CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination
Pure Mathematics Syllabus Effective for examinations from May/June 2008
Correspondence related to the syllabus should be addressed to: The ProRegistrar Caribbean Examinations Council Caenwood Centre 37 Arnold Road, Kingston 5, Jamaica, W.I. Telephone Number: (876) 9206714 Facsimile Number: (876) 9674972 Email address: cxcwzo@cxc.org Website: www.cxc.org Copyright ÂŠ 2007, by Caribbean Examinations Council The Garrison, St. Michael BB 11158, Barbados
CXC A6/U2/07
This document CXCA6/U2/07 replaces CXC A6/U2/04 issued in 2004. Please note that the syllabus has been revised and amendments are indicated by italics and vertical lines.
First issued 1999 Revised 2004 Revised 2007
Please check the website, www.cxc.org for updates on CXCâ€™s syllabuses.
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Contents
Introduction
RATIONALE .........................................................................................1 AIMS.....................................................................................................2 SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO BE ASSESSED...........................................3 PREREQUISITES OF THE SYLLABUS .................................................3 STRUCTURE OF THE SYLLABUS .........................................................3 RECOMMENDED 2UNIT OPTIONS......................................................4 MATHEMATICAL MODELLING............................................................4 UNIT 1: ALGEBRA, GEOMETRY AND CALCULUS MODULE 1 : BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS...........................7 MODULE 2 : TRIGONOMETRY AND PLANE GEOMETRY .............18 MODULE 3 : CALCULUS I ..............................................................23 UNIT 2: ANALYSIS, MATRICES AND COMPLEX NUMBERS MODULE 1 : CALCULUS II .............................................................30 MODULE 2 : SEQUENCES, SERIES AND APPROXIMATIONS........36 MODULE 3 : COUNTING, MATRICES AND COMPLEX NUMBERS.43 OUTLINE OF ASSESSMENT..................................................................50 REGULATIONS FOR PRIVATE CANDIDATES.......................................58 REGULATIONS FOR RESIT CANDIDATES ..........................................58 ASSESSMENT GRID .............................................................................59 MATHEMATICAL NOTATION...............................................................60
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Introduction
T
he Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) is designed to provide certification of the academic, vocational and technical achievement of students in the Caribbean who, having completed a minimum of five years of secondary education, wish to further their studies. The examination addresses the skills and knowledge acquired by students under a flexible and articulated system where subjects are organised in 1Unit or 2Unit courses with each Unit containing three Modules. Subjects examined under CAPE may be studied concurrently or singly, or may be combined with subjects examined by other examination boards or institutions. The Caribbean Examinations Council offers three types of certification. The first is the award of a certificate showing each CAPE Unit completed. The second is the CAPE diploma, awarded to candidates who have satisfactorily completed at least six Units, including Caribbean Studies. The third is the CAPE Associate Degree, awarded for the satisfactory completion of a prescribed cluster of seven CAPE Units including Caribbean Studies and Communication Studies. For the CAPE diploma and the CAPE Associate Degree, candidates must complete the cluster of required Units within a maximum period of five years.
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Mathematics Syllabus ď‚¨ RATIONALE Mathematics is one of the oldest and most universal means of creating, communicating, connecting and applying structural and quantitative ideas. The discipline of Mathematics allows the formulation and solution of realworld problems as well as the creation of new mathematical ideas, both as an intellectual end in itself, but also as a means to increase the success and generality of mathematical applications. This success can be measured by the quantum leap that occurs in the progress made in other traditional disciplines once mathematics is introduced to describe and analyze the problems studied. It is, therefore essential that as many persons as possible be taught not only to be able to use mathematics, but also to understand it. Students doing this syllabus will have been already exposed to Mathematics in some form mainly through courses that emphasize skills in using mathematics as a tool, rather than giving insight into the underlying concepts. To enable students to gain access to mathematics training at the tertiary level, to equip them with the ability to expand their mathematical knowledge and to make proper use of it, it is, necessary that a mathematics course at this level should not only provide them with more advanced mathematical ideas, skills and techniques, but encourage them to understand the concepts involved, why and how they "work" and how they are interconnected. It is also to be hoped that, in this way, students will lose the fear associated with having to learn a multiplicity of seemingly unconnected facts, procedures and formulae. In addition, the course should show them that mathematical concepts lend themselves to generalizations, and that there is enormous scope for applications to the solving of real problems. Mathematics covers extremely wide areas. However, students can gain more from a study of carefully selected, representative areas of Mathematics, for a "mathematical" understanding of these areas, rather than to provide them with only a superficial overview of a much wider field. While proper exposure to a mathematical topic does not immediately make students into experts in it, that proper exposure will certainly give the students the kind of attitude which will allow them to become experts in other mathematical areas to which they have not been previously exposed. The course is, therefore, intended to provide quality in selected areas rather than in a large number of topics. To optimize the competing claims of spread of syllabus and the depth of treatment intended, all items in the proposed syllabus are required to achieve the aims of the Course. While both Units 1 and 2 can stand on their own, it is advisable that students should complete Unit 1 before doing Unit 2, since Unit1 contains basic knowledge for students of tertiary level courses including Applied Mathematics.
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Through a development of understanding of these areas, it is expected that the course will enable students to: (i)
develop mathematical thinking, understanding and creativity;
(ii)
develop skills in using mathematics as a tool for other disciplines;
(iii)
develop the ability to communicate through the use of mathematics;
(iv)
develop the ability to use mathematics to model and solve realworld problems;
(v)
gain access to mathematics programmes at tertiary institutions.
ď‚¨ AIMS The syllabus aims to: 1.
provide understanding of mathematical concepts and structures, their development and the relationships between them;
2.
enable the development of skills in the use of mathematical tools;
3.
develop an appreciation of the idea of mathematical proof, the internal logical coherence of Mathematics, and its consequent universal applicability;
4.
develop the ability to make connections between distinct concepts in Mathematics, and between mathematical ideas and those pertaining to other disciplines;
5.
develop a spirit of mathematical curiosity and creativity, as well as a sense of enjoyment;
6.
enable the analysis, abstraction and generalization of mathematical ideas;
7.
develop in students the skills of recognizing essential aspects of concrete realworld problems, formulating these problems into relevant and solvable mathematical problems and mathematical modelling;
8.
develop the ability of students to carry out independent or group work on tasks involving mathematical modelling;
9.
provide students with access to more advanced courses in Mathematics and its applications at tertiary institutions.
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SKILLS AND ABILITIES TO BE ASSESSED The assessment will test candidates’ skills and abilities in relation to three cognitive levels. (i)
Conceptual knowledge is the ability to recall, select and use appropriate facts, concepts and principles in a variety of contexts.
(ii)
Algorithmic knowledge is the ability to manipulate mathematical expressions and procedures using appropriate symbols and language, logical deduction and inferences.
(iii)
Reasoning is the ability to select appropriate strategy or select, use and evaluate mathematical models and interpret the results of a mathematical solution in terms of a given realworld problem and engage in problemsolving.
PREREQUISITES OF THE SYLLABUS Any person with a good grasp of the contents of the syllabus of the Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC) General Proficiency course in Mathematics, or equivalent, should be able to undertake the course. However, successful participation in the course will also depend on the possession of good verbal and written communication skills.
STRUCTURE OF THE SYLLABUS The syllabus is arranged into two (2) Units, Unit 1 which will lay foundations, and Unit 2 which expands on, and applies, the concepts formulated in Unit 1. It is, therefore, recommended that Unit 2 be taken after satisfactory completion of Unit 1 or a similar course. Completion of each Unit will be separately certified. Each Unit consists of three Modules. Unit 1: Algebra, Geometry and Calculus, contains three Modules, each requiring approximately 50 hours. The total teaching time, therefore, is approximately 150 hours. Module 1 Module 2 Module 3

Basic Algebra and Functions Trigonometry and Plane Geometry Calculus I
Unit 2: Analysis, Matrices and Complex Numbers, contains three Modules, each requiring approximately 50 hours. The total teaching time, therefore, is approximately 150 hours. Module 1 Module 2 Module 3

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Calculus II Sequences, Series and Approximations Counting, Matrices and Complex Numbers
3
RECOMMENDED 2UNIT OPTIONS (a)
Pure Mathematics Unit 1 AND Pure Mathematics Unit 2.
(b)
Applied Mathematics Unit 1 AND Applied Mathematics Unit 2.
(c)
Pure Mathematics Unit 1 AND Applied Mathematics Unit 2.
MATHEMATICAL MODELLING Mathematical Modelling should be used in both Units 1 and 2 to solve realworld problems. A.
B.
C.
The topic Mathematical Modelling involves the following steps: 1.
identification of a realworld situation to which modelling is applicable;
2.
carry out the modelling process for a chosen situation to which modelling is applicable;
3.
discuss and evaluate the findings of a mathematical model in a written report.
The Modelling process requires: 1.
a clear statement posed in a realworld situation, and identification of its essential features;
2.
translation or abstraction of the problem, giving a representation of the essential features of the realworld;
3.
solution of the mathematical problem (analytic, numerical, approximate);
4.
testing the appropriateness and the accuracy of the solution against behaviour in the realworld;
5.
refinement of the model as necessary.
Consider the two situations given below. 1.
A weather forecaster needs to be able to calculate the possible effects of atmospheric pressure changes on temperature.
2.
An economic adviser to the Central Bank Governor needs to be able to calculate the likely effect on the employment rate of altering the Central Bank’s interest
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rate. In each case, people are expected to predict something that is likely to happen in the future. Furthermore, in each instance, these persons may save lives, time, money or change their actions in some way as a result of their predictions. One method of predicting is to set up a mathematical model of the situation. A mathematical model is not usually a model in the sense of a scale model motor car. A mathematical model is a way of describing an underlying situation mathematically, perhaps with equations, with rules or with diagrams. D.
Some examples of mathematical models are: 1.
Equations i.
Business A recording studio invests $25 000 to produce a master CD of a singing group. It costs $50.00 to make each copy from the master and cover the operating expenses. We can model this situation by the equation or mathematical model, C = 50.00 x + 25 000 where C is the cost of producing x CDs. With this model, one can predict the cost of producing 60 CDs or 6 000 CDs. Is the equation x + 2 = 5 a mathematical model? Justify your answer.
ii.
Banking Suppose you invest $100.00 with a commercial bank which pays interest at 12% per annum. You may leave the interest in the account to accumulate. The equation A = 100(1.12)n can be used to model the amount of money in your account after n years.
2.
Table of Values Traffic Management The table below shows the safe stopping distances for cars recommended by the Highway Code. Speed /mph 20 30 40 50 60
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Thinking Distance/ m 6 9 12 15 18
Braking Distance/ m 6 14 24 38 55
5
Overall Stopping Distance/ m 12 23 36 53 73
Speed /mph 70
Thinking Distance/ m 21
Braking Distance/ m 75
Overall Stopping Distance/ m 96
We can predict our stopping distance when travelling at 50mph from this model. 3.
Rules of Thumb You might have used some mathematical models of your own without realizing it; perhaps you think of them as “rules of thumb”. For example, in the baking of hams, most cooks used the rule of thumb that “bake ham fat side up in roasting pan in a moderate oven (160ºC) ensuring 25 to 40 minutes per ½kg”. The cook is able to predict how long it takes to bake his ham without burning it.
4.
Graphs
Population (millions)
Not all models are symbolic in nature; they may be graphical. For example, the graph below shows the population at different years for a certain country. 25
x x
20 15
x
10 5
x x 1960
1970
1980
1990
Years
RESOURCE Hartzler, J. S. and Swetz, F.
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Mathematical Modelling in the Secondary School Curriculum, A Resource Guide of Classroom Exercises, Vancouver, United States of America: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Incorporated, Reston, 1991.
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UNIT 1  ALGEBRA, GEOMETRY AND CALCULUS MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS GENERAL OBJECTIVES On completion of this Module, students should: 1.
understand the concept of number;
2.
develop the ability to construct simple proofs of mathematical assertions;
3.
understand the concept of a function;
4.
be confident in the manipulation of algebraic expressions and the solutions of equations and inequalities;
5.
develop the ability to use concepts to model and solve realworld problems.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (a)
The Real Number System – R Students should be able to: 1.
use subsets of R;
2.
use the properties of the inclusion chain N⊂ W Z Q R, Q R ;
3.
use the concepts of identity, closure, inverse, commutativity, associativity, distributivity of addition and multiplication of real numbers;
4.
demonstrate that the real numbers are ordered;
5.
perform operations involving surds;
6.
construct simple proofs, specifically direct proofs, or proof by the use of counter examples;
7.
use the summation notation ( );
8.
establish simple proofs by using the principle of mathematical induction.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (cont’d) CONTENT (a)
The Real Number System – R (i)
Axioms of the system  including commutative, associative and distributive laws; nonexistence of the multiplicative inverse of zero.
(ii)
The order properties.
(iii)
Operations involving surds.
(iv)
Methods of proof  direct, counterexamples.
(v)
Simple applications of mathematical induction.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (b) Algebraic Operations Students should be able to: 1.
apply real number axioms to carry out operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of polynomial and rational expressions;
2.
factorize quadratic polynomial expressions leading to real linear factors (real coefficients only);
3.
use the Remainder Theorem;
4.
use the Factor Theorem to find factors and to evaluate unknown coefficients;
5.
extract all factors of an bn for positive integers n≤ 6;
6.
use the concept of identity of polynomial expressions.
CONTENT (b)
Algebraic Operations (i)
Addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and factorization of algebraic expressions.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (cont’d) (ii)
Factor Theorem.
(iii)
Remainder Theorem.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (c)
Indices and Logarithms Students should be able to: 1.
use the laws of indices to simplify expressions (including expressions involving negative and rational indices);
2.
use the fact that logαb = c αc = b;
3.
simplify expressions by using the laws of logarithms, such as: (i)
log (PQ) = log P + log Q,
(ii)
log(P/Q) = log P – log Q,
(iii)
log Pa = a log P;
4.
use logarithms to solve equations of the form ax = b;
5.
solve problems involving changing of the base of a logarithm.
CONTENT (c)
Indices and Logarithms (i)
Laws of indices, including negative and rational exponents.
(ii)
Laws of logarithms applied to problems.
(iii)
Solution of equations of the form ax = b.
(iv)
Change of base.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (cont’d) SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (d)
Functions Students should be able to: 1.
use the terms: function, domain, range, open interval, half open interval, closed interval, onetoone function (injective function), onto function (surjective function), onetoone and onto function (bijective function), inverse and composition of functions;
2.
show that there are functions which are defined as a set of ordered pairs and not by a single formula;
3.
plot and sketch functions and their inverses (if they exist);
4.
state the geometrical relationship between the function y= f(x) and its inverse [reflection in the line y = x];
5.
interpret graphs of simple polynomial functions;
6.
show that, if g is the inverse function of f, then f[g(x)] x, for all x, in the domain of g;
7.
perform calculations involving given functions;
8.
show graphical solutions of f(x) = g(x), f(x) g(x), f(x) g(x);
9.
identify an increasing or decreasing function, using the sign of
10.
f ( a ) f (b ) ab
when
a b; illustrate by means of graphs, the relationship between the function y = f(x) given in graphical form and y a f(x); y f(x a); y = ƒ(x) ± a; y=a ƒ(x ± b); y = ƒ(ax), y f(x), where a, b are real numbers, and, where it is invertible, y f 1(x).
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UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (cont’d) CONTENT (d)
Functions (i)
Domain, range, composition.
(ii)
Injective, surjective, bijective functions, inverse function.
(iii)
Graphical solutions of problems involving functions.
(iv)
Simple transformations.
(v)
Transformation of the graph y f(x) to y af(x); y f(x ± a); y f(x) ± a; y af(x ± b); y f(ax); y f(x) and, if appropriate, to y f 1(x).
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (e)
The Modulus Function Students should be able to:
x = x if x 0 x if x 0
1.
define the modulus function, for example,
2.
use the fact that x is the positive square root of x2 ;
3.
use the fact that x < y if, and only if, x² < y²;
4.
solve equations involving the modulus functions.
CONTENT (e)
The Modulus Function (i)
Definition and properties of the modulus function.
(ii)
The triangle inequality.
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; 5 = 5;
UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (cont’d) SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (f)
Quadratic and Cubic Functions and Equations Students should be able to: express the quadratic function ax 2 + bx c in the form a x h 2 + k ;
1. 2.
sketch the graph of the quadratic function, including maximum or minimum points;
3.
determine the nature of the roots of a quadratic equation;
4.
find the roots of a cubic equation;
5.
use the relationship between the sums and products of coefficients of: (i) (ii)
the roots and the
ax2 bx c = 0 , ax 3 bx2 + cx + d = 0 .
CONTENT (f)
Quadratic and Cubic Functions and Equations (i)
Quadratic equations in one unknown.
(ii)
The nature of the roots of quadratic equations.
(iii)
Sketching graphs of quadratic functions.
(iv)
Roots of cubic equations.
(v)
Sums and products, with applications, of the roots of quadratic and cubic equations.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (cont’d) SPECIFIC OFBJECTIVES (g)
Inequalities Students should be able to use algebraic and graphical methods to find the solution sets of: 1.
linear inequalities;
2.
quadratic inequalities;
3.
inequalities of the form
4.
inequalities of the form ax b cx d .
ax b 0; cx b
CONTENT (g)
Inequalities (i)
Linear inequalities.
(ii)
Quadratic inequalities.
(iii)
Inequalities involving simple rational and modulus functions.
Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities To facilitate students’ attainment of the objectives of this Module, teachers are advised to engage students in the teaching and learning activities listed below. 1.
The Real Number System The teacher should encourage students to practise different methods of proof by constructing simple proofs of elementary assertions about real numbers, such as: (i)
(2) = 2;
(ii)
For any real number a , 0a 0;
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UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (cont’d)
2.
(iii)
(1)(1) 1;
(iv)
The statement “For all real x and y, x yxy” is false (by counterexample).
Proof by Mathematical Induction (MI) Typical Question Prove that some formula or /statement P is true for all positive integers n k, where k is some positive integer; usually k = 1. Procedure Step 1: Verify that when k = 1: P is true for n = k = 1. This establishes that P is true for n = 1. Step 2: Assume P is true for n = k, where k is a positive integer > 1. At this point, the statement k replaces n in the statement P and is taken as true. Step 3: Show that P is true for n = k 1 using the true statement in step 2 with n replaced by k. Step 4: At the end of step 3, it is stated that statement P is true for all positive integers n k. Summary Proof by MI: For k > 1, verify Step 1 for k and proceed through to Step 4. Observation Most users of MI do not see how this proves that P is true. The reason for this is that there is a massive gap between Steps 3 and 4 which can only be filled by becoming aware that Step 4 only follows because Steps 1 to 3 are repeated an infinity of times to generate the set of all positive integers. The focal point is the few words “for all positive integers n k” which points to the determination of the set S of all positive integers for which P is true.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (cont’d) Step 1 says that 1 S for k = 1. Step 3 says that k + 1 S whenever k S, so immediately 2 S since 1 S. Iterating on Step 3 says that 3 S since 2 S and so on, so that S = {1, 2, 3 ...}, that is, S is the set of all positive integers when k = 1 which brings us to Step 4. When k > 1, the procedure starts at a different positive integer, but the execution of steps is the same. Thus, it is necessary to explain what happens between Steps 3 and 4 to obtain a full appreciation of the method. Example 1: Use Mathematical Induction to prove that n3 – n is divisible by 3, whenever n is a positive integer. Solution:
Let P (n) be the proposition that “n3 – n is divisible by 3”. Basic Step:
P(1) is true, since 13  1 = 0 which is divisible by 3.
Inductive Step: Assume P(n) is true: that is, n3 – n is divisible by 3. We must show that P(n + 1) is true, if P(n) is true. That is, (n + 1)3 – (n + 1) is divisible by 3. Now, (n +1) 3  (n + 1) = (n3 +3 n2 + 3n + 1) – (n + 1) = (n3  n) + 3(n2 + n) Both terms are divisible by 3 since (n3  n) is divisible by 3 by the assumption and 3(n2 + n) is a multiple of 3. Hence, P (n+1) is true whenever P (n) is true. Thus, n3 – n is divisible by 3 whenever n is a positive integer. Example 2: Prove by Mathematical Induction that the sum Sn of the first n odd positive integers is n2. Solution:
Let P (n) be the proposition that the sum Sn of the first n odd positive integer is n2. Basic Step: is
For n=1 the first one odd positive integer is 1, so S1 = 1, that S1 = 1 = 12, hence P(1) is true.
UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (cont’d)
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Inductive Step:
(2n – 1) = n2.
Assume P(n) is true. That is, Sn = 1 + 3 + 5 + …. +
Now, Sn+1
= 1 + 3 + 5 +…+ (2n –1) + (2n + 1) = 1 + 3 + 5 +…+ (2n –1)] + (2n + 1) = n2 + (2n + 1), by the assumption, =(n + 1)2
Thus, P(n+1) is true whenever P(n) is true. Since P(1) is true and P(n) P(n + 1), the proposition P(n) is true for all positive integers n. 3.
Functions (Injective, surjective, bijective) – Inverse Function Teacher and students should explore the mapping properties of quadratic functions which: (i)
will, or will not, be injective, depending on which subset of the real line is chosen as the domain;
(ii)
will be surjective if its range is taken as the codomain (completion of the square is useful, here);
(iii)
if both injective and surjective, will have an inverse function which can be constructed by solving a quadratic equation.
Example:
Use the function f :A B given by f(x) 3x 2 6x 5 , where the domain A is alternatively the whole of the real line, or the set {xR x 1}, and the codomain B is R or the set { yR y 2}.
RESOURCES Aub, M. R.
The Real Number System, Barbados: Caribbean Examinations Council, 1997.
Bostock, L. and Chandler, S.
Core Mathematics for ALevels, United Kingdom: Stanley Thornes Publishing Limited, 1997.
Cadogan, C.
Proof by Mathematical Induction (MI), Barbados: Caribbean Examinations Council, 2004.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 1: BASIC ALGEBRA AND FUNCTIONS (contâ€™d) Greaves, Y.
Solution of Simultaneous Linear Equations by Row Reduction, Barbados: Caribbean Examinations Council, 1998.
Hartzler, J. S. and Swetz, F.
Mathematical Modelling in the Secondary School Curriculum, A Resource Guide of Classroom Exercises, Vancouver, United States of America: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Incorporated Reston, 1991.
Hutchinson, C.
Injective and Surjective Functions, Caribbean Examinations Council, 1998.
Martin, A., Brown, K., Rigby, P. and Ridley, S.
Advanced Level Mathematics Tutorials Pure Mathematics CDROM sample (Trade Edition), Cheltenham, United Kingdom: Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Limited, Multiuser version and Singleuser version, 2000.
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Barbados:
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UNIT 1 MODULE 2: TRIGONOMETRY AND PLANE GEOMETRY GENERAL OBJECTIVES On completion of this Module, students should: 1.
develop the ability to represent and deal with objects in the plane through the use of coordinate geometry, vectors;
2.
understand that the alternative descriptions of objects are equivalent;
3.
develop the ability to manipulate and describe the behaviour of trigonometric functions;
4.
develop the ability to establish trigonometric identities;
5.
develop skills to solve trigonometric equations;
6.
develop the ability to use concepts to model and solve realworld problems.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (a)
Trigonometric Functions, Identities and Equations (all angles will be assumed to be in radians unless otherwise stated)
Students should be able to: 1.
graph the functions sin kx, cos kx, tan kx, k R;
2.
relate the periodicity, symmetries and amplitudes of the functions in Specific Objective 1 above to their graphs;
3.
use the fact that sin
4.
use the formulae for sin(A B), cos(A B) and tan (A B);
5.
derive the multiple angle identities for sin kA, cos kA, tan kA, for kQ;
6.
derive the identity cos2 sin2 1;
7.
use the reciprocal functions sec x, cosec x and cot x;
x cos x ; 2
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UNIT 1 MODULE 2: TRIGONOMETRY AND PLANE GEOMETRY (cont’d) 8.
derive the corresponding identities for tan2x, cot2x, sec2x and cosec2x;
9.
develop and use the expressions for sin A ± sin B, cos A ± cos B;
10.
use Specific Objectives 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 above to prove simple identities;
11.
express a cos θ + b sin θ in the form r cos ( θ α ) and r sin( θ α ) where r is positive 0 α
12.
2
;
find the general solution of equations of the form (i)
sin k c,
(ii)
cos k c,
(iii)
tan k =c,
(iv)
a sin +b sin = c,
for a, b, c, k, R; 13.
find the solutions of the equations in 12 above for a given range;
14.
obtain maximum or minimum values of f() for 0 2 .
CONTENT (a)
Trigonometric Functions, Identities and Equations (all angles will be assumed to be radians) (i)
The circle, radian measure, length of an arc and area of a sector.
(ii)
Sine rule, cosine rule.
(iii)
Area of a triangle, using Area 12 ab sin C.
(iv)
The functions sin x, cos x, tan x, cot x, sec x, cosec x.
(v)
Compoundangle formulae for sin (A±B), cos (A±B), tan (A±B).
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UNIT 1 MODULE 2: TRIGONOMETRY AND PLANE GEOMETRY (cont’d) (vi)
Multipleangle formulae.
(vii)
Formulae for sin A ± sin B, cos A ± cos B.
(viii)
Use of appropriate formulae to prove identities.
(ix)
Expression of a sin + b cos in the forms r sin (±) and r cos (±), where r is positive, 0 ≤ α <
(x)
.
2 General solution of simple trigonometric equations, including graphical interpretation.
(xi)
Trigonometric identities cos2 + sin2 1, 1 cot2 cosec2 , 1 tan2 sec2 .
(xii)
Maximum and minimum values of functions of sin and cos .
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (b)
Coordinate Geometry Students should be able to: 1.
use the gradient of the line segment;
2.
use the relationships between the gradients of parallel and mutually perpendicular lines;
3.
find the point of intersection of two lines;
4.
write the equation of a circle with given centre and radius;
5.
find the centre and radius of a circle from its general equation;
6.
find equations of tangents and normals to circles;
7.
find the points of intersection of a curve with a straight line;
8.
find the points of intersection of two curves;
9.
obtain the Cartesian equation of a curve given its parametric representation.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 2: TRIGONOMETRY AND PLANE GEOMETRY (cont’d) CONTENT (b)
Coordinate Geometry (i)
Properties of the circle.
(ii)
Tangents and normals.
(iii)
Intersections between lines and curves.
(iv)
Cartesian equations and parametric representations of curves.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (c)
Vectors Students should be able to: x y
1.
express a vector in the form
2.
define equality of two vectors;
3.
add and subtract vectors;
4.
multiply a vector by a scalar quantity;
5.
derive and use unit vectors;
6.
find displacement vectors;
7.
find the magnitude and direction of a vector;
8.
apply properties of parallel vectors and perpendicular vectors;
9.
define the scalar product of two vectors:
10.
or xi+yj;
(i)
in terms of their components,
(ii)
in terms of their magnitudes and the angle between them;
find the angle between two given vectors.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 2: TRIGONOMETRY AND PLANE GEOMETRY (cont’d) CONTENT (c)
Vectors x y
(i)
Expression of a given vector in the form
or xi + yj.
(ii)
Equality, addition and subtraction of vectors; multiplication by a scalar.
(iii)
Position vectors, unit vectors, displacement vectors.
(iv)
Length (magnitude/modulus) and direction of a vector.
(v)
Scalar (Dot) Product.
Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities To facilitate students’ attainment of the objectives of this Module, teachers are advised to engage students in the teaching and learning activities listed below. 1.
Trigonometric Identities Much practice is required to master proofs of Trigonometric Identities using identities such as the formulae for: sin (A ± B), cos (A ± B), tan (A ± B), sin 2A, cos 2A, tan 2A Example: The identity
1 cos 4 sin 4
tan 2 can be established by realizing that
cos 4 1 – 2 sin2 2 and sin 4 2 sin 2 cos 2. Derive the trigonometric functions sin x and cos x for angles x of any value (including negative values), using the coordinates of points on the unit circle.
RESOURCE Bostock, L. and Chandler, S.
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Mathematics  The Core Course for ALevel, United Kingdom: Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Limited, 1997.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 3: CALCULUS I GENERAL OBJECTIVES On completion of this Module, students should: 1.
understand the concept of continuity of a function and its graph;
2.
appreciate that functions need not be continuous;
3.
develop the ability to find the limits (when they exist) of functions in simple cases;
4.
know the relationships between the derivative of a function at a point and the behaviour of the function and its tangent at that point;
5.
be confident in differentiating given functions;
6.
know the relationship between integration and differentiation;
7.
know the relationship between integration and the area under the graph of the function;
8.
know the properties of the integral and the differential;
9.
develop the ability to use concepts to model and solve realworld problems.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (a)
Limits Students should be able to: 1.
use graphs to determine the continuity and continuity of functions;
2.
describe the behaviour of a function f(x) as x gets arbitrarily close to some given fixed number, using a descriptive approach;
3.
use the limit notation lim f ( x) L, f(x) → L as x → a ; x→ a
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UNIT 1 MODULE 3: CALCULUS I (cont’d) 4.
use the simple limit theorems: If lim f ( x) F , lim g ( x) G and k is a constant, xa
xa
then lim kf(x) kF, lim f(x)g(x) FG, lim f(x) g(x) F G, x a x a x a f(x) F and, provided G 0, lim ; xa g(x) G
5.
use limit theorems in simple problems, including cases in which the limit of f(x) x 2 4 at a is not f(a), for example, lim (the use of L’Hopital’s Rule is not x 2 x 2
allowed); 6.
use the fact that lim
x0
sin x
x
1 , demonstrated by a geometric approach (the use of
L’Hopital’s Rule is not allowed); 7.
solve simple problems involving limits and requiring algebraic manipulation (the use of L’Hopital’s Rule may be allowed);
8.
identify the region over which a function is continuous;
9.
identify the points where a function is discontinuous and describe the nature of its discontinuity;
10.
use the concept of left handed or right handed continuity, and continuity on a closed interval.
CONTENT (a)
Limits (i)
Concept of limit of a function.
(ii)
Limit Theorems.
(iii)
Continuity and Discontinuity.
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UNIT 1 MODULE 3: CALCULUS I (cont’d) SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (b)
Differentiation I Students should be able to: 1.
demonstrate understanding of the concept of the derivative at a point x = c as the gradient of the tangent to the graph at x c;
2.
define the derivative at a point as a limit;
3.
use the f (x) notation for the first derivative at x;
4.
differentiate, from first principles, such functions as: (i)
f ( x) k where k R,
(ii)
f( x ) = xn, where n {3, 2, 1,  ½, ½, 1, 2, 3},
(iii)
f (x) = sin x ;
5.
demonstrate an understanding of how to obtain the derivative of xn, where n is any number;
6.
demonstrate understanding of simple theorems about derivatives of y c f(x), y f(x) g(x); where c is a constant;
7.
use 5 and 6 above repeatedly to calculate the derivatives of:
8.
(i)
polynomials,
(ii)
trigonometric functions;
use the product and quotient rules for differentiation;
UNIT 1 MODULE 3: CALCULUS I (cont’d)
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9.
differentiate products and quotients of: (i)
polynomials,
(ii)
trigonometric functions;
10.
apply the chain rule in the differentiation of composite functions (substitution);
11.
demonstrate an understanding of the concept of the derivative as a rate of change;
12.
use the sign of the derivative to investigate where a function is increasing or decreasing;
13.
demonstrate the concept of stationary (critical) points;
14.
determine the nature of stationary points;
15.
locate stationary points, maxima and minima by considering sign changes of the derivative;
16.
calculate second derivatives;
17.
interpret the significance of the sign of the second derivative;
18.
use the sign of the second derivative to determine the nature of stationary points;
19.
sketch graphs of polynomials, rational functions and trigonometric functions using the features of the function and its first and second derivatives;
20.
describe the behaviour of such graphs for large values of the independent variable;
21.
obtain equations of tangents and normals to curves.
CONTENT (b)
Differentiation I (i)
The Gradient.
(ii)
The Derivative as a limit.
UNIT 1 MODULE 3: CALCULUS I (contâ€™d)
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(iii)
Rates of change.
(iv)
Differentiation from first principles.
(v)
Differentiation of simple functions, product, quotients.
(vi)
Stationary points and chain rule.
(vii)
Second derivatives of functions.
(viii)
Curve sketching.
(ix)
Tangents and Normals to curves.
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES (c)
Integration I Students should be able to: 1.
define integration as the inverse of differentiation;
2.
demonstrate an understanding of the indefinite integral and the use of the integration notation f(x) dx ;
3.
show that the indefinite integral represents a family of functions which differ by constants;
4.
demonstrate use of the following integration theorems:
5.
(i)
cf(x) dx c f(x) dx , where c is a constant,
(ii)
{f(x) g(x)} dx f(x) dx g(x) dx;
find: (i)
indefinite integrals using integration theorems,
(ii)
integrals of polynomial functions,
(iii)
integrals of simple trigonometric functions;
UNIT 1 MODULE 3: CALCULUS I (cont’d) 6.
b define and calculate a f ( x ) dx F(b) F(a), where F(x) is an indefinite integral
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of f(x) and integrate, using substitution; 7.
use the results: b b a f(x) dx a f(t) dt , a a 0 f(x) dx 0 f(a x) dx, for a ;
(i) (ii) 8.
apply integration to: (i)
finding areas under the curve,
(ii)
finding volumes of revolution by rotating regions about both the x and y axes;
formulate and solve differential equations of the form y´ f(x) where f is a polynomial or a trigonometric function.
9.
CONTENT (c)
Integration I (i)
Integration as the inverse of differentiation.
(ii)
Linearity of integration.
(iii)
Indefinite integrals (concept and use).
(iv)
Definite integrals.
(v)
Applications of integration – areas, volumes and solutions to elementary differential equations.
(vi)
Integration of polynomials.
(vii)
Integration of simple trigonometric functions.
(viii)
Use of
(ix)
First order differential equations.
b
a
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f ( x) dx F(b) F(a), where F '(x) f(x).
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UNIT 1 MODULE 3: CALCULUS I (contâ€™d)
Suggested Teaching and Learning Activities To facilitate studentsâ€™ attainment of the objectives of this Module, teachers are advised to engage students in the teaching and learning activities listed below. The Area under the Graph of a Continuous Function Class discussion should play a major role in dealing with this topic. Activities such as that which follows may be performed to motivate the discussion. Example of classroom activity: Consider a triangle of area equal to 1 units, bounded by the graphs of y = x, y = 0 and x = 1. 2 (i)
Sketch the graphs and identify the triangular region enclosed.
(ii)
Subdivide the interval [0, 1] into n equal subintervals.
(iii)
Evaluate the sum, s(n), of the areas of the inscribed rectangles and S(n), of the circumscribed rectangles, erected on each subinterval.
(iv)
By using different values of n, for example, for n = 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, show that both s(n) and S(n) get closer to the required area of the given region.
RESOURCES Aub, M. R.
Differentiation from First Principles: The Power Function, Barbados: Caribbean Examinations Council, 1998.
Bostock, L., and Chandler, S.
Mathematics  The Core Course for ALevel, United Kingdom: Stanley Thornes Publishing Limited, (Chapters 5, 8 and 9), 1991.
Ragnathsingh, S.
Area under the Graph of a Continuous Function, Barbados: Caribbean Examinations Council, 1998.
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Published on Jul 12, 2011
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