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Body Systems

Written by Mina Kim

Period 3


SKELETAL SYSTEM

Front and back view of our skeletal system

Our body needs the skeletal system to keep the structure, protect our body organs, and move while working with the muscular system. The skeletal system consists of bones, joints, cartilage, and ligaments. • Bones are the basic structure of our body. An adult human has about 206 bones in their body, but children usually have more bones than adults. The reason of that is because as humans grow, the bones fuse together to become one so that they can support greater weight. • Joints lets bones move, and it has different ways of moving bones at different parts. • Cartilage is the jelly-like thing that is at the end of each bones in your body. It also connects bones together. When cartilage hardens, it turns into a part of the bones, and this is how bones grow. • Ligaments are the part that hold the bones together, and it keeps the bones in the right place. Pathogen: Osteomyelitis is caused by staphylococcus bacteria, and some of the symptoms are fever, chills, pain and swelling where the infection has occurred, etc. the staphylococcus bacteria is found at the skin of a healthy human being, although you can get infected by the bacteria traveling into your body. Homeostasis: The skeletal system works with the respiratory system and circulatory system to keep homeostasis. The skeletal system protect the organs that make up the respiratory system, and without the skeletons that protect the respiratory system, the respiratory system will be easily damaged, and we will not be able to breath easily. The skeleton system also produces blood, and the blood that has ben produced adds to the blood that was already there, and t plays a major role in restoring blood that goes out when you are hurt. Without the skeleton system making blood, the body will not be able to survive long after losing a significant amount of blood because of an accident. Function: The skeletal system’s jobs are not only protecting the organs in our body and making more blood, but also enabling us to be able to listen. The tympanic membrane is what we call the ear drums, and they capture the vibrations and we hear by the vibrations ringing in our ears.


MUSCULAR SYSTEM

Our body has three types of muscles: smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscles. Muscles are what moves the bones, and what keeps the heart beating. They are also about half of the weigh of our body. • The muscles are things that contracts and contrasts to move the bones to move. There are three types of muscles in your body: smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscles. Smooth muscles are muscles that move involuntarily, skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles, and cardiac muscles are neither. Cardiac muscles are really interesting because they are kind of like involuntary muscles, but you can control your heart beat rate, which also makes the cardiac muscles voluntary. Cardiac muscles are also the strongest muscles in your body, as it beats every moment of your life until you die. • Tendons are the cord that connects the muscles to the bones, and it is more dense than the muscles. Pathogens: Botulism- it is a food poisoning where a bacterial toxin makes muscles to be paralyzed, and some of the symptoms are droopy eyes, blurred vision, dry mouth, slurred pronunciation, etc. this pathogen can occur when you eat low acid food that wasn’t stored properly. Botulism can result to death if it is not treated soon after you eat food that has been not stored right. The muscles will stop working, and the body will not be able to keep homeostasis for long because it will not be able to get the movement it need, and once your cardiac muscles working the heart is paralyzed, your heart will stop, and sooner or later, you will die. Homeostasis: the muscular system works with the skeletal and the digestive system to keep homeostasis. The muscles around the organs that make up the digestive system are smooth muscles, so even when we are digesting food when we sleep, we will be able to not worry about our stomach suddenly stop working and us choking by the food that is still in the process of being digested. The skeletons in our body is surrounded by skeletal muscles which are voluntary, and enables our body to exercise whenever we want to.

This is a picture of the muscular system

The picture at the bottom is the skeletal muscles, and the picture at the top is smooth muscles.


CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

This is a picture of the arteries and the veins

This is a picture of the heart

The circulatory system is the parts of our body that make blood flow through our whole body and supply us with what we need. • The heat is the organ that pumps blood in and out so that the body gets oxygen and nutrients it needs. It is divided into four parts, left and right, up and down. Each upper section is called atrium, and each lower section is called ventricle. The heart pumps the blood with oxygen to the arteries, and sends the low-oxygen blood to the veins. • Capillaries bring the oxygen-poor blood to veins from arteries, and the red blood cells are a part of the blood that carries around oxygen and nutrients to other parts of the body. Pathogen: Valve disorders happen when Streptococcus bacteria infects the heart, and sometimes the immune system will attack the valve of the heart when it is attacking the immune system, and that will worsen the disorder. Some of the symptoms are chest pain, anxiety, and weariness of the body. Homeostasis: The circulatory system works with the muscular and the respiratory system to maintain homoeostasis. The muscles that pump the heart is the cardiac muscle, and that cardiac muscles keep the heart beating even when we are not thinking conscious thoughts about keeping it beating. The respiratory system brings in oxygen, and the circulatory system carries around the oxygen to the other parts of your body. The blood, once it delivers the oxygen, it returns to the heart, then to the lungs to get more blood. Function: the circulatory system brings the oxygen from the respiratory system, and nutrients from the digestive system to all over your body. Then the blood without oxygen comes back to the heart, and goes to the lungs to get more oxygen to repeat the process all over again. White blood cells and plasma are mixed with the red blood cells, and they make up a part of the immune system that protects our body from infectious diseases. The heart pumps approximately 2,000 gallons of blood each year, through vessels that are about 62,100 miles long. The right atrium brings blood without oxygen to the right ventricle, then to the lungs, and the oxygen-rich blood goes from left atrium to the left ventricle and goes to the rest of the body.


RESPIRATORY SYSTEM The respiratory system brings in oxygen and exhales carbon dioxide. It starts from your nose, where you breath in, and air goes down the pharynx. Then, from the pharynx, to trachea, then to bronchi, then the air goes into your lungs and fill it up, making your chest expand, and when you breath out, your chest returns to your normal size. When the air enters your lungs, it goes into the little air pockets called alveolus, and inside the alveolus, there are smaller pockets called alveoli, and when oxygen enters alveoli, the veins that are connected to the alveoli gets oxygen, and the blood with oxygen goes into the arteries and begin to go around the body by the circulatory system. The muscles at the bottom are diaphragm, and they help us expand our lungs when we inhale. • Pharynx is your throat, and larynx is your voice box, the part that makes sound by making vibrations. Trachea is the tube that connects your pharynx to the bronchi, and the two bronchi goes to each lung. Your lungs are filled with alveolus, and the alveolus brings oxygen to the blood. Pathogen: Pneumonia is caused by Legionella Pneumophila, a bacteria infection. Some symptoms are coughing, fever, chills, nausea, and diarrhea. It is not that dangerous and will heal in few weeks for healthy people, but the lungs will have to work harder to breath because of the bacteria spreading in the alveoli. Homeostasis: the respiratory system works with the nervous and the muscular system to maintain homeostasis. The diaphragm is needed to expand and contrast our chest better when we breath, because without it the lungs will have a hard time breathing in and out. When we need breath more deeply because we have little oxygen, then the brain tells the respiratory system to breath in a lot of oxygen, so when we exercise, we will not die because of the loss of oxygen. Function: the respiratory system makes sound from the larynx, the voice box, and the larynx vibrates to make sound. We breath in and out to supply oxygen to our body. The oxygen is needed by our body to work correctly.

This is an alveolus. The blue veins are vessels that have blood without oxygen, and red vessels that have oxygen in the blood. This is a picture of the respiratory system.


DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

This is a picture of the digestive system

This is the stomach

When you open your mouth and start chewing, your digestive system starts working. The chewing part of it is called mechanical digestion. When the salvia and other chemicals in your body start to digest the food, it is chemical digestion. The teeth are a part of the digestive system, the mechanical part. • The mouth is where the mechanical digestion happens, and the salvia is when the chemical digestion starts. The glob of food travels down the esophagus, and goes into the stomach, where the food is mashed, and the liver and the pancreas take energy from the food. Some of the energy is stored inside the liver, and the rest is delivered throughout the body, keeping it fully charged. Pathogen: Campylobacter infection is caused by an infection of Campylobacter bacteria. This happens when people drink or eat infected food, and this causes diarrhea and are not usually dangerous, but sometimes it can be fatal and you might die from it. Some symptoms are abdominal pain and cramps, and bloody diarrhea. Homeostasis: the digestive system works with the circulatory and the respiratory system to maintain homeostasis. Function: the food we eat are turned into nutrients and waste, and the nutrients stay inside our body, and the wastes go out as feces from the small intestine to the large intestine, then outside the body.


NERVOUS SYSTEM

Whenever you think, your nervous system is at work. Your nervous system can be divided into two, the PNS and the CNS. PNS is the neurons, and the CNS is the brain and the spinal cord. The brain gets information from the neurons, and interprets it. • PNS is the neurons that are spread around our body • CNS is the brain and the spinal cord, and they both can make decisions about what to do, though the brain makes most of the decisions, and the spinal cord only acts on instincts to protect your body. Pathogen: Clostridium Botulinum is a bacteria that causes the nervous system to paralyze. Some symptoms include weakness, dizziness, and double vision. It can only be found in anaerobic conditions, such as cans or vacuumed packaging. Homeostasis: The nervous system works with the muscular, skeletal, and digestive system to maintain homeostasis. The nervous system controls both involuntary and voluntary muscles. A part of the CNS controls the involuntary muscles, like the smooth muscles that work the organs of the digestive system. The nervous system also controls the voluntary muscles like the skeletal muscles that move our arms. Without any of it, we will not be able to function properly. Not to be able to digest food and to move around might be big problem. Function: the nervous system stores memory, controls the voluntary and involuntary muscles, and sends commands to other parts of the body. The neurons that are spread all over our body sends messages back to inform the brain. And the brain remembers important memories and learn from mistakes. The nervous system enables us to think, and talk, and do everyday things that seem easy, but without the nervous system we won’t be able to do anything.

The CNS of the nervous system The nervous system. The red part is the CNS and the blue part is the PNS


Citations "Skeletal system overview (morphology)." World of Anatomy and Physiology. Gale, 2007. Gale Power Search. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCV2430500373&v=2.1&u=prof_t&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=83021dbca09eb0aa86b712b10d75cc3e "Skeletal muscle system, embryonic development." World of Anatomy and Physiology. Gale, 2007. Gale Power Search. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. "Muscular System." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 4th ed. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 2008. 2886-2891. Gale Power Search. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCX2830101554&v=2.1&u=prof_t&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=18cda14c56ffd4d52bf8b6ca56bbb69d "The Muscular System." Body by Design. Gale, 2007. Gale Power Search. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCV2644900600&v=2.1&u=prof_t&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=deaf07b10ce04ad672bc8f027ab91d20 "Muscular system." The Gale Encyclopedia of Science. Ed. K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner. 4th ed. Detroit: Gale, 2008. Gale Power Search. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCV2644031496&v=2.1&u=prof_t&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=5d057d64fc5e51cce5c653681e39fb61 "Cardiovascular Diseases." Biology. Ed. Richard Robinson. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2009. Gale Power Search. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCV2642150060&v=2.1&u=prof_t&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=7f09b1af1a1b506c7f609092b595998a "The Cardiovascular System." Body by Design. Gale, 2007. Gale Power Search. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCV2644900100&v=2.1&u=prof_t&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=277330575e262a522d7e6167f21c03bb "Circulatory system." World of Anatomy and Physiology. Gale, 2007. Gale Power Search. Web. 30 Mar. 2014. Document URL http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CCV2430500088&v=2.1&u=prof_t&it=r&p=GPS&sw=w&asid=c2828e087c7044cb2d13fc82ea33dff4


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Mina Kim Period 3