Page 1

DIFFERENT BRICK

URBAN SOIL DETOXIFYING INFRASTRUCTURE

Global 30 Architecture and Urbanism Obuchi Laboratory University of Tokyo Graduate School of Engineering Department of Architecture

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Cybernetic Urbanism V.2, 2013 Obuchi Laboratory Editing Team Kyaw HTOO, Ana ILIĆ Yasemin SAHINER Alisha Ivelich

2013, Printed in Tokyo, Japan For more information on Obuchi Lab Visit www.obuchilab.com Obuchi Laboratory University of Tokyo Graduate School of Engineering Department of Architecture 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku Tokyo, 113-8656 Japan

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DIFFERENT BRICK

URBAN SOIL DETOXIFYING INFRASTRUCTURE Students: Kyaw HTOO Ana ILIĆ Yasemin SAHINER Professor: Yusuke Obuchi Collaborate Professors: Associate Prof. Jun Sato Associate Prof. Futoshi Kurisu Course Assistants: Toshikatsu Kiuchi So Sugita Computational Support: Dr. Eng. Masaaki Miki

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS According to Alvin Toffler* “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. ” We would like to thank to every single member of G30-Obuchi Lab starting from our professor Yusuke Obuchi, lab assistants Toshikatsu Kuichi and So Sugita, and our colleagues for making this a real contemporary design development experience. Being part of this lab, learning , unlearning, relearning and exploring new ways of thinking and designing together has been a lifetime experience for us. We would like to thank to Associate Professor Futoshi Kurisu for his supervision on the integration of biological soil cleaning processes with our production system. His expert knowledge and supervision highly encouraged us to cross the boundaries towards interdisciplinary topics that are not native to architects. We thank to Alisha Ivelich & Galina Tirnanić for doing our readings and enriching the ways in which our project communicates; once more to So Sugita for never refusing us in providing his feedback and support during the development and contextualization of our project. We want to thank to particular people who has special contributions to our project. Our Assitant Toshikatshu Kuichi for providing vigorous help to kick-start our digital tooling process by devoting his time and expert knowledge to develop solutions with us for constructing our very first solutions in the digital platform; Associate Prof. Jun Sato for guiding us through the untapped paths with his very targeted solutions to our specific design problems that require interdisciplinary knowledge on topics in Geometry, Mathematics and Structural Engineering. He has opened up a new chapter in the development of our design research with his incisive design and expert engineering insights; Dr. Eng. Masaaki Miki for his great collaboration to provide us his expert solutions regardless of the time constraints.

* "Alvin Toffler Quotes." Alvin Toffler Quotes (Author of Future Shock). N.p., n.d. Web. 29 July 2013.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION

11

1.1 INTRODUCTION

12

1.2 THESIS STATEMENTS

14

2.0 PRODUCTION SYSTEM

17

2.1 FABRICATION PROCESS

18

2.2 INTELLIGENCE OF DIFFERENT BRICK

22

2.2.1 PRODUCTION PARAMETERS 2.2.3 ELIMINATING GEOMETRICAL FORMWORK 2.3 MOLD DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 2.3.1 MOLD PROTOTYPE 1.0 2.3.2 MOLD PROTOTYPE 2.0 2.3.3 MOLD PROTOTYPE 3.0 2.3.4 MOLD PROTOTYPE 4.0 2.4 ASSEMBLING DIFFERENTIATED COMPONENTS

23 30 34 34 34 35 36 38

2.4.1 LOCAL CONNECTIONS AND STRUCTURAL FORMWORK

40

2.4.2 BOTTOM-UP APPROACH

44

3.0 DIGITAL DESIGN TOOL 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.1.1. OVERVIEW OF THE DIGITAL DESIGN TOOLS

51 52 54

3.2 DESIGN SYSTEM

58

3.3 METHODS

64

3.3.1 DIGITAL ASSEMBLY

66

3.3.2 OCTAGONAL SURFACE DIVISION

69

3.3.3 PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION

84

3.3.4 QUADRILATERAL TESSELLATION

84

3.3.5 ELLIPSE MAPPING AS AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH

86

3.4 DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION 4.0 GRAVITY-BASED FORM-FINDING AS STRUCTURAL AND DESIGN TOOLS 4.1 INTRODUCTION

90 101 102

4.1.1 COMPRESSION ONLY STRUCTURES

102

4.1.2 LINE OF THRUST

102

4.1.3 CATENARY ARCH/ FUNICULAR FORM

104

4.2 DIGITAL FORM FINDING WITH KANGAROO 4.2.1 INPUT PARAMETERS

106 108

4.3 STRUCTURAL CALCULATION WITH FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM) HOGAN SOFTWARE* 124 4.3.1 INTRODUCTION

124

4.3.2 CANOPY CALCULATION

126

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DIFFERENT BRICK

5.0 PROTOTYPING

133

5.1 INTRODUCTION

134

5.2 PROTOTYPE 1.0

137

5.3 PROTOTYPE 2.0

147

6.0 MATERIAL 6.1 MATERIAL RESEARCH

157 158

6.1.1 APPLICATION OF MATERIAL THROUGH HISTORY

160

6.1.2 CONSTRUCTION

162

6.2 SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

164

6.3 URBAN SOIL AND SOIL POLLUTION

168

6.3.1 DIFFERENT METHODS OF REMEDIATION

169

6.3.2 EXCAVATION

170

6.3.3 SOIL WASHING

171

6.3.4 BIOREMEDIATION

172

6.3.5 PHYTOREMEDIATION 6.4 INTEGRATING BIOREMEDIATION INTO “DIFFERENT BRICK” FABRICATION PROCESS 7.0 URBAN SOIL DETOXIFYING INFRASTRUCTURE 7.1 POST-INDUSTRIAL AREAS & THE BROWN FIELD ISSUE IN JAPAN 7.2 THE ISSUE OF OLD GAS STATIONS IN JAPAN 7.3 FLOW OF MATERIAL 7.3.1 NETWORK OF FLOW URBAN SCENARIO & PROPOSAL 8.0 REFERENCES

173 1788 181 182 184 186 188 206

9.0 APPENDIX SECTION 1. INVESTIGATION OF GRAVITY-BASED FORM-FINDING PROCESSES AS STRUCTURAL AND DESIGN TOOLS, KYAW HTOO SECTION 2. FABRICATION PROCESS: DIFFERENTIATED GENERATIVE COMPONENTS AND INTEGRATION OF MATERIALS, ANA ILIĆ SECTION 3. DEVELOPMENT OF DIGITAL DESIGN TOOL FOR MAPPING AND SIMULATION REPRESENTATION, YASEMIN SAHINER

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DIFFERENT BRICK

1.2

THESIS STATEMENTS 1. Standardized mass-manufactured products are not able to fulfil demands of customization. The proposed customized production system Different Brick responds to a variety of needs regardless of the context and special skills by eliminating the dependence on standardized, mass-manufactured products. 2. Temporary formwork required in the construction processes is costly. Different Brick production system eliminates costly geometrical formwork through the application of generative design Form is generated as an outcome of production process, which eliminates the geometrical formwork. 3. Material and energy resources are being wasted through urbanization processes. Different Brick design system creates surplus value in densely populated urban context by providing an opportunity to utilize the wasted material and energy resources in cities. It creates the architectural product through transforming urban plots with toxic soil by using the material available on site for the design.

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DIFFERENT BRICK

1.1

INTRODUCTION

The aim of this research is to develop an innovative masonry system that can be applied in a contemporary urban context by integrating enhanced material performances. We propose to transform unused gas stations in Tokyo by building canopy-like structures over the newly emergent urban public spaces designed to host various public gathering activities and to provide an opportunity for citizens to interact with soil in an urban context where soil usually is not exposed. The design process is based on a simple physical production system fully supported by highly developed digital tools. The production system produces compressed, round-edged, differentiated bricks that can generate doubly curved surfaces when stacked (figure 1.). A major goal is to re-contextualize soil in order to propose temporary, degradable, recyclable materials as an alternative option for contemporary building materials. Use of readily available material on site eliminates soil pollution when inherent biological processes are enhanced. On a larger scale, by developing a temporary infrastructure which functions as an ‘Urban Soil Detoxifier’, the proposed design system has the potential to push pre-dating, intuitive, manual methods of application to a more intelligent level. This urban proposal focuses on old gas stations in Tokyo. This distributed network of plots that are small in size but high in number contributes to soil (and underground water) contamination in urban areas with leaking underground storage tanks.

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1. INTRODUCTION

Figure 1. Different brick (plaster, concrete,brick soil) Fugure 1. Different

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DIFFERENT BRICK

2.1

FABRICATION PROCESS The fabrication process of the Different Brick (hereafter referred to as “fabrication process�) is the result of particular experiments and studies. The initial task was to create a system that fabricates a generative component with subtle and controlled differences (figure 4), which, while not necessarily visible to the eye, in relevance to the local relationship, has the ability to generate complex outcome geometry. By manipulating the fabrication process and the specific sequence of the assembling, the outcome can be differentiated depending on what was fabricated and how it was assembled. Due to the fact that the requirement was to fabricate a substantial number of components, the Different Brick fabrication process was based on the concept of mass production. Although mass production considers the production of large amounts of standardized products, the essential requirement of _Different Brick fabrication was uniqueness of the produced component. On account of that, this fabrication process is characterized as customized mass production. Therefore, the challenge was to design an adjustable mold (figure 5) which will enable repetition of the fabrication process but maintain the ability to create differences with each successive attempt while also allowing for mass production. In principle, the fabrication process is based on pressing cylindrical or conical tubes to deform the initial shape according to the specific way of pressing. The pressing itself is operated with two flat, rectangular pressing plates. The specific relationship of these two plates and their changes are what enable the differentiation of the generated components. In order to retain a deformed shape, tubes are filled with the desired material, which can differ depending on the context. The only requirement in terms of material is that it has to be liquid or moldable so it can be placed in the deformed tubes (figure 6).

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2. FABRICATION

Figure 2. Outcome of fabrication process

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DIFFERENT BRICK

FABRICATION PROCESS 1.

PLASTIC CYLINDERS CYLINDERS: 17 cm high and 7 cm in diameter

2. PLYWOOD MOLD: the cylinders are being deformed within the mold

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2. FABRICATION

3.

SOLIDIFYING THE SHAPE: the deformed cylinders are being filled with selected material Figure 3. Steps of fabrication process

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DIFFERENT BRICK

2.2

INTELLIGENCE OF DIFFERENT BRICK The result of this particular pressing is a non-standard brick, which, unlike the standard brick with 12 straight edges, has only two elliptical edges and thus has no corners (figure 7). This rounded shape of the brick makes it suitable for nesting between two other similar bricks, by which the essential main rule of assembling is applied (figure 8).

Figure 4. Slite differentiation between components

Hence, before thoroughly explaining the geometrical properties of the brick itself, it is helpful to visualize the potential of the simple nesting of different bricks. Because of its specific shape, if components are stacked following the nesting principle, they have the ability to generate doubly curved surfaces of both negative and positive curvature as well as surfaces with zero degree curvature in somewhat particular conditions (figure 9). The nesting of components is a simple operation where the orienting component is positioned above and in the middle of two components, in which case the two target components determine the position of the orienting one. By controlling the position of those two components, there is an option to generate gaps, which can vary in size by simply controlling the distance between the two components (figure 8). (In chapter 2.1.1 there is further explanation on the “gap� parameter) Unlike the regular brick, which when stacked builds up a straight wall, when Different Bricks are stacked they generate a curvature in the vertical section. They can also generate a curvature in the horizontal section at the same time, which explains how doubly curved surfaces can be generated. What determines these conditions is the parameters controlled during the production process.

Figure 5. Adjustable mold

Figure 6. Mold with deformed tubes

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2. FABRICATION

2.2.1

PRODUCTION PARAMETERS Figure 7. Regular vs. Different brick

Figure 8. Nesting of components with and without gaps

Figure 9. Surfaces of zero, positive and negative curvature

There are two main parameters: first, the angle between the two pressing plates, and second, the distance between the plates, which determines the amount of pressing. In order to control the production result, a rule for each parameter has been defined. The angle of the pressing plates incrementally changes in steps of 2 degrees (0°, 2°, 4°, 6°, 8°, 10°, etc.) while the pressing distance incrementally changes in steps of 1 centimetre (4cm, 5cm, 6cm, 7cm). The size of the component, which can vary depending on the scale of the intended output, will define the minimum and maximum pressing distance. For example, if the initial shape to be pressed is a cylindrical tube of 12 centimetres in diameter, the minimum pressing distance would be 4 cm (1/3 of the non-pressed element) while the maximum would be 12 cm – meaning the element is not being pressed or deformed. The minimal limit is a result of the proportion of the component as well as the limit of compressive strength. If the component is too thin, it becomes brittle. A secondary parameter related to assembly (which also influences the overall geometry) is the gap between components. Due to the rounded shape of the brick, if the components are laid down precisely one next to another, tangentially touching, or with a certain distance between them, very different shapes are achieved. Looking at the

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DIFFERENT BRICK

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2. FABRICATION

Figure 10. Caracteristics of Different brick (integrated angles)

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DIFFERENT BRICK

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2. FABRICATION

Figure 11. Dry stacking and generation of horizontal and vertical curvature

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DIFFERENT BRICK

2.3

MOLD DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Through experimenting with different materials and shapes of fabricated components, the design of the mold was changing as the fabrication was aiming for more simplicity, precision and better control over the component shape.

2.3.1

MOLD PROTOTYPE 1.0 The very first design of the mold was a wooden box with 4 straight sides that made it open from top and front. Four plastic tubes could fit in one row and they were pressed with one pressing board pushing from front. Pressing board could change its angle in vertical and horizontal plan (it was angled in top and side view at the same time). This way all the components in the same row were slightly different from each other. To cast next row and another generation of components, we were not removing the first row of components from the box. Instead the next cylinders were placed in front of them and then pressed with the incrementally bigger angle and distance to create difference.

2.3.2

MOLD PROTOTYPE 2.0 Prototype 2.0 was the following version of the prototype 1.0, and it was a simple variation which differed in length of the box. The intention was to speed up the production and achieve even slighter deformation. In the new box we could place ten plastic cylinders in one row however; the production was resulting with the imperfections which needed to be eliminated.

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2. FABRICATION

The imperfections consisted of components not being bilaterally symmetrical, starting from the first row of components which were pressed in between the straight wall of the box and angled pressing plate, following with the each next row which was on one side taking the information from the previous components and on the other side from differently angled pressing board.

2.3.3

MOLD PROTOTYPE 3.0 The solution was to eliminate the box and design the mold with base and two pressing plates which will always be angled together in the same way. Additionally, instead of pressing multiple rows of components, the improvement was to press one row at the time although changing the parameters of pressing which will produce the differentiation. The length was not modified and the mold was still receiving ten plastic cylinders. The pressing plates were changing the position in both vertical and horizontal plan (angled in top and side view at the same time). This way, we eliminated the asymmetry of the components which was increasing the complexity of the overall system. However, the edges of the components were not close to ellipse (which was used in digital representation of the components – refer to section 2 of the joint research “Development Of Digital Design Tool For Mapping And Simulation Representation” by Yasemin Sahiner ) yet they were representing the irregular curve corresponding to the horizontal angle of the plates. This fact was recognized as another element of the complexity although essentially it didn’t have negative connotations. What is more, it was recognised as a unique potential to relate the fabrication process to the shape of the overall geometry. However, the assembling system needed to be established first using the most simple conditions before adding up to its complexity, which is why this prototype could find its place in our future studies.

Figure 19. Simulation of pressing plastic cylinders

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DIFFERENT BRICK

ROW

33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

0o

8 cm

9 cm

10 cm

4 cm

5 cm

6 cm

2o

7 cm

8 cm

7 cm

8 cm

9 cm

4o

4 cm

5 cm

6 cm

9 cm

6

o

8 cm

9 cm

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3. DIGITAL DESIGN TOOL

2 a.

b.

2o 6o 10 cm

10 cm

4o

2 0o

0o

c.

PRODUCTION SEQUENCE 2

Dome with Shifted Oculus a.Simplified unrolled assembly and Component Cap Representation b.The assembly c.Section displaying changing curvature degrees Required Production Molds: 19

MOLDS 99

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DIFFERENT BRICK

“INPUT DATA” CODE 201 RC COLUMN “=C1” REINS 0.100 0.0 -1.0 SD295 REINS 0.100 0.0 1.0 SD295 CRECT -22.5 -14.5 22.5 14.5 FC24 “CONCRETE 45x29[cm]” HOOPS 0.000001 0.000001 SD295 “HOOP Qx:3D10@100 Qy:2-D10@100” XFACE 0.0 0.0 “FACE LENGTH Mx:HEAD= 0,TAIL= 0[cm]” YFACE 0.0 0.0 “FACE LENGTH My:HEAD= 0,TAIL= 0[cm]”

CODE 202 S COLUMN PLATE 29.0 1.2 XFACE 0.0 0.0 0,TAIL= 0[cm]” YFACE 0.0 0.0 0,TAIL= 0[cm]”

“=G21” SN400 “FB 29x1.2 [cm]” “FACE LENGTH Mx:HEAD=

1.

“FACE LENGTH My:HEAD=

Z O YX

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4. GRAVITY-BASED FORM-FINDING AS STRUCTURAL AND DESIGN TOOLS

X Z Y

O

2

3. Z Y

DEFORMATION Focus: 0.900-0.600 2.500 Phi=92.200 Theta=334.300 R=150.000 L=10000.000 Dfact=10.000 Mfact=0.500

1. and 2. Calculation result 3. Deformation study (deformation is shown in black colour

O

X

STANDARD OF SAFETY RATIO : >=1.0 : 09-1.0 : 0.71428-0.9 : 0.7-0.71428 : 0.6-0.7 : 0.5-0.6 : <0.5 ELEMENTS INDICATED ON SCREEN: COLUMN, GRIDER BRACE, WALL, SLAB

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DIFFERENT BRICK

5.

cleaning on site CONTAMINATED SITE

3. SITE 2

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7. URBAN SOIL DETOXIFYING INFRASTRUCTURE

1. CONTAMINATED SITE CLEANING PROCESS, ASSEMBLY, PROVIDE CLEAN SOIL (PRODUCT)

1.

2. CONTAMINATED SITE CLEANING PROCESS, ASSEMBLY, DISTRIBUTE THE PRODUCT

ng e

3. CONTAMINATED SITE CLEANING PROCESS, ASSEMBLY ON SITE 2, PRODUCT 4. CONTAMINATED SITE CLEANING PROCESS, ASSEMBLY ON SITE 2, DISTRIBUTE THE PRODUCT TO SITE 3

2.

5.CONTAMINATED SITE CLEANING PROCESS, SELL THE PRODUCT CLEANING = PRODUCTION PROCESS

ASSEMBLING

4. SITE 3

CLEAN SOIL

PRODUCT FOR SALE

Figure 46. Diagram of network of material flow

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DIFFERENT BRICK

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7. URBAN SOIL DETOXIFYING INFRASTRUCTURE

View under the canopy

Section of the proposed canopy

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DIFFERENT BRICK

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7. URBAN SOIL DETOXIFYING INFRASTRUCTURE

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9.0

REFERENCES [1] “ICD Research: Computational Morphogenesis « Institute for Computational Design (ICD).” ICD Research: Computational Morphogenesis « Institute for Computational Design (ICD). N.p., n.d. Web. 30 July 2013. [2] Tamke, M., Nicholas P., Thomsen, M. R. (2012). “A New Material Practice.” Smartgeometry. N.p., Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://smartgeometry.org/ index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=148&Itemid=178 [3] Doursat, R., Sayama, H., Michel, O. (2012). “Morphogenetic Engineering: Reconciling Self-Organization and Architecture.” Understanding Complex Systems: n. pag. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from <http://link.springer.com/bookseries/5394>. [4] fig.1 Hotton, S., Johnson, V., Wilbarger, J., Zwieniecki, K., Atela, P., Golé, C. Et al. (n.d.). “The Possible and the Actual in Phyllotaxis: Bridging the Gap between Empirical Observations and Iterative Models”. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://www.math.smith.edu/phyllo/Assets/pdf/JPGR2006published.pdf [5] “Grasshopper - Generative Modeling for Rhino.” Grasshopper - Generative Modeling for Rhino. N.p., n.d. Web. 31 July 2013. [6] Garnier, S., Jost, C., Jeanson, R., Gautrais, J., Asadpour, M, Caprari, G., et al. (n.d.). “Aggregation Behaviour as a Source of Collective Decision in a Group of Cockroach-like-robots.” N.p., Retrieved July 30, 2013 from http://link.springer. com/chapter/10.1007%2F11553090_18 [7] Hagen, E. H., Hammerstein, P. (n.d.). “Evolutionary Biology and the Strategic View of Ontogeny: Genetic Strategies Provide Robustness and Flexibility in the Life Course” , Humboldt University, RESEARCH IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, 2(1&2), 87–101. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://itb.biologie.hu-berlin.de/~hagen/papers/evodevo.pdf [8] fig.2. Ontogenetic graph, Voronoi cells and Delaunay triangulation for an artichoke capitulum: Patrones de desarrollo (2012). Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://ederzavala.wordpress.com/category/phyllotaxis/

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[9] fig.3. City DNA by Lu Xinjian: Lu Xinjian. (n.d.). “City dna”. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://www.xinjianlu.com/citydna.html [10] Kelly, K. “Assembling Complexity.” Out of Control: The New Biology of Machines, Social Systems and the Economic World. New York: Basic, 1994. N. pag. Print. [11] Lachauer, L., Rippmann, M., Block, P. (2010). “Form Finding to Fabrication: A digital design process for masonry vaults” Shanghai [12] Encyclopedia of Mathematics. (n.d.)“Curvature”. Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://www.encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Curvature#The_ curvature_of_submanifolds [13] “What Is Ellipse?” Retrieved July 30, 2013 from http://www.cut-the-knot. org/WhatIs/WhatIsEllipse.shtml [14] Bourke, P. (n.d.). “Circumference of an Ellipse.” N.p., Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://paulbourke.net/geometry/ellipsecirc/ [15]Perimeter of an Elipse. (n.d.). Retrieved July 29, 2013 from http://www.numericana.com/answer/ellipse.html

[16] Allen, E. (2009). Form and forces: Designing efficient, expressive structures. (1st ed., pp. 215-244). New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. [17] Compressive strength. In (2013). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compressive_strength [18] Dennis , S. (1991). Frei otto. Retrieved from http://www.greatbuildings.com/architects/Frei_Otto.html [19] Kangaroo physics. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.food4rhino.com/ project/kangaroo [20] Polygon mesh. In (2013). Wikipedia. Retrieved from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygon_mesh [21] Sculpting overview. (2013). Retrieved from http://download.autodesk.com/global/docs/mudbox2014/en_us/index.

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2013 Obuchi Lab Project: Different Brick  

Kyaw Htoo Ana Ilic Yasemin Sahiner

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