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Journal for Effective Schools

Volume 11, Number 1

Efficacy, Consequences and Teacher Commitment in the Era of No Child Left Behind Herbert Ware, Ph.D. Professor of Educational Leadership Emeritus, George Mason University Jehanzeb Cheema, Ph.D. Adjunct Associate Professor, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology in Washington, D.C. Anastasia Kitsantas, Ph.D. Professor and Academic Program Coordinator of Educational Psychology, George Mason University Abstract This study explored how NCLB-generated consequences relative to goal achievement interact with principal and teacher efficacy beliefs to impact teacher commitment. The 2003-2004 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), with 35,910 public school teachers nested in 7,900 public school principals was used in a hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) analysis that sought to determine these relationships. The findings showed that teacher commitment was higher in settings which met performance goals. Teacher efficacy and the principal’s role in establishing curriculum and student performance standards positively influenced teacher commitment. With regard to consequences, providing school wide resources and offering school attendance choices were associated with increased teacher commitment. Offering supplemental educational services to students was associated with reduced teacher commitment. Educational implications are discussed. The findings help to clarify relationships, including leadership practices, maintaining a goal focus and high expectations for student achievement, and monitoring progress toward those goals, all sustaining characteristics of effective schools Keywords Teacher efficacy, principal efficacy, teacher commitment, effective schools correlates, NCLB consequences, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) Type of article: Empirical paper Efficacy, Consequences and Teacher Commitment in the Era of No Child Left Behind In the United States, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is a federal mandate passed in 2001 which requires all states to create achievement standards for all students with the ultimate goal of closing the achievement gap by 2014 and increasing accountability through Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) testing (Dept of 35

Journal for Effective Schools - Spring 2013  

Vol. 11, #1