paris Launch of Policy Perspectives on Green Banks & Green Bonds

30 November - 11 December

#COP21

Le Bourget PARIS 2015

OECD AT #COP21

TO #COP21

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è OECD #COP2 WEEK 1 MONDAY 30/11/2015

TUESDAY 1/12/2015

WEDNESDAY 2/12/2015

MORNING 1 (9.15-10.45)

THURSDAY 3/12/2015 Climate policy, industrial structure and GHG emissions: An application of multi-regional IO analysis OECD

MORNING 2 (11.15-12.45)

Progress towards tracking public and private climate finance OECD

LUNCH (13.15-14.45)

Identifying and Addressing Gaps in the UNFCCC Reporting Framework OECD

AFTERNOON 1 (15.15-16.45)

How can the 2015 agreement encourage climate action by non-Party stakeholders?

From global commitments to local solutions: Integrating gender equality in climate change action

OECD

OECD

banks and climate finance WORLD BANK

oe.cd/cop21/events

National Adaptation Plans: Changing the way we work and benchmarking success UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP) Getting the house in order: Aligning policies for a lowcarbon economy OECD

Capacity building through climate change officials networking

Rewiring electricity policy for the low-carbon economy

UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP)

OECD

Climate change Lessons learned mitigation: Policies on INDC and progress implementation and MRV OECD RICARDO ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT

AFTERNOON 2 Multilateral (17.15-18.45) development

FRIDAY 4/12/2015

Green growth and sustainable urban development

Defining water resilient actions to climate change

OECD

PARTENARIAT FRANÇAIS POUR L'EAU

Mitigating the climate change impacts of urban travel

Mainstreaming adaptation into development planning

INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM (ITF)

OECD

Unequal costs of climate change: Regional economics of impacts and adaptation OECD


Hall 3, Room 7: Le Bourget - Blue Zone

WEEK 2 SATURDAY 5/12/2015 Innovation targeting the finance sector: Building climate performance into investment CLIMATE-KIC

Non-mitigation target related INDC content GERMAN DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE (DIE)

District energy and the energy transition UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP)

MONDAY 7/12/2015 China’s National ETS: Implications for carbon market developments INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR TRADE AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (ICTSD)

Effective carbon rates: Pricing CO2 through taxes & Emissions Trading Systems

TUESDAY 8/12/2015 Making the case for ecosystembased adaptation UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME (UNDP) and WORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE (WRI) Unlocking investment in clean energy OECD

OECD

Delivering effective climate and sustainable development solutions OECD

Green investment banks: Leveraging innovative public finance to scale up low-carbon investment

WEDNESDAY 9/12/2015

THURSDAY 10/12/2015

Avoiding Fidiciary duty Dangerous Climate Event title to be Change: Achieving confirmed 2⁰C OECD GRANTHAM INSTITUTE

Energy efficiency and climate change

Flying clean: limiting the CO2 emissions from international aviation

Why the climate needs nuclear energy

INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT FORUM (ITF)

Getting the most out of corporate climate change disclosure OECD

Transition to a green investment world

Climate change, children and civil society

Why the climate needs nuclear energy

NORDIC COUNCIL OF MINISTERS and OECD

UNITED NATIONS CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF) and OECD

NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY (NEA)

Energy subsidies in the EU Eastern Partnership Countries

New technologies, innovative data sources: Managing disasters in developing countries

OECD

FRIDAY 11/12/2015

OECD AND BLOOMBERG LP

PARIS21

Integrated Equity impacts of sustainable carbon pricing and mobility in cities: A subsidy removal practical approach OECD WORLD BUSINESS COUNCIL FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (WBCSD)

Beyond climate: Major envrionmental challenges - what do the indicators tell us? OECD

Accelerating innovation through energy technology collaboration INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (IEA)

SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC

NUCLEAR ENERGY AGENCY (NEA)

Using data to track the energy transition INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY (IEA)

OECD AT #COP21

1 WORKSPACE


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K E Y

Release Title date

Description

Associated event

3 Feb

Public Interventions and Private Finance Flows: Empirical Evidence from Renewable Energy Financing - WORKING PAPER

Econometric study of private finance mobilisation for renewable energy

Research Collaborative workshop, 16 March

9 Feb

Mapping Channels to Mobilise Institutional Investment in Sustainable Energy REPORT

Analyses barriers faced by institutional investors to clean energy investment

G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors Meeting, 9-10 February

19 Feb

Estimating Private Climate Finance Mobilisation: Methodological Approaches, Options and Trade-offs - WORKING PAPER

Analyses key decision points involved in estimating publicly mobilised private finance and assesses a range of methodological options to address these

Research Collaborative workshop, 16 March

27 Feb

Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure: Expanding Access to Clean Energy for Green Growth and Development - REPORT

Provides guidance on domestic investment policy frameworks for increasing investment in clean energy infrastructure

27 Mar

Impacts of Carbon Prices on Indicators of Competitiveness: A Review of Empirical Findings WORKING PAPER

Literature review on the empirical effects of carbon prices and energy taxes on competitiveness

15 April

National Climate Change Adaptation: Emerging Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation REPORT

Reviews recent developments in climate adaptation monitoring and evaluation, including four case studies: Germany, Mozambique, Nepal & UK

1 May

The Distributional Effects of Energy Taxes WORKING PAPER

Analytical paper assessing the distributional effects of energy taxes on households in 21 OECD countries

1 May

The Role of the 2015 Agreement in Enhancing Adaptation to Climate Change WORKING PAPER

Analytical paper exploring how the 2015 Agreement can help to foster enhanced polices and co-ordinated planning for greater resilience and adaptation capabilities at the national level

12 May

Competitiveness Impacts of the German Electricity Tax WORKING PAPER

Analytical paper evaluating the competitiveness effects of the German Electricity tax in the manufacturing sector

5 June

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: A Role for Public Policies - WORKING PAPER

Identifies practical actions that governments could take to improve adaptation in the agriculture sector

9 June

Overcoming Barriers to International Investment in Clean Energy REPORT

Takes stock of policy restrictions to international investment in solar PV and wind energy and discusses the impacts of local-content requirements

OECD launch event, Paris

19 June

Corporate Carbon Reporting Schemes: Impacts on business and investor behaviour WORKING PAPER

Discusses the impacts of corporate carbon reporting schemes

OECD Global Forum on Responsible Business Conduct, 18-19 June

25 June

Taxing Energy Use 2015 - OECD and Selected Partner Economies REPORT

Systematic statistics of effective tax rates on energy for each OECD country and 7 selected partner economies

International Tax Dialogue, 1 July

3 July

Aligning Policies for the Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy REPORT

This horizontal project identifies the policy misalignments that could hamper the effectiveness of low-carbon policies, and provides policy guidance on how to resolve the problems

1. OECD Ministerial meeting, 2-4 June

7 July

Climate Change Risks and Adaptation: Linking policy and economics REPORT

Analysis of the risk-management tools and techniques for implementing climate adaptation plans

Our Common Future Under Climate Change, 7-10 July

Aug/ Sept

1. Climate Change Adaptation and Development Policy and Planning

Describes how development planning and policy can enhance resilience in developing counties, how adaptation is integrated into development planning & how development finance supports these efforts

2. What enables effective international climate finance in the context of development co-operation? WORKING PAPERS

Presents the results of a survey exploring the current understanding of what makes international climate finance effective, focusing on climate-related development finance

5 Aug

Review of the Literature on the Costeffectiveness of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measure for Agriculture - WORKING PAPER

Reviews the literature on the cost-effectivnes of GHG agricultural mitigation measures

1 Sept

Nuclear Energy and Addressing Climate Change GLOSSY

Outlines nuclear energy’s role, alongside other lowcarbon technologies, in helping to limit the increase of global temperatures to 2°C between now and 2100

Joint OECD DACEPOC Task Team on Climate Change and Development Co-operation, 20 April

Climate Change Experts Group Forum (CCXG), 17-19 March

2. OECD SG speech at LSE, 3 July


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Release Title date

Description

Associated event

5 Sept

Issues relating to nationally-determined contributions for mitigation - WORKING PAPER

Short Q&A document on issues relating to nationallydetermined contributions for mitigation

1 June (presented to ministers)

5 Sept

Stock-take of OECD DAC Members’ Reporting Practices on Environment-related Official Development FInance and Reporting to the Rio Conventions WORKING PAPER

Presents the results of a survey of DAC member’s reporting practices to environment-related Official Development Finance and on reporting to the Rio Conventions, including how members are tracking and reporting climate-related development finance

5 Sept

Corporate Carbon Reporting Schemes: Impacts on business and investor behaviour WORKING PAPER

Discusses the impacts of corporate carbon reporting schemes

OECD Global Forum on Responsible Business Conduct

21 Sept

Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels REPORT & DATABASES

Report and associated database identifies, documents and estimates more than 600 measures supporting the production or use of fossil fuels in OECD countries and a selection of non-member economies

OECD launch event, Paris

5 Oct

Policy Approaches to droughts and floods in agriculture REPORT

Proposes a framework to identify and analyse appropriate policy responses to improve management of drought and flood risks in agriculture

OECD launch event, Paris

7 Oct

Climate Finance in 2013-14 and the USD 100 billion goal REPORT

Estimates public and private climate finance in relation to the UNFCCC commitment by developed countries in 2010 to mobilise USD 100 billion per year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries

Annual meetings of the World Bank (WBG) and International Monetary Fund (IMF) Lima

15 Oct

Climate Change: Assessment of the Vulnerability of Nuclear Power Plants and Cost of Adaptation - REPORT

Assesses the impact of climate change, notably extreme weather events and increasing temperatures, on the operation and safety of nuclear power plants

20 Oct

Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Progress REPORT

Compares key climate change mitigation trends and policy settings amongst countries. Shows key emissions and energy trends, climate and energy policy settings, as well as energy-related taxation and subsidies for 44 countries

Launched in the margins of Ad Hoc Working Group on Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, Bonn

26 Oct

Environment at a Glance 2015 REPORT

The update to this “reference point” for environmental data for the OECD and beyond includes a special focus on climate change in the context of #COP21

OECD launch, Paris

3 Nov

Economic Consequences of Climate Change (CIRCLE) REPORT

Identifies how feedback from poor environmental quality, climatic change and resource scarcity affect economic growth, and how policies may alter this.

OECD launch, Paris

9 Nov

OECD Economic Outlook REPORT

Includes a special chapter on climate change

OECD launch, Paris

10 Nov

IEA World Energy Outlook REPORT

Presents energy projections to 2040

IEA Ministerial meeting, 17-18 Nov

15 Nov

Abating Carbon Emissions through Price-based Policies - REPORT

Presents indicators for the OECD and for selected partner economies

15-17 Nov Green Investment Banks

Green Investment Banks can complement core climate and investment policies

20 Nov

Incorporating climate effects in transport appraisal: Valuation of carbon, discounting, risk and uncertainty - REPORT

Presents techniques to deal with risk in transport appraisals, such as risk-adjusted discount rate

20 Nov

Estimating mobilised provate finance for adaptation: Exploring data and methods WORKING PAPER

Estimating mobilised private finance for adaptation: exploring data and methods

21 Nov

Transport infrastructure adaptation to extreme weather and climate change - REPORT

Operational guidance on designing robust adaptation strategies framework for improved project appraisal

22 Nov

Mitigation of CO2 emissions from aviation REPORT

Assesses potential impact in reducing CO2 emissions

25 Nov

Cities in China and India: Impacts of policy on CO2 emissions REPORT

Blueprint for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) to deliver passenger transport CO2 reductions

26 Nov

OECD Observer

Special edition featuring action on climate change in the lead up to #COP21

OECD COP21 Workspace, Le Bourget

1 Dec

OECD Reviews of Clean Energy Investment Policy: Jordan - REPORT

Country case study to apply the Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure

OECD launch event, Paris

2 Dec

Scaling-up Bond Markets for Green Infrastructure Investment POLICY PERSPECTIVES

Analyses the potential, barriers and policy solutions for scaling up green bonds in their various different forms

High-level Breakfast “Institutional Investors & Low-carbon Transition” OECD . 7

POLICY PERSPECTIVES

G20 Leaders Summit

OECD AT #COP21

O U T P U T S


OECD CONTRIBUTIONS TO

1 . TA C K L I N G T E C H N I C A L I S S U E S C O N F R O N T I N G I N T E R N AT I O N A L N E G O T I AT I O N S Climate Change Expert Group • The OECD is working on a range of technical issues that are being discussed in international negotiations towards a 2015 climate change agreement through the Climate Change Expert Group (CCXG). Feeding into UNFCCC processes • The CCXG provides a platform for government delegates and experts from developed and developing countries to enable dialogue and enhance understanding of issues feeding into UNFCCC processes. It holds two seminars per year and develops papers on technical issues relevant to the negotiations in consultation with a wide range of countries. The OECD provides the secretariat for the group, together with the International Energy Agency (IEA). Hands-on • In the lead up to COP21 CCXG has undertaken work on: • Design and elements of a 2015 agreement. • Climate finance. • Post-2020 accounting framework. P U B L I C AT I O N S A N D E V E N T S • • •

Working Paper on Estimating Private Climate Finance Mobilisation (March) The Role of the 2015 Agreement in Enhancing Adaptation to Climate Change (May) A stock-take of OECD DAC Members’ reporting practices on environment-related Official Development Finance and reporting to the Rio Conventions (June) Climate Change Experts Group Forum and Meeting (CCXG) (17-19 March and 7-9 September) w w w. o e cd. o rg / e nv / cc / cc x g. ht m

2. PROMOTING EFFECTIVE M I T I G AT I O N P O L I C Y Policy instruments • Climate change mitigation depends on coherent and credible market signals that the price of greenhouse gas emissions will increase over time. The OECD is working to support governments in implementing least-cost emissions reduction policies such as taxes, tradable permit systems and the elimination of subsidies for fossil fuels. Fossil-fuel subsidies • The OECD is updating its Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels in 2015 to promote transparency and accountability for environmentally-harmful subsidies. The report Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Progress to be launched in November will draw on OECD Economic Surveys to provide an overview of mitigation policy settings and emissions trends in OECD countries and partner economies in the context of countries’ international climate commitments. Taxes on energy products • A number of policy instruments, such as energy taxes, carbon taxes and emissions trading systems can put a price on emissions. Taxes on energy products amount to around 70% of all revenues from environmentally related tax revenue in OECD countries. Taxing Energy Use: A Graphical Analysis (2013) and Taxing Energy Use 2015: OECD and Selected Partner Economies help governments understand price signals from current tax systems and how they might be better geared to support the low-carbon transition. Climate-economy modelling • The OECD’s ongoing Costs of Inaction and Resource scarcity: Consequences for Long-term Economic growth (CIRCLE) project is working to identify how feedback from climate change will affect economic growth and quantify benefits of policy action. P U B L I C AT I O N S A N D E V E N T S • Taxing Energy Use 2015 – OECD and Selected Partner Economics (June) • Inventory of Estimated Budgetary Support and Tax Expenditures for Fossil Fuels (2015 update, September) • Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Progress (October) • Economic Consequences of Climate Change (November) • Effective carbon rates: Pricing CO2 through taxes and emissions trading systems (December) w w w. o e cd. o rg / e nv / cc / e co n o m i c s ofclimatechangemitigation.htm


OECD AT #COP21

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3. ALIGNING POLICIES FOR THE LOW- CARBON TRANSITION

4. INVESTING IN AND FINANCING THE LOW- CARBON TRANSITiON

Looking across policy areas • Since almost all economic activities generate greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), climate policy interacts with policies in many more areas. Its policy instruments, and the economic signals they create, overlay and interact with the goals and instruments of existing policy frameworks. The result can be frictions, unintended consequences or even actively conflicting policy objectives. Core climate policies are therefore essential, but not sufficient to effectively tackle climate change. Governments must look across policy areas and examine how to better align policies for a successful economic transition to low-carbon economies.

Institutional investors • A major shift in investment patterns is needed to meet international climate goals. That shift will depend on effective policy to channel private-sector finance in favour of low-carbon investment, particularly in infrastructure sectors. The OECD is advising countries on domestic policy frameworks for low-carbon investment and how to engage institutional investors – a particularly promising, but currently inactive source of finance.

Correcting policy misalignments • Several misalignments in existing policy frameworks currently hinder the transition to low-carbon economies. They exist in core, cross-cutting economic policy domains (investment, taxation, innovation and international trade), as well as policy governing specific areas that are fundamental to the transition (electricity systems, water infrastructure, urban mobility and rural land use). Correcting them is likely to significantly improve the effectiveness of climate policies. Including other ministries • The OECD, jointly with the IEA, ITF and NEA, is providing first guidance to governments – including ministries insufficiently mobilised in developing and implementing climate-response strategies to date – on alignment of policy and regulatory frameworks with climate goals. P U B L I C AT I O N S A N D E V E N T S • •

Aligning Policies for a Low-Carbon Economy (June) OECD Forum and Ministerial Council Meeting with IdeaFactory session on Climate, Carbon, COP21 and Beyond (2-4 June) w w w. o e cd. o rg / e nv i ro n m e nt / low-carbon-transition.htm

Policy guidance • The report on Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure: Expanding Access to Clean Energy for Green Growth and Development advises governments across investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, energy-market design and competition policy, financial market policy and governance of energy-market institutions. Barriers to international investment • Governments also need to pay attention to barriers to international investment, such as local content requirements, that may hinder low-carbon infrastructure investment. Overcoming Barriers to International Investment in Clean Energy provides guidance to governments on possible impacts of such barriers in solar and wind energy, and how to avoid them in designing support policies for low-carbon energy. Channels for low-carbon investments • Traditional sources of low-carbon investments such as governments and banks face increasing constraints in the wake of the economic crisis. Alternative sources are needed to compensate. Mapping Channels to Mobilise Institutional Investment in Sustainable Energy guides policy makers on the processes and channels through which institutional investors make low-carbon investments, and how to facilitate them. P U B L I C AT I O N S A N D E V E N T S • Mapping Channels to Mobilise Institutional Investment in Sustainable Energy (February) • Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure (March) • Overcoming Barriers to International Investment in Clean Energy (May) • OECD Global Forum on Responsible Business (June) • Nuclear New Build: Insights Into Financing and Project Management (June) OECD . 9 w w w. o e cd. o rg / e nv i ro n m e nt / cc / financing.htm OECD . 9


OECD CONTRIBUTIONS TO

5. ADDRESSING POLITICAL C H A L L E N G E S A S S O C I AT E D W I T H C L I M AT E A C T I O N

6 . T R A C K I N G C L I M AT E F I N A N C E S U P P O R T I N G A C C O U N TA B I L I T Y AND TRUST

Social objectives • Climate change mitigation policy is likely to encounter political opposition if policy reforms do not take careful account of any social impacts of reform, including potential consequences for households, labour markets and firms. Social objectives should be considered and pursued as an integral part of policy design, to ensure the transition is inclusive.

Measurement & reporting systems for climate finance • Tracking private and public climate finance flows is essential to monitoring progress in the international effort to address climate change, but there are significant data, methodological and knowledge gaps. The OECD is contributing to more transparent and comprehensive international measurement and reporting systems for climate finance in developing countries. The OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) collects statistics and monitors development finance targeting climate change mitigation and adaptation using the “Rio markers”. DAC statistics capture an integrated picture of bilateral and multilateral climate-related development finance flows from 2013, and activity-level data is publicly available online. Efforts are ongoing to improve data quality, coverage, communication and use. In 2015, the OECD DAC is also conducting a survey with development finance actors on private finance mobilised by syndicated loans, shares in collective investment vehicles and guarantees.

Distributional effects of energy taxes • Concern about potential adverse equity impacts is a major obstacle to energy tax reform, but evidence of actual effects is scarce. To help inform policy making and communication with the public, work is being undertaken to advance understanding of distributional effects of energy taxes based on experience in 21 OECD countries. The OECD is also undertaking modelling work to assess potential distributional consequences of fossilfuel subsidy reform. The work highlights the importance of redistributive schemes to households. Competitiveness impacts of reform • Potential competitiveness impacts of mitigation policy can also represent a major stumbling block to reform. Assessing the extent of any unintended losses – and whether measures such as multilateral policy co-ordination are warranted – means understanding how the economy as a whole will likely adjust to new environmental regulation. Recent and forthcoming work supports governments to this end, based on empirical evidence. The work suggests that competitiveness impacts of reform appear to be largely overstated by industry.

P U B L I C AT I O N S A N D E V E N T S • • • •

Working Paper on Distributional Impacts of Energy Subsidy Reform in Indonesia (April) Working Paper on Impacts of Carbon Pricing on Indicators of Competitiveness (April) Working Paper on Competitiveness Impacts of the German Electricity Tax (May) Working Paper on The Distributional Effects of Energy Taxes (May) w w w. o e cd. o rg / e nv / wo rk i n g papers-climate-change.htm

Tracking Private Climate Finance • The OECD also leads a Research Collaborative on Tracking Private Climate Finance. The initiative brings together relevant research organisations, international finance institutions and interested governments to help identify, develop and assess options for measuring private climate finance flows to, between and in developing countries, and determine private flows mobilised by public interventions.

P U B L I C AT I O N S A N D E V E N T S • • •

• •

Climate-related development finance in 2013: Improving the statistical picture Climate-related development finance statistics www.oecd.org/dac/stats/rioconventions.htm A stock-take of OECD DAC Members’ reporting practices on environment-related Official Development Finance and reporting to the Rio Conventions (June) Climate finance in 2013-14 and the USD 100 billion goal (October) Estimating Private Climate Finance Mobilisation: Methodological Approaches, Options and Trade-offs w w w. o e cd. o rg / d a c / e nv i ro n m e nt development/climate-changedevelopment.htm


OECD AT #COP21

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7 . A D A P T I N G T O C L I M AT E C H A N G E I M PAC T S

8 . A G R I C U LT U R E A N D I T S R O L E F O R C L I M AT E C H A N G E

Monitoring & strengthening adaptation & risk management • Climate change mitigation efforts need to move hand-inhand with policies and incentives to adapt to the effects of climate change. Countries are scaling up preparations: more than 75% of OECD countries have either published, or are developing, national adaptation strategies. OECD countries are also working to better integrate climate change adaptation into development co-operation and supporting partner countries in building climate resilience.

Sustainable food production • To address climate change issues, agriculture has a key role to play given both its high vulnerability to climate change and its significant contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

Managing risk • To reduce risks arising from climate change and improve the management of those risks that remain, countries must identify the range of potential risks, characterise them, explore and choose policy options, and monitor and evaluate risk management measures. The OECD is supporting this process by providing evidence of the costs and benefits of adaptation, guidance on financing required investments and tools to help them measure progress. Sectoral adaptation: agriculture, energy, water and transport • The sectoral level is crucial for implementing adaptation. The OECD, IEA, NEA and ITF are working to support adaptation through the integration of adaptation into their sectoral analyses and policy guidance. For example, the OECD is assisting countries to advance strategic investment in water infrastructure, institutions and information to safeguard growth against the effects of climate change.

P U B L I C AT I O N S A N D E V E N T S • • • • • • •

National Climate Change Adaptation: Emerging Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation (April) Securing Water, Sustaining Growth (April) Water and Cities: Ensuring sustainable futures (April) Water Allocation: Sharing risks and opportunities (April) Climate Change Risks and Adaptation: Linking Policy and Economics (July) Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Development Policy and Planning (September) Climate Change: Assessment of the Vulnerability of Nuclear Power Plants and Cost of Adaptation (September) w w w. o e cd. o rg / e nv i ro n m e nt / cc / adaptation.htm

Adaptation in agriculture • Climate change is already affecting agriculture and is expected to further impact directly and indirectly food production. A report The role of public policies in promoting adaptation in agriculture guides policy makers to identify practical actions that governments can take to improve farmers’ resilience to future climate change and to avoid sending signals supporting practices that increase exposure to climate change risks. Mitigation practices • Agricultural activities are responsible for about 24% of global GHG emissions (including deforestation) and could thus take part in the global mitigation effort. A Review of the Literature on the Cost-Effectiveness of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measure for Agriculture identifies a number of potential mitigation practices in the agricultural sector, several of which appear to be highly cost-effective across OECD countries. Climate smart agriculture • Despite a growing recognition of the need to simultaneously pursue productivity growth, climate change adaptation and mitigation, these objectives continue to be approached in isolation. The OECD workshop Coherent Policies for Climate Smart Agriculture will initiate and facilitate a discussion regarding the consistency of the signals sent by public policies regarding those three objectives.

P U B L I C AT I O N S A N D E V E N T S • • •

Adapting Agriculture to Climate Change: A Role for Public Policies (June) Workshop on Coherent Policies for Climate Smart Agriculture (June) Review of the Literature on the Cost-Effectiveness of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Measure for Agriculture (August) w w w. o e cd. o rg / t a d / s u s t a i n a b l e -agriculture/agriculture-andclimate-change.htm OECD . 11 OECD . 11


O E C D P U B L I C AT I O N S O N C L I M AT E C H A N G E Climate change 2015 Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Progress

Aligning Policies for a LowCarbon Economy

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264238787-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264233294-en.

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Climate Finance in 2013-14 and the USD 100 Billion Goal

The Economic Consequences of Climate Change OECD Publishing, Paris. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264235410-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris. www.oecd.org/env/cc/oecdcpi-climate-finance-report.htm.

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Climate Finance in 2013-14 and the USD 100 billion goal A report by the OECD in collaboration with Climate Policy Initiative

Climate Change Risks and Adaptation: Linking Policies and Economics

Cool Policy: Climate Change Mitigation Supporting Growth Chapter for Economic Outlook

Climate Change, Water and Agriculture: Towards Resilient Systems

Drying Wells, Rising Stakes: Towards Sustainable Agricultural Groundwater Use

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264234611-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, www.oecd.org/eco/outlook/Cool-policyclimate-change-mitigation-supportinggrowth.pdf.

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264209138-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264238701-en.

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OECD Companion to the Inventory of Support Measures for Fossil Fuels 2015 OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264239616-en.

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Climate Change and Tourism Policy in OECD Countries OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264119598-en.

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oe.cd/climatepubs

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Disaster Risk Financing: A Global Survey of Practices and Challenges

Climate Change Disclosure in G20 Countries: Stocktaking of Corporate Reporting Schemes

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264234246-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, www.oecd.org/investment/corporateclimate-change-disclosure-report.htm.

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Investment Overcoming Barriers to International Investment in Clean Energy, Green Finance and Investment OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264227064-en.

Policy Guidance for Investment in Clean Energy Infrastructure: Expanding Access to Clean Energy for Green Growth and Development

Mapping Channels to Mobilise Institutional Investment in Sustainable Energy, Green Finance and Investment

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264212664-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264224582-en.

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Climate Change Disclosure in G20 Countries: Stocktaking of Corporate Reporting Schemes OECD Publishing, Paris, www.oecd.org/daf/inv/mne/Reporton-Climate-change-disclosure-in-G20countries.pdf.

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Tax Taxing Energy Use 2015: OECD and Selected Partner Economies OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264232334-en.

Taxing Energy Use: A Graphical Analysis OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264183933-en.

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The Diesel Differential: Differences in the Tax Treatment of Gasoline and Diesel for Road Use OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/5jz14cd7hk6b-en. Please cite this paper as:

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The Distributional Effects of Energy Taxes OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/5js1qwkqqrbv-en.

Please cite this paper as:

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Flues, F. and A. Thomas (2015), “The distributional effects of energy taxes”, OECD Taxation Working Papers, No. 23, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5js1qwkqqrbv-en

Harding, M. (2014), “The Diesel Differential: Differences in the Tax Treatment of Gasoline and Diesel for Road Use”, OECD Taxation Working Papers, No. 21, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jz14cd7hk6b-en

OECD Taxation Working Papers No. 23

OECD Taxation Working Papers No. 21

The distributional effects of energy taxes

The Diesel Differential DIFFERENCES IN THE TAX TREATMENT OF GASOLINE AND DIESEL FOR ROAD USE

Florens Flues, Alastair Thomas

Michelle Harding

JEL Classification: H23, Q40, Q52

Impacts of Carbon Prices on Indicators of Competitiveness: A Review of Empirical Findings OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/5js37p21grzq-en.

Competitiveness Impacts of the German Electricity Tax OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/5js0752mkzmv-en.

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Arlinghaus, J. (2015), “Impacts of Carbon Prices on Indicators of Competitiveness: A Review of Empirical Findings”, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 87, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5js37p21grzq-en

OECD Environment Working Papers No. 87

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Effective Carbon Rates on Energy: OECD and Selected Partner Countries OECD Publishing, Paris, www.oecd.org/tax/tax-policy/effectivecarbon-rates-on-energy.htm.

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Effective Carbon Prices OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264196964-en.

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Please cite this paper as:

Flues, F. and B. Johannes Lutz (2015), “Competitiveness Impacts of the German Electricity Tax”, OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 88, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5js0752mkzmv-en

OECD Environment Working Papers No. 88

Impacts of Carbon Prices on Indicators of Competitiveness

Competitiveness Impacts of the German Electricity Tax

A REVIEW OF EMPIRICAL FINDINGS

Florens Flues, Benjamin Johannes Lutz

Johanna Arlinghaus

JEL Classification: H23, H32, Q54, Q58

JEL Classification: D22, H21, H23, Q41, Q48

OECD . 13


O E C D P U B L I C A T I O N S O N C L I M A T E C H A N G E ... Development Development Co-operation Report 2015: Making Partnerships Effective Coalitions for Action

Development Co-operation Report 2014: Mobilising Resources for Sustainable Development

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/dcr-2015-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/dcr-2014-en. SCAN CODE WITH APP

Estimating Mobilised Private Climate Finance www.oecd.org/env/ researchcollaborative/MOBILISED%20 PRIVATE%20CLIMATE%20 FINANCE%202015%20-%20Policy%20 Perspectives%20SM%2006.03.15%20 WEB.pdf.

www.pbsbdialogue.org/media/filer_public/ d2/0f/d20f62af-4e2a-4c11-9626d34b1a70c4cf/id-rbc.pdf.

Financing for Development in Support of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/5js1sqkvts0v-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/5js03h0nwxmq-en.

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National Climate Change Adaptation: Emerging Practices in Monitoring and Evaluation OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264229679-en.

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International Standards for Responsible Business in Conflict-Affected and Fragile Environments

Biodiversity and Development Co-operation

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Multilateral Aid 2015: Better Partnerships for a Post-2015 World

Partnership for Climate Finance and Development 2014

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264235212-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, www.oecd.org/dac/environmentdevelopment/FINAL%20Partnership%20 for%20Climate%20Finance%20and%20 Development%202014.pdf.

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Towards Green Growth in Southeast Asia OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264224100-en.

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oe.cd/climatepubs 14 . FINANCING CLIMATE CHANGE ACTION

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Public Interventions and Private Climate Finance Flows: Empirical Evidence from Renewable Energy Financing OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/5js6b1r9lfd4-en. SCAN CODE WITH APP

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The Role of the 2015 Agreement in Mobilising Climate Finance OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/5js03h9ztlbr-en.

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CTD


Related reports Environment at a Glance 2015: OECD Indicators OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264235199-en.

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Effective Carbon Prices OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264196964-en.

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Cities and Climate Change OECD Publishing, Paris, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264091375-en.

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OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: The consequences of Inaction OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264235199-en. SCAN CODE WITH APP

Towards Green Growth? Tracking Progress OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264234437-en.

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The Cost of Air Pollution: Health Impacts of Road Transport OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264210448-en. SCAN CODE WITH APP

Greening Household Behaviour: Overview from the 2011 Survey

Water and Climate Change Adaptation: Policies to Navigate Unchartered Waters

Farmer Behaviour, Agricultural Management and Climate Change

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264214651-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264200449-en.

OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264167650-en.

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Space Technologies and Climate Change OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264054196-en.

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Fostering Green Growth in Agriculture: The Role of Training, Advisory Services, and Extension Initiatives OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264232198-en. SCAN CODE WITH APP

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Greener Skills and Jobs for a Low-Carbon Future OECD Publishing, Paris, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1787/9789264208704-en.

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OECD . 15


#C O P 2 1 C O N T A C T S Simon.Upton@oecd.org - OECD Environment Director Anthony.Cox@oecd.org - OECD Environment Deputy-Director Simon.Buckle@oecd.org - Head, Climate, Biodiversity & Water, OECD Shardul.AGRAWALA@oecd.org - Head, Environment and Economy Integration, OECD CLIMATE CHANGE, ADAPTATION, DEVELOPMENT Michael.Mullan@oecd.org Jan.Corfee-Morlot@oecd.org Henri.Paillere@oecd.org CLIMATE NEGOTIATIONS INCLUDING INDCS, TRANSPARENCY, TRACKING CLIMATE FINANCE Jane.Ellis@oecd.org Raphael.Jachnik@oecd.org Sara.Moarif@oecd.org Yoko.Nobuoka@oecd.org CLIMATE FINANCE AND INVESTMENT Robert.Youngman@oecd.org Karim.Dahou@oecd.org Geraldine.Ang@oecd.org Gregory.Briner@oecd.org Christopher.Kaminker@oecd.org Jan-horst.Keppler@oecd.org MITIGATION POLICIES Gregory.Briner@oecd.org Mikaela.Rambali@oecd.org Rob.Dellink@oecd.org Elisa.Lanzi@oecd.org Jean.Chateau@oecd.org ENERGY TAXES AND CARBON PRICING Kurt.VanDender@oecd.org Michelle.Harding@oecd.org Florens.Flues@oecd.org Johanna.Arlinghaus@oecd.org Luisa.Dressler@oecd.org FOSSIL-FUEL SUBSIDIES Jehan.Sauvage@oecd.org ALIGNING POLICIES FOR A LOW-CARBON ECONOMY Richard.Baron@oecd.org Virginie.Marchal@oecd.org MONITORING CLIMATE-RELATED DEVELOPMENT FINANCE Stephanie.Ockenden@oecd.org Valérie.Gaveau@oecd.org CITIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE Tadashi.Matsumoto@oecd.org AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE Franck.Jesus@oecd.org Ada.Ignaciuk@oecd.org

MEDIA CONTACT Catherine.Bremer@OECD.org

oe.cd/cop21 #COP21 @OECD_ENV #OECDCOP @OECD

16 . FINANCING CLIMATE CHANGE ACTION

OECD at #COP21  

World leaders are facing a fundamental dilemma: take strong action to address the risks associated with climate change, or see the ability t...

OECD at #COP21  

World leaders are facing a fundamental dilemma: take strong action to address the risks associated with climate change, or see the ability t...