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Journal for Effective Schools

Volume 11, Number 1

Table 5. Correlations among Principal Efficacy Scales Scale 1. Curriculum and standards influence 2. Policy influence 3. Spending influence




.26* —

.18* .20* —

Note. n = 7,900. *Correlation is significant at .01, two–tailed.

Table 6. Means and Standard Deviations for Reward and Punishment Itemsa Questionsb



Items related to rewards 167. Receive cash bonuses or additional resources that support schoolwide activities? (R1) 168. Receive cash bonuses or additional resources to distribute to teachers? (R2) 169. Receive non-monetary forms of recognition? (R3)

.11 .11 .30

.32 .31 .46

Items related to punishments .50 .50 170. Required to write or modify a school or program improvement plan? (X1) .31 .46 171. Put on an evaluation cycle with required improvement by specific dates? (X2) .33 .47 172. Provided with additional resources to support instructional improvement? (X3) .04 .19 173. Penalized by a reduction in resources? (X4) 174. Required to replace the principal with a new principal, an administrative .02 .13 director, or a manager? (X5) .04 .19 175. Subject to reconstitution or takeover regulations? (X6) 176. Required to provide supplemental educational services (e.g., extra classes or tutoring by an outside provider) to students at no cost to themselves or their .17 .37 families? (X7) 177. Required to provide a school "choice" program in which students can attend other schools within the district, schools in other districts, or private schools at no tuition cost to themselves or their families? (X8) .14 .35 Note. n = 3,390 for items related to rewards. n = 3,360 for items related to punishments. Numbers beside items refer to the variable names in the Schools and Staffing Survey 2003-04 principal dataset. aSince all of the items in this table are dummy coded, the mean is simply the proportion of respondents who answered “yes” to the question. bResponse choices for these items were 1 (yes) and 0 (no).


Journal for Effective Schools - Spring 2013  

Vol. 11, #1