Air pollution has now become the biggest environmental cause of premature death, overtaking poor sanitation and a lack of clean drinking water. In most OECD countries,
the death toll from heart and lung diseases caused by air pollution is much higher than from traffic accidents. Building on this analysis, the OECD has estimated that people in its member countries would be willing to pay USD
1.6 trillion to avoid deaths caused by air pollution. In OECD countries, road transport is likely responsible for about half of this.