Page 1

Leonardo da Vinci

PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information. PDF generated at: Sat, 16 Oct 2010 23:14:36 UTC


Contents Articles Introduction

Main article Leonardo da Vinci

Supporting articles

1 2 2 24

Leonardo da Vinci's personal life

24

List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

33

Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

41

Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci

59

References Article Sources and Contributors

68

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

70

Article Licenses License

73


Introduction

Introduction Note. This book is based on the Wikipedia article, "Leonardo da Vinci." The supporting articles are those referenced as major expansions of selected sections.

1


2

Main article Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci

Self-portrait in red chalk, circa 1512 to 1515.

[1]

Royal Library of Turin

Birth name Leonardo di Ser Piero Born

April 15, 1452 Vinci, in the present day Province of Florence, Italy

Died

May 2, 1519 (aged 67) Amboise, Touraine (in present-day Indre-et-Loire, France)

Nationality Italian Field

Many and diverse fields of arts and sciences

Movement High Renaissance Works

Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, The Vitruvian Man

Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (pronunciation) (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist and writer. Leonardo has often been described as the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man whose unquenchable curiosity was equaled only by his powers of invention.[2] He is widely considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time and perhaps the most diversely talented person ever to have lived.[3] According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, the man himself mysterious and remote".[2] Marco Rosci points out, however, that while there is much speculation about Leonardo, his vision of the world is essentially logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unusual for his time.[4] Born the illegitimate son of a notary, Piero da Vinci, and a peasant woman, Caterina, at Vinci in the region of Florence, Leonardo was educated in the studio of the renowned Florentine painter, Verrocchio. Much of his earlier working life was spent in the service of Ludovico il Moro in Milan. He later worked in Rome, Bologna and Venice


Leonardo da Vinci

3

and spent his last years in France, at the home awarded him by Francis I. Leonardo was and is renowned[3] primarily as a painter. Two of his works, the Mona Lisa and The Last Supper, are the most famous, most reproduced and most parodied portrait and religious paintings of all time, respectively, their fame approached only by Michelangelo's Creation of Adam.[2] Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is also regarded as a cultural icon,[5] being reproduced on everything from the euro to text books to t-shirts. Perhaps fifteen of his paintings survive, the small number due to his constant, and frequently disastrous, experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination.[6] Nevertheless, these few works, together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, compose a contribution to later generations of artists only rivalled by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo. Leonardo is revered[3] for his technological ingenuity. He conceptualised a helicopter, a tank, concentrated solar power, a calculator,[7] the double hull and outlined a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics. Relatively few of his designs were constructed or were even feasible during his lifetime,[8] but some of his smaller inventions, such as an automated bobbin winder and a machine for testing the tensile strength of wire, entered the world of manufacturing unheralded.[9] As a scientist, he greatly advanced the state of knowledge in the fields of anatomy, civil engineering, optics, and hydrodynamics.[10]

Life Childhood, 1452–1466 Leonardo was born on April 15, 1452, "at the third hour of the night"[11] in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci, in the lower valley of the Arno River in the territory of Florence.[12] He was the illegitimate son of the wealthy Messer Piero Fruosino di Antonio da Vinci, a Florentine legal notary, and Caterina, a peasant.[13] [14] [15] Leonardo had no surname in the modern sense, "da Vinci" simply meaning "of Vinci": his full birth name was "Lionardo di ser Piero da Vinci", meaning "Leonardo, (son) of (Mes)ser Piero from Vinci".[12]

Leonardo's childhood home in Anchiano.

Little is known about Leonardo's early life. He spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother, then from 1457 lived in the household of his father, grandparents and uncle, Francesco, in the small town of Vinci. His father had married a sixteen-year-old girl named Albiera, who loved Leonardo but died young.[16] Leonardo received an informal education in Latin, geometry and mathematics but did not show any particular signs of aptitude. When Leonardo was sixteen his father married again, twenty-year-old Francesca Lanfredini. It was not until his third and fourth marriages Leonardo's earliest known drawing, the Arno that Ser Piero produced legitimate heirs.[17] In later life, Leonardo only Valley, (1473) – Uffizi recorded two childhood incidents. One, which he regarded as an omen, was when a kite dropped from the sky and hovered over his cradle, its tail feathers brushing his face.[18] The second occurred while exploring in the mountains. He discovered a cave and was both terrified that some great monster might lurk there, and driven by curiosity to find out what was inside.[16] Leonardo's early life has been the subject of historical conjecture.[19] Vasari, the 16th-century biographer of Renaissance painters tells of how a local peasant made himself a round shield and requested that Ser Piero have it painted for him. Leonardo responded with a painting of monster spitting fire which was so terrifying that Ser Piero sold it to a Florentine art dealer, who sold it to the Duke of Milan. Meanwhile, having made a profit, Ser Piero


Leonardo da Vinci

4

bought a shield decorated with a heart pierced by an arrow, which he gave to the peasant.[20]

Verrocchio's workshop, 1466–1476 In 1466, at the age of fourteen, Leonardo was apprenticed to the artist Andrea di Cione, known as Verrocchio whose workshop was "one of the finest in Florence".[21] Other famous painters apprenticed or associated with the workshop include Domenico Ghirlandaio, Perugino, Botticelli, and Lorenzo di Credi.[16] [22] Leonardo would have been exposed to both theoretical training and a vast range of technical skills[23] including drafting, chemistry, metallurgy, metal working, plaster casting, leather working, mechanics and carpentry as well as the artistic skills of drawing, painting, sculpting and modelling.[24] [25] Much of the painted production of Verrocchio's workshop was done by his employees. According to Vasari, Leonardo collaborated with Verrocchio on his Baptism of Christ, painting the young angel holding Jesus's robe in a manner that The Baptism of Christ (1472–1475)—Uffizi, by Verrocchio and Leonardo was so far superior to his master's that Verrocchio put down his brush and never painted again.[26] This is probably an exaggeration. On close examination, the painting reveals much that has been painted or touched up over the tempera using the new technique of oil paint, the landscape, the rocks that can be seen through the brown mountain stream and much of the figure of Jesus bearing witness to the hand of Leonardo.[27] Leonardo himself may have been the model for two works by Verrocchio, including the bronze statue of David in the Bargello, and the Archangel Michael in Tobias and the Angel.[14] By 1472, at the age of twenty, Leonardo qualified as a master in the Guild of St Luke, the guild of artists and doctors of medicine,[28] but even after his father set him up in his own workshop, his attachment to Verrocchio was such that he continued to collaborate with him.[16] Leonardo's earliest known dated work is a drawing in pen and ink of the Arno valley, drawn on August 5, 1473.[29] [22]


Leonardo da Vinci

5

Professional life, 1476–1513 Florentine court records of 1476 show that Leonardo and three other young men were charged with sodomy, and acquitted.[14] [30] From that date until 1478 there is no record of his work or even of his whereabouts.[31] In 1478 he left Verroccio's studio and was no longer resident at his father's house. One writer, the "Anonimo" Gaddiano claims that in 1480 he was living with the Medici and working in the garden of the Piazza San Marco in Florence.[14] In January 1478 he received his first independent commission, to paint an altarpiece in 1478 for the Chapel of St Bernard in the Palazzo Vecchio and The Adoration of the Magi in March 1481 for the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto.[32] Neither important commission was completed, the second being interrupted when Leonardo went to Milan.

The Adoration of the Magi, (1481)—Uffizi.

In 1482 Leonardo, who according to Vasari was a most talented musician,[33] created a silver lyre in the shape of a horse's head. Lorenzo de’ Medici sent Leonardo, bearing the lyre as a gift, to Milan, to secure peace with Ludovico il Moro, Duke of Milan.[34] At this time Leonardo wrote an often-quoted letter to Ludovico, describing the many marvellous and diverse things that he could achieve in the field of engineering and informing the Lord that he could also paint.[22] [35] Leonardo continued work in Milan between 1482 and 1499. He was commissioned to paint the Virgin of the Rocks for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception, and The Last Supper for the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie.[36] While living in Milan between 1493 and 1495 Leonardo listed a woman called Caterina among his dependents in his taxation documents. When she died in 1495, the list of funeral expenditures suggests that she was his mother.[37] Leonardo worked on many different projects for Ludovico, including the preparation of floats and pageants for special occasions, designs for a dome for Milan Cathedral and a model for a huge equestrian monument to Francesco Sforza, Ludovico's predecessor. Seventy tons of bronze were set aside for casting it. The monument remained unfinished for several years, which was not unusual for Leonardo. In 1492 the clay model of the horse was completed. It surpassed in size the only two large equestrian statues of the Renaissance, Donatello's statue of Gattemelata in Padua and Verrocchio's Bartolomeo Colleoni in Venice, and became known as the "Gran Cavallo".[22] [38]


Leonardo da Vinci

6 Leonardo began making detailed plans for its casting,[22] however, Michelangelo rudely implied that Leonardo was unable to cast it.[16] In November 1494 Ludovico gave the bronze to be used for cannons to defend the city from invasion by Charles VIII.[22]

Study of horse from Leonardo's journals – Royal Library, Windsor Castle

At the start of the Second Italian War in 1499, the invading French troops used the life-size clay model for the "Gran Cavallo" for target practice. With Ludovico Sforza overthrown, Leonardo, with his assistant Salai and friend, the mathematician Luca Pacioli, fled Milan for Venice,[39] where he was employed as a military architect and engineer, devising methods to defend the city from naval attack.[16] On his return to Florence in 1500, he and his household were guests of the Servite monks at the monastery of Santissima Annunziata and were provided with a workshop where, according to Vasari, Leonardo created the cartoon of The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the Baptist, a work that won such admiration that "men and women, young and old" flocked to see it "as if they were attending a great festival".[40] [41]

In Cesena, in 1502 Leonardo entered the service of Cesare Borgia, the son of Pope Alexander VI, acting as a military architect and engineer and travelling throughout Italy with his patron.[39] Leonardo created a map of Cesare Borgia’s stronghold, a town plan of Imola in order to win his patronage. Maps were extremely rare at the time and it would have seemed like a new concept; upon seeing it, Cesare hired Leonardo as his chief military engineer and architect. Later in the year, Leonardo produced another map for his patron, one of Chiana Valley, Tuscany so as to give his patron a better overlay of the land and greater strategic position. He created this map in conjunction with his other project of constructing a dam from the sea to Florence in order to allow a supply of water to sustain the canal during all seasons. Leonardo returned to Florence where he rejoined the Guild of St Luke on October 18, 1503, and spent two years designing and painting a great mural of The Battle of Anghiari for the Signoria,[39] with Michelangelo designing its companion piece, The Battle of Cascina.[42] In Florence in 1504, he was part of a committee formed to relocate, against the artist's will, Michelangelo's statue of David.[43] In 1506 Leonardo returned to Milan. Many of his most prominent pupils or followers in painting either knew or worked with him in Milan,[16] including Bernardino Luini, Giovanni Antonio Boltraffio Leonardo da Vinci's very accurate map of Imola, [44] created for Cesare Borgia. and Marco D'Oggione. However, he did not stay in Milan for long because his father had died in 1504, and in 1507 he was back in Florence trying to sort out problems with his brothers over his father's estate. By 1508 Leonardo was back in Milan, living in his own house in Porta Orientale in the parish of Santa Babila.[45]


Leonardo da Vinci

7

Old age, 1513–1519 From September 1513 to 1516, Leonardo spent much of his time living in the Belvedere in the Vatican in Rome, where Raphael and Michelangelo were both active at the time.[45] In October 1515, Francis I of France recaptured Milan.[32] On December 19, Leonardo was present at the meeting of Francis I and Pope Leo X, which took place in Bologna.[16] [46] [47] It was for Francis that Leonardo was commissioned to make a mechanical lion which could walk forward, then open its chest to reveal a cluster of lilies.[48] [49] In 1516, he entered François' service, being given the use of the manor house Clos Clos Lucé in France, where Leonardo died in [50] 1519 Lucé near the king's residence at the royal Château d'Amboise. It was here that he spent the last three years of his life, accompanied by his friend and apprentice, Count Francesco Melzi, supported by a pension totalling 10,000 scudi.[45] Leonardo died at Clos Lucé, on May 2, 1519. Francis I had become a close friend. Vasari records that the King held Leonardo's head in his arms as he died, although this story, beloved by the French and portrayed in romantic paintings by Ingres, Ménageot and other French artists, as well as by Angelica Kauffmann, may be legend rather than fact.[51] [52] Vasari also tells us that in his last days, Leonardo sent for a priest to make his confession and to receive the Holy Sacrament.[53] In accordance to his will, sixty beggars followed his casket. He was buried in the Chapel of Saint-Hubert in Château d'Amboise. Melzi was the principal heir and executor, receiving as well as money, Leonardo's paintings, tools, library and personal effects. Leonardo also remembered his other long-time pupil and companion, Salai and his servant Battista di Vilussis, who each received half of Leonardo's vineyards, his brothers who received land, and his serving woman who received a black cloak "of good stuff" with a fur edge.[54] Some twenty years after Leonardo's death, Francis was reported by the goldsmith and sculptor Benevenuto Cellini as saying: "There had never been another man born in the world who knew as much as Leonardo, not so much about painting, sculpture and architecture, as that he was a very great philosopher."[55]

Relationships and influences Florence — Leonardo's artistic and social background Florence, at the time of Leonardo's youth was the centre of Christian Humanist thought and culture.[56] Leonardo commenced his apprenticeship with Verrocchio in 1466, the year that Verrocchio's master, the great sculptor Donatello, died. The painter Uccello whose early experiments with perspective were to influence the development of landscape painting, was a very old man. The painters Piero della Francesca and Fra Filippo Lippi, sculptor Luca della Robbia, and architect and writer Leon Battista Alberti were in their sixties. The successful artists of the next generation were Leonardo's teacher Verrocchio, Antonio Pollaiuolo and the portrait sculptor, Mino da Fiesole whose lifelike busts give the most reliable likenesses of Lorenzo Medici's father Piero and uncle Giovanni.[57] [58] [59] [60] Ghiberti's Gates of Paradise, (1425–1452) were a source of communal pride. Many artists assisted in their creation.

Leonardo's youth was spent in a Florence that was ornamented by the works of these artists and by Donatello's contemporaries, Masaccio whose figurative frescoes were imbued with realism and emotion and Ghiberti whose Gates of


Leonardo da Vinci

8

Paradise, gleaming with gold leaf, displayed the art of combining complex figure compositions with detailed architectural backgrounds. Piero della Francesca had made a detailed study of perspective,[61] and was the first painter to make a scientific study of light. These studies and Alberti's Treatise[62] were to have a profound effect on younger artists and in particular on Leonardo's own observations and artworks.[57] [59] [60] Massaccio's depiction of the naked and distraught Adam and Eve leaving the Garden of Eden created a powerfully expressive image of the human form, cast into three dimensions by the use of light and shade which was to be developed in the works of Leonardo in a way that was to be influential in the course of painting. The Humanist influence of Donatello's David can be seen in Leonardo's late paintings, particularly John the Baptist.[57] [58] A prevalent tradition in Florence was the small altarpiece of the Virgin and Child. Many of these were created in tempera or glazed terracotta by the workshops of Filippo Lippi, Verrocchio and the prolific della Robbia family.[57] Leonardo's early Madonnas such as The Madonna with a carnation and The Benois Madonna followed this tradition while showing idiosyncratic departures, particularly in the case of the Benois Madonna in which the Virgin is set at an oblique angle to the picture space with the Christ Child at the opposite angle. This compositional theme was to emerge in Leonardo's later paintings such as The Virgin and Child with St. Anne.[16] Leonardo was a contemporary of Botticelli, Domenico Ghirlandaio and Perugino, who were all slightly older than he was.[58] He would have met them at the workshop of Verrocchio, with whom they had associations, and at the Small devotional picture by Academy of the Medici.[16] Botticelli was a particular favourite of the Medici Verrocchio, c. 1470 family and thus his success as a painter was assured. Ghirlandaio and Perugino were both prolific and ran large workshops. They competently delivered commissions to well-satisfied patrons who appreciated Ghirlandaio's ability to portray the wealthy citizens of Florence within large religious frescoes, and Perugino's ability to deliver a multitude of saints and angels of unfailing sweetness and innocence.[57] These three were among those commissioned to paint the walls of the Sistine Chapel, the work commencing with Perugino's employment in 1479. Leonardo was not part of this prestigious commission. His first significant commission, The Adoration of the Magi for the Monks of Scopeto, was never completed.[16] In 1476, during the time of Leonardo's association with Verrocchio's workshop, the Portinari Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes arrived in Florence, bringing new painterly techniques from Northern Europe which were to profoundly effect Leonardo, Ghirlandaio, Perugino and [58] others. In 1479, the Sicilian painter Antonello da Messina, who The Portinari Altarpiece, by Hugo van der Goes for a Florentine family worked exclusively in oils, traveled north on his way to Venice, where the leading painter, Giovanni Bellini adopted the technique of oil painting, quickly making it the preferred method in Venice. Leonardo was also later to visit Venice.[58] [60] Like the two contemporary architects, Bramante and Antonio da Sangallo the Elder, Leonardo experimented with designs for centrally planned churches, a number of which appear in his journals, as both plans and views, although none was ever realised.[58] [63]


Leonardo da Vinci

9

Leonardo's political contemporaries were Lorenzo Medici (il Magnifico), who was three years older, and his popular younger brother Giuliano who was slain in the Pazzi Conspiracy in 1478. Ludovico il Moro who ruled Milan between 1479–1499 and to whom Leonardo was sent as ambassador from the Medici court, was also of Leonardo's age.[58] With Alberti, Leonardo visited the home of the Medici and through them came to know the older Humanist philosophers of whom Marsiglio Ficino, proponent of Neo Platonism, Cristoforo Landino, writer of commentaries on Classical writings, and John Argyropoulos, teacher of Greek and translator of Aristotle Lorenzo de' Medici between Antonio were foremost. Also associated with the Academy of the Medici was Leonardo's [58] Pucci and Francesco Sassetti, with contemporary, the brilliant young poet and philosopher Pico della Mirandola. Giulio de' Medici, fresco by [60] [64] Leonardo later wrote in the margin of a journal "The Medici made me Ghirlandaio and the Medici destroyed me." While it was through the action of Lorenzo that Leonardo was to receive his important Milanese commissions, it is not known exactly what Leonardo meant by this cryptic comment.[16] Although usually named together as the three giants of the High Renaissance, Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael were not of the same generation. Leonardo was twenty-three when Michelangelo was born and thirty-one when Raphael was born.[58] Raphael only lived until the age of 37 and died in 1520, the year after Leonardo, but Michelangelo went on creating for another 45 years.[59] [60]

Personal life Within Leonardo's lifetime, his extraordinary powers of invention, his "outstanding physical beauty", "infinite grace", "great strength and generosity", "regal spirit and tremendous breadth of mind" as described by Vasari,[65] as well as all other aspects of his life, attracted the curiosity of others. One such aspect is his respect for life evidenced by his vegetarianism and his habit, described by Vasari, of purchasing caged birds and releasing them.[66] [67]

Study for a portrait of Isabella d'Este (1500) Louvre.

Leonardo had many friends who are now renowned either in their fields or for their historical significance. They included the mathematician Luca Pacioli,[68] with whom he collaborated on a book in the 1490s, as well as Franchinus Gaffurius and Isabella d'Este. Leonardo appears to have had no close relationships with women except for his friendship with Isabella d'Este. He drew a portrait of her while on a journey which took him through Mantua, and which appears to have been used to create a painted portrait now lost.[16]

Beyond friendship, Leonardo kept his private life secret. His sexuality has been the subject of satire, analysis, and speculation. This trend began in the mid-16th century and was revived in the 19th and 20th centuries, most notably by Sigmund Freud.[69] Leonardo's most intimate relationships were perhaps with his pupils Salai and Melzi. Melzi, writing to inform Leonardo's brothers of his death, described Leonardo's feelings for his pupils as both loving and passionate. It has been claimed since the 16th century that these relationships were of a sexual or erotic nature. Court records of 1476, when he was aged twenty-four, show that Leonardo and three other young men were charged with sodomy, and acquitted.[14] Since that date much has been written about his presumed homosexuality and its role in his art, particularly in the androgyny and eroticism manifested in John the Baptist and Bacchus and more explicitly in a number of erotic drawings.[70]


Leonardo da Vinci

10

Assistants and pupils Gian Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno, nicknamed Salai or Il Salaino ("The Little Unclean One" i.e., the devil), entered Leonardo's household in 1490. After only a year, Leonardo made a list of his misdemeanours, calling him "a thief, a liar, stubborn, and a glutton", after he had made off with money and valuables on at least five occasions, and spent a fortune on clothes.[71] Nevertheless, Leonardo treated him with great indulgence and he remained in Leonardo's household for the next thirty years.[72] Salai executed a number of paintings under the name of Andrea Salai, but although Vasari claims that Leonardo "taught him a great deal about painting",[48] his work is generally considered to be of less artistic merit than others among Leonardo's pupils, such as Marco d'Oggione and Boltraffio. In [73] 1515, he painted a nude version of the Mona Lisa, known as Monna Vanna. Salai owned the Mona Lisa at the time of his death in 1525, and in his will it was assessed at 505 lire, an exceptionally high valuation for a small panel portrait.[74]

Salai as John the Baptist (c. 1514)—Louvre

In 1506, Leonardo took on another pupil, Count Francesco Melzi, the son of a Lombard aristocrat, who is considered to have been his favourite student. He travelled to France with Leonardo, and remained with him until the latter's death.[16] Upon Leonardo's death, Melzi inherited the artistic and scientific works, manuscripts, and collections of Leonardo, and faithfully administered the estate.

Painting Despite the recent awareness and admiration of Leonardo as a scientist and inventor, for the better part of four hundred years his enormous fame rested on his achievements as a painter and on a handful of works, either authenticated or attributed to him that have been regarded as among the supreme masterpieces ever created.[75] Annunciation (1475–1480)—Uffizi, is thought to be Leonardo's earliest complete work

These paintings are famous for a variety of qualities which have been much imitated by students and discussed at great length by connoisseurs and critics. Among the qualities that make Leonardo's work unique are the innovative techniques that he used in laying on the paint, his detailed knowledge of anatomy, light, botany and geology, his interest in physiognomy and the way in which humans register emotion in expression and gesture, his innovative use of the human form in figurative composition and his use of the subtle gradation of tone. All these qualities come together in his most famous painted works, the Mona Lisa, the Last Supper and the Virgin of the Rocks.[76]


Leonardo da Vinci

11

Early works

Unfinished painting of St. Jerome in the Wilderness, (c. 1480), Vatican

Leonardo's early works begin with the Baptism of Christ painted in conjunction with Verrocchio. Two other paintings appear to date from his time at the workshop, both of which are Annunciations. One is small, 59 centimetres (23 in) long and 14 centimetres (5.5 in) high. It is a "predella" to go at the base of a larger composition, in this case a painting by Lorenzo di Credi from which it has become separated. The other is a much larger work, 217 centimetres (85 in) long.[77] In both these Annunciations, Leonardo has used a formal arrangement, such as in Fra Angelico's two well known pictures of the same subject, of the Virgin Mary sitting or kneeling to the right of the picture, approached from the left by an angel in profile, with rich flowing garment, raised wings and bearing a lily. Although previously attributed to Ghirlandaio, the larger work is now almost universally attributed to Leonardo.[78]

In the smaller picture Mary averts her eyes and folds her hands in a gesture that symbolised submission to God's will. In the larger picture, however, Mary is not in the least submissive. The beautiful girl, interrupted in her reading by this unexpected messenger, puts a finger in her bible to mark the place and raises her hand in a formal gesture of greeting or surprise.[57] This calm young woman appears to accept her role as the Mother of God not with resignation but with confidence. In this painting the young Leonardo presents the Humanist face of the Virgin Mary, recognising humanity's role in God's incarnation.[79]

Paintings of the 1480s In the 1480s Leonardo received two very important commissions, and commenced another work which was also of ground-breaking importance in terms of composition. Unfortunately two of the three were never finished and the third took so long that it was subject to lengthy negotiations over completion and payment. One of these paintings is that of St. Jerome in the Wilderness. Bortolon associates this picture with a difficult period of Leonardo's life, and the signs of melancholy in his diary: "I thought I was learning to live; I was only learning to die."[16] Although the painting is barely begun the composition can be seen and it is very unusual.[80] Jerome, as a penitent, occupies the middle of the picture, set on a slight diagonal and viewed somewhat from above. His kneeling form takes on a trapezoid shape, with one arm stretched to the outer edge of the painting and his gaze looking in the opposite direction. J. Wasserman points out the link between this painting and Leonardo's anatomical studies.[] Across the foreground sprawls his symbol, a great lion whose body and tail make a double spiral across the base of the picture space. The other remarkable feature is the sketchy landscape of craggy rocks against which the figure is silhouetted.

Virgin of the Rocks, Louvre, possibly 1505–1508, demonstrates Leonardo's interest in nature.

The daring display of figure composition, the landscape elements and personal drama also appear in the great unfinished masterpiece, the Adoration of the Magi, a commission from the Monks of San Donato a Scopeto. It is a very complex composition, of about 250 x 250 centimetres. Leonardo did numerous drawings and preparatory


Leonardo da Vinci

12

studies, including a detailed one in linear perspective of the ruined classical architecture which makes part of the backdrop to the scene. But in 1482 Leonardo went off to Milan at the behest of Lorenzo de’ Medici in order to win favour with Ludovico il Moro and the painting was abandoned.[14] [78] The third important work of this period is the Virgin of the Rocks which was commissioned in Milan for the Confraternity of the Immaculate Conception. The painting, to be done with the assistance of the de Predis brothers, was to fill a large complex altarpiece, already constructed.[81] Leonardo chose to paint an apocryphal moment of the infancy of Christ when the Infant John the Baptist, in protection of an angel, met the Holy Family on the road to Egypt. In this scene, as painted by Leonardo, John recognizes and worships Jesus as the Christ. The painting demonstrates an eerie beauty as the graceful figures kneel in adoration around the infant Christ in a wild landscape of tumbling rock and whirling water.[82] While the painting is quite large, about 200 × 120 centimetres, it is not nearly as complex as the painting ordered by the monks of St Donato, having only four figures rather than about fifty and a rocky landscape rather than architectural details. The painting was eventually finished; in fact, two versions of the painting were finished, one which remained at the chapel of the Confraternity and the other which Leonardo carried away to France. But the Brothers did not get their painting, or the de Predis their payment, until the next century.[22] [39]

Paintings of the 1490s

The Last Supper (1498)—Convent of Sta. Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy

Leonardo's most famous painting of the 1490s is The Last Supper, also painted in Milan. The painting represents the last meal shared by Jesus with his disciples before his capture and death. It shows specifically the moment when Jesus has said "one of you will betray me". Leonardo tells the story of the consternation that this statement caused to the twelve followers of Jesus.[22]

The novelist Matteo Bandello observed Leonardo at work and wrote that some days he would paint from dawn till dusk without stopping to eat, and then not paint for three or four days at a time.[83] This, according to Vasari, was beyond the comprehension of the prior, who hounded him until Leonardo asked Ludovico to intervene. Vasari describes how Leonardo, troubled over his ability to adequately depict the faces of Christ and the traitor Judas, told the Duke that he might be obliged to use the prior as his model.[84] When finished, the painting was acclaimed as a masterpiece of design and characterisation,[85] but it deteriorated rapidly, so that within a hundred years it was described by one viewer as "completely ruined".[86] Leonardo, instead of using the reliable technique of fresco, had used tempera over a ground that was mainly gesso, resulting in a surface which was subject to mold and to flaking.[87] Despite this, the painting has remained one of the most reproduced works of art, countless copies being made in every medium from carpets to cameos.


Leonardo da Vinci

Paintings of the 1500s Among the works created by Leonardo in the 16th century is the small portrait known as the Mona Lisa or "la Gioconda", the laughing one. In the present era it is arguably the most famous painting in the world. Its fame rests, in particular, on the elusive smile on the woman's face, its mysterious quality brought about perhaps by the fact that the artist has subtly shadowed the corners of the mouth and eyes so that the exact nature of the smile cannot be determined. The shadowy quality for which the work is renowned came to be called "sfumato" or Leonardo's smoke. Vasari, who is generally thought to have known the painting only by repute, said that "the smile was so pleasing that it seemed divine rather than human; and those who saw it were amazed to find that it was as alive as the original".[88] [89] Other characteristics found in this work are the unadorned dress, in which the eyes and hands have no competition from other details, the dramatic landscape background in which the world seems to be in a state of flux, the subdued colouring and the extremely smooth nature of the painterly technique, employing oils, but laid on much like tempera Mona Lisa or La Gioconda (1503–1505/1507)—Louvre, Paris, France and blended on the surface so that the brushstrokes are [90] indistinguishable. Vasari expressed the opinion that the manner of painting would make even "the most confident master ... despair and lose heart."[91] The perfect state of preservation and the fact that there is no sign of repair or overpainting is extremely rare in a panel painting of this date.[92] In the Virgin and Child with St. Anne (see below [StAnne]) the composition again picks up the theme of figures in a landscape which Wasserman describes as "breathtakingly beautiful"[93] and harks back to the St Jerome picture with the figure set at an oblique angle. What makes this painting unusual is that there are two obliquely set figures superimposed. Mary is seated on the knee of her mother, St Anne. She leans forward to restrain the Christ Child as he plays roughly with a lamb, the sign of his own impending sacrifice.[22] This painting, which was copied many times, was to influence Michelangelo, Raphael, and Andrea del Sarto,[94] and through them Pontormo and Correggio. The trends in composition were adopted in particular by the Venetian painters Tintoretto and Veronese.

13


Leonardo da Vinci

14

Drawings Leonardo was not a prolific painter, but he was a most prolific draftsman, keeping journals full of small sketches and detailed drawings recording all manner of things that took his attention. As well as the journals there exist many studies for paintings, some of which can be identified as preparatory to particular works such as The Adoration of the Magi, The Virgin of the Rocks and The Last Supper.[95] His earliest dated drawing is a Landscape of the Arno Valley, 1473, which shows the river, the mountains, Montelupo Castle and the farmlands beyond it in great detail.[16] [95] Among his famous drawings are the Vitruvian Man, a study of the proportions of the human body, the Head of an Angel, for The Virgin of the Rocks in the Louvre, a botanical study of Star of Bethlehem and a large drawing (160×100 cm) in black chalk on coloured paper of The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the Baptist in the National The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the Baptist (c. 1499–1500)—National Gallery, Gallery, London.[95] This drawing employs the subtle sfumato London technique of shading, in the manner of the Mona Lisa. It is thought that Leonardo never made a painting from it, the closest similarity being to The Virgin and Child with St. Anne in the Louvre.[96] Other drawings of interest include numerous studies generally referred to as "caricatures" because, although exaggerated, they appear to be based upon observation of live models. Vasari relates that if Leonardo saw a person with an interesting face he would follow them around all day observing them.[97] There are numerous studies of beautiful young men, often associated with Salai, with the rare and much admired facial feature, the so-called "Grecian profile".[98] These faces are often contrasted with that of a warrior.[95] Salai is often depicted in fancy-dress costume. Leonardo is known to have designed sets for pageants with which these may be associated. Other, often meticulous, drawings show studies of drapery. A marked development in Leonardo's ability to draw drapery occurred in his early works. Another often-reproduced drawing is a macabre sketch that was done by Leonardo in Florence in 1479 showing the body of Bernardo Baroncelli, hanged in connection with the murder of Giuliano, brother of Lorenzo de'Medici, in the Pazzi Conspiracy.[95] With dispassionate integrity Leonardo has registered in neat mirror writing the colours of the robes that Baroncelli was wearing when he died.


Leonardo da Vinci

15

Leonardo as observer, scientist and inventor Journals Renaissance humanism saw no mutually exclusive polarities between the sciences and the arts, and Leonardo's studies in science and engineering are as impressive and innovative as his artistic work, recorded in notebooks comprising some 13,000 pages of notes and drawings, which fuse art and natural philosophy (the forerunner of modern science). These notes were made and maintained daily throughout Leonardo's life and travels, as he made continual observations of the world around him.[22] The journals are mostly written in mirror-image cursive. The reason may have been more a practical expediency than for reasons of secrecy as is often suggested. Since Leonardo wrote with his left hand, it is probable that it was easier for him to write from right to left.[99] The Vitruvian Man (c. 1485) Accademia, Venice

His notes and drawings display an enormous range of interests and preoccupations, some as mundane as lists of groceries and people who owed him money and some as intriguing as designs for wings and shoes for walking on water. There are compositions for paintings, studies of details and drapery, studies of faces and emotions, of animals, babies, dissections, plant studies, rock formations, whirl pools, war machines, helicopters and architecture.[22]

A page from Leonardo's journal showing his study of a foetus in the womb (c. 1510) Royal Library, Windsor Castle

These notebooks—originally loose papers of different types and sizes, distributed by friends after his death—have found their way into major collections such as the Royal Library at Windsor Castle, the Louvre, the Biblioteca Nacional de España, the Victoria and Albert Museum, the Biblioteca Ambrosiana in Milan which holds the twelve-volume Codex Atlanticus, and British Library in London which has put a selection from its notebook BL Arundel MS 263 online.[100] The Codex Leicester is the only major scientific work of Leonardo's in private hands. It is owned by Bill Gates, and is displayed once a year in different cities around the world.

Leonardo's journals appear to have been intended for publication because many of the sheets have a form and order that would facilitate this. In many cases a single topic, for example, the heart or the human foetus, is covered in detail in both words and pictures, on a single sheet.[101] [102] Why they were not published within Leonardo's lifetime is unknown.[22]


Leonardo da Vinci

16

Scientific studies Leonardo's approach to science was an observational one: he tried to understand a phenomenon by describing and depicting it in utmost detail, and did not emphasize experiments or theoretical explanation. Since he lacked formal education in Latin and mathematics, contemporary scholars mostly ignored Leonardo the scientist, although he did teach himself Latin. In the 1490s he studied mathematics under Luca Pacioli and prepared a series of drawings of regular solids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates for Pacioli's book De Divina Proportione, published in 1509.[22] It appears that from the content of his journals he was planning a series of Rhombicuboctahedron as published treatises to be published on a variety of subjects. A coherent treatise on anatomy in Pacioli's De Divina Proportione was said to have been observed during a visit by Cardinal Louis 'D' Aragon's secretary in 1517.[103] Aspects of his work on the studies of anatomy, light and the landscape were assembled for publication by his pupil Francesco Melzi and eventually published as Treatise on Painting by Leonardo da Vinci in France and Italy in 1651, and Germany in 1724,[104] with engravings based upon drawings by the Classical painter Nicholas Poussin. According to Arasse, the treatise, which in France went into sixty two editions in fifty years, caused Leonardo to be seen as "the precursor of French academic thought on art".[22] A recent and exhaustive analysis of Leonardo as Scientist by Frtijof Capra[105] argues that Leonardo was a fundamentally different kind of scientist from Galileo, Newton and other scientists who followed him. Leonardo's experimentation followed clear scientific method approaches, and his theorising and hypothesising integrated the arts and particularly painting; these, and Leonardo's unique integrated, holistic views of science make him a forerunner of modern systems theory and complexity schools of thought.

Anatomy Leonardo's formal training in the anatomy of the human body began with his apprenticeship to Andrea del Verrocchio, his teacher insisting that all his pupils learn anatomy. As an artist, he quickly became master of topographic anatomy, drawing many studies of muscles, tendons and other visible anatomical features. As a successful artist, he was given permission to dissect human corpses at the Hospital of Santa Maria Nuova in Florence and later at hospitals in Milan and Rome. From 1510 to 1511 he collaborated in his studies with the doctor Marcantonio della Torre and together they prepared a theoretical work on anatomy for which Leonardo made more than 200 drawings. It was published only in 1680 (161 years after his death) under the heading Treatise on painting.[22] [95] Leonardo drew many studies of the human skeleton and its parts, as well as muscles and sinews. He studied the mechanical functions of the Anatomical study of the arm, (c. 1510) skeleton and the muscular forces that are applied to it in a manner that prefigured the modern science of biomechanics.[106] He drew the heart and vascular system, the sex organs and other internal organs, making one of the first scientific drawings of a fetus in utero.[95] As an artist, Leonardo closely observed and recorded the effects of age and of human emotion on the physiology, studying in particular the effects of rage. He also drew many figures who had significant facial deformities or signs of illness.[22] [95]


Leonardo da Vinci

17

Leonardo also studied and drew the anatomy of many other animals as well, dissecting cows, birds, monkeys, bears, and frogs, and comparing in his drawings their anatomical structure with that of humans. He also made a number of studies of horses.

Engineering and inventions During his lifetime Leonardo was valued as an engineer. In a letter to Ludovico il Moro he claimed to be able to create all sorts of machines both for the protection of a city and for siege. When he fled to Venice in 1499 he found employment as an engineer and devised a system of moveable barricades to protect the city from attack. He also had a scheme for diverting the flow of the Arno River, a project on which Niccolò Machiavelli also worked.[107] [108] Leonardo's journals include a vast number of inventions, both practical and impractical. They include musical instruments, hydraulic pumps, reversible crank mechanisms, finned mortar shells, and a steam cannon.[16] [22] A design for a flying machine, (c. 1488) Institut

In 1502, Leonardo produced a drawing of a single span 720-foot (220 de France, Paris m) bridge as part of a civil engineering project for Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II of Istanbul. The bridge was intended to span an inlet at the mouth of the Bosporus known as the Golden Horn. Beyazid did not pursue the project, because he believed that such a construction was impossible. Leonardo's vision was resurrected in 2001 when a smaller bridge based on his design was constructed in Norway.[109] On May 17, 2006, the Turkish government decided to construct Leonardo's bridge to span the Golden Horn.[110] For much of his life, Leonardo was fascinated by the phenomenon of flight, producing many studies of the flight of birds, including his c. 1505 Codex on the Flight of Birds, as well as plans for several flying machines, including a light hang glider and a machine resembling a helicopter.[22] The British television station Channel Four commissioned a documentary Leonardo's Dream Machines, for broadcast in 2003. Leonardo's machines were built and tested according to his original designs.[111] Some of those designs proved a success, whilst others faired less well when practically tested.

Leonardo the legend Within Leonardo's own lifetime his fame was such that the King of France carried him away like a trophy, and was claimed to have supported him in his old age and held him in his arms as he died.[112] The interest in Leonardo has never slackened. The crowds still queue to see his most famous artworks, T-shirts bear his most famous drawing and writers, like Vasari, continue to marvel at his genius and speculate about his private life and, particularly, about what one so intelligent actually believed in.[22]

Francis I of France receiving the last breath of Leonardo da Vinci, by Ingres, 1818.

Giorgio Vasari, in the enlarged edition of Lives of the Artists, 1568,[113] introduced his chapter on Leonardo da Vinci with the following words:

In the normal course of events many men and women are born with remarkable talents; but occasionally, in a way that transcends nature, a single person is marvellously endowed by Heaven with beauty, grace and talent in such abundance that he leaves other men far behind, all


Leonardo da Vinci

18

his actions seem inspired and indeed everything he does clearly comes from God rather than from human skill. Everyone acknowledged that this was true of Leonardo da Vinci, an artist of outstanding physical beauty, who displayed infinite grace in everything that he did and who cultivated his genius so brilliantly that all problems he studied he solved with ease. —Giorgio Vasari The continued admiration that Leonardo commanded from painters, critics and historians is reflected in many other written tributes. Baldassare Castiglione, author of Il Cortegiano ("The Courtier"), wrote in 1528: "... Another of the greatest painters in this world looks down on this art in which he is unequalled ..."[114] while the biographer known as "Anonimo Gaddiano" wrote, c. 1540: "His genius was so rare and universal that it can be said that nature worked a miracle on his behalf ...".[115] The 19th century brought a particular admiration for Leonardo's genius, causing Henry Fuseli to write in 1801: "Such was the dawn of modern art, when Leonardo da Vinci broke forth with a splendour that distanced former excellence: made up of all the elements that constitute the essence of genius ..."[116] This is echoed by A. E. Rio who wrote in 1861: "He towered above all other artists through the strength and the nobility of his talents."[117] Statue of Leonardo da Vinci at the

By the 19th century, the scope of Leonardo's notebooks was known, as well as Uffizi, Florence his paintings. Hippolyte Taine wrote in 1866: "There may not be in the world an example of another genius so universal, so incapable of fulfilment, so full of yearning for the infinite, so naturally refined, so far ahead of his own century and the following centuries."[118]

The famous art historian Bernard Berenson wrote in 1896: "Leonardo is the one artist of whom it may be said with perfect literalness: Nothing that he touched but turned into a thing of eternal beauty. Whether it be the cross section of a skull, the structure of a weed, or a study of muscles, he, with his feeling for line and for light and shade, forever transmuted it into life-communicating values."[119] The interest in Leonardo's genius has continued unabated; experts study and translate his writings, analyse his paintings using scientific techniques, argue over attributions and search for works which have been recorded but never found.[120] Liana Bortolon, writing in 1967, said: "Because of the multiplicity of interests that spurred him to pursue every field of knowledge ... Leonardo can be considered, quite rightly, to have been the universal genius par excellence, and with all the disquieting overtones inherent in that term. Man is as uncomfortable today, faced with a genius, as he was in the 16th century. Five centuries have passed, yet we still view Leonardo with awe."[16]

See also About Leonardo • • • • • • •

Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci, A Memory of His Childhood (essay) Leonardo da Vinci's personal life List of paintings by Leonardo da Vinci Category:Leonardo da Vinci paintings Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci Codex Arundel


Leonardo da Vinci

Related subjects • • • • • • • • •

Aerial perspective History of the internal combustion engine Italian Renaissance painting Leonardo da Vinci Airport Leonardo da Vinci Art Institute List of Italian painters List of vegetarians Medical Renaissance Renaissance technology

Footnotes [1] This drawing in red chalk is widely (though not universally) accepted as an original self-portrait. The main reason for hesitation in accepting it as a portrait of Leonardo is that the subject is apparently of a greater age than Leonardo ever achieved. But it is possible that he drew this picture of himself deliberately aged, specifically for Raphael's portrait of him in The School of Athens. [2] Gardner, Helen (1970). Art through the Ages. pp. 450–456. [3] Vasari, Boltraffio, Castiglione, "Anonimo" Gaddiano, Berensen, Taine, Fuseli, Rio, Bortolon, etc. See specific quotations under heading "Leonardo, the legend". [4] Rosci, Marco (1977). Leonardo. p. 8. [5] Vitruvian Man is referred to as "iconic" at the following websites and many others: Vitruvian Man (http:/ / www. italian-renaissance-art. com/ Vitruvian-Man. html), Fine Art Classics (http:/ / artpassions. com/ art/ 1109-Fine-Art-Classics/ 0000067329-Leonardo-Da-Vinci-Vitruvian-Man. html), Key Images in the History of Science (http:/ / www. timeshighereducation. co. uk/ story. asp?storyCode=403230& sectioncode=26); Curiosity and difference (http:/ / www. ingenious. org. uk/ read/ identity/ bodyimage/ Curiosityanddifference/ ); The Guardian: The Real da Vinci Code (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ artanddesign/ 2006/ aug/ 30/ art1) [6] There are 15 significant artworks which are ascribed, either in whole or in large part, to Leonardo by most art historians. This number is made up principally of paintings on panel but includes a mural, a large drawing on paper and two works which are in the early stages of preparation. There are a number of other works that have also been variously attributed to Leonardo. [7] The Controversial Replica of Leonardo's Adding Machine (http:/ / 192. 220. 96. 166/ leonardo/ leonardo. html) accessdate=2010-01-07 [8] Modern scientific approaches to metallurgy and engineering were only in their infancy during the Renaissance. [9] A number of Leonardo's most practical inventions are displayed as working models at the Museum of Vinci. [10] See expanded in article Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci [11] The third hour of the night was 10:30 pm, three hours after the saying of the Ave Maria. [12] His birth is recorded in the diary of his paternal grandfather Ser Antonio, as cited by Angela Ottino della Chiesa in Leonardo da Vinci, p.83 [13] Vezzosi, Alessandro (1997). Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Man. [14] della Chiesa, Angela Ottino (1967). The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. p. 83. [15] It has been suggested that Caterina may have been a slave from the Middle East "or at least, from the Mediterranean". According to Alessandro Vezzosi, Head of the Leonardo Museum in Vinci, there is evidence that Piero owned a Middle Eastern slave called Caterina. That Leonardo had Middle Eastern blood is claimed to be supported by the reconstruction of a fingerprint as reported by Marta Falconi, Associated Press Writer, " Experts Reconstruct Leonardo Fingerprint (http:/ / www. foxnews. com/ wires/ 2006Dec01/ 0,4670,LeonardoapossFingerprint,00. html)" December 12, 2006", accessed 2010-01-06. The evidence as stated in the article is that 60% of people of Middle Eastern Origin share the pattern of whorls found on the reconstructed fingerprint. The article also states that the claim is refuted by Simon Cole, associate professor of criminology, law and society at the University of California at Irvine. "You can't predict one person's race from these kinds of incidences," he said, especially if looking at only one finger." [16] Bortolon, Liana (1967). The Life and Times of Leonardo. London: Paul Hamlyn. [17] Rosci, p.20 [18] Rosci, p.21 [19] Brigstoke, Hugh (2001). The Oxford Companion the Western Art. [20] Vasari, Giorgio (1568). Lives of the Artists. Penguin Classics. pp. 258–9. [21] Rosci, p.13 [22] Arasse, Daniel (1998). Leonardo da Vinci. [23] Rosci, p.27 [24] Martindale, Andrew (1972). The Rise of the Artist. [25] The "diverse arts" and technicall skills of Medieval and Renaissance workshops are described in detail in the 12th century text On Divers Arts by Theophilus Presbyter and in the early 15th century text Il Libro Dell'arte O Trattato Della Pittui by Cennino Cennini. [26] Vasari, p.258

19


Leonardo da Vinci [27] della Chiesa, p.88 [28] That Leonardo joined the guild before this time is deduced from the record of payment made to the Compagnia di San Luca in the company's register, Libro Rosso A, 1472–1520, Accademia di Belle Arti. [29] This work is now in the collection of the Uffizi, Drawing No. 8P. [30] Homosexual acts were illegal in Renaissance Florence. [31] Priwer, Shana; Phillips, Cynthia (2006). The Everything Da Vinci Book. pp. 245. [32] Wasserman, Jack (1975). Leonardo da Vinci. pp. 77–78. [33] Winternitz, Emanuel (1982). Leonardo Da Vinci As a Musician. [34] Rossi, Paolo (2001). The Birth of Modern Science. p. 33. [35] "Leonardo's Letter to Ludovico Sforza" (http:/ / www. leonardo-history. com/ life. htm?Section=S5). Leonardo-History. . Retrieved 2010-01-05. [36] Kemp, Martin (2004). Leonardo. [37] Codex II, 95 r, Victoria and Albert Museum, as cited by della Chiesa p. 85 [38] Verrocchio's statue of Bartolomeo Colleoni was not cast until 1488, after his death, and after Leonardo had already begun work on the statue for Ludovico. [39] della Chiesa, p.85 [40] Vasari, p.256 [41] In 2005, the studio was rediscovered during the restoration of part of a building occupied for 100 years by the Department of Military Geography.Owen, Richard (2005-01-12). "Found: the studio where Leonardo met Mona Lisa" (http:/ / www. timesonline. co. uk/ tol/ news/ world/ article411195. ece). London: The Times. . Retrieved 2010-01-05. [42] Both works are lost. While the entire composition of Michelangelo's painting is known from a copy by Aristotole da Sangallo, 1542. Goldscheider, Ludwig (1967). Michelangelo: paintings, sculptures, architecture. Phaidon Press. ISBN 9780714813141. Leonardo's painting is only known from preparatory sketches and several copies of the centre section, of which the best known, and probably least accurate is by Peter Paul Rubens.della Chiesa, pp.106–107 [43] Gaetano Milanesi, Epistolario Buonarroti, Florence (1875), as cited by della Chiesa. [44] D'Oggione is known in part for his contemporary copies of the Last Supper. [45] della Chiesa, p.86 [46] Georges Goyau, François I, Transcribed by Gerald Rossi. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI. Published 1909. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved on 2007-10-04 [47] Miranda, Salvador (1998–2007). "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church: Antoine du Prat" (http:/ / www. fiu. edu/ ~mirandas/ bios1527-ii. htm). . Retrieved 2007-10-04. [48] Vasari, p.265 [49] It is unknown for what occasion the mechanical lion was made but it is believed to have greeted the King at his entry into Lyon and perhaps was used for the peace talks between the French king and Pope Leo X in Bologna. A conjectural recreated of the lion has been made and is on display in the Museum of Bologna. "Reconstruction of Leonardo's walking lion" (http:/ / www. ancientandautomata. com/ ita/ lavori/ leone. htm) (in Italian). . Retrieved 2010-01-05. [50] Clos Lucé, also called Cloux, is now a public museum. [51] On the day of Leonardo's death, a royal edict was issued by the King at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, a two-day journey from Clos Lucé. This has been taken as evidence that King François cannot have been present at Leonardo's deathbed. However, White in Leonardo: The First Scientist points out that the edict was not signed by the king himself. [52] For such images, see Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci. [53] Vasari, p.270 [54] "Leonardo's will" (http:/ / www. leonardo-history. com/ life. htm?Section=S6). Leonardo-history. . Retrieved 2007-09-28. [55] Mario Lucertini, Ana Millan Gasca, Fernando Nicolo (2004). Technological Concepts and Mathematical Models in the Evolution of Modern Engineering Systems (http:/ / books. google. com/ ?id=YISIUycS4HgC& pg=PA13& lpg=PA13& dq=leonardo+ cellini+ francois+ philosopher). Birkhäuser. ISBN 9783764369408. . Retrieved 2007-10-03. [56] Rosci, p. 13 [57] Hartt, Frederich (1970). A History of Italian Renaissance Art. pp. 127–333. [58] Rosci, Leonardo, chapter 1, the historical setting, pp.9–20 [59] Brucker, Gene A. (1969). Renaissance Florence. [60] Rachum, Ilan (1979). The Renaissance, an Illustrated Encyclopedia. [61] Piero della Francesca, On Perspective for Painting (De Prospectiva Pingendi) [62] Leon Battista Alberti, De Pictura, 1435. On Painting, in English (http:/ / www. noteaccess. com/ Texts/ Alberti/ ), De Pictura, in Latin (http:/ / www. liberliber. it/ biblioteca/ a/ alberti/ de_pictura/ html/ depictur. htm) [63] Hartt, pp.391–2 [64] Williamson, Hugh Ross (1974). Lorenzo the Magnificent. [65] Vasari, p.253 [66] Vasari, p.257

20


Leonardo da Vinci [67] Eugene Muntz, Leonardo da Vinci Artist, Thinker, and Man of Science (1898), quoted at Leonardo da Vinci's Ethical Vegetarianism (http:/ / www. ivu. org/ history/ davinci/ hurwitz. html) [68] Bambach, Carmen (2003). "Leonardo, Left-Handed Draftsman and Writer" (http:/ / www. metmuseum. org/ special/ Leonardo_Master_Draftsman/ draftsman_left_essay. asp). New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. . Retrieved 2009-10-18. [69] Sigmund Freud, Eine Kindheitserinnerung des Leonardo da Vinci, (1910) [70] Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships epigraph, p. 148 & N120 p.298 [71] Leonardo, Codex C. 15v, Institut of France. Trans. Richter [72] della Chiesa, p.84 [73] Gross, Tom. "Mona Lisa Goes Topless" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20070403073656/ www. paintingsdirect. com/ content/ artnews/ 032001/ artnews1. html). Paintingsdirect.com. . Retrieved 2007-09-27. [74] Rossiter, Nick (2003-07-04). "Could this be the secret of her smile?" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ arts/ main. jhtml?xml=/ arts/ 2003/ 04/ 07/ banr. xml). London: Telegraph.co.UK. . Retrieved 2007-10-03. [75] By the 1490s Leonardo had already been described as a "Divine" painter. His fame is discussed by Daniel Arasse in Leonardo da Vinci, pp.11–15 [76] These qualities of Leonardo's works are discussed by Frederick Hartt in A History of Italian Renaissance Art, pp.387–411. [77] della Chiesa, pp. 88, 90 [78] Berti, Luciano (1971). The Uffizi. pp. 59–62. [79] Michael Baxandall lists 5 "laudable conditions" or reactions of Mary to the presence and announcement of the angel. These are: Disquiet, Reflection, Inquiry, Submission and Merit. In this painting Mary's attitude does not comply with any of the accepted traditions. Baxandall, Michael (1974). Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy. pp. 49–56. [80] The painting, which in the 18th century belonged to Angelica Kauffmann, was later cut up. The two main sections were found in a junk shop and cobbler's shop and were reunited.Wasserman, pp.104–6 It is probable that outer parts of the composition are missing. [81] Wasserman, p.108 [82] "The Mysterious Virgin" (http:/ / www. nationalgallery. org. uk/ collection/ features/ potm/ 2006/ may/ feature1. htm). National Gallery, London. . Retrieved 2007-09-27. [83] Wasserman, p.124 [84] Vasari, p.263 [85] Vasari, p.262 [86] della Chiesa, p.97 [87] della Chiesa, p.98 [88] Vasari, p.267 [89] Whether or not Vasari had seen the Mona Lisa is the subject of debate. The opinion that he had not seen the painting is based mainly on the fact that he describes the Mona Lisa as having eyebrows. Daniel Arasse in Leonardo da Vinci discusses the possibility that Leonardo may have painted the figure with eyebrows which were subsequently removed. (They were not fashionable in the mid 16th century.) The analysis of high resolution scans made by Pascal Cotte has revealed that the Mona Lisa had eyebrows and eyelashes which have been subsequently removed. "The Mona Lisa had brows and lashes" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 7056041. stm). BBC News. October 22, 2007. . Retrieved 2008-02-22. [90] Jack Wasserman writes of "the inimitable treatment of the surfaces" of this painting.Wasserman, p.144 [91] Vasari, p.266 [92] della Chiesa, p.103 [93] Wasserman, p.150 [94] della Chiesa, p.109 [95] Popham, A.E. (1946). The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. [96] della Chiesa, p.102 [97] Vasari, p.261 [98] The "Grecian profile" has a continuous straight line from forehead to nose-tip, the bridge of the nose being exceptionally high. It is a feature of many Classical Greek statues. [99] Left-handed writers using a split nib or quill pen experience difficulty pushing the pen from left to right across the page. [100] "Sketches by Leonardo" (http:/ / www. bl. uk/ onlinegallery/ ttp/ ttpbooks. html). Turning the Pages. British Library. . Retrieved 2007-09-27. [101] Windsor Castle, Royal Library, sheets RL 19073v-19074v and RL 19102 respectively. [102] This method of organisation minimises of loss of data in the case of pages being mixed up or destroyed. [103] O'Malley; Saunders (1982). Leonardo on the Human Body. New York: Dover Publications. [104] della Chiesa, p.117 [105] Capra, Fritjof. The Science of Leonardo; Inside the Mind of the Genius of the Renaissance. (New York, Doubleday, 2007) [106] Mason, MA, PhD, Stephen (1962). A History of the Sciences. New York, NY: Collier Books. pp. 550. [107] Roger Masters (1996). Machiavelli, Leonardo and the Science of Power. [108] Roger Masters (1998). Fortune is a River: Leonardo Da Vinci and Niccolo Machiavelli's Magnificent Dream to Change the Course of Florentine History.

21


Leonardo da Vinci [109] The Leonardo Bridge Project (http:/ / www. vebjorn-sand. com/ thebridge. htm) [110] Levy, Daniel S. (October 4, 1999). "Dream of the Master" (http:/ / www. vebjorn-sand. com/ dreamsofthemaster. html). Time magazine. . Retrieved 2007-09-27. [111] Dream Machines (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0365434/ Leonardo's) [112] see reference to this in section "Old age". [113] Vasari, p.255 [114] Castiglione, Baldassare (1528). Il Cortegiano. [115] "Anonimo Gaddiani", elaborating on Libro di Antonio Billi, 1537–1542 [116] Fuseli, Henry (1801). Lectures. II. [117] Rio, A.E. (1861). L'art chrétien. [118] Taine, Hippolyte (1866). Voyage en Italie. [119] Berenson, Bernard (1896). The Italian Painters of the Renaissance. [120] Melinda Henneberger. "ArtNews article about current studies into Leonardo's life and works" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20060505165842/ http:/ / www. artnewsonline. com/ currentarticle. cfm?art_id=1240). Art News Online. . Retrieved 2010-01-10.

References Bibliography • Daniel Arasse (1997). Leonardo da Vinci. Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1 56852 1987. • Michael Baxandall (1974). Painting and Experience in Fifteenth Century Italy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 19 881329 5. • Fred Bérence (1965). Léonard de Vinci, L'homme et son oeuvre. Somogy. Dépot légal 4° trimestre 1965. • Luciano Berti (1971). The Uffizi. Scala. • Liana Bortolon (1967). The Life and Times of Leonardo. Paul Hamlyn, London. • Hugh Brigstoke (2001). The Oxford Companion the Western Art. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198662033. • Gene A. Brucker (1969). Renaissance Florence. Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0 471 11370 0. • Cennino Cennini (2009). Il Libro Dell'arte O Trattato Della Pittui. USA: BiblioBazaar. ISBN 9781103390328. • Angela Ottino della Chiesa (1967). The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci. Penguin Classics of World Art series. ISBN 0-14-00-8649-8. • Simona Cremante (2005). Leonardo da Vinci: Artist, Scientist, Inventor. Giunti. ISBN 88-09-03891-6 (hardback). • Frederich Hartt (1970). A History of Italian Renaissance Art. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0500231362. • Michael H. Hart (1992). The 100. Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-1350-0 (paperback). • Martin Kemp (2004). Leonardo. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192806440. • Mario Lucertini, Ana Millan Gasca, Fernando Nicolo (2004). Technological Concepts and Mathematical Models in the Evolution of Modern Engineering Systems. Birkhauser. ISBN 376436940X. • John N. Lupia. The Secret Revealed: How to Look at Italian Renaissance Painting. Medieval and Renaissance Times, Vol. 1, no. 2 (Summer, 1994): 6–17. ISSN 1075-2110. • Andrew Martindale (1972). The Rise of the Artist. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-5000-56006. • Roger Masters (1996). Machiavelli, Leonardo and the Science of Power. University of Notre Dame Press. ISBN 0-268-01433-7. • Roger Masters (1998). Fortune is a River: Leonardo Da Vinci and Niccolo Machiavelli's Magnificent Dream to Change the Course of Florentine History. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-452-28090-7. • Charles D. O'Malley and J. B. de C. M. Sounders (1952). Leonardo on the Human Body: The Anatomical, Physiological, and Embryological Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. With Translations, Emendations and a Biographical Introduction. Henry Schuman, New York. • Charles Nicholl (2005). Leonardo da Vinci, The Flights of the Mind. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-029681-6. • Sherwin B. Nuland (2001). Leonardo Da Vinci. Phoenix Press. ISBN 0-7538-1269. • A.E. Popham (1946). The Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci. Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0 224 60462 7.

22


Leonardo da Vinci • Shana Priwer & Cynthia Phillips (2006). The Everything Da Vinci Book: Explore the Life and Times of the Ultimate Renaissance Man. Adams Media. ISBN 1598691015. • Ilan Rachum (1979). The Renaissance, an Illustrated Encyclopedia. Octopus. ISBN 0-7064-0857-8. • Jean Paul Richter (1970). The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. Dover. ISBN 0-486-22572-0. volume 2: ISBN 0-486-22573-9. A reprint of the original 1883 edition (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/5000). • Marco Rosci (1977). Leonardo. Bay Books Pty Ltd. ISBN 0858351765. • Paolo Rossi (2001). The Birth of Modern Science. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 0631227113. • Bruno Santi (1990). Leonardo da Vinci. Scala / Riverside. • Theophilus (1963). On Divers Arts. USA: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226794822. • Jack Wasserman (1975). Leonardo da Vinci. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-0262-1. • Giorgio Vasari (1568). Lives of the Artists. Penguin Classics, trans. George Bull 1965. ISBN 0-14-044-164-6. • Williamson, Hugh Ross (1974). Lorenzo the Magnificent. Michael Joseph. ISBN 07181 12040. • Emanuel Winternitz (1982). Leonardo Da Vinci As a Musician. USA: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300026313. • Alessandro Vezzosi (1997 (English translation)). Leonardo da Vinci: Renaissance Man. Thames & Hudson Ltd, London. ISBN 0-500-30081-X. • Frank Zollner (2003). Leonardo da Vinci: The Complete Paintings and Drawings. Taschen. ISBN 3-8228-1734-1 (hardback). [The chapter "The Graphic Works" is by Frank Zollner & Johannes Nathan].

External links • "Leonardo da Vinci" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. • Leonardo da Vinci: Experience, Experiment, Design (review) (http://www.studio-international.co.uk/reports/ da_vinci.asp) • Works by Leonardo da Vinci (http://www.gutenberg.org/author/Leonardo_da_Vinci) at Project Gutenberg • Leonardo da Vinci by Maurice Walter Brockwell (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/7785) at Project Gutenberg • Complete text & images of Richter's translation of the Notebooks (http://www.sacred-texts.com/aor/dv/index. htm) • Vasari Life of Leonardo (http://www.mnstate.edu/gracyk/courses/web publishing/Vasari_daVinci.htm): in Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects. • Web Gallery of Leonardo Paintings (http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/l/leonardo/) • Drawings of Leonardo da Vinci (http://www.drawingsofleonardo.org) • Da Vinci Decoded (http://arts.guardian.co.uk/features/story/0,,1860869,00.html) Article from The Guardian • The true face of Leonardo Da Vinci? (http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/view/id/235) • Leonardo da Vinci's Ethical Vegetarianism (http://www.ivu.org/history/davinci/hurwitz.html) • The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (http://fulltextarchive.com/pages/ The-Notebooks-of-Leonardo-Da-Vinci-Complete1.php) • Leonardo da Vinci at BBC Science (http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/leonardo) • Leonardo da Vinci (http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=3673) at Find a Grave Authority control: PND: 118640445 (http:/ / d-nb. info/ gnd/ 118640445) | LCCN: n79034525 (http:/ / errol. oclc. org/laf/n79034525.html) | VIAF: 24604287 (http://viaf.org/viaf/24604287)

23


24

Supporting articles Leonardo da Vinci's personal life Leonardo da Vinci

[1]

Portrait in red chalk, circa 1512 to 1515. Birth name Leonardo di Ser Piero da Vinci Born

April 15, 1452

Died

May 2, 1519 Amboise, Indre-et-Loire, France

Anchiano, Florence, Italy

Nationality Italian Field

Many and diverse fields of arts and sciences

Movement High Renaissance Works

Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, The Vitruvian Man

The personal life of Leonardo da Vinci, (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519), has been a subject that has excited interest, enquiry and speculation since within a few years of his death. Leonardo has long been regarded as the archetypal Renaissance Man, described by the Renaissance biographer Giorgio Vasari as having qualities that "transcended nature" and being "marvellously endowed with beauty, grace and talent in abundance".[2] Interest in and curiosity about Leonardo has continued unabated for five hundred years.[3] Modern descriptions and analyses of Leonardo's character, personal desires and intimate behaviour have been based upon a various sources: records concerning him, his biographies, his own written journals, his paintings, his drawings, his associates and commentaries that were made concerning him by contemporaries.


Leonardo da Vinci's personal life

25

Childhood

Leonardo's childhood home in Anchiano.

Giorgio Vasari says of the young Leonardo "He would have been very proficient in his early lessons, if he had not been so volatile and flexible; for he was always setting himself to learn a multitude of things, most of which were shortly abandoned. When he began the study of arithmetic, he made, within a few months, such remarkable progress that he could baffle his master with the questions and problems that he raised....All the time, through all his other enterprises, Leonardo never ceased drawing..."

Leonardo's father, Ser Piero, realising that his son's talents were extraordinary, took some of his drawings to show his friend, Andrea del Verrocchio, who ran one of the largest artists' workshops in Florence. Leonardo was accepted for apprenticeship and "soon proved himself a first class geometrician". Vasari says that during his youth Leonardo made a number of clay heads of smiling women and children from which casts were still being made and sold by the workshop some 80 years later. Among his earliest significant known paintings are an Annunciation in the Uffizi, the angel that he painted as a collaboration with Verrocchio in the Baptism of Christ, and a small predella of the Annunciation to go beneath an altarpiece by Lorenzo di Credi. The little predella picture is probably the earliest.

Character Leonardo da Vinci was described by his early biographers as a man with great personal appeal, kindness, and generosity. He was generally well-loved by his contemporaries. According to Vasari "Leonardo's disposition was so lovable that he commanded everyone's affection". He was "a sparkling conversationalist" who charmed Ludovico il Moro with his wit. Vasari sums him up by saying "In appearance he was striking and handsome, and his magnificent presence brought comfort to the most troubled soul; he was so persuasive that he could bend other people to his will. He was physically so strong that he could withstand violence and with his right hand he could bend the ring of an iron door knocker or a horseshoe as if they were lead. He was so generous that he fed all his friends, rich or poor.... Through his birth Florence received a very great gift, and through his death it sustained an incalculable loss." Some of Leonardo's personal wisdom is to be found in a series of fables that he wrote. A prevalent theme is the mistake of placing too high esteem upon one's self, and the benefits to be gained through awareness, humility and endeavour.

Left-handedness It has been written that Leonardo "may be the most universally recognized left-handed artist of all time", a fact documented by numerous Renaissance authors, and manifested conspicuously in his drawing and handwriting. In his notebooks, he wrote in mirror image because of his left handedness (it was easier for him), and he was falsely accused of trying to protect his work.[4] Early Italian connoisseurs were divided as to whether Leonardo also drew with his right hand; more recently, Anglo-American art historians have for the most part discounted suggestions of ambidexterity.[5]


Leonardo da Vinci's personal life

26

Personal relationships From what we know about his personal life he appears to have been secretive about his most intimate relationships. However, evidence of Leonardo's personal relationships emerges both from historic records and from the writings of his many biographers, whose willingness to discuss aspects of his sexual identity has varied according to contemporary attitudes.[6] [7] His near-contemporary biographer Vasari described two beautiful young men as 'beloved' of Leonardo at various points in his life.[8] In the 20th century biographers made more explicit reference to Leonardo's homosexuality,[9] though others concluded that for much of his life he was celibate.[10]

Salai as John the Baptist 1513-1516

The most overt biographical detail concerning Leonardo's personal life is a Florentine court record showing that in 1476, while in the workshop of Verrocchio, Leonardo (along with two others) was accused anonymously of sodomy with a male prostitute, Jacopo Saltarelli. Though he has been described in recent times as a "model," no such profession existed in his days.[11] After two months he was acquitted due to a lack of evidence.[12] Sodomy was theoretically an extremely serious offense, carrying the death penalty, but its very seriousness made it equally difficult to prove. It was also an offence for which punishment was very seldom handed down in contemporary Florence, where homosexuality was sufficiently widespread and tolerated to make the word Florenzer (Florentine) a slangword for homosexual in Germany.[13] False denunciations were quite common at that time especially via anonymous reports by one's enemies. Such may have been the case here. In his long career after leaving Florence, no further such charges were laid against Leonardo.

Elizabeth Abbott, in her History of Celibacy, contends that although Leonardo was probably gay, the trauma of the sodomy case converted him to celibacy for the rest of his life.[14] A similar view of a homosexually oriented but chaste Leonardo appears in a famous 1910 paper by Sigmund Freud, Leonardo Da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood, which analysed a memory Leonardo described of having been attacked as a baby by a bird of prey that opened his mouth and "stuck me with the tail inside my lips again and again." Freud claimed the symbolism was clearly phallic, but argued that Leonardo's homosexuality was latent: that he did not act on his desires.[15] [16] Leonardo's writings and notebooks show evidence of a struggle with sexuality: in a famous passage from the Notebooks Leonardo says: "The act of procreation and anything that has any relation to it is so disgusting that human beings would soon die out if there were no pretty faces and sensuous dispositions".[17] Freud's work, and other, more recent attempts to psychoanalyse Leonardo, are discussed at length in Bradley Collins's book Leonardo, Psychoanalysis and Art History.[18] The adult Leonardo had few close relationships with women and never married; his numerous anatomical sketches include only two detailed works on female reproductive organs, one of them uncharacteristically distorted.[7] But David M. Friedman argues that this is not evidence of a loss of sexuality, so much as a lack of interest in women. He argues that Leonardo's notebooks show a preoccupation with men and with sexuality uninterrupted by the trial and agrees with art historian Kenneth Clark that Leonardo never became sexless.[15] [19]


Leonardo da Vinci's personal life

Serge Bramly too notes that "the fact that Leonardo warns against lustfulness certainly need not mean that he himself was chaste."[7] Michael White, in Leonardo: The First Scientist says it is likely that the trial simply made Leonardo cautious and defensive about his personal relationships and sexuality, but did not dissuade him from intimate relationships with men: "there is little doubt that Leonardo remained a practising homosexual."[13] Records show that, after the trial, Leonardo had two long-lasting associations with young men. These were his pupils Gian Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno, nicknamed Salai or Il Salaino ("The Little Unclean One" i.e., the devil), who entered his household in 1490 at the age of 10,[20] [21] and Count Francesco Melzi, the son of a Milan aristocrat who became apprenticed to Leonardo in 1506. Other relationships, with an unknown man named Fioravante di Domenico and a young falconer, Bernardo di Simone, are suggested in Michael White's biography, but the Salai and Melzi relationships were the longest The Incarnate Angel, (charcoal drawing, c. 1515) lasting. Vasari describes Salai as "a graceful and beautiful youth with is clearly related to the painting of John the fine curly hair," and his name appears (crossed out) on the back of an Baptist. erotic drawing (ca. 1513) by the artist, The Incarnate Angel; rediscovered in 1991 in a German collection, it is one of the number of erotic drawings of Salai (and others?) by Leonardo once in the British Royal Collection, and is possibly a humorous take on his St. John the Baptist.[22] The "Little Devil" lived up to his nickname: a year after his entering the household Leonardo made a list of the boy’s misdemeanours, calling him "a thief, a liar, stubborn, and a glutton." But despite Salai's thievery and general delinquency - he made off with money and valuables on at least five occasions, spent a fortune on apparel, including twenty-four pairs of shoes, and eventually died in a duel - he remained Leonardo's companion, servant, and assistant for thirty years, and at Leonardo's death he was bequeathed the Mona Lisa, a valuable piece even then, valued in Salai's own will at the equivalent of £200,000. Twenty years later the count Melzi was a far more sedate, although perhaps less exciting, companion for the older Leonardo. It was Melzi rather than Salai who accompanied Leonardo in his final days in France.[23] [24] Melzi subsequently played an important role as the guardian of Leonardo's notebooks, preparing them for publication in the form directed by his master. Nevertheless, although it was Melzi who was with Leonardo at his deathbed, one of the two paintings which Leonardo kept with him in his last days was the portrait of Salai as John the Baptist, smiling enigmatically, one finger raised and pointing towards Heaven. In Melzi's letter to Leonardo's brothers to inform them of his death he described Leonardo's feelings for his students as sviscerato et ardentissimo amore ("deeply felt and most ardent love").

27


Leonardo da Vinci's personal life

28

Patrons, friends and colleagues Leonardo Da Vinci had a number of powerful patrons, including the King of France. He had, over the years, a large number of followers and pupils. • His patrons included the Medici, Ludovico Sforza and Cesare Borgia, in whose service he spent the years 1502 and 1503, and King Francis I of France. • He had working relations with two other notable scientists, Luca Pacioli and Marcantonio della Torre, and was a close friend of Niccolò Machiavelli. • He had a close, long-lasting friendship with Isabella d'Este, a renowned patroness of the arts, whose portrait he drew while on a journey that took him through Mantua. • The de Predis brothers and collaboration on Virgin of the Rocks. • Feud with Michelangelo

Francis I of France receiving the last breath of Leonardo da Vinci, by Ingres, 1818.

Diverse interests The diversity of Leonardo's interests, remarked on by Vasari as apparent in his early childhood, was to express itself in his journals which record his scientific observations of nature, his meticulous dissection of corpses to understand anatomy, his experiments with machines for flying, for generating power from water and for besieging cities, his studies of geometry and his architectural plans, as well as personal memos and creative writing including fables.

Leonardo's resumé Leonardo sent the following letter to Ludovico Sforza, the ruler of Milan, in 1482: "Most Illustrious Lord: Having now sufficiently seen and considered the proofs of all those who count themselves masters and inventors in the instruments of war, and finding that their invention and use does not differ in any respect from those in common practice, I am emboldened … to put myself in communication with your Excellency, in order to acquaint you with my secrets. I can, construct bridges which are very light and strong and very portable with which to pursue and defeat an enemy … I can also make a kind of cannon, which is light and easy of transport, with which to hurl small stones like hail … I can noiselessly construct to any prescribed point subterranean passages - either straight or winding - passing if necessary under trenches or a river … I can make armored wagons carrying artillery, which can break through the most serried ranks of the enemy. In time of peace, I believe I can give you as complete satisfaction as anyone else in the construction of buildings, both public and private, and in conducting water from one place to another. I can execute sculpture in bronze, marble or clay. Also, in painting, I can do as much as anyone, whoever he may be. If any of the aforesaid things should seem impossible or impractical to anyone, I offer myself as ready to make a trial of them in your park or in whatever place shall please your Excellency, to whom I commend myself with all possible humility."

Musical ability It appears from Vasari's description that Leonardo first learnt to play the lyre as a child and that he was very talented at improvisation. In about 1479 he created a lyre in the shape of a horse's head, which was made "mostly of silver", and of "sonorous and resonant" tone. Lorenzo de'Medici saw this lyre and wishing to better his relationship with Ludovico Sforza, the usurping Duke of Milan, he sent Leonardo to present this lyre to the Duke as a gift. Leonardo's musical performances so far surpassed those of Ludovico's court musicians that the Duke was delighted. Sample[25]


Leonardo da Vinci's personal life

Love of nature Leonardo always loved nature. One of the reasons was because of his childhood environment. Near his childhood house were mountains, trees, and rivers. There were also many animals. This environment gave him the perfect chance to study the surrounding area; it also may have encouraged him to have interest in painting. Later in life he recalls his exploration of an ominous cavern in the mountains as formative.

Vegetarianism Leonardo's love of animals has been documented both in contemporary accounts as recorded in early biographies, and in his Notebooks. Remarkably for the period, he even questioned the morality of eating animals when it was not necessary for health, and consequently became a vegetarian. Edward MacCurdy (one of the two translators and compilers of Leonardo's Notebooks into English) wrote: …The mere idea of permitting the existence of unnecessary suffering, still more that of taking life, was abhorrent to him. Vasari tells, as an instance of his love of animals, how when in Florence he passed places where birds were sold he would frequently take them from their cages with his own hand, and having paid the sellers the price that was asked would let them fly away in the air, thus giving them back their liberty. That this horror of inflicting pain was such as to lead him to be a vegetarian is to be inferred from a reference which occurs in a letter sent by Andrea Corsali to Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici, in which, after telling him of an Indian race called Gujerats [probably a reference to Hindus and Jains (see Jain vegetarianism, vegetarianism and religion) living in Gujarat, a state in India along the Arabian Sea], who neither eat anything that contains blood nor permit any injury to any living creature, he adds ‘like our Leonardo da Vinci.’ [26] The Corsali passage in the original Italian is ‘Alcuni gentili chiamati Guzzarati non si cibano di cosa alcuna che tenga sangue, né fra essi loro consentono che si noccia ad alcuna cosa animata, come il nostro Leonardo da Vinci.’[27] Leonardo wrote the following in his Notebooks, which were not deciphered and made available for reading until the 19th century: If you are as you have described yourself the king of the animals –– it would be better for you to call yourself king of the beasts since you are the greatest of them all! –– why do you not help them so that they may presently be able to give you their young in order to gratify your palate, for the sake of which you have tried to make yourself a tomb for all the animals? Even more I might say if to speak the entire truth were permitted me. [28] One might question Leonardo's concern for human life, given his weapon designs. Nothing came of his designs for offensive weapons.[29] It is possible his mention of his capabilities of creating weapons helped him in his quest to find powerful patrons, or perhaps he was fond of drawing them as he was of gargoyles. He did work on fortifications, however. In his own words: When besieged by ambitious tyrants I find a means of offence and defense in order to preserve the chief gift of nature, which is liberty; and first I would speak of the position of the walls, and then of how the various peoples can maintain their good and just lords. [28] He referred to war as pazzia bestialissima, the most bestial madness.[29] And thou, man, who by these labours dost look upon the marvelous works of nature, if thou judgest it to be an atrocious act to destroy the same, reflect that it is an infinitely atrocious act to take away the life of man. [28]

29


Leonardo da Vinci's personal life

Physical characteristics Descriptions and portraits of Leonardo combine to create an image of a man who was tall, athletic and extremely handsome. Portraits indicate that as an older man, he wore his hair long, at a time when most men wore it cropped short, or reaching to the shoulders. While most men were shaven or wore close-cropped beards, Leonardo's beard flowed over his chest. His clothing is described as being unusual in his choice of bright colours, and at a time when most mature men wore long garments, Leonardo's preferred outfit was the short tunic and hose generally worn by younger men. This image of Leonardo has been recreated in the statue of him that stands outside the Uffizi Gallery.

Vasari's descriptions According to Vasari, "In the normal course of events many men and women are born with various remarkable qualities and talents; but occasionally, in a way that transcends nature, a single person is marvellously endowed by heaven with beauty, grace and talent in such A statue of Leonardo outside the Uffizi Gallery in abundance that he leaves other men far behind....Everyone Florence, based upon contemporary descriptions. acknowledged that this was true of Leonardo da Vinci, an artist of outstanding physical beauty who displayed infinite grace in everything he did and who cultivated his genius so brilliantly that all problems he studied were solved with ease. He possessed great strength and dexterity; he was a man of regal spirit and tremendous breadth of mind..."[8]

Portraits Leonardo's face is best known from a drawing in red chalk that appears to be a self portrait. However, there is some controversy over the identity of the subject, because the man represented appears to be of a greater age than the 67 years lived by Leonardo. A solution which has been put forward is that Leonardo deliberately aged himself in the drawing, as a modern forensic artist might do, in order to provide a model for Raphael's painting of him as Plato in The School of Athens. A profile portrait in the Ambrosiana Gallery in Milan is generally accepted to be a portrait of Leonardo, and also depicts him with flowing beard and long hair. This image was repeated in the woodcut designed for the first edition of Vasari's Lives.[30]

Leonardo da Vinci fingerprint reconstructed Anthropologists in Italy claim that they have pieced together a reconstruction of Leonardo da Vinci's left index fingerprint. The reconstruction of the fingerprint is the result of three years of research and could also help attribute disputed paintings or manuscripts, said Luigi Capasso, director of the Anthropology Research Institute at Chieti University in central Italy. "It adds the first touch of humanity. We knew how Leonardo saw the world and the future ‌ but who was he? This biological information is about his being human, not being a genius," Mr Capasso said. The discovery could help shed light on a wealth of information including the food the artist ate and whether his mother was Arab. The research was based on photographs of about 200 fingerprints—most of them taken from about 52 papers handled by Leonardo in his life. The artist often ate while working and Mr Capasso and other experts said his fingerprints could include traces of saliva, blood or the food he ate the night before—information that could help clear up questions about his origins.

30


Leonardo da Vinci's personal life For instance, experts determined that the fingerprint suggested Leonardo's mother was of "oriental origin. "It's not like every population has typical fingerprints, but they do have specific proportions among their signs. The one we found in this fingertip applies to 60 per cent of the Arabic population, which suggests the possibility that his mother was of Middle-Eastern origin," Mr Capasso said.[31] [32] The idea that Leonardo's mother could have been a slave who came to Tuscany from Constantinople — now Istanbul, Turkey — is not new and has been the object of separate research.[33]

See also • • • • •

Leonardo da Vinci Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci - scientist and inventor Bacchus (Leonardo) St. John the Baptist (Leonardo)

References [1] This drawing in red chalk is widely (though not universally) accepted as an original self-portrait. The main reason for hesitation in accepting it as a portrait of Leonardo is that the subject is apparently of a greater age than Leonardo ever achieved. But it is possible that he drew this picture of himself deliberately aged, specifically for Raphael's portrait of him in the School of Athens. [2] Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists p. 254 [3] Bortolon, Liana (1967). The Life and Times of Leonardo. London: Paul Hamlyn. [4] Bambach, Carmen C., Leonardo, Left-Handed Draftsman and Writer, Metropolitan Museum of Art. (https:/ / www. metmuseum. org/ special/ Leonardo_Master_Draftsman/ draftsman_left_essay. asp) [5] Bambach. (https:/ / www. metmuseum. org/ special/ Leonardo_Master_Draftsman/ draftsman_left_essay. asp) [6] White, Michael (2000). Leonardo, the first scientist (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=-OmWWh2BqYkC& dq). London: Little, Brown. p. 137. ISBN 0316648469. . "(Leonardo's homosexuality has been)"a subject too sensitive to investigate candidly."" [7] Bramly, Serge (1994). Leonardo: The Artist and the Man (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=uuMWROjcp7EC& q). Penguin. ISBN 0140231757. . [8] [[Giorgio Vasari Vasari, Giorgio (2006). The Life of Leonardo Da Vinci. p. 26. ISBN 1428628800. [9] White, Michael (2000). Leonardo, the first scientist (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=-OmWWh2BqYkC& dq). London: Little, Brown. p. 7. ISBN 0316648469. . "(Leonardo was) "a homosexual vegetarian born out of wedlock."" [10] Abbott, Elizabeth (2001). History of Celibacy (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=whs0eudAfJIC). James Clark & Co. p. 21. ISBN 0718830067. . [11] Caravaggio and his two cardinals By Creighton Gilbert, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio; p303N96 [12] Saslow, Ganymede in the Renaissance: Homosexuality in Art and Society, 1986, p.197 [13] White, Michael (2000). Leonardo, the first scientist (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=-OmWWh2BqYkC& dq). London: Little, Brown. p. 70. ISBN 0316648469. . [14] Abbott, Elizabeth (2001). History of Celibacy (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=whs0eudAfJIC). James Clark & Co. p. 341. ISBN 0718830067. . ""To minimize or deny his homosexual orientation, he probably opted for the safety device of chastity."" [15] Friedman, David M (2003). A Mind of Its Own: A Cultural History of the Penis (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=LV0GAAAACAAJ). Penguin. p. 48. ISBN 0142002593. . [16] Freud, Sigmund (1964). Leonardo Da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood. Norton. ISBN 0393001490. [17] As quoted by Sigmund Freud, Gesammelte Werke, bd VIII, 1909–1913 [18] Collins, Bradley I. (1997). Leonardo, Psychoanalysis, and Art History. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press. ISBN 0810114194. [19] Clark, Kenneth (1988). Leonardo da Vinci. Viking. pp. 274. ""Those who wish, in the interests of morality, to reduce Leonardo, that inexhausible source of creative power, to a neutral or sexless agency, have a strange idea of doing service to his reputation."" [20] White, Michael (2000). Leonardo, the first scientist (http:/ / books. google. co. uk/ books?id=-OmWWh2BqYkC& dq). London: Little, Brown. p. 133. ISBN 0316648469. . [21] Oreno website (Italian) (http:/ / www. oreno. it) [22] Sewell, Brian. Sunday Telegraph, April 5, 1992 [23] Michael Rocke, Forbidden Friendships epigraph, p. 148 & N120 p.298 [24] Crompton, Louis: Homosexuality and Civilization. NY, 2003. p.269 [25] A sample of Leonardo's music can be heard- Leonardo da Vinci's Music (http:/ / library. thinkquest. org/ 13681/ data/ link3. htm)

31


Leonardo da Vinci's personal life [26] Edward MacCurdy, The Mind of Leonardo da Vinci (1928)quoted at Leonardo da Vinci's Ethical Vegetarianism (http:/ / www. ivu. org/ history/ davinci/ hurwitz. html) [27] Jean Paul Richter, The Literary Works of Leonardo da Vinci (3rd Edition 1970, first published in 1883 [28] Edward MacCurdy, The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci (1956, first published 1939) [29] Robert Payne, Leonardo (1978) [30] Angela Otino della Chiesa, Leonardo da Vinci, Penguin, 1967, ISBN 0-14-00-8649-8 [31] Rossella Lorenzi, Da Vinci Fingerprint Reveals Arab Heritage? (http:/ / dsc. discovery. com/ news/ 2006/ 10/ 28/ leonardoprint_his_print. html) Discovery News, Discovery Channel, October 28, 2006. [32] Marta Falconi, Da Vinci's print may paint new picture of artist (http:/ / arts. guardian. co. uk/ news/ story/ 0,,1962373,00. html), Rome, The Guardian, December 2, 2006. [33] We've got Da Vinci's fingerprint (http:/ / news. uk. msn. com/ Article. aspx?cp-documentid=1358398) MSN News, Microsoft MSN

Additional reading • Rachel Annand Taylor (1991). Leonardo The Florentine: A Study in Personality. Easton Press. (hardback).

External links • "Leonardo da Vinci" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. • Leonardo da Vinci by Maurice Walter Brockwell (http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/7785) at Project Gutenberg • Vasari Life of Leonardo (http://www.mnstate.edu/gracyk/courses/web publishing/Vasari_daVinci.htm): in Lives of the Most Eminent Painters, Sculptors, and Architects. • Leonardo's Paintings and Drawings (flash format (http://www.thedavincisite.com/) • Leonardo's Will (http://www.leonardo-history.com/life.htm?Section=S6) • Leonardo da Vinci fingerprint reconstructed (http://news.aol.co.uk/world-news/ leonardo-da-vinci-fingerprint-reconstructed/article/20061201063609990001) • Leonardo da Vinci's Ethical Vegetarianism (http://www.ivu.org/history/davinci/hurwitz.html)

32


List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

33

List of works by Leonardo da Vinci This is a list of paintings attributed to Leonardo da Vinci, (baptised Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci) (pronunciation), (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519), one of the leading artists of the High Renaissance. Fifteen works are generally attributed either in whole or in large part to him, most of them paintings on panel but including a mural, a large drawing on paper and two works in the early stages of preparation. A further six paintings are The Last Supper disputed, there are four recently attributed works, and two are copies of lost work. None of Leonardo's paintings are signed, and this list draws on the opinions of various scholars.[1] The small number of surviving paintings is due to Leonardo's constant and frequently disastrous experimentation with new techniques, and his chronic procrastination. Nevertheless, these few works together with his notebooks, which contain drawings, scientific diagrams, and his thoughts on the nature of painting, comprise a contribution to later generations of artists rivaled only by that of his contemporary, Michelangelo.

Major extant works Image (sort by size)

Details (sort by date) The Baptism of Christ 1472–1475 Oil on wood 177 × 151 cm

Attribution status

Location (sort by country)

Verrocchio and Leonardo

Uffizi

Painted by Andrea del Verrocchio, with the angel on the left-hand side [2] by Leonardo. It is generally considered that Leonardo also painted much of the background landscape and the torso of Christ. One of Leonardo's earliest extant works. Vasari's statement that the angel on the left is by Leonardo is confirmed by studies by Bode, Seidlitz and Guthman, and accepted by McCurdy, Wasserman [1] and others.

Florence


List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

34 Annunciation

Almost universally accepted

Uffizi

c. 1472–1475

Generally thought to be the earliest extant work entirely by Leonardo. The work was traditionally attributed to Verrocchio until 1869. It is now almost universally attributed to Leonardo. Attribution proposed by Liphhart, accepted by Bode, Lubke, Muller-Walde, Berenson, Clark, Goldscheider and [1] others.

Florence

Ginevra de' Benci

Dependent on attribution of Lady with an Ermine

c. 1476

The work was proposed as a Leonardo by Waagen in 1866, and supported by Bode. Early 20th-century scholars were vociferous in their disagreement, but most current critics accept both the authorship and the identity of [1] the sitter.

National Gallery of Art

Oil on panel 98 × 217 cm

Oil on wood 38.8 × 36.7 cm, 15.3 × 14.4 in

Benois Madonna

Generally accepted

1478

Most critics believe that it coincides with a Madonna [1] mentioned by Leonardo in 1478.

Oil on canvas 49.5 × 33 cm

Madonna of the Carnation 1478–1480 Oil on panel 62 × 47.5 cm

St. Jerome in the Wilderness c. 1480 Tempera and oil on panel 103 × 75 cm, 41 × 30 in Unfinished

Generally accepted It is generally accepted as a Leonardo, but has some overpainting possibly by a Flemish [1] artist.

Universally accepted

Washington, D.C.

Hermitage Museum Saint Petersburg

Alte Pinakothek Munich

Vatican Museums


List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

35 Adoration of the Magi

Universally accepted

Uffizi Florence

1481 Underpainting on panel 240 × 250 cm, 96 × 97 in Unfinished Virgin of the Rocks 1483–1486

Universally accepted

Louvre

Considered by most historians to be the earlier of two versions

Paris

Generally accepted

Czartoryski Museum

Oil on panel (transferred to canvas) 199 × 122 cm, 78.3 × 48.0 in

Lady with an Ermine 1485 Oil on wood panel 54 × 39 cm

This painting has been subject to continued disagreement since it was first published as a Leonardo in 1889. The attribution of the "Ginevra de' Benci" has supported [1] the attribution of this painting. The subject has been identified as [3] Cecilia Gallerani.

Madonna Litta

Disputed

c. 1490

Thought perhaps to be by Marco d'Oggiono

Oil on canvas (transferred from panel)

Kraków

Hermitage Museum Saint Petersburg

42 × 33 cm

Portrait of a Musician 1490 Oil on wood panel 45 × 32 cm

Disputed

Pinacoteca Ambrosiana Milan


List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

36 La belle ferronnière

Disputed

Louvre Paris

1490–1496 Oil on wood 62 × 44 cm

The Last Supper

Universally accepted

1495–1498 tempera on gesso, pitch and mastic

Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie Milan

460 × 880 cm, 181 × 346 in Virgin of the Rocks

Leonardo and Ambrogio de Predis

National Gallery

1495–1508

Generally accepted as postdating the version in the Louvre, with collaboration of de Predis and perhaps others. While the date is not universally agreed, the collaboration of Leonardo's [1] workshop is.

London

Oil on panel 189.5 × 120 cm, 74.6 × 47.25 in National Gallery, London

Sala delle Asse ceiling frescoes

Castello Sforzesco

circa 1498–1499

Milan

[4]

The Virgin and Child with St. Anne and St. John the Baptist c. 1499–1500 Charcoal, black and white chalk on tinted paper 142 × 105 cm, 55.7 × 41.2 in

Universally accepted

National Gallery London


List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

37 Madonna of the Yarnwinder c. 1501 Oil on canvas 50.2 × 36.4 cm

Mona Lisa or La Gioconda

Disputed [5]

Two versions exist, apparently by different hands, perhaps copies of a lost work that is described by Leonardo. The best known, that belonging to the estate of the Duke of Buccleuch, was stolen in 2003, [6] and recovered in 2007. Universally accepted

Private collection Private collection

Louvre Paris

c. 1503–1506 Oil on cottonwood 76.8 × 53.0 cm, 30.2 × 20.9 in

The Virgin and Child with St. Anne

Universally accepted

Louvre Paris

c. 1510 Oil on panel 168 × 112 cm, 66.1 × 44.1 in

Bacchus

Disputed

Louvre

1510–1515

Generally considered to be a [1] workshop copy of a drawing.

Paris

Generally accepted

Louvre

"Anonimo Gaddiano" wrote that Leonardo painted a St. John. This is generally considered Leonardo's [1] last masterpiece.

Paris

Oil on walnut panel transferred to canvas 177 × 115 cm

St. John the Baptist 1513–1516 Oil on walnut wood 69 × 57 cm, 27.2 × 22.4 in


List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

38

Lost works Image

Details

Notes

Medusa

A juvenile work described by Giorgio Vasari.

'Angel of the Annunciation

The painting is described by Vasari. A drawing survives among studies for the Battle of Anghiari (see below), and a [7] copy is in the Kunstmuseum Basel.

c. 1503 The Battle of Anghiari

The remains of Leonardo's fresco have been discovered in the Hall of the Five Hundred (Salone dei Cinquecento) in the Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.

1505 •

Salvator Mundi

Peter Paul Rubens, The Battle of Anghiari (pictured). Black chalk, pen and ink heightened with lead white, over-painted with watercolour, 54.2 x 63.7 cm. Musée du Louvre The painting is described by Vasari.

1506–1513 Leda and the Swan 1508

There are nine known copies of the painting, including: Cesare Cesto, Leda and the Swan (pictured). Oil on wood, 69.5 x 73.7 cm. Wilton House, Wiltshire, United Kingdom • Anonymous, Leda and the Swan. Tempera on wood, 115 x 86 cm. Galleria Borghese, Rome, Italy •

Disputed or recent attributions Image

Details

Attribution status

Location

Tobias and the Angel

Verrochio and workshop (including Leonardo?)

National Gallery

1470–80

A painting by Verrocchio while Leonardo was in his workshop. Martin Kemp suggests that Leonardo may have painted some part of this work, most likely the fish. David Alan Brown, of the National Gallery in Washington, attributes the painting of the dog to him as well.

London

Disputed

National Gallery of Art

Egg tempera on poplar 83.6 × 66 cm

The Dreyfus Madonna c. 1475–1480 Oil on panel 15.7 × 12.8 cm, 6.13 × 5 in

Previously attributed to Verrocchio or Lorenzo di Credi. The anatomy of the Christ Child is so poor as to discourage firm attribution by most critics while some believe that it is a work of Leonardo's youth. This attribution was made by Suida in 1929. Other art historians such as Shearman and Morelli attribute the work to [1] Verrocchio. Daniel Arasse discusses this painting as a youthful work in Leonardo da [8] Vinci, (1997).

Washington, D.C.


List of works by Leonardo da Vinci

The Holy Infants Embracing

39 Several versions in private collections.

c. 1486–1490 Christ Carrying the Cross

Previously attributed by Sotheby's to [9] [10] Gian-Francesco de Maineri. Attributed [9] to Leonardo by its present owner. Attribution based on the similarity of the tormentors of Christ to drawings made by Rubens of the Battle of Anghiari. According to Forbes Magazine, Leonardo expert Carlo Pedretti said that he knew of three similar paintings and that "All four paintings, he believed, were likely the work of Leonardo's studio assistants and perhaps even the master [9] himself."

Private collection

Previously attributed to Fra Bartolomeo. After recent cleaning, the Borghese Gallery sought attribution as a work of Leonardo's youth, based on the presence of a fingerprint similar to one that appears in The Lady with the Ermine. Result of investigation not [11] available.

Galleria Borghese

Mary Magdalene

Recently attributed as a Leonardo by Carlo Pedretti. Previously regarded as the work of Giampietrino who painted a number of similar [12] Magdalenes. Carlo Pedretti's attribution of this painting is not accepted by other scholars, eg Carlo Bertelli, (former director of the Brera Art Gallery in Milan), who said this painting is not by Leonardo and that the subject could be [13] a Lucretia with the knife removed.

Private collection

Young Girl in Profile in Renaissance Dress, or Profile of a Young Fiancée

Identified as a Leonardo by Martin Kemp and confirmed using the evidence of a [14] fingerprint. Other experts have not agreed with this attribution. As of 2010 the methods used to analyse the fingerprint have come into [15] question.

Private collection

c. 1500 Oil on poplar

Madonna and Child with St Joseph or Adoration of the Christ Child Tempera on panel Diameter 87 cm

San Francisco

Rome

References [1] della Chiesa, Angela Ottino (1967), The Complete Paintings of Leonardo da Vinci, Penguin, ISBN 0-1400-8649-8 [2] Giorgio Vasari, Lives of the Artists, 1568; this edition Penguin Classics, trans. George Bull 1965, ISBN 0-14-044-164-6 [3] M. Kemp, entry for The Lady with an Ermine in the exhibition Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration (Washington-New Haven-London) pp 271f, states "the identification of the sitter in this painting as Cecilia Gallerani is reasonably secure;" Janice Shell and Grazioso Sironi, "Cecilia Gallerani: Leonardo's Lady with an Ermine" Artibus et Historiae 13 No. 25 (1992:47-66) discuss the career of this identification since it was first suggested in 1900. [4] Universal Leonardo: Leonardo da Vinci online › Trails › The Natural World (http:/ / www. universalleonardo. org/ trail. php?trail=346& work=311) [5] Madonna of the Yarnwinder (The Lansdowne Madonna) (http:/ / www. universalleonardo. org/ work. php?id=313). Universal Leonardo. Retrieved 5 October 2010 [6] "Arrests after da Vinci work found" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ scotland/ south_of_scotland/ 7028557. stm). 4 October 2007. . Retrieved 2008-02-22. [7] Shearman, John (1992), Only Connect...: Art and the Spectator in the Italian Renaissance, Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 33


List of works by Leonardo da Vinci [8] Arasse, Daniel (1997), Leonardo da Vinci, Konecky & Konecky, ISBN 1 56852 1987 [9] Stephane Fitch DaVinci's Fingerprints, 12.22.03 (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ forbes/ 2003/ 1222/ 178. html) accessed 7 July 2009. Martin Kemp, the expert on Leonardo's fingerprints, had not examined the painting when the article was written. [10] A similar image, without the tormentors, is in the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. (http:/ / www. hermitagemuseum. org/ fcgi-bin/ db2www/ descrPage. mac/ descrPage?selLang=English& indexClass=PICTURE_EN& Query_Exp=(WOA_AUTHOR+ ==+ "Maineri,+ Gian+ Francesco")& PID=GJ-286& numView=1& ID_NUM=1& thumbFile=/ tmplobs/ AGTZ6GNRYP1E73GT6. jpg& embViewVer=last& comeFrom=browse& check=false& sorting=WOA_AUTHOR^WOA_NAME& thumbId=6& numResults=1& author=Maineri,& #32;Gian& #32;Francesco) [11] Arie, Sophie (16 February 2005). "Fingerprint puts Leonardo in the frame" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ italy/ story/ 0,12576,1415336,00. html). The Guardian. . Retrieved 2007-09-27. [12] "A lost Leonardo? Top art historian says maybe" (http:/ / www. universalleonardo. org/ news. php?item=398). Universal Leonardo. . Retrieved 2007-09-27. [13] Bertelli, Carlo (November 19, 2005). "Due allievi non fanno un Leonardo" (http:/ / img204. imageshack. us/ img204/ 6291/ bertellileonardosr5. jpg) (in Italian). Il Corriere della Sera. . Retrieved 2007-09-27. [14] Adams, James (October 13, 2009). "Montreal art expert identifies da Vinci drawing" (http:/ / www. theglobeandmail. com/ news/ arts/ montreal-art-expert-identifies-da-vinci-drawing/ article1322211/ ). The Globe and Mail. . Retrieved 2009-10-14. [15] "The Mark of a Masterpiece" (http:/ / www. newyorker. com/ reporting/ 2010/ 07/ 12/ 100712fa_fact_grann?currentPage=all) by David Grann, The New Yorker, vol. LXXXVI, no. 20, July 12 & 19, 2010, ISSN 0028792X

40


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

41

Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci

"The Vitruvian Man" by Leonardo is possibly the best known drawing in the world. Birth name Leonardo di Ser Piero da Vinci Born

April 15, 1452 Vinci, Italy

Died

May 2, 1519 (aged 67) Amboise, Indre-et-Loire, France

Nationality Italian Field

Many and diverse fields of arts and sciences

Movement High Renaissance Works

Paintings including Mona Lisa and The Last Supper. Many scientific drawings including The Vitruvian Man

Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was an Italian polymath, regarded as the epitome of the "Renaissance Man", displaying skills in numerous diverse areas of study. Whilst most famous for his paintings such as the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper, Leonardo is also renowned as a scientist, engineer and inventor. The areas of his scientific study included aeronautics, anatomy, astronomy, botany, cartography, civil engineering, chemistry, geology, geometry, hydrodynamics, mathematics, mechanical engineering, optics, physics, pyrotechnics and zoology. Whilst the full extent of his scientific studies has only become recognized in the last 150 years, he was, during his lifetime, employed for his engineering and skill of invention. Many of his designs, such as the movable dykes to protect Venice from invasion, proved too costly or impractical. Some of his smaller inventions entered the world of manufacturing unheralded. As an engineer, Leonardo conceived ideas vastly ahead of his own time, conceptually inventing a helicopter, a tank, the use of concentrated solar power, a calculator, a rudimentary theory of plate tectonics and the double hull. In practice, he greatly advanced the state of knowledge in the fields of anatomy, astronomy, civil engineering, optics, and the study of water (hydrodynamics). Leonardo's most famous drawing, the Vitruvian Man, is a study of the proportions of the human body, linking art and science in a single work that has come to represent Renaissance Humanism.


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

42

Condensed biography This is a brief summary of Leonardo's early life and journals with particular emphasis on his introduction to science. Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was born the illegitimate son of Messer Piero, a notary, and Caterina, a peasant woman. His early life was spent in the region of Vinci, in the valley of the Arno River in near Florence, firstly with his mother and in later childhood in the household of his father, grandfather and uncle Francesco. The Arno Valley His curiosity and interest in scientific observation were stimulated by his uncle Francesco, while his grandfather's keeping of journals set an example which he was to follow for most of his life, diligently recording in his own journals both the events of the day, his visual observations, his plans and his projects. The journals of Leonardo contain matters as mundane as grocery lists and as remarkable as diagrams for the construction of a flying machine.

In 1466, Leonardo was sent to Florence to the workshop of the artist Verrocchio, in order to learn the skills of an artist. At the workshop, as well as painting and drawing, he learnt the study of topographical anatomy.[1] He was also exposed to a very wide range of technical skills such as drafting, set construction, plasterworking, paint, chemistry, and metallurgy.

From Leonardo's journals - studies of an old man and the action of water.

Among the older artists whose work stimulated Leonardo's scientific interest was Piero della Francesca, then a man in his 60s, who was one of the earliest artists to systematically employ linear perspective in his paintings, and who had a greater understanding of the science of light than any other artist of his date. While Leonardo's teacher, Verrocchio, largely ignored Piero's scientifically disciplined approach to painting, Leonardo and Ghirlandaio, who also worked at Verrocchio's workshop, did not. Two of Leonardo's earliest paintings, both scenes of the Annunciation show his competent understanding of the linear perspective.

Leonardo was profoundly observant of nature, his curiosity having been stimulated in early childhood by his discovery of a deep cave in the mountains and his intense desire to know what lay inside. His earliest dated drawing, 1473, is of the valley of the Arno River, where he lived. It displays some of the many scientific interests that were to obsess him all his life, in particular geology and hydrology. References:Bortolon[2]


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

43

Approach to scientific investigation During the Renaissance, the study of Art and Science was not perceived as mutually exclusive; on the contrary, the one was seen as informing upon the other. Although Leonardo's training was primarily as an artist, it was largely through his scientific approach to the art of painting, and his development of a style that coupled his scientific knowledge with his unique ability to render what he saw that created the outstanding masterpieces of art for which he is famous. As a scientist, Leonardo had no formal education in Latin and mathematics and did not attend a university. Because of these factors, his scientific studies were largely ignored by other scholars. Leonardo's approach to science was one of intense observation and detailed recording, his tools of investigation being almost exclusively his eyes. His journals give insight into his investigative processes.

Studies of a fœtus from Leonardo's journals

A recent and exhaustive analysis of Leonardo as Scientist by Frtijof Capra [3] argues that Leonardo was a fundamentally different kind of scientist from Galileo, Newton and other scientists who followed him. Leonardo's experimentation followed clear scientific method approaches, and his theorising and hypothesising integrated the arts and particularly painting; these, and Leonardo's unique integrated, holistic views of science make him a forerunner of modern systems theory and complexity schools of thought.

Leonardo's journals Leonardo kept a series of journals in which he wrote almost daily, as well as separate notes and sheets of observations, comments and plans which were left to various pupils and were later bound. Many of the journals have survived to illustrate Leonardo's studies, discoveries and inventions. Most of the journals were written backwards in mirror script. His journals were later published, 165 years after his death.

Publication Leonardo illustrated a book on mathematical proportion in art written by his friend Luca Pacioli and called "De divina proportione", published in 1509. He was also preparing a major treatise on his scientific observations and mechanical Investigating the motion of the arm. inventions. It was to be divided into a number of sections or "Books", Leonardo leaving some instructions as to how they were to be ordered. Many sections for it appear in his notebooks. These pages deal with scientific subjects generally but also specifically as they touch upon the creation of artworks. In relating to art, this is not science that is dependent upon experimentation or the testing of theories. It deals with detailed observation, particularly the observation of the natural world, and includes a great deal about the visual effects of light on different natural substances such as foliage.[4] Leonardo writes:


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

44

Begun at Florence, in the house of Piero di Braccio Martelli, on the 22nd day of March 1508. And this is to be a collection without order, taken from many papers which I have copied here, hoping to arrange them later each in its place, according to the subjects of which they may treat. But I believe that before I am at the end of this [task] I shall have to repeat the same things several times; for which, O reader! do not blame me, for the subjects are many and memory cannot retain them [all] and say: ‘I will not write this because I wrote it before.’ And if I wished to avoid falling into this fault, it would be necessary in every case when I wanted to copy [a passage] that, not to repeat myself, I [4] should read over all that had gone before; and all the more since the intervals are long between one time of writing and the next.

Natural science

Study of the graduations of light and shade on a sphere.

Light

The lights which may illuminate opaque bodies are of 4 kinds. These are: diffused light as that of the atmosphere... And Direct, as that of the [4] sun... The third is Reflected light; and there is a 4th which is that which passes through [translucent] bodies, as linen or paper or the like.

For an artist working in the 15th century, some study of the nature of light was essential. It was by the effective painting of light falling on a surface that modelling, or a three dimensional appearance was to be achieved in a two-dimensional medium. It was also well understood by artists like Leonardo's teacher, Verrocchio, that an appearance of space and distance could be achieved in a background landscape by painting in tones that were less in contrast and colours that were less bright than in the foreground of the painting. The effects of light on solids were achieved by trial and error, few artists except Piero della Francesca, having accurate scientific knowledge of the subject. At the time when Leonardo commenced painting, it was unusual for figures to be painted with extreme contrast of light and shade. Faces, in particular, were shadowed in a manner that was bland and maintained all the features and The Lady with an Ermine contours clearly visible. Leonardo broke with this. In the painting generally titled The Lady with an Ermine (about 1483) he sets the figure diagonally to the picture space and turns her head so that her face is almost parallel to her nearer shoulder. The back of her head and the further shoulder are deeply shadowed. Around the ovoid solid of her head and across her breast and hand the light is diffused in such a way that the distance and position of the light in relation to the figure can be calculated. Leonardo's treatment of light in paintings such as The Virgin of the Rocks and the Mona Lisa was to change forever the way in which artists perceived light and used it in their paintings. Of all Leonardo's scientific legacies, this is probably the one that had the most immediate and noticeable effect.


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

45

Human anatomy

...to obtain a true and perfect knowledge [of the vascular system]... I have dissected more than ten human bodies, destroying all the other members, and removing the very minutest particles of the flesh by which these veins are surrounded, ... and as one single body would not last so long, since it was necessary to proceed with several bodies by degrees, until I came to an end and had a complete knowledge; this I [4] repeated twice, to learn the differences...

Topographic anatomy Leonardo began the formal study of the topographical anatomy of the human body when apprenticed to Andrea del Verrocchio. As a student he would have been taught to draw the human body from life, to memorize the muscles, tendons and visible subcutaneous structure and to familiarise himself with the mechanics of the various parts of the skeletal and muscular structure. It was common workshop practice to have plaster casts of parts of the human anatomy available for students to study and draw.

Study of the proportions of the head.

If, as is thought to be the case, Leonardo painted the torso and arms of Christ in The Baptism of Christ on which he famously collaborated with his master Verrocchio, then his understanding of topographical anatomy had surpassed that of his master at an early age as can be seen by a comparison of the arms of Christ with those of John the Baptist in the same painting. In the 1490s he wrote about demonstrating muscles and sinews to students:

Two anatomical studies

Remember that to be certain of the point of origin of any muscle, you must pull the sinew from which the muscle springs in such a way as to [4] see that muscle move, and where it is attached to the ligaments of the bones.

His continued investigations in this field are demonstrated by many fine drawings in his journals. In conjunction with studies of aspects of the body are drawings of faces displaying different emotions and many drawings of people suffering facial deformity, either congenital or through illness. Some of these drawings, generally referred to as "caricatures", on analysis of the skeletal proportions, appear to be based on anatomical studies.


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

46

Dissection As Leonardo became successful as an artist, he was given permission to dissect human corpses at the hospital Santa Maria Nuova in Florence. Later he dissected in Milan at the hospital Maggiore and in Rome at the hospital Santo Spirito (the first mainland Italian hospital). From 1510 to 1511 he collaborated in his studies with the doctor Marcantonio della Torre.

Dissection of the skull.

“

I have removed the skin from a man who was so shrunk by illness that the muscles were worn down and remained in a state like thin membrane, in such a way that the sinews instead of merging in muscles ended in wide membrane; and where the bones were covered by the [4] skin they had very little over their natural size.

�

In 30 years, Leonardo dissected 30 male and female corpses of different ages. Together with Marcantonio, he prepared to publish a theoretical work on anatomy and made more than 200 drawings. However, his book was published only in 1680 (161 years after his death) under the heading Treatise on painting. Among the detailed images that Leonardo drew are many studies of the human skeleton. He was the first to describe the double S form of the backbone. He also studied the inclination of pelvis and sacrum and stressed that sacrum was not uniform, but composed of five fused vertebrae. He dissected and drew the human skull and cross-sections of the brain, transversal, sagittal, and frontal.

The organs of a woman's body.

Not only interested in structure but also in function, Leonardo was a physiologist in addition to being an anatomist. He studied internal organs, being the first to draw the human appendix and also drawing detailed images of the lungs, mesentery, urinary tract, sex organs, the muscles of the cervix and a detailed cross-section of coitus. He was one of the first to draw a scientific representation of the fetus in the intrautero.

Leonardo studied the vascular system and drew a dissected heart in detail. He correctly worked out how heart valves ebb the flow of blood yet he did not fully understand circulation as he believed that blood was pumped to the muscles where it was consumed. In 2005 a UK heart surgeon, Francis Wells, from Papworth Hospital Cambridge, pioneered repair to damaged hearts, using Leonardo's depiction of the opening phase of the mitral valve to operate without changing its diameter allowing an individual to recover more quickly. Wells said "Leonardo had a depth of appreciation of the anatomy and physiology of the body - its structure and function - that perhaps has been overlooked by some."[5] Leonardo's observational acumen, drawing skill, and the clarity of depiction of bone structures reveal him at his finest as an anatomist. However, his depiction of the internal soft tissues of the body are incorrect in many ways, showing that he maintained concepts of anatomy and functioning that were in some cases millennia old, and that his investigations were probably hampered by the lack of preservation techniques available at the time. Leonardo's detailed drawing of the internal organs of a woman (See left) reveal many traditional misconceptions.[6] Leonardo's study of human anatomy led also to the design of the first known robot in recorded history. The design, which has come to be called Leonardo's robot, was probably made around the year 1495 but was rediscovered only in the 1950s. It is not known if an attempt was made to build the device.


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

47

Comparative anatomy Leonardo not only studied human anatomy, but the anatomy of many other animals as well. He dissected cows, birds, monkeys and frogs, comparing in his drawings their anatomical structure with that of humans. On one page of his journal Leonardo drew five profile studies of a horse with its teeth bared in anger and, for comparison, a snarling lion and a snarling man.

Comparison of the leg of a man and a dog.

I have found that in the composition of the human body as compared with the bodies of animals, the organs of sense are duller and coarser... I have seen in the Lion tribe that the sense of smell is connected with part of the substance of the brain which comes down the nostrils, which form a spacious receptacle for the sense of smell, which enters by a great number of cartilaginous vesicles with several passages leading up to [4] where the brain, as before said, comes down.

In the early 1490s Leonardo was commissioned to create a monument in honour of Francesco Sforza. In his notebooks are a series of plans for an equestrian monument. There are also a large number of related anatomical studies of horses. They include several diagrams of a standing horse with the angles and proportions annotated, anatomical studies of horses' heads, a dozen detailed drawings of hooves and numerous studies and sketches of horses rearing. He studied the topographical anatomy of a bear in detail, making many drawings of its paws. There is also a drawing of the muscles and tendons of the bear's hind feet. Other drawings of particular interest include the uterus of a pregnant cow, the hindquarters of a decrepit mule and studies of the musculature of a little dog.

Botany

[4]

All the branches of a tree at every stage of its height when put together are equal in thickness to the trunk [below them].

The science of Botany was long established by Leonardo's time, a treatise on the subject having been written as early as 300 BCE.[7] Leonardo's study of plants, resulting in many beautiful drawings in his notebooks, was not to record in diagramatic form the parts of the plant, but rather, as an artist and observer to record the precise appearance of plants, the manner of growth and the way that individual plants and flowers of a single variety differed from one another.


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

48

One such study shows a page with several species of flower of which ten drawings are of wild violets. Along with a drawing of the growing plant and a detail of a leaf, Leonardo has repeatedly drawn single flowers from different angles, with their heads set different on the stem. Apart from flowers the notebooks contain many drawings of crop plants including several types of grain and a variety of berries including a detailed study of bramble. There are also water plants such as irises, bullrushes and sedge. His notebooks also direct the artist to observe how light reflects from foliage at different distances and under different atmospheric conditions. A number of the drawings have their equivalents in Leonardo's painting. An elegant study of a stem of lilies may have been for one of Leonardo's early Annunciation paintings, carried in the hand of the Archangel Gabriel. In both the Annunciation pictures the grass is dotted with blossoming plants. Study of sedge

The plants which appear in both the versions of The Virgin of the Rocks demonstrate the results of Leonardo's studies in a meticulous realism that makes each plant readily identifiable to the botanist.

Geology As an adult, Leonardo had only two childhood memories, one of which was the finding of a cave in the Apennines. Although fearing that he might be attacked by a wild beast, he ventured in driven "by the burning desire to see whether there might be any marvelous thing within." Leonardo's earliest dated drawing is a study of the Arno Valley, strongly emphasizing its geological features. His note books contain landscapes with a wealth of geological observation from the regions of both Florence and Milan, often including atmospheric effects such as a heavy rainstorm pouring down on a town at the foot of a mountain range.

A topographical map.

It had been observed for many years that strata in mountains often contained bands of sea shells. Conservative science said that these could be explained by the Great Flood described in the Bible. Leonardo's observations convinced him that this could not possibly be the case.


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

49

The Virgin of the Rocks

“

And a little beyond the sandstone conglomerate, a tufa has been formed, where it turned towards Castel Florentino; farther on, the mud was deposited in which the shells lived, and which rose in layers according to the levels at which the turbid Arno flowed into that sea. And from time to time the bottom of the sea was raised, depositing these shells in layers, as may be seen in the cutting at Colle Gonzoli, laid open by the Arno which is wearing away the base of it; in which cutting the said layers of shells are very plainly to be seen in clay of a bluish colour, and [4] various marine objects are found there.

�

This quotation makes clear the breadth of Leonardo's understanding of Geology, including the action of water in creating sedimentary rock, the tectonic action of the earth in raising the sea bed and the action of erosion in the creation of geographical features. In Leonardo's earliest paintings we see the remarkable attention given to the small landscapes of the background, with lakes and water, swathed in a misty light. In the larger of the Annunciation paintings is a town on the edge of a lake. Although distant, the mountains can be seen to be scored by vertical strata. This characteristic can be observed in other paintings by Leonardo, and closely resembles the mountains around Lago di Garda and Lago d'Iseo in Northern Italy. It is a particular feature of both the paintings of The Virgin of the Rocks, which also include caverns of fractured, tumbled and water eroded limestone.[8]


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

50

Cartography In the early 16th century maps were rare and often inaccurate. Leonardo produced several extremely accurate maps such as the town plan of Imola created in 1502 in order win the patronage of Cesare Borgia. Borgia was so impressed that he hired him as a military engineer and architect. Leonardo also produced a map of Chiana Valley in Tuscany, which he surveyed, without the benefit of modern equipment, by pacing the distances. In 1515, Leonardo produced a map of the Roman Southern Coast which is linked to his work for the Vatican and relates to his plans to drain the marshland.

Leonardo's accurate map of Imola for Cesare Borgia.

Hydrodynamics

Studies of water.

“

[4]

All the branches of a water [course] at every stage of its course, if they are of equal rapidity, are equal to the body of the main stream.

�

Among Leonardo's drawings are many that are studies of the motion of water, in particular the forms taken by fast-flowing water on striking different surfaces. Many of these drawings depict the spiralling nature of water. The spiral form had been studied in the art of the Classical era and strict mathematical proportion had been applied to its use in art and architecture. An awareness of these rules of proportion had been revived in the early Renaissance. In Leonardo's drawings can be seen the investigation of the spiral as it occurs in water. There are several elaborate drawings of water curling over an object placed at a diagonal to its course. There are several drawings of water dropping from a height and curling upwards in spiral forms. One such drawing, as well as curling waves, shows splashes and details of spray and bubbles. Leonardo's interest manifested itself in the drawing of streams and rivers, the action of water in eroding rocks, and the cataclysmic action of water in floods and tidal waves. The knowledge that he gained from his studies was employed in devising a range of projects, particularly in relation to the Arno River. None of the major works was brought to completion.


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

51

Astronomy

The earth is not in the centre of the Sun’s orbit nor at the centre of the universe, but in the centre of its companion elements, and united with them. And any one standing on the moon, when it and the sun are both beneath us, would see this our earth and the element of water upon it [4] [9] just as we see the moon, and the earth would light it as it lights us.

Alchemy Claims have sometimes been made that Leonardo da Vinci was an alchemist. However, his scientific process was based mainly upon observation. His practical experiments are also founded in observation rather than belief. Leonardo, who questioned the order of the solar system and the deposit of fossils by the Great Flood, had little time for the notion that lead could be turned into gold or that a potion could be created that gave eternal life. Leonardo said about alchemists:-

The false interpreters of nature declare that quicksilver is the common seed of every metal, not remembering that nature varies the seed [4] [10] according to the variety of the things she desires to produce in the world.

[4]

And many have made a trade of delusions and false miracles, deceiving the stupid multitude.

However, he also believed that the alchemists "deserve unmeasured praise for the usefulness of things invented for the use of men."[11] He sometimes attacked alchemists and sometimes praised them, and his mentor Andrea del Verrocchio was a student of alchemy.[11] [12]

Mathematical studies Perspective

[4]

The art of perspective is of such a nature as to make what is flat appear in relief and what is in relief flat.

During the early 15th century, both Brunelleschi and Alberti made studies of linear perspective. In 1436 Alberti published "della Pittura" ("On Painting"), which includes his findings on linear perspective. Piero della Francesca carried his work forward and by the 1470s a number of artists were able to produce works of art that demonstrated a full understanding of the principles of linear perspective. Leonardo studied linear perspective and employed it in his earlier paintings. His use of perspective in the two Annunciations is daring, as he uses various features such as the corner of a building, a walled garden and a path to contrast enclosure and spaciousness. The unfinished Adoration of the Magi was intended to be a masterpiece revealing much of Leonardo's knowledge of figure drawing and perspective. There exists a number of studies

Draft of the perspective of the Adoration of the Magi.


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

52

that he made, including a detailed study of the perspective, showing the complex background of ruined Classical buildings that he planned for the left of the picture. In addition, Leonardo is credited with the first use of anamorphosis, the use of a "perspective" to produce an image that is intelligible only with a curved mirror or from a specific vantage point.[13] Leonardo wrote:

Those who are in love with practice without knowledge are like the sailor who gets into a ship without rudder or compass and who never can be certain whether he is going. Practice must always be founded on sound theory, and to this Perspective is the guide and the gateway; and [4] without this nothing can be done well in the matter of drawing.

Geometry While in Milan in 1496 Leonardo met a traveling monk and academic, Luca Pacioli. Under him, Leonardo studied mathematics. Pacioli, who first codified and recorded the double entry system of bookkeeping,[14] had already published a major treatise on mathematical knowledge, collaborated with Leonardo in the production of a book called "De divina proportione" about mathematical and artistic proportion. Leonardo prepared a series of drawings of regular solids in a skeletal form to be engraved as plates. "De divina proportione" was published in 1509. The rhombicuboctahedron, as published in De divina proportione.

All the problems of perspective are made clear by the five terms of mathematicians, which are:—the point, the line, the angle, the superficies and the solid. The point is unique of its kind. And the point has neither height, breadth, length, nor depth, whence it is to be regarded as [4] indivisible and as having no dimensions in space.

Engineering and invention Vasari in Lives of the Artists says of Leonardo: He made designs for mills, fulling machines and engines that could be driven by water-power... In addition he used to make models and plans showing how to excavate and tunnel through mountains without difficulty, so as to pass from one level to another; and he demonstrated how to lift and draw great weights by means of levers, hoists and winches, and ways of cleansing harbours and using pumps to suck up water from great depths.

See:fulling


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

53

Practical inventions and projects Leonardo was a master of mechanical principles. He utilized leverage and cantilevering, pulleys, cranks, gears, including angle gears and rack and pinion gears; parallel linkage, momentum, centripetal force and the aerofoil. Because Leonardo's inventions date from an era before the issue of patents, it is impossible to say with any certainty how many or even which of his inventions passed into general and practical use, and thereby had impact over the lives of many people. Among those inventions that are credited with passing into general practical use are the strut bridge, the automated bobbin winder, the machine for testing the tensile strength of wire and the lens-grinding machine pictured at right. In the lens-grinding machine, the hand rotation of the grinding wheel operates an angle-gear, which rotates a shaft, turning a geared dish in which sits the glass or crystal to be ground. A single action rotates both surfaces at a fixed speed ratio determined by the gear.

A machine for grinding convex lenses.

As an inventor, Leonardo was not prepared to tell all that he knew:

How by means of a certain machine many people may stay some time under water. How and why I do not describe my method of remaining under water, or how long I can stay without eating; and I do not publish nor divulge these by reason of the evil nature of men who would use them as means of destruction at the bottom of the sea, by sending ships to the bottom, and sinking them together with the men in them. And although I will impart others, there is no danger in them; because the mouth of the tube, by which you breathe, is above the water supported on [4] bags of corks.

Bridges and hydraulics Leonardo's study of the motion of water led him to design machinery that utilized its force. Much of his work on hydraulics was for Ludovico il Moro. Leonardo wrote to Ludovico describing his skills and what he could build:

Various hydraulic machines.

... very light and strong bridges that can easily be carried, with which to pursue, and sometimes flee from, the enemy; and others safe and indestructible by fire or assault, easy and convenient to transport and place into position.

Among his projects in Florence was one to divert the course of the Arno, in order to flood Pisa. Fortunately, this was too costly to be carried out. He also surveyed Venice and came up with a plan to create a movable dyke for the city's protection against invaders. In 1502, Leonardo produced a drawing of a single span 240 m (720 ft) bridge as part of a civil engineering project for Ottoman Sultan Beyazid II of Istanbul. The bridge was intended to span an inlet at the mouth of the Bosphorus


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

54

known as the Golden Horn. Beyazid did not pursue the project, because he believed that such a construction was impossible. Leonardo's vision was resurrected in 2001 when a smaller bridge based on his design was constructed in Norway. On 17 May 2006, the Turkish government decided to construct Leonardo's bridge to span the Golden Horn.[15]

War machines Leonardo's letter to Ludovico il Moro assured him:

An Arsenal.

When a place is besieged I know how to cut off water from the trenches and construct an infinite variety of bridges, mantlets and scaling ladders, and other instruments pertaining to sieges. I also have types of mortars that are very convenient and easy to transport.... when a place cannot be reduced by the method of bombardment either because of its height or its location, I have methods for destroying any fortress or other stronghold, even if it be founded upon rock. ....If the engagement be at sea, I have many engines of a kind most efficient for offense and defense, and ships that can resist cannons and powder.

“

�

In Leonardo's notebooks there is an array of war machines which includes a tank to be propelled by two men powering crank shafts. Although the drawing itself looks quite finished, the mechanics were apparently not fully developed because, if built as drawn, the tank, with a lot of effort, might be made to rotate on the spot, but would never progress in a forward direction. In a BBC documentary, a military team built the machine and changed one of the gears in order to make the machine work. It has been suggested that Leonardo deliberately left this error in the design, in order to prevent it from being put to practice by unauthorized people.[16] Another machine, propelled by horses with a pillion rider, carries in front of it four scythes mounted on a revolving gear, turned by a shaft driven by the wheels of a cart behind the horses.

Leonardo's Tank.

Leonardo's notebooks also show cannons which he claimed "to hurl small stones like a storm with the smoke of these causing great terror to the enemy, and great loss and confusion." He also designed an enormous crossbow. Following his detailed drawing, one was constructed by the British Army, but could not be made to fire successfully. Leonardo was the first to sketch the wheel-lock musket c. 1500 AD (the precedent of the flintlock musket which first appeared in Europe by 1547), although as early as the 14th century the Chinese had used a flintlock 'steel wheel' in order to detonate land mines.[17]


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

55

While Leonardo was working in Venice, he drew a sketch for an early diving suit, to be used in the destruction of enemy ships entering Venetian waters. A suit was constructed for a BBC documentary using pigskin treated with fish oil to repel water. The head was covered by a helmet with two eye glasses at the front. A breathing tube of bamboo with pigskin joints was attached to the back of the helmet and connected to a float of cork and wood. When the scuba divers tested the suit, they found it to be a workable precursor to a modern diving suit, the cork float acting as a compressed air chamber when submerged.

Flight In Leonardo's infancy a hawk had once hovered over his cradle. Recalling this incident, Leonardo saw it as prophetic.

The flight of a bird.

“

An object offers as much resistance to the air as the air does to the object. You may see that the beating of its wings against the air supports a heavy eagle in the highest and rarest atmosphere, close to the sphere of elemental fire. Again you may see the air in motion over the sea, fill the swelling sails and drive heavily laden ships. From these instances, and the reasons given, a man with wings large enough and duly [4] connected might learn to overcome the resistance of the air, and by conquering it, succeed in subjugating it and rising above it.

�

The desire to fly is expressed in the many studies and drawings. His later journals contain a detailed study of the flight of birds and several different designs for wings based in structure upon those of bats which he described as being less heavy because of the impenetrable nature of the membrane. There is a legend that Leonardo tested the flying machine with one of his apprentices, and that the apprentice fell and broke his leg.[18] Experts Martin Kemp and Liana Bortolon agree that there is no evidence of such a test, which mentioned in his journals. Design for a flying machine with wings based closely upon the structure of a bat's wings.

One design that he produced shows a helicopter to be lifted by a rotor powered by four men. It would not have worked since the body of the craft itself would

have rotated in the opposite direction to the rotor.[19] While he designed a number of man powered flying machines with mechanical wings that flapped, he also designed a parachute and a light hang glider which could have flown.[20]


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

Musical Instrument The viola organista was an experimental musical instrument invented by Leonardo da Vinci. It was the first bowed keyboard instrument (of which any record has survived) ever to be devised. Leonardo's original idea, as preserved in his notebooks of 1488–1489 and in the drawings in the Codex Atlanticus, was to use one or more wheels, continuously rotating, each of which pulled a looping bow, rather like a fanbelt in an automobile engine, and perpendicular to the instrument's strings.

Leonardo's inventions made reality In the late 20th century, interest in Leonardo's inventions escalated. There have been many projects which have sought to turn diagrams on paper into working models. One of the factors is the awareness that, although in the 15th and 16th centuries Leonardo had available a limited range of materials, modern technological advancements have made available a number of robust materials of light-weight which might turn Leonardo's designs into reality. This is particularly the case with his designs for flying machines. A difficulty encountered in the creation of models is that often Leonardo had not entirely thought through the mechanics of a machine before he drew it, or else he used a sort of graphic shorthand, simply not Model of a flying machine by Leonardo in the V&A museum. bothering to draw a gear or a lever at a point where one is absolutely essential in order to make a machine function. This lack of refinement of mechanical details can cause considerable confusion. Thus many models that are created, such as some of those on display at Clos Luce, Leonardo's home in France, do not work, but would work, with a little mechanical tweaking.

Exhibitions • Models of Leonardo's designs are on permanent display at Clos Luce. • The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, held an exhibition called "Leonardo da Vinci: Experience, Experiment and Design" in 2006 • logitech museum • "The Da Vinci Machines Exhibition" was held in a pavilion in the Cultural Forecourt, at South Bank, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia in 2009. The exhibits shown were on loan from the Museum of Leonardo da Vinci, Florence, Italy.

56


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci

57

Television programs • The U.S. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), aired in October 2005, a television programme called Leonardo's Dream Machines, about the building and successful flight of a glider based on Leonardo's design. • The Discovery Channel began a series called Doing DaVinci in April 2009, in which a team of builders try to construct various da Vinci inventions based on his designs.[21]

Leonardo's projects

A parabolic compass.

Leonardo's "Aerial Screw", considered as an early helicopter.

Cannons.

Walking on water.

Model of a tank by Leonardo

Model of a flywheel

Models based on Leonardo's drawings

Model of Leonardo's parachute.

Model after Leonardo's design for the Golden Horn Bridge.

See also • • • •

Leonardo da Vinci Luca Pacioli Leonardo da Vinci's personal life Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci

References [1] [2] [3] [4]

Topographical anatomy is the anatomy that is visible on the surface of the body. Liana Bortolon, The Life and Times of Leonardo, Paul Hamlyn, 1967 Capra, Fritjof. The Science of Leonardo; Inside the Mind of the Genius of the Renaissance. (New York, Doubleday, 2007) Jean Paul Richter editor 1880, The Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci Dover, 1970, ISBN 0-486-22572-0. (http:/ / www. fromoldbooks. org/ Richter-NotebooksOfLeonardo) (accessed 2007-02-04) [5] http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ go/ pr/ fr/ -/ 2/ hi/ health/ 4289204. stm published by BBC 2005/09/28 [6] Martin Kemp, Leonardo, Oxford University Press, (2004) ISBN 0-19-280644-0 [7] eg. 'Theophrastus, On the History of Plants. [8] The London painting of the Virgin of the Rocks is denounced by the geologist Ann C. Pizzorusso, (http:/ / www. leonardosgeology. com) of New York, as largely by the hand of someone other than Leonardo, because the rocks appear incongruous and the lake looks like a fjord. Pizzorusso says "Fjords do not exist in Italy and it is highly unlikely the glacial lakes of the Lombard region would have such steep relief surrounding them." In fact, the glacial lake, Garda, has just such steep geological formations. The sedimentary red limestone which appears in


Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci the picture is also typical of Italy. [9] See Da Vinci's notebooks (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=4AK9996_-Y8C& lpg=PA135& pg=RA1-PA135#v=onepage& q=& f=false) on astronomy. [10] "Quicksilver" is an old name for mercury. [11] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=lzodpIzjf0QC& pg=PA124& lpg=PA124& dq=leonardo+ da+ vinci+ alchemy& source=bl& ots=lgta8SL_b9& sig=vWeoekMzIaKXMKVpSLqINYLPFZ8& hl=en& ei=9u5WSsLWOoH2sQPpi5n0AQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1) [12] (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=NsOfQthMbKYC& pg=PA37& lpg=PA37& dq=andrea+ del+ verrocchio+ alchemy& source=bl& ots=7poAtWwwVF& sig=QBzKFCP8jH461Txa_zewbLaHtvw& hl=en& ei=OWFXSvWRLsu0lAfdu6njBA& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1) [13] Animations of anamorphosis of Leonardo and other artists (http:/ / www. illusionworks. com/ mod/ anamorph. htm#) [14] L. Murphy Smith, Luca Pacioli: The Father of Accounting (http:/ / acct. tamu. edu/ smith/ ethics/ pacioli. htm), (2008), accessed 27 June 2009 [15] Daniel S. Levy, Dream of the Master (http:/ / www. vebjorn-sand. com/ dreamsofthemaster. html), Time Life, 4 October 1999 [16] "Da Vinci war machines "designed to fail"" (http:/ / www. theage. com. au/ articles/ 2002/ 12/ 13/ 1039656218782. html). The Age (Melbourne). . [17] Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 199. [18] Liana Bortolon, Leonardo, Paul Hamlyn, (1967) [19] see Helicopter for detailed description of solutions and types of functional helicopter. [20] U.S. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), Leonardo's Dream Machine, October 2005 [21] About Doing DaVinci : Doing DaVinci : Discovery Channel (http:/ / dsc. discovery. com/ tv/ doing-davinci/ about/ about. html)

Reading Moon, Francis C. (2007). The Machines of Leonardo Da Vinci and Franz Reuleaux, Kinematics of Machines from the Renaissance to the 20th Century. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-5598-0. Capra, Fritjof. The Science of Leonardo; Inside the Mind of the Genius of the Renaissance. (New York, Doubleday, 2007)

External links • Complete text & images of Richter's translation of the Notebooks (http://www.sacred-texts.com/aor/dv/index. htm) • Leonardo da Vinci: Experience, Experiment, Design (review) (http://www.studio-international.co.uk/reports/ da_vinci.asp) • Some digitized notebook pages with explanations (http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/ttp/ttpbooks.html) from the British Library (Macromedia Shockwave format) • Digital and animated compendium of anatomy notebook pages (http://leonardodavinci.stanford.edu/projects/ anatomy/index.html) • BBC Leonardo homepage (http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/leonardo) • Leonardo da Vinci: The Leicester Codex (http://www.odranoel.de/index.php?lang=eng&menu=start& area=0&page=0) • Leonardo's Letter to Ludovico Sforza (http://www.leonardo-history.com/life.htm?Section=S5) • Animations of anamorphosis of Leonardo and other artists (http://www.illusionworks.com/mod/anamorph. htm#) • The Invention of the Parachute (http://www.juliantrubin.com/bigten/davinciparachute.html) • Da Vinci - The Genius: A comprehensive traveling exhibition about Leonardo da Vinci (http://www. davincithegenius.com)

58


Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci

59

Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci

Raphael's depiction of Plato in his famous fresco "The School of Athens" in the Vatican is believed to be an image of Leonardo da Vinci. Birth name

Lionardo di Ser Piero da Vinci

Born

April 15, 1452 Anchiano, Province of Florence, in modern-day Italy

Died

May 2, 1519 Amboise, Indre-et-Loire, in modern-day France

Nationality

Italian

Field

Many and diverse fields of arts and sciences

Movement

High Renaissance

Works

Mona Lisa, The Last Supper, The Vitruvian Man

Leonardo da Vinci (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519) was an Italian Renaissance painter and polymath who achieved legendary fame and iconic status within his own lifetime. His renown primarily rests upon his brilliant achievements as a painter, the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper, being two of the most famous artworks ever created, but also upon his diverse skills as a scientist and inventor. He became so highly valued during his lifetime that the King of France bore him home like a trophy of war, supported him in his old age and, according to legend, cradled his head as he died. Leonardo's portrait was used, within his own lifetime, as the iconic image of Plato in Raphael's School of Athens. His biography was written in superlative terms by Vasari. He has been repeatedly acclaimed the greatest genius to have lived. His painting of the Mona Lisa has been the most imitated artwork of all time and his drawing of the Vitruvian Man iconically represents the fusion of Art and Science. Leonardo's biography has appeared in many forms, both scholarly and fictionalised. Every known aspect of his life has been scrutinised and analysed. His paintings, drawings and notebooks have been studied, reproduced and analysed for five centuries. The interest in and appreciation of the character of Leonardo and his talents has never waned. Leonardo has appeared in many fictional works, such as novels, television shows and movies, the first such fiction dating from the 16th century. Various characters have been named after him.


Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci

60

In art Self portrait The well-known portrait that is generally accepted as being of Leonardo da Vinci is certainly by his hand, but is not universally accepted as a self-portrait because the man depicted appears to be older than Leonardo was at his death. It has been suggested that it is Leonardo's portrait of his father or grandfather. On the other hand, an explanation that has been put forward to explain the apparent advanced age of the individual is that Leonardo deliberately drew himself as older than he really was, in order that Raphael might use it as the basis for his depiction of Leonardo as Plato in the School of Athens. The drawing has been the basis for other representations of Leonardo.

Death of Leonardo The story of Leonardo dying in the arms of the French king Francis I, although apocryphal,[1] appealed to the self-image of later French kings and to French history painters of the 18th and 19th centuries. Apparently on commission from Louis XVI,[2] Ménageot painted The Death of Leonardo da Vinci in the arms of Francis I in 1781, setting it in a background of classical statuary. Thie painting, which was the triumph of the Salon of 1781, included a portrayal of the Borghese Gladiator Ménageot's The Death of Leonardo da Vinci (Ménageot probably having seen it at the Villa Borghese during his stay at the French Academy in Rome from 1769 to 1774), although this was an anachronism since Leonardo died in 1519, about ninety years before the statue was discovered. In 1818 the French painter Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres depicted the scene of Leonardo's death which is shown taking place in the home Clos Lucé provided for him at Amboise by King Francis I. The King is shown supporting Leonardo's head as he dies, as described by Vasari, watched by the Dauphin who is comforted by a cardinal. A distraught young man may represent Leonardo's pupil Melzi.

The Death of Leonardo by Ingres, 1818.

The treatment of this subject by Ingres is indicative of Leonardo's iconic status and also specifically that he was of particular significance to the school of French Classicism. A number of his paintings had passed into the Royal collection and certain


Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci elements of them were much imitated. Leonado's manner of soft shading known as Sfumato was particularly adapted by Ingres, Jacques Louis David and their followers. An influential painting was Leda and the swan, now regarded as by a pupil of Leonardo but then generally accepted as the master's work.

Biography and appraisal In fiction Novels and short stories • The Romance of Leonardo da Vinci (1901) by Dmitry Merezhkovsky. • The Second Mrs. Giaconda (1981) by E. L. Konigsburg is a story about why Leonardo painted the Mona Lisa. • Leonardo Da Vinci: Detective a short story by Theodore Mathieson, portrays him using his genius to solve a murder during his time in France. • Pasquale's Angel by Paul J. McAuley, set in an alternate universe Florence, portrays Leonardo as "the Great Engineer", creating a premature industrial revolution (see clockpunk). • The novel The Memory Cathedral by Jack Dann is a fictional account of a "lost year" in the life of Leonardo. Dann has his genius protagonist actually create his flying machine. • The novel Pilgrim by Timothy Findley describes the encounters of an immortal named Pilgrim with Leonardo da Vinci among others, as told to Carl Jung. • Terry Pratchett's character Leonard of Quirm is a pastiche of Leonardo. • Three novels by Martin Woodhouse and Robert Ross feature the adventures of Leonardo da Vinci in the guise of a James Bond-type spy of the Italian Renaissance: The Medici Guns (1974); The Medici Emerald and The Medici Hawks. • The Secret Supper (2006) by Javier Sierra explores the symbology of Leonardo's Last Supper, and its threat to the Catholic Church, as he is painting the fresco in 15th century Milan. • Black Madonna (1996) by Carl Sargent and Marc Gascoigne, is set in the Shadowrun game universe and portrays Leonardo as still living in the 21st century, blackmailing corporations to finance his inventions. • The Medici Seal, a children's novel by Theresa Breslin (2006). • In the Children of the Red King series, a Donatella Di Vinci married a Bertram Babbington-Bloor. Donatella was the daughter of an Italian magician. No connection between Leonardo and Donatella has been stated since. • In Robert Heinlen's The Door Into Summer, Dr. Twitchell recounts a tale of a student whom he displaced in time by 500 years. While there was no way of knowing whether the student went to the past or the future, Dr. Twitchell hints that he believes it was the past due to the student's name—Leonard Vincent. The Da Vinci Code This work of fiction has been the centre of controversy over the accuracy of its depictions of Christianity and of Leonardo. A bestselling 2003 novel by Dan Brown, adapted and released as a major motion picture in 2006, The Da Vinci Code revolves around a conspiracy based on elements of Leonardo's Last Supper and other works. A preface to the novel claims that depictions of artworks, secret societies and rites described within the novel are factual. For this reason much of the content of the novel has been widely accepted by readers as authoritative. Because the theme involves a conspiracy within the Church over the life of Jesus and the suggestion that the Church has hidden the facts of his marriage, there has been a strong reaction against the novel and much material published examining and refuting its claims. Within the novel it is claimed that from 1510–1519, Leonardo was the Grand Master of a secret society, the Priory of Sion. In reality this society existed only as a 20th century hoax, but author Dan Brown used as a source the 1982

61


Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci pseudohistory book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail. The writers of this book had based their research on forged medieval documents that had been created as part of the Priory of Sion fraud. The mix of fact and fiction in the documents made it difficult to discount immediately as a forgery. For example, it was claimed that the Grand Master prior to Leonardo was Botticelli, who had indeed had an association with Leonardo, as they were both students at the Florence workshop of Andrea del Verrocchio. The Priory of Sion story and the veracity of The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail was eventually debunked, and many of those involved publicly recanted, although Dan Brown continued to assert that the facts as presented were true. In portraying the Priory of Sion as "fact" The Da Vinci Code expanded on the claims in The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail: • That there were additional secrets hidden in Leonardo's paintings, such as an "M" letter in the painting of The Last Supper, indicating the presence of Mary Magdalene and that the figure to the left of Jesus traditionally said to represent John the Evangelist actually represents Mary Magdalene. • That Leonardo's painting The Mona Lisa was actually a self-portrait. • That among the differences in the two versions of the painting of the Virgin of the Rocks which hang in the Louvre and London's National Gallery, is the fact that in the Louvre painting the baby to the left of the picture depicts Jesus, and to the right John the Baptist, rather than the accepted view, which is the other way round. • That Leonardo invented a cryptex for carrying secret messages. The book also used a variation of Leonardo's backwards handwriting to hide a secret message on the American bookjacket. Among the many criticisms of Brown's writing is that he uses the name da Vinci (meaning "from Vinci") in the manner that surnames are commonly used nowadays. Leonardo would never have been referred to simply as da Vinci in his lifetime. Such designations were appended to common baptismal names in order to identify individuals.

Movies Movies that are about the life of Leonardo or in which he appears as a character: • The Life of Leonardo da Vinci (1971) starring Philippe Leroy as Leonardo da Vinci. • Nothing Left to Do But Cry (1984) starring the academy award winner Roberto Benigni and the academy award nominated Massimo Troisi • Quest of the Delta Knights (1993) depicting a fictional version of the young Leonardo • Leonardo Da Vinci [3] at the Internet Movie Database (1996) - Animated movie • Ever After (1998) starring Drew Barrymore and Patrick Godfrey as Leonardo da Vinci • Christie Malry's Own Double-Entry [4] at the Internet Movie Database (2000) starring Mattia Sbragia as Leonardo da Vinci Movies which refer to Leonardo's works or inventions: • Hudson Hawk (1991) starring Bruce Willis and Danny Aiello revolves around Leonardo da Vinci's inventions • The Da Vinci Code (2006) starring Tom Hanks • The Da Vinci Treasure (2006) depicts Da Vinci's paintings as clues that lead to enlightenment

62


Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci

Theatre • Peter Barnes's 1969 play Leonardo's Last Supper centres on Leonardo being "resurrected" in a filthy charnel house after being prematurely declared dead. • David Davalos's 2002 play Daedalus tells a fantasized story of Leonardo's time as a military engineer in the service of Cesare Borgia.

Music • Author Charles Anthony Silvestri and composer Eric Whitacre collaborated to create an "opera bréve" based on text from da Vinci's journals and original text by Silvestri. This piece, Leonardo Dreams of His Flying Machine, was modeled after da Vinci's conceptual flying machine. This piece was written on commission by the American Choral Directors Association as the second piece in Whitacre's series of "Element Works," the first being Cloudburst, written in 1992. • Dream Theater vocalist James LaBrie performed as Leonardo in the progressive metal album 'Leonardo: The Absolute Man', an album which itself explored his life and works through the milieu of music. • In the Red Hot Chili Peppers video for Californication, a cartoon John Frusciante can be seen riding Leonardo's helicopter.

Television fiction • In the anime OVA: 'Mask of Zeguy' Leonardo da Vinci was one of the antagonists who sought out the Crown of Shamus in order to prevent Himiko from using her powers to open the Gate of Winds, because his inventions (i.e. dangerous weapons) will become useless. • In The Super Mario Bros. Super Show! live-action segment "The Painting", the Mario Bros. find a painting which happens to be Leonardo da Vinci's painting "The Last Supper". They call up Howard Stevens (played by the show's producer Andy Heyward), and he explains that it's the "second Last Supper" by Leonardo da Vinci "Rooney". However, upon further examination, they discover that the painting is actually worthless because it was painted by an impostor, Leonard da Vinci "Mahoney". Howard was able to identify it as Mahoney's painting because one of the people in the painting is Mahoney's uncle, Roy Orbisoni Mahoney. The information dealing with da Vinci in this episode is incorrect. • In the Star Trek: The Original Series episode "Requiem for Methuselah", Leonardo da Vinci is revealed to be one of many aliases to "Flint", an immortal man born in the year 3834 BC. Leonardo's abilities and knowledge are thus attributed to centuries of scientific and artistic study. Leonardo appears again in the Star Trek universe, in the series Star Trek: Voyager, where his workshop is created as a holographic simulation. Actor James Daly played Flint/Leonardo in Star Trek: The Original Series, while John Rhys-Davies portrayed Leonardo in Star Trek: Voyager. Also, in the S.C.E. (Starfleet Corps of Engineers) novellas, the main starship of the series is called the U.S.S. da Vinci (NCC-81623), a Sabre-class vessel, named for the artist. • The 1979 Doctor Who story City of Death features a theft of the Mona Lisa. The Doctor goes back in time to visit Leonardo's workshop and claims to be an old acquaintance of the artist. Leonardo also appears as a character in several Doctor Who novels. • The cartoon The Tick features Leonardo in "Leonardo DaVinci and his Fightin' Genius Time Commandos!" (Season 2, Episode 17, 1995) in which a number of famous inventors are brought to the present by an inventor seeking to take credit for their work. (Other inventors include Ben Franklin, George Washington Carver, and the neolithic inventor of the wheel, named Wheel.) Leonardo is portrayed as being able to create fantastic flying devices out of rudimentary objects. • The television show Alias features a character Milo Giacomo Rambaldi, a fictional character clearly based on Leonardo.

63


Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci • In the animated television series Dilbert episode "Art" has Leonardo as the secret ruler of the art world. He reveals that he discovered immortality centuries ago through the invention of the fountain of youth. • An episode of Histeria! focusing on the Renaissance featured a cartoon caricature of Leonardo as a host. Over the course of the episode, he is criticized by World's Oldest Woman for wearing a dress, and also parodies the 1960s Batman series as Renaissance Man, with Loud Kiddington as his sidekick. • Featured on the History Channel's Man, Moment, Machine. • On the American sitcom Seinfeld. Kramer attempts to sleep for 20 minutes every hour. A polyphasic sleep pattern he claims is the way da Vinci slept during his lifetime. • The anime Time Quest features Professor Leonardo as inventor of the kettle-shaped time machine, who is revealed to be Leonardo da Vinci in the final episodes. • In Blackadder: Back & Forth, Baldrick builds a time machine to Leonardo's exact design specifications and it actually works. • The Futurama episode "The Duh-Vinci Code" reveals Leonardo to be an alien from Planet Vinci, which is inhabited by brilliant intellectuals of human appearance. However, he is considered to be the least intelligent of the planet's inhabitants and is bullied by everyone else for it. He came to Earth as a means of escape, but returned after being disillusioned by how much more unintelligent the people of Earth were compared to him. He builds a new machine designed to kill his tormentors, but it is sabotaged by Philip J. Fry, and Leonardo is killed instead when he pulls a lever on the machine that drops a giant cog on him, crushing him.

Advertising • Benetton's 1988 "United Superstars of Benetton" print and billborad campaign, paired with Julius Caesar [5]

Comics and graphic novels • The comic strip, cartoon and movie Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtle character Leonardo is named after Leonardo da Vinci, by the comic's creators Kevin Eastman and Peter Laird who had studied art history.[6] • The DC Comics Elseworlds story "Black Masterpiece", in Batman Annual #18, shows Leonardo's apprentice becoming a Renaissance Batman, using the Master's devices in his war on Florentine crime. • DC Comics's Vertigo division published a ten-issue miniseries about Leonardo and his apprentice Salai, entitled Chiaroscuro: The Private Life of Leonardo da Vinci. • In the mainstream DC Universe, according to Secret Origins #27, Leonardo is an ancestor of the famed Freemason Cagliostro, as well as Zatara and Zatanna who are both magicians (in the Magic (illusion) and Magic (paranormal) senses) and Superheroes. Also, in Final Night #2, it was revealed that Vandal Savage had blackmailed Leonardo into painting the Mona Lisa. • The Dargaud cartoon character Léonard by Turk and De Groot. • Général Leonardo, a French-language graphic novel by Erik Svane [7] and Dan Greenberg [8] in two Paquet [9] volumes (so far), In the Service of the Vatican [10] and Crusade To the Holy Land [11]. • The Daily Mirror comic strip character Garth saved Leonardo from the Black Death in the 1972 strip Orb of the Trimandias, written by Jim Edgar and illustrated by Frank Bellamy. • A Mickey Mouse comic book from 1986 includes a story titled The Return Of Limonardo where Huey, Dewey and Louie meet Limonardo da Vimsi, based on Leonardo.[12] • In 1979, the French weekly Journal de Mickey published a Mickey Mouse adventure based in Renaissance Florence. Goofy is Leonardo, and Mickey gets him to paint the portrait of Mona Lisa, who is represented by Clarabelle Cow.

64


Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci

65

Computer and video games • The Secrets of Da Vinci: the Forbidden Manuscript – the first game about the life and work of Leonardo da Vinci.[13] • In Rise of Legends (2006), the Vinci faction uses steampunk technology inspired by Leonardo. • In Soul Calibur Legends there is a character that bears a striking resemblance to Leonardo, and even has the same Name . • In Elite Beat Agents, one mission has the agents go back in time to help Leonardo paint the Mona Lisa. He is only ever referred to as "Leo" or "Leonard". • A young Leonardo appears in Assassin's Creed II, where he is depicted as a friend of the protagonist, Ezio Auditore da Firenze. Da Vinci assists him by deciphering Codex pages and building various devices, inventions and weapons.

Role-playing games In Warhammer Fantasy Roleplay, there is an equivalent to Leonardo named Leonardo de Miragliano.

Depictions of Leonardo's works Pupils and followers Leonardo's pupils and followers copied or closely imitated many of his pictures. Several of his important works exist only as copies by his admirers. These include: • His cartoon of The Virgin and Child with St Anne and St John the Baptist copied as an oil painting by Bernardo Luini. • The Battle of Anghiari was copied several times by unknown Florentine artists as well by Peter Paul Rubens. • Leda and the Swan exists only as copies in the Louvre and Villa Borhgese. Other much much-copied works include:

Peter Paul Rubens' copy of the lost "Battle of Anghiari"

• Mona Lisa for which Angela della Chiesa cites 14 examples of which 6 are bare-breasted. These include paintings by Luini, Salai and Joos van Cleeve. • John the Baptist for which there exist at least 5 versions by other hands including Salai.

Imitators and satirists No painting has been more imitated and satirised than the Mona Lisa. Beginning possibly with a naked portrait of Diane de Poitiers by Clouet, the pose and expression have been freely adapted to many female portraits.

Re-creation of lost works "Il Gran Cavallo". This monumental bronze horse, 7 metres (24 feet) high, is a conjectural re-creation of a clay horse that was created in Milan by Leonardo da Vinci for the Duke Ludovico il Moro and was intended to be cast in bronze. Leonardo never finished the project because of war with France, and the clay horse was ruined. This representation was based on a number of Leonardo's preparatory drawings. It was created in 1999 in New York and


Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci

66

given to the city of Milan.

Presentation of existing works The Last Supper is to be the subject of an animation by British film-maker, Peter Greenaway, who plans to project interpretative images onto its surface to enliven the scene in which the apostles all question Jesus' statement that one of them will betray him.[14]

Products and advertising • Mona Lisa postage stamp, Germany.

Galleries Representations of Leonardo

Engraving from "The Swedish Family Journal", 1864-87, artist Evald Hansen.

Statue by Pietro Magni in piazza della Scala, Milan.

An engraved representation of Leonardo

Representations of Leonardo's works

Leonardo's drawing of the Vitruvian Man is used in many contexts, including T-shirts.

Stamp from Germany celebrating the 500th birthday of Leonardo

The Last Supper carved in salt in the Wieliczka Salt Mine

The statue of Leonardo outside the Uffizi, Florence


Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci

See also • • • •

Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci - scientist and inventor Leonardo da Vinci's personal life Leonard of Quirm

References [1] King Francis cannot have been present because the day after Leonardo's death, a royal edict was issued by the King at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, a two-day journey distant from Clos Luce. [2] According to François-Charles Joullain fils, Réflexions sur la peinture et la gravure 1786:2. [3] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0956176/ [4] http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0213561/ [5] "Benetton Group: Evolution of Communication Strategy" scribd.com (http:/ / www. scribd. com/ doc/ 6390605/ Benetton-Group) Accessed 21 February 2010 [6] How it all Began! (http:/ / www. ninjaturtles. com/ comics/ origin. htm) [7] http:/ / www. paquet. li/ paquet/ auteur. php?id=185 [8] http:/ / www. paquet. li/ paquet/ auteur. php?id=186 [9] http:/ / www. paquet. li/ [10] http:/ / www. paquet. li/ paquet/ album. php?id=286 [11] http:/ / www. paquet. li/ paquet/ album. php?id=344 [12] The Return Of Limonardo (http:/ / coa. inducks. org/ story. php?c=D+ + 8242) [13] http:/ / www. trisynergy. com/ products/ title_davinci. shtml [14] http:/ / arts. guardian. co. uk/ art/ news/ story/ 0,,2256943,00. html Robert Booth, Greenaway prepares to create Da Vinci coda, The Guardian, 15 February 2008

External links • Leonardo da Vinci (Character) (http://www.imdb.com/character/ch0029220/) at the Internet Movie Database • LOGO by Leonardo da Vinci to download and print (poster, t-shirt) (http://www.logospi.com/davinci4.htm)

67


Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors Introduction Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=365603991  Contributors: RichardF, X! Leonardo da Vinci  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=390981544  Contributors: (jarbarf), -Marcus-, .anaconda, 041744, 129.128.164.xxx, 151.24.145.xxx, 1717, A-giau, A. di M., A455bcd9, AArz, ABShippee, AKGhetto, Abeg92, Acalamari, Across.The.Synapse, Adam Bishop, AdamDobay, Adambro, Adolphus79, Aeolian Angel, Aericanwizard, AgRince, Ahoerstemeier, Ajaxkroon, Ajox, Akadruid, Akamad, Akubra, Albalovescholo, Albrozdude, Ale jrb, Alecmconroy, AlefZet, Aleron235, Alicejenny, AllStarZ, Allbhatias, Allen 43, Allisondata, Alphachimp, Altenmann, Alterego, Altes2009, Alvinrune, Amandajm, Ambarsande, Amberrock, Amren, An Siarach, Ande B., Andlaus, Andonic, Andre Engels, Andreas Kaganov, AndrewKepert, Andrewpmk, Andropow, Andy M. Wang, Anger22, Angusmclellan, Ann Stouter, AnnaFrance, Anonymous anonymous, Anonymous editor, Ansell, Antandrus, Anthony, Antidote, Antonio Lopez, Antoshi, Anwar saadat, Arael2, Arancini, Arcadian, ArdenD, Arjun01, Armuk, Arnie587, Arniep, Arnoutf, Arranbhav, ArtLover, Artdealer1935, Artethical, Arthur Holland, Artlover, As instructed, Ascend, Asenine, Ashuvashu, Asians, Assianir, Astarte, Astrius, Atlant, Attilios, Auntof6, Auréola, AustralianMelodrama, AutoGeek, Averross, Avicennasis, Awadewit, AxelBoldt, Axis12002, Az1568, AzaToth, B00P, BD2412, BKI 1226, Bachrach44, Baldghoti, Banazir, Baqu11, Barbagianni potente, BaronLarf, Basmaz, Batmanand, Batneil, Bbb556, Bdebacker, Becksguy, Ben James Ben, Ben davison, Ben-Zin, Benjiboi, Bentobias, Benw7700, Beornas, Berti, Bertilvidet, Betacommand, Bevo, Bfinn, Bhadani, Bhludzin, Bhound89, Bhuna71, Biblbroks, Big Brother 1984, Big Smooth, Big ant 88, Big water, BigCow, BigDogGraphics, Bigbluefish, Bigdottawa, Bigmac1994, Bigzteve, Bill Thayer, Bill37212, Binks, Bishonen, Bissy, Blac4051, Blazikien 30, Blood Red Sandman, Blue520, Bmearns, Bmicomp, Bobblewik, Bobet, Bobo192, Bobojo411, Bogey97, Boghat, BonRouge, Bongwarrior, BorgQueen, Bradycardia, Brillig20, Bruce1ee, Brujo, BryanD, Bubba hotep, Bucketsofg, Bucs, Burek, Butros, Butterboy, C5mjohn, CALR, CARAVAGGISTI, CSvBibra, CaCtUs2003, Cactus.man, Caesar2739, Caesura, Caknuck, Calder, Calvin 1998, CambridgeBayWeather, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, Canderson7, Cantus, Captaincoffee, Cbdorsett, Cbrown1023, Cdc, Ceoil, Chack Jadson, Chairman S., Chameleon, Chanting Fox, Charlie Huggard, CharlotteWebb, Charm quark, Chcknwnm, ChiLlBeserker, Chicheley, Chodorkovskiy, Cholmes75, Chowells, ChrisMott, Chrislk02, Christiaan, Christopher Mahan, Christopherdunlap, Citymovement, Ckmajor, Clamster5, Clarityfiend, Claudev8, Clayboy, Clever curmudgeon, Cloj, Cloudofdarkness, Cobun, Coconut45621, Codex Sinaiticus, Cogburnd02, Colonies Chris, Columbia13, CommuteByCycle, Connelly, Connormah, Conti, Conversion script, Cooksi, Coreydaj, CosmicWaffles, Cowfingers, Cowman109, CrazyInSane, Crazycomputers, Crystallina, Cshore, Csigabi, Csm 1701, Curps, Cyberevil, Cykotik freek, Cyktsui, Cynicism addict, DCB4W, DFS454, DJ Clayworth, DMacks, DVD R W, DXRAW, Da Vynci, DabMachine, Daibhid C, Daimore, Dalek Cab, Damson88, Dan D. Ric, Dan East, Dan100, Dandanaz, Daniel Case, Daniel5127, DanielCD, DanielNuyu, Danielkeenan17, Danny, DarkAngel007, Das Baz, Daufer, David E Welsh, David Gerard, David.Mestel, DavidMacD, Davidprior, Davinci1234, Dbenbenn, Dbtfz, Dcflyer, Delboy187, Delirium, Delta759, Deltabeignet, Dementedscribe, Demeter, Demiurge, Demmy, Denidoc@gmail.com, Dersonlwd, Diberri, Diderot, Dietary Fiber, Digitalme, Dina, Discospinster, Disinclination, Dismas, DivinePaladin, Djmckee1, Dlohcierekim, Dm526, Dmv74, Doc glasgow, Doctorevil64, Dolphineclipse, Dominicavelluto, Dominicgump, Donarreiskoffer, Doradus, Dotspace, Dougmerritt, Downwards, Dr. Blofeld, Dr. Bobbie Fox, Dr. Gary Carter, Drako Knight, Drewwiki, Driscoll, DrunkenSmurf, Dryazan, Dsmdgold, DuO, Durin, Durova, Dücanem, Długosz, EL Willy, ELApro, ERcheck, EWS23, EamonnPKeane, Eatmoreham4671102, Ebany2, EchetusXe, Eck, Eclecticology, Ed g2s, EdJogg, Edhegs, EggplantWizard, Eivind F Øyangen, Eleassar777, Electric goat, Eliyak, Elliskev, Elonka, Eloquence, Eluard, Elwikipedista, Emc2, Ender823, Engleham, Enno, Eoghanacht, Eric Herboso, Eric Paul Owens, EronMain, Esanchez7587, EscapingLife, Estel, Euchiasmus, Evenni, Everyking, Evil Monkey, Evil saltine, EwokiWiki, Exairetos, Excirial, Exert, ExplorerMMVIII, FT2, Fan-1967, Fantasy, Farosdaughter, Fawcett5, FeanorStar7, Fetchcomms, FireColts, Fireaxe888, Firehawk1717, Fireice, FisherQueen, Flockmeal, Forteanajones, Fram, Francis Schonken, Francs2000, Frazzydee, Freakofnurture, Frecklefoot, Fred Bradstadt, Freddyd945, Fredrik, Freepenguin, Frencheigh, FreplySpang, Frictionary, Friday13, FuelWagon, Fuhghettaboutit, Fulcher, Func, Funnyfarmofdoom, Funnyhat, Fusionsnake, G Clark, G.dallorto, GLGerman, Gabbe, Gaelin, Gaff, Gaius Cornelius, Galahad 86, Galoubet, Galwhaa, Gandalf61, Ganymead, Gareth E Kegg, Garik, Gary King, GauntletWizard, Gavinholt, Gdk411, Gene Nygaard, Geneffects, GeneralIroh, Genesis, Geni, Genie, Geomr, Geradusmercator, Geremia, Gh5046, Ghirlandajo, Gianfranco, GiantSnowman, Giftlite, Gilliam, Gimmemoretime, Giovanosky, Glenrath, Gmchambless1, Godfrey of Bouillon, Gogo Dodo, Gold900, Good Olfactory, Gowaffles, Gracenotes, GraemeL, Graham87, Grahamec, Grant65, Grantb, Green caterpillar, GregAsche, GregTheGoose, GregorB, Gregreyj, Grosscha, Grover cleveland, Gruß Tom, Gsimlote, Gtomlin2003, Gtrfreek28, Guanaco, Gulmammad, Gun Powder Ma, Gurch, Gurubrahma, Gustavb, Gwdr500, Gwernol, Gyre, Gzornenplatz, Hackerb9, Hadal, Haemo, Haiduc, Halbared, Ham, HappyCamper, Happysailor, Harej, Harry R, Hatoshi, Haukurth, Haywardmedical, Hekerui, Helixblue, Hellogoobye, HenryLi, Henrylievsay, Heptor, Hexag1, Hi878, HirschiDude, Hmains, Hmendel, Hns, Honbicot, Hoo man, Hopiakuta, Hoplon, Hornybugger, Howcheng, Hu, Hu12, Hudd, Hugo999, HunterAmor, Hurricane111, Husnock, Hydro2, I63G, Iapetus, Icelight, Iicatsii, Ike, Ike9898, Imnotsure, Imorthodox23, Imran, Imusade, InShaneee, Infrogmation, Insiriusdenial, Intelligentsock, Interrobamf, Invincible Ninja, InvisibleSun, Inwind, Iridescent, Irixman, Isbisb, Itsadogslife135, Itsjustlife, Iwantedthedudebutitwasgone, Ixfd64, J Di, J.R. Hercules, JDHarper, JDspeeder1, JFreeman, JHMM13, JLaTondre, JNW, JRM, JYOuyang, JaGa, Jaa1229, Jaberwocky6669, Jacek Kendysz, Jackdavinci, Jacquerie27, Jaganath, Jagged 85, Jahiegel, Jak119, JakeVortex, Jakew, Jaksmata, James Kemp, JamieAb, Jamieeeeeeeeeeee, Janderk, Jane023, Jangalinn, Jaraalbe, Jatebirds, JdeJ, JeLuF, Jeff G., Jennavecia, JesseHogan, JesseW, Jessey2k, Jeysaba, Jfpierce, Jh51681, Jhendin, Jiddisch, Jjshapiro, Jklin, JmanPugs@gmail.com, JoJan, Joao.caprivi, Joe4t, JoeBlogsDord, Joeyprokop, John, John Fader, John of Reading, JohnManuel, Johnbod, Johnello, Johnleemk, Johnmizzi, Jojit fb, Joke137, Jollyjim311, Jonathan.s.kt, Jonathunder, JoshuaZ, Jossi, Joyous!, Jpk, Jrinaldi, Jtzapp, Jujutacular, Jules.lt, Julesd, Jusdafax, Jushi, Justin Eiler, Jyril, KNewman, KRS, KSmrq, Kabalyonkey, Kablammo, Kafka Liz, Kaisershatner, Kaizokuo, KalaSagar, Kalebww91, Kansan, Karafias, Karl Stas, Kasper2006, Katalaveno, Kate, Kattukuthira, Kayokimura, Kbdank71, Kbh3rd, Kcarlin, Keepinitril, Kelly elf, Kent Wang, Kenyon, Kettil, KevinCuddeback, Kglavin, Khaosworks, Khoikhoi, Kiinslayer, Kikipo, King of Hearts, Kingsleychan94, Kinneyboy90, Kizor, Kjerstenreich, Kkailas, Kkcolor, Klhuillier, KnowledgeOfSelf, Knucmo2, Knutux, Koavf, Kozuch, Kramertron, Krich, Ktoonen, Kukini, Kumioko, Kungfuadam, Kungming2, Kuru, Kwaku, LA2, LAgurl, Lambiam, Lambyte, Lammy7, Lanapopp, Langdon341, Larry laptop, Larrystak, Lasergreen, Lasta, Latouffedisco, Laudaka, LawfulGoodThief, Lawrence Cohen, LazLong, Leandrod, Lectiodifficilior, Lectonar, LegoABC, LeighvsOptimvsMaximvs, LeinaD natipaC, Leoinvencible, LeonardoDaVinci, LeonardoRob0t, Leondumontfollower, Leonidas Metello, Leopard, Leszek Jańczuk, Levalley, Lezek, Licorne, Lightdarkness, Lightmouse, LilHelpa, Lilbtt99, Lindmere, Linkoman, Lisatwo, LittleOldMe, Livebrick, Llort, Llywrch, Loggie, Logologist, Loic54, Lolliapaulina51, Lonestar662p3, Lookingforgroup, Looxix, Lorenzop, Loukinho, Lourakis, Louturks, Lpgeffen, Lucas Voudrie, Lucky george, Luk, Luna Santin, Lupin, Lupo, Luvtheheaven, Lviatour, Lyellin, MER-C, MFago, MStraw, MZMcBride, Macukali, Mad Jaqk, Madchester, Magioladitis, Magister Mathematicae, Magnus Manske, Mahmudss, Majorly, Mal4mac, Malafaya, MalevolentJuan, Malhonen, Malkinann, Malleus Fatuorum, Mallocks, Maloseri, Mandarax, Mani1, Manuel de Sousa, Mapetite526, Mareino, Marek69, Markwiki, Marqueed, Martey, Martin Hogbin, MartinDK, Martinl, Martinp23, MarylandArtLover, Master of Puppets, MasterOfHisOwnDomain, Matilda, Matthew Fennell, Maurice Carbonaro, Mav, Mayumashu, Mazeface, Mb1000, Mbc362, McGravin, Mdnavman, Meelar, Meeples, Meighan, Mel Etitis, Melaen, Melancholia i, Melty girl, Menchi, Mephiston999, Merbabu, Mercewiki en, Metaphysicus, Meteorit, Mexcellent, Mibblepedia, Michael Devore, Michael Hardy, Michael L. Kaufman, Mickey gfss2007, Mike 7, Mike Rosoft, MikeHobday, Milo99, Mindmatrix, Mintguy, Mion, Miskin, Misza13, Mithunc, Mn101, Modernist, Moe Epsilon, Moeron, Mohit.sachdeva, Mohsinwaheed, Moink, Monegasque, Montrealais, Moonblade86, Moorematthews, Mormegil, Morven, Mosca, Mossman93, Mphammer, Mr Stephen, Mr.mister2, Mr.mystykalphilosifizer, MrFish, Mrmuk, Mrshaba, Mszoldies303, Mugsywwiii, Mulhim, MurderWatcher1, Muriel Gottrop, Musical Linguist, Mwanner, Mythsearcher, N-k, N2000, N419BH, N734LQ, NCurse, NYArtsnWords, Nadirali, Nakon, Nandesuka, Natl1, NawlinWiki, Neblund, Necrojesta, Neddyseagoon, Neilbeach, Nelsondog, Neoconned, Nertzy, NeshyD, Netkinetic, Nev1, Neva07, NewEnglandYankee, NewGuy, Newton2, Nfgii, Nickpunt, Nightbolt, Nihil novi, Nilfanion, Nishkid64, Nk, Nlu, No Guru, Node ue, Noe, Nol888, Norm mit, Northumbrian, NuclearWarfare, Numbo3, Nyahnyah, O29, Ogre lawless, Ohnoitsjamie, Old Moonraker, Olivier, Omar77, Omcnew, Omgthissucks, Omicronpersei8, Omnieiunium, Onetwo1, Opblaaskrokodil, Opeje, Opelio, Open2universe, Opus33, Orangutan, Oroso, Orville Eastland, Ostap R, Otets, Ottre, Owen, OwenX, Oxxo, Oxymoron83, Ozalid, P4k, PRC 07, Pabter, Paganize, Pairadox, Pakaran, Palefire, Paleorthid, Pannonius, Papa November, Parhamr, Parishan, ParisianBlade, Park70, PatIZZLE, Patriarch, Patrick, Patrick Berry, Patsyanks06, Paul August, Paul Barlow, Pavel Vozenilek, Paxsimius, Pb30, Pcb21, Pentium1000, Per Honor et Gloria, Peruvianllama, Peter, Peter Konieczny, Peter morrell, Peterlin, Pethan, Pgk, Phil Boswell, PhilHibbs, Philip Stevens, Philthecow, Phinnaeus, Phoenix2, Photo.guy4god, PiCo, PietVA, Pilotguy, Pinethicket, Pingsjm, Pinkstarmaci, Pit-yacker, Planet-man828, Planetary Chaos, PlasticMan, Plouffe, Pol098, Poliparis, Politicaljunkie23, Pomakis, Potters house, Ppareit, Pradeep13, Pranakhan, Praveenp, Prochelle11, Prof Reeder, Proudrepublicanguy, PseudoSudo, Psychade, PsychoYoshi, Q0, Qrc2006, Quarl, Quatfizzle, Qwerty098756qwerty09876, R.A Huston, R0ck3t0wn3r, RJHall, RSStockdale, RUL3R, RYGLEN, RaCha'ar, RabidWolf, RadicalBender, RadioKirk, RafaAzevedo, RainbowCrane, Rajah, Randhirreddy, Randy6767, Rasmus Faber, Rasssd, Raver212, Rdsmith4, ReDickYouLess, Real singh shady, Reaverdrop, Rebroad, Red Director, Reddi, Reedy, Regulus, ReliableCarrot, Remember, Rettetast, Retune, Reuteler, Rev. John, ULC, RevRagnarok, RexNL, Reywas92, Rhobite, Rhooker1236, Rich Farmbrough, Richard Harvey, RichardF, Rickard Vogelberg, Ricky81682, Riddley, Riggr Mortis, RjLesch, Rje, Rjm656s, Rjstott, Rjwilmsi, Rmalloy, Road Wizard, RobertG, Robin klein, Robinatron, RodC, RogDel, Rohin adalja, Romarin, Rory096, RoyBoy, Royalbroil, Royboycrashfan, Rudolf.hellmuth, Ruiyuwu1998, RunOrDie, Runefurb, Russavia, Ryanmcdaniel, Ryanmikalson, Ryulong, S36e175, SDC, Saforrest, Sailko, Samir, Samivel, Samuelsen, Sanchom, Sandman9081, Sango123, Sannse, Santamoly, Sapiens The Reader, Sarah, SarekOfVulcan, Sasha l, Sasquatch, Saturday, SatyrTN, Savidan, Saxobob, Schlier22, Schrandit, Schreiber777, Schzmo, Scriberius, Scrutchfield, Sct5333, Sdalmonte, Sdh-94, Sdol, Sean William, SeanMack, Seiferaistlinlp2, Selfworm, Seresin, Severo, Shakko, Shanel, Shanes, Shannernanner, Sharron Connelly, Shaunwhim2, Shawnhath, Shenme, Sherkhon, Sherurcij, Shimgray, Shoaler, Short stop, Shoshonna, Shoveling Ferret, Sicilarch, SidP, Sidious1701, Sidna, Sietse Snel, SilentStryk07, SilentVoice, Sillyhillbillyjiminybillybob, Silversink, Silversmith, SimDarthMaul, SimonP, Sin-man, Sintonak.X, Sir Richardson, Sjakkalle, Skarioffszky, Skenmy, Skotte, SkyWalker, Skysmith, SleepDeprive, SlightlyInsane, Sligocki, Slumgum, SmallPotatoes, Smartskater, Smilingreptile, Smilyperson123, Sn7789, Snaxe920, Sneltrekker, Snesfm, Snowolf, Solipsist, Solitude, Somercet, Sophia, Sophruhig Vita@comcast.net, Sopoforic, Sorrimnalyd, Soupisgoodfood, Sp00n17, SpNeo, Spaceboy492, Spang, Spangineer, Sparkit, Special-T, Speedtheplow, SpeedyGonsales, Spellcast, Spencer195, Spindaqlous, Splash, Spliffy, Spookfish, Sriram sh, Srleffler, Ssola, Ssschulte, Stammer, Starcraft101, Starfishman9, Stbalbach, Ste1n, Stefan Jansen, Stephen, Stephen G. Brown, Stephen-holmes, Stephenb, Stephenw32768, Stepshep, Steve, SteveMcCluskey, Steveniscool, Stockdot, Str1977, StradivariusTV, Strekoza, Stubblyhead, Stumps, Subsume, SunilGarg, Sunray, SupaStarGirl, Super gaara, SuperDuperSoldier, SuperHamster, Supernerd1234, Surgeonboi, Susurrus, Sverdrup, Swainstonation, Swd, Swright83, Symane, Syphon8, Syrthiss, Szajci, Sześćsetsześćdziesiątsześć, T-1000, TAnthony, TBadger, Tachyon01, Tanaats, Tangotango, Tannin, Tanyakh, Tawker, Taxman, Tbhotch, Tbjablin, Tcncv, Tcpekin, Team7826, TedE, Tegel, Teggles, Tellyaddict, Temurah, Tennisman1122, Terence, Terri G, Tertiary7, TestPilot, Tetracube, TexMurphy, TexasAndroid, Thbestforever, The Catholic Knight, The Rambling Man, The kicker, TheGreatTK, TheHYPO, TheKMan, TheProject, TheTapedCrusader, Thecheesykid, Thematicunity, TheoClarke, Theresa knott, Thethethe123, ThuranX, Thuresson, Thursiya, Tide rolls, TigerShark, Timir Saxa, Timo Laine, Timothy Clemans, Tinton5, Titoxd, Tlim7882, Tock90, Tolaagboola, Tom harrison, TomS TDotO, Tomathy, Tomin, TommyP, Tonalone, Tpbradbury, Travelbird, Traviskeys, Treyt021, Triwbe, Truert, Tupac13th, Tupolev154, Tvaughn05, Tverbeek, Twas Now, Tweetystuff101, Tyrenius, Ultimantorca, UnicornTapestry, Unionhawk, Unitanode, Unsy770, Uomodis08, Useight, User197, User86654, Utcursch, UtherSRG, Vacuum, Vampirehunter007, Van helsing, Vanhorn, Vanished User 0001, Vanished user, Vanje, Vegaswikian, Veledan, Vermat10, Vilerage, VinceB, Vincentlinuno, Viskonsas, Visor, Vittuone, VivaEmilyDavies, Vlad b, Voice of All, VolatileChemical, Vranak, Vsmith, Vulcanstar6, WSFWarlord, Walt373, Wangi, Ward3001, Wassermann, Wavelength,

68


Article Sources and Contributors Wayward, Wbfl, Wdflake, Werdnawerdna, Wereon, West Brom 4ever, Wetman, Whosyourjudas, Whpq, Wi-king, Wickethewok, Wiki Raja, Wiki alf, Wiki-doo, Wikianon, Wikibofh, Wikid77, Wikignome0530, Wikipedical, Will Beback, William Avery, Williamborg, Williamsmith1977, Willworkforicecream, Wimvandorst, Winhunter, Winston365, Winthr0p, Wisco, Witchbaby, Wizardman, Wk muriithi, Wmahan, WojPob, Woland37, Wonkeythemonkey, Wormboysandwich, Wrathchild96, X1a4muse, XX7, Xaosflux, Xcia0069, Xdamr, Xerxesnine, Xezbeth, Xiahou, Xiong Chiamiov, Xn4, YAZASHI, Yakbasser, Yamaguchi先生, Yamaha rider, Yamamoto Ichiro, Yamla, Yandman, Ycsm, YellowMonkey, Yelyos, Yoki11, Yossarian, Ysp, Yuanchosaan, Yuetyanli, Z388, ZFGokuSSJ1, Zabadinho, Zaheen, Zelfirelli, Ziggzagoon, ZippyKid, Ziusudra, Zoe, Zoney, Zotdragon, Zsinj, Zuloon, Zzzzzzus, ^demon, Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason, Александър, Саша Стефановић, రవిచంద్ర, 3043 anonymous edits Leonardo da Vinci's personal life Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=390021899  Contributors: 84user, Aaron Brenneman, Acroterion, Aleenf1, Allmightyduck, Alpha Quadrant, Amandajm, Andreateletrabajo, Apparition11, Ash, Attilios, Auréola, Avs5221, Belgiantowne, Benjiboi, Blackcat52, Bobo192, Bongwarrior, Bouazizi, BuckwikiPDa535, CanadianLinuxUser, Canthusus, Celsiana, Cnilep, Cody moose, Comet Tuttle, Cometstyles, Courcelles, Cplakidas, Crotalus horridus, DeadEyeArrow, DerHexer, Dmarquard, Docboat, Dr. Bobbie Fox, EdTrist, Engleham, Epbr123, Euchiasmus, ExplorerMMVIII, Feinoha, Fishwristwatch, Fram, Fuhrerswine, Gimmetrow, Gmchambless1, Gonzonoir, Haiduc, Ham, Hu12, Ipigott, Isocephaly, J.R. Hercules, J.delanoy, J04n, JForget, JNW, JSpung, James086, Jamesooders, Jennifer Brooks, Jimi 66, Jmx, Jossi, Katharineamy, Kingpin13, L Kensington, Laseryery, Limideen, Lizziebabes90, Lovelac7, Lviatour, MG1968, Malendras, Maloseri, Mandarax, Melancholia i, Merlion444, Moneyme71, Nandesuka, Nihil novi, NuclearWarfare, Oxymoron83, Per Honor et Gloria, Phantomsteve, PiCo, Poliparis, Profdan, Puchiko, Remember, Rich Farmbrough, Risker, Rjwilmsi, Rmosler2100, Ronhjones, Salvio giuliano, Sceptre, SchfiftyThree, Schlier22, Scientizzle, Sdfsdfd, ShakataGaNai, Sin-man, Slakr, Stepshep, Stroppolo, Stwalkerster, Tabletop, The Thing That Should Not Be, TheTrojanHought, Tide rolls, TomKeating, Traxs7, VMS Mosaic, VegitaU, Virani89, Walton One, Wiki Roxor, Wikianon, Wizardman, Woohookitty, Zepher1003, Zythe, 229 anonymous edits List of works by Leonardo da Vinci  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=389099805  Contributors: Amandajm, Christian75, CultureDrone, DK4, Ham, J.delanoy, Johnbod, Kasper2006, Mandarax, Mattis, Modernist, Montrealais, Musamies, Overkill82, Oxxo, Papa November, Phil5329, PiCo, Postdlf, Rjwilmsi, Sfan00 IMG, Sk8ergal101, 49 anonymous edits Science and inventions of Leonardo da Vinci  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=390761846  Contributors: 325abobdsay, ActivExpression, Akuyume, Alansohn, Amandajm, Antandrus, Anthony Appleyard, As instructed, Attilios, Auntof6, BD2412, Bassbonerocks, Bleh999, Bobo192, Boing! said Zebedee, Capricorn42, Caricaturechild, Cbdorsett, Christian75, Cimon Avaro, Closedmouth, CommonsDelinker, Conti, Coopkev2, Courcelles, Crei0, Crowsnest, Ctjf83, Cuma, Davehi1, DerHexer, Dl2000, Doniago, Econterms, Elockid, Engineering1, Env laser, Epbr123, Euchiasmus, Faradayplank, Felyza, Figaro, FinalRapture, Flyguy649, Fortinbras, Fram, GLaDOS, Gaius Cornelius, Gerbrant, Geremia, Glenn W, Golbez, Goodnightmush, Hanacy, Hannah vernon, Igoldste, Immunize, Iridescent, Ixfd64, J.delanoy, Jan1nad, January, Jeepday, Jeodesic, Juliancolton, Jushi, KaiserMonkey, Kasper2006, Kicka, Kingpin13, KnowledgeOfSelf, Laaa200, Lights, Lozeldafan, Lviatour, MBisanz, Mandarax, Materialscientist, Mausy5043, Michael Daly, Mild Bill Hiccup, Montgomery '39, Mr. Wheely Guy, Netkinetic, Nielspeterqm, ObfuscatePenguin, OlEnglish, Omcnew, OreL.D, Ospalh, Outriggr, PRC 07, PericlesofAthens, Pinethicket, Polenth, Polimerek, Quentonamos, R'n'B, RSStockdale, Rbakker99, Remember, Rich Farmbrough, Rick Block, Roastytoast, Rocket000, Ronhjones, Rosemaryamey, Rrburke, Rubioblanca, Scott McNay, Shadowjams, Shield2, Shlishke, Sidonuke, SnoozingInTheLemonGrove, Somedude101, SpaceFlight89, Speed8ump, Spencer, SpikeToronto, Staffwaterboy, Ste1n, Stepshep, Teh roflmaoer, The Evil Spartan, The Thing That Should Not Be, Thecheesykid, Thefixed, Tide rolls, Titanium Dragon, Trevor MacInnis, Vary, WJBscribe, Wizardman, Wtmitchell, Ynhockey, Zoeb, 333 anonymous edits Cultural depictions of Leonardo da Vinci  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=386731942  Contributors: 1717, A Nobody, Altenmann, Amandajm, Amazins490, Ande B., Asteriks, Attilios, Azazell0, BD2412, Banana Concoction, Bobet, Bobo192, Brianthebrain, CSWarren, Canglesea, Chetan, Clever curmudgeon, CommonsDelinker, Crito2161, Crystalattice, CyberGhostface, Daibhid C, DeSpotte, Dogman15, Durova, Eilu, Elonka, Emperor, Euchiasmus, Flightace1992, Fplay, Fram, FrankCostanza, FreplySpang, Frymaster, Fulcher, Halbared, Ham, Immblueversion, Iridescent, J 1982, J.delanoy, JGXenite, JaGa, Kasper2006, Kevinalewis, Killerman2, Kitty Davis, Kyle1278, LeaHazel, Magioladitis, Mandarax, Marktreut, Martarius, Matthead, Mbell, Melarish, Mervyn, Mets501, Misterkillboy, Mr.kay 1, MrSomeone, Murgh, Mütze, NawlinWiki, Neddyseagoon, Neekappa si, Nev1, Nintendo Maximus, NobbiP, Nydas, Orville Eastland, Outriggr, Paperfaye, Paranomia, Paul Barlow, Peter morrell, Petewarrior, Piquan, Pirandot, Portillo, Psiphiorg, Rbarreira, Remember, Rich Farmbrough, Rje, Robertsteadman, Rutke421, Salavat, SchuminWeb, Shadoman, Sinistrum, SteinbDJ, Stepshep, Svetovid, T-borg, Tellyaddict, Tim!, Tkerekes13, Tkon04, Van helsing, Wetman, Wizardman, Worc63, Xiao Li, YankeeDoodle14, Yyyyyyyyyyy, 116 anonymous edits

69


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors File:Leonardo_self.jpg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_self.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Attributed to Leonardo da Vinci File:Vinci casa Leonardo.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vinci_casa_Leonardo.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Lucarelli File:Study of a Tuscan Landscape.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Study_of_a_Tuscan_Landscape.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, Czarnoglowa, Dspark76, Hekerui, Jarekt, Mattes, OldakQuill, Papa November, Sailko, 1 anonymous edits File:Andrea del Verrocchio 002.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Andrea_del_Verrocchio_002.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, AndreasPraefcke, Czarnoglowa, Ham, Jastrow, Mac9, Mattes, Papa November, Sailko, THEN WHO WAS PHONE?, 1 anonymous edits File:Leonardo da Vinci Adoration of the Magi.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_Adoration_of_the_Magi.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, Czarnoglowa, Fredrik, Goldfritha, Infrogmation, Innotata, Jarekt, Jastrow, Nagy, OldakQuill, Papa November, 2 anonymous edits File:Study of horse.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Study_of_horse.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Frank C. Müller, Giorgiomonteforti, Man vyi, Mattes, OsamaK, Papa November, Pitke, Sailko, Sturmbringer File:Leonardo-da-vinci-maps 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo-da-vinci-maps_1.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: thecheesykid File:Leonardo Da Vinci's house.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_Da_Vinci's_house.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Erin Silversmith File:Gylleneportarna.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Gylleneportarna.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Domeij on sv.wikipedia File:Andrea del Verrocchio 001.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Andrea_del_Verrocchio_001.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, G.dallorto, Jastrow, Mattes, Michel BUZE, Papa November, Shakko, Urban, Wst, 2 anonymous edits File:Hugo van der Goes 006.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Hugo_van_der_Goes_006.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Jarekt, Jastrow, Kaldari, Mac9, Mattis, Papa November, Salix, Shakko, Stomme File:Ghirlandaio a-pucci-lorenzo-de-medici-f-sassetti 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Ghirlandaio_a-pucci-lorenzo-de-medici-f-sassetti_1.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: FordPrefect42, G.dallorto, Gabor, Gwern, Innotata, Luestling, Luigi Chiesa, Mac9, Mattes, Papa November, Pymouss, Sailko, Sparkit, TTaylor, 3 anonymous edits File:Isabella d'este.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Isabella_d'este.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, Czarnoglowa, Emmeu, Frank C. Müller, G.dallorto, Jastrow, Papa November, Sailko, Shakko, Warburg File:Leonardo da Vinci 025.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_025.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ABrocke, Aavindraa, Amandajm, AndreasPraefcke, Czarnoglowa, EDUCA33E, Miniwark, Schaengel89, Shakko, Sidhekin, ZioNicco, 4 anonymous edits File:Leonardo da Vinci Annunciation.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_Annunciation.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, AndreasPraefcke, Czarnoglowa, Fredrik, OldakQuill, Ranveig, 1 anonymous edits File:Léonard de Vinci - Saint Jérôme.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Léonard_de_Vinci_-_Saint_Jérôme.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, Ham, Oxxo File:Virgin of the Rocks.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Virgin_of_the_Rocks.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Martin H., Mattes, Zolo, 不寐听江, 1 anonymous edits File:DaVinci LastSupper high res 2 nowatmrk.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DaVinci_LastSupper_high_res_2_nowatmrk.jpg  License: Creative Commons Zero  Contributors: [][User:Rusfuture File:Mona Lisa.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Mona_Lisa.jpeg  License: unknown  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, AndreasPraefcke, Avatar, AzaToth, Bjankuloski06en, Blurpeace, Cybershot800i, Czarnoglowa, Dbenbenn, Diligent, Eusebius, Herbythyme, Imagechanger, Mikael Häggström, Miniwark, Movieevery, OldakQuill, Paris 16, PhilFree, Schaengel89, Trockennasenaffe, Ustas, Wst, Wutsje, Yann, 13 anonymous edits File:Leonardo - St. Anne cartoon-alternative-downsampled.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_-_St._Anne_cartoon-alternative-downsampled.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Leonnn File:Da Vinci Vitruve Luc Viatour.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Da_Vinci_Vitruve_Luc_Viatour.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original drawing: Photograpy: File:Da Vinci Studies of Embryos Luc Viatour.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Da_Vinci_Studies_of_Embryos_Luc_Viatour.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: user:Lviatour File:Leonardo polyhedra.png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_polyhedra.png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AnRo0002, AndrewKepert, Czarnoglowa, G.dallorto, Jossifresco, LealandA, Lipedia, Mattes, Mdd, Str4nd, Tropylium, 11 anonymous edits File:Studies of the Arm showing the Movements made by the Biceps.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Studies_of_the_Arm_showing_the_Movements_made_by_the_Biceps.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, EncycloPetey, Kelson, Mattes, Mentifisto, OldakQuill, 4 anonymous edits File:Design for a Flying Machine.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Design_for_a_Flying_Machine.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AnRo0002, Czarnoglowa, Falcorian, Five-toed-sloth, G.dallorto, Mattes, Mdd, OldakQuill, 丁 File:Francois I recoit les derniers soupirs de Leonard de Vinci by Ingres.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Francois_I_recoit_les_derniers_soupirs_de_Leonard_de_Vinci_by_Ingres.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:PHGCOM File:Leonardo da Vinci01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci01.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: G.dallorto, JoJan, Sailko, 3 anonymous edits Image:wikisource-logo.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wikisource-logo.svg  License: logo  Contributors: Nicholas Moreau File:Flag of Italy.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Italy.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: see below Image:Vinci casa Leonardo.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Vinci_casa_Leonardo.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Lucarelli Image:Leonardo da Vinci 025.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_025.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: ABrocke, Aavindraa, Amandajm, AndreasPraefcke, Czarnoglowa, EDUCA33E, Miniwark, Schaengel89, Shakko, Sidhekin, ZioNicco, 4 anonymous edits File:Leonardo da Vinci - Angelo Incarnato.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_-_Angelo_Incarnato.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: 84user, Amandajm, Billinghurst, Sailko, Shakko, Thyra Image:Leonardo da Vinci01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci01.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: G.dallorto, JoJan, Sailko, 3 anonymous edits Image:Última Cena - Da Vinci 5.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Última_Cena_-_Da_Vinci_5.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Platonides Image:Leonardo da Vinci 052.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_052.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AndreasPraefcke, Czarnoglowa, EDUCA33E, Jastrow, Mac9, Shakko Image:Leonardo da Vinci 048.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_048.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, EDUCA33E, G.dallorto, Shakko File:Flag of the United States.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_States.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Dbenbenn, User:Indolences, User:Jacobolus, User:Technion, User:Zscout370 File:Leonardo da Vinci Benois Madonna.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_Benois_Madonna.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Andrei Stroe, Czarnoglowa, Diomede, Fredrik, G.dallorto, Gruznov, Ham, Kaganer, Kam Solusar, Mach, OldakQuill, Ranveig, 3 anonymous edits File:Flag of Russia.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Russia.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: AVRS, AndriusG, Artem Karimov, Davepape, Dmitry Strotsev, Drieskamp, Enbéká, Fred J, Gleb Borisov, Herbythyme, Homo lupus, Kiensvay, Klemen Kocjancic, Kwj2772, Mattes, Maximaximax, Miyokan, Nightstallion, Ondřej Žváček, Pianist, Pumbaa80, Putnik, R-41, Radziun, Rainman, Reisio, Rfc1394, Rkt2312, Rocket000, Sasa Stefanovic, SeNeKa, Srtxg, Stianbh, Wikiborg, Winterheart, Zscout370, Zyido, ОйЛ, 34 anonymous edits Image:Madonna of the carnation EUR.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Madonna_of_the_carnation_EUR.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Drewwiki, Mindmatrix, 1 anonymous edits

70


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors File:Flag of Germany.svg Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Germany.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Pumbaa80 File:Leonardo, san girolamo.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo,_san_girolamo.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: see filename or category File:Flag of the Vatican City.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_Vatican_City.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: user:F l a n k e r Image:Leonardo da Vinci Adoration of the Magi.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_Adoration_of_the_Magi.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, Czarnoglowa, Fredrik, Goldfritha, Infrogmation, Innotata, Jarekt, Jastrow, Nagy, OldakQuill, Papa November, 2 anonymous edits File:Leonardo da Vinci - Madonata v peshterata.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_-_Madonata_v_peshterata.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Balloonguy, Czarnoglowa, Ludmiła Pilecka, Veshtarka, Zolo File:Flag of France.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_France.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp, User:SKopp Image:The Lady with an Ermine.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Lady_with_an_Ermine.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: BurgererSF, Czarnoglowa, Gryffindor, Kilom691, Mattes, Pitke, Pko, Salix, Ultrogothe, ¡0-8-15!, 1 anonymous edits File:Flag of Poland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Poland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Mareklug, User:Wanted Image:Madonna Litta.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Madonna_Litta.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Frank C. Müller, G.dallorto, Ham, Kaganer, Kaldari, Mattes, Mattis, OldakQuill, Olpl, Oxxo, Ranveig, Shakko, Snotty, Wst, Yann, Zolo File:Léonard de Vinci - Portrait d'un musicien.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Léonard_de_Vinci_-_Portrait_d'un_musicien.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Ham, Oxxo File:La Belle Ferronière.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:La_Belle_Ferronière.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bohème, Czarnoglowa, G.dallorto, Johann, Miniwark, Nolanus, 2 anonymous edits Image:Leonardo da Vinci 027.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_027.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, EDUCA33E, Miniwark, Papa November, Thuresson, Zolo, 1 anonymous edits File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Zscout370 File:Leonardo Sala delle Asse detail.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_Sala_delle_Asse_detail.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Web Gallery of Art; Leonardo da Vinci Image:Leonardo - St. Anne cartoon-alternative-downsampled.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_-_St._Anne_cartoon-alternative-downsampled.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Leonnn File:Leonardo da vinci, madonna dei fusi di Drumlarimng castle, lost.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_vinci,_madonna_dei_fusi_di_Drumlarimng_castle,_lost.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: see filename or category Image:Madonna of the Yarnwinder.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Madonna_of_the_Yarnwinder.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: pl: szkoła Leonarda da Vinci en: school of Leonarda da Vinci File:Leonardo da vinci, The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne 01.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_vinci,_The_Virgin_and_Child_with_Saint_Anne_01.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: see filename or category Image:Bacchus (painting).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Bacchus_(painting).jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Leonardo da Vinci (Workshop) Image:Arezzo anghiari Battle standard leonardo da vinci paint.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Arezzo_anghiari_Battle_standard_leonardo_da_vinci_paint.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Original uploader was Boggie at en.wikipedia Image:Leda and the Swan 1505-1510.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leda_and_the_Swan_1505-1510.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Amux, BeatrixBelibaste, BrokenSphere, Butko, Czarnoglowa, Dodo, Emmeu, Fabos, Goldfritha, Kilom691, Mattes, PxMa, Schaengel89, Serge020, Shakko, Smartneddy, 5 anonymous edits Image:Andrea del Verrocchio 003.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Andrea_del_Verrocchio_003.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: G.dallorto, Ham, Mattes, Shakko Image:Lorenzo di Credi - Madonna Dreyfus.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Lorenzo_di_Credi_-_Madonna_Dreyfus.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: or Image:Holy-infs.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Holy-infs.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, Anne97432, Ephraim33, Gustav VH, Mattes, Wst File:Christ Carrying the Cross (cropped).jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Christ_Carrying_the_Cross_(cropped).jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: User:Dgump, User:Papa November Image:Fra Bartolomeo 001.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Fra_Bartolomeo_001.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bohème, Diomede, EDUCA33E, Roomba, Wst File:Giampetrino-Leonardo.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Giampetrino-Leonardo.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Giampietrino (Giovanni Pietro Rizzoli), Leonardo da Vinci? File:Flag of Switzerland.svg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Flag_of_Switzerland.svg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:-xfi-, User:Marc Mongenet, User:Zscout370 File:Profile of a Young Fiancee - da Vinci.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Profile_of_a_Young_Fiancee_-_da_Vinci.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Aavindraa, Amandajm, Ariel., BorgQueen, Frank C. Müller, Mattes, Postdlf, Sailko, Shakko File:Old Man with Water Studies.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Old_Man_with_Water_Studies.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bender235, Czarnoglowa, G.dallorto, OldakQuill File:Views of a Foetus in the Womb.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Views_of_a_Foetus_in_the_Womb.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Kyd, Makthorpe, Mutter Erde, OldakQuill File:Study of the Graduations of Shadows on Spheres.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Study_of_the_Graduations_of_Shadows_on_Spheres.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bender235, Czarnoglowa, Man vyi, Mdd, OldakQuill, Sailko, Warburg File:The Lady with an Ermine.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Lady_with_an_Ermine.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: BurgererSF, Czarnoglowa, Gryffindor, Kilom691, Mattes, Pitke, Pko, Salix, Ultrogothe, ¡0-8-15!, 1 anonymous edits File:Proportions of the Head.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Proportions_of_the_Head.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, GreyCat, Mattes, OldakQuill, Ranveig File:Anatomy of a Male Nude.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Anatomy_of_a_Male_Nude.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Flominator, G.dallorto, Mattes, OldakQuill, Patrick, Ranveig, Warburg File:View of a Skull III.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:View_of_a_Skull_III.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Liftarn, Lipothymia, OldakQuill, Ranveig, Salix File:The Principle Organs and Vascular and Urino-Genital Systems of a Woman.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:The_Principle_Organs_and_Vascular_and_Urino-Genital_Systems_of_a_Woman.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Lennert B, Mattes, OldakQuill, Ranveig, 3 anonymous edits File:Leonardo anatomy of dog and man.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_anatomy_of_dog_and_man.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Man vyi, TTaylor File:Sedge.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Sedge.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bender235, Czarnoglowa, OldakQuill File:Leonardo topographical map.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_topographical_map.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Mattes, TTaylor File:leonardo-da-vinci-maps 1.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo-da-vinci-maps_1.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: thecheesykid File:Studies of Water passing Obstacles and falling.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Studies_of_Water_passing_Obstacles_and_falling.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Mattes, OldakQuill, Ranveig, Valentinian, Wst File:Leonardo study AdorationofMagi.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_study_AdorationofMagi.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, TTaylor, Warburg

71


Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors File:Leonardo machine for grinding convex lenses.JPG Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_machine_for_grinding_convex_lenses.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Kilom691, TTaylor, WikipediaMaster, 2 anonymous edits File:Leonardo machines.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_machines.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Mattes, TTaylor File:An Artillery Park.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:An_Artillery_Park.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Mattes, OldakQuill, Timichal File:Leonardo tank.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_tank.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Jamin, Nagy, TTaylor, 5 anonymous edits File:Leonardo flight of bird.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_flight_of_bird.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, JMCC1, Mattes, TTaylor File:Leonardo Design for a Flying Machine, c. 1488.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_Design_for_a_Flying_Machine,_c._1488.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Arianna, Czarnoglowa, Mattes File:Leonardo flying machine.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_flying_machine.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: TTaylor Image:Leonardo parabolic compass.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_parabolic_compass.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Cdang, Czarnoglowa, TTaylor Image:Leonardo da Vinci helicopter.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_helicopter.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bernd vdB, Czarnoglowa, KTo288, Marcelloo, Wst, 2 anonymous edits Image:Leonardo cannons.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_cannons.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Mattes, TTaylor, 1 anonymous edits Image:Leonardo walking on water.JPG  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_walking_on_water.JPG  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Man vyi, Mattes, Skipjack, TTaylor, 4 anonymous edits Image:Leonardo_da_Vinci_parachute_04659a.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_parachute_04659a.jpg  License: GNU Free Documentation License  Contributors: Nevit Dilmen Image:Leonardo da Vinci Golden Horn Bridge model right.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_Golden_Horn_Bridge_model_right.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0  Contributors: User:Lourakis Image:DaVinciTankAtAmboise.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DaVinciTankAtAmboise.jpeg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: BenAveling, Bukvoed, Czarnoglowa, G.dallorto, Jamin, KTo288, Matilda, Olivier2, Sir Gawain Image:Leonardo-Flywheel-screenshot.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo-Flywheel-screenshot.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: User:Eloquence File:Plato-raphael.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Plato-raphael.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Bibi Saint-Pol, Chris 73, Infrogmation, Maarten van Vliet, Mattes, Tomisti, 3 anonymous edits Image:DeathOfLeonardo.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DeathOfLeonardo.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Neddyseagoon Image:IngresDeathOfDaVinci.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:IngresDeathOfDaVinci.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Fanghong, G.dallorto, Goldfritha, Kilom691, Mattes, Wst Image:Peter Paul Ruben's copy of the lost Battle of Anghiari.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Peter_Paul_Ruben's_copy_of_the_lost_Battle_of_Anghiari.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Czarnoglowa, Kilom691, OldakQuill, Sailko, Shakko, Wolfmann, 2 anonymous edits Image:Leonardo da Vinci (ur Svenska Familj-Journalen).png  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci_(ur_Svenska_Familj-Journalen).png  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Den fjättrade ankan, G.dallorto Image:Statue of Leonardo da Vinci.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Statue_of_Leonardo_da_Vinci.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 2.0  Contributors: FlickrLickr, FlickreviewR, G.dallorto, Geofrog, Mac9, 1 anonymous edits Image:Leonardo da Vinci.jpeg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Leonardo_da_Vinci.jpeg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Anne97432, Czarnoglowa, G.dallorto, Grenavitar, OldakQuill, Ranveig, Schaengel89, Semnoz, TTaylor, Wikiborg, Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason, 1 anonymous edits Image:T-shirt man.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:T-shirt_man.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: Leonardo Image:DBP 1952 148 Mona Lisa.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:DBP_1952_148_Mona_Lisa.jpg  License: unknown  Contributors: User:NobbiP Image:Wieliczka-daVinci.jpg  Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Wieliczka-daVinci.jpg  License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0  Contributors: User:Akumiszcza

72


License

License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported http:/ / creativecommons. org/ licenses/ by-sa/ 3. 0/

73

Leonardo DaVinci  

Leonardo da Vinci PDF generated using the open source mwlib toolkit. See http://code.pediapress.com/ for more information. PDF generated at:...

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you