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Journal for Effective Schools

Volume 11, Number 1

determining amount of homework, and evaluating and disciplining students. Teacher self-efficacy influences the kind of learning environment teachers provide students. For example, Bandura (1993) argued that teachers with a high sense of instructional efficacy provide students with a more challenging and supportive academic environment than do those with a low sense of instructional efficacy. Overall, research shows that teacher efficacy is a significant contributor to teacher commitment (Bogler & Somech, 2004; Coladarci, 1992; Ebmeier, 2003; Ware & Kitsantas, 2007). Collective efficacy beliefs Bandura (1993) viewed teacher collective efficacy as the result of the contributions of organizational interdependencies within a school. For Goddard, Hoy, and Woolfolk Hoy (2004), “for schools, perceived collective efficacy refers to the judgment of teachers in a school that the faculty as a whole can organize and execute the courses of action required to have a positive effect on students” (p. 4). For Ware and Kitsantas (2007; 2011), collective efficacy referred to teachers’ belief in their ability to influence decision making relative to establishing the curriculum, hiring and evaluating teachers, setting discipline policy and determining how the school budget would be spent. Greater teacher influence on decisions affecting their work increases faculty confidence in their ability to educate children (Goddard, Hoy, & Woolfolk Hoy, 2004). Goddard, using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), found that teacher collective efficacy was positively related to between school differences in student achievement in reading and mathematics (Goddard, 2001). Collective efficacy beliefs also play a significant role in achieving group goals (Goddard & Skrla, 2006). However, in examining the relationships among faculty and school demographics and teacher collective efficacy, they found surprisingly less of the variance in collective efficacy explained by the demographic measures than they had expected. This led them to note, “Thus, it is important for researchers to continue the study of efficacy beliefs in search of their unique contributions to organizational performance” (Goddard & Skrla, 2006, p. 229). Collective efficacy strengthens teacher commitment, a potentially important aspect of school performance (Ware & Kitsantas, 2007). Principal efficacy beliefs In addressing principals’ efficacy, Tschannen-Moran and Gareis (2004) describe it as one’s belief in their ability to create change, which they view as an important characteristic of an effective school leader. Principals with higher perceptions of self-efficacy have a tendency to see within themselves the power to execute their roles, whereas principals with low self-efficacy tend to have a sense of inability to control their environment. Consequently, they are less likely to identify and execute appropriate strategies for addressing issues (Tschannen-Moran & 39

Journal for Effective Schools - Spring 2013  

Vol. 11, #1