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INTRODUCTION As participants in the summer 2010 Buenos Aires IFP, we have established a clear role among our team of fellow researchers. While our group’s subdivisions each have a specific topic for investigation, all are relevant and interconnected. As such, our individual work will contribute to both a focused research team and to a larger body of knowledge and understanding. We are expecting to work partially with Aguas y Saneamientos (AySA), the state controlled water and sewage utility company of Buenos Aires. We are also expecting to work with local NGO’s whose roles are to monitor clean-up efforts for la Matanza-Riachuelo. The most useful and practical task to master is the ability to learn the context in which we will be working. What follows is some of our preliminary research which is most relevant to the development of our project. Of course, the scope of this paper does not allow us to include everything we learned up to now, however we chose very specific and useful information which frames our research. Part I of this paper discusses Aguas y Saneamientos de Argentina, with whom we will be working. First, we look at their projects which inform us of what the water company is presently working on. Next we look at work the water company is doing which is relevant to our research questions regarding access to sewage services within Buenos Aires. All of this informs our research questions which are addressed in Part II. Part III looks at key actors involved in the clean-up process of la Matanza-Riachuelo, and water and sanitation services. We include descriptions of relevant projects, how they may influence our research questions, and contact information. Part IV discusses a proposed methodology which includes our approach to answering research questions. Part V highlights personal goals for our specific research, our contributions to the Observatorio Matana-Riachuelo, and final conclusions. Lastly, Part VI is an approximate timeline of actions necessary to accomplish our research goals and our internship responsibilities. Please see the Appendix for both relevant maps of the areas under investigation and a reference list of contacts. PART I ABOUT AySA - CURRENT PROJECTS This section addresses some of our research about current projects being implemented by AySA. While there is mention of only a few, we feel that they are relevant to our understanding of operational priorities within the company. First and foremost, AySA has begun a ‘Master Plan 20072020’ which aims to extend their drinking water service to 1.5 million more people. They also hope to incorporate 3.5 million people in their sewer services (AySA website). This is said to be accomplished by the construction of treatment plants in Tiger, the expansion of water treatment facilities and pumping stations, and to renovate and rehabilitate existing networks and facilities. The total investment, according to their site is 17.6 million pesos (AySA website). Additionally, AySA is working with ACUMAR (Autoridad Cuenca MatanzaRiachuelo) and the National Government to work on a project called Plan Inversión Cuenca MatanzaRiachuelo, (http://www.aysa.com.ar/index.php?id_contenido=821). There are two parts to this project. One is to install sewage with the goal of completing 80% of the project, reaching 1.7 million inhabitants by the year 2011. The other is to improve potable water systems. In order to overcome what they consider a water deficit, they are hoping to provide 1.8 million inhabitants with potable water, reaching 100% coverage by 2011. These two projects raise many questions, as details such as who is running the project and what areas they are working in are not explicit in the project description. Another recent effort put out by AySA is the implementation of a side-stream elevated pool aeration (SEPA) (Euclid Infotech 1). The first stage of the project involves the installation of underground pipelines and construction of a series of wastewater treatment plants. The second stage of


the project is installing SEPA which is designed to oxygenate contaminated surface waters. According to this report by Euclid Infotech, AySA will spend 70% of its US$5 billion budget on this project, over the next 10 years (ibid.). However, the project requires collaboration with other actors. For instance, SEPA can only be successful if industries install treatment plants and if solid waste is kept out of the river. This will involve the cooperation of businesses, the federal environmental department, and the water company (Euclid Infotech 1). It is useful to mention a collaborative effort among various stakeholders. The World Bank is financing 60% of the sewage component of the sanitation plan designed by AySA (Euclid Infotech 2). However, other investments are coming from the Andean Development Corporation (CAF), Brazilian development bank (BNDES), and the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). In addition, according to the company’s director, Oscar Velez, they are looking to finance 3 other projects with US$600 million for the World Bank (ibid.). “The first is the construction of an emissions pipeline on the left margin of the river; the second is a pre-treatment plant; and the third project is the construction of a 14km underground emissions pipeline” (Euclid Infotech 2). Following the financial flows of the variety of projects by different lenders is important to consider as it may impact the overall progress of the river clean-up. AySA has established two methods by which to encourage joint work among the following actors: the company, the neighborhood communities, municipalities, State agencies, and civil society. One method begun by Aguas Argentinas is the Participatory Management Model (MPG) where neighborhoods contribute to the construction of water services financed by AySA (AySA wesbite). The Water + Work Plan (Aguas y Trabajo) is considered an intervention methodology to extend potable water to low-income communities (AySA website). It appears this has been a largely successful operation in collaboration with various institutions such as Institute of Training and Education Union (SGBATOS) and the National Institute of Economic and Social Associativism (INAES). Additionally, AySA holds Educational Workshops to inspire community involvement. Currently, it is unclear as to when these sessions are held. There is also a Mobile School which is dedicated to spreading awareness about the importance of smart and sustainable water use. It is meant to be a fun, educational tool to target the behavior of children and to promote responsible ways in which to use water services. Analysis of the impact of these projects may be useful as there may be room for improvement and/or expansion. ABOUT AySA - SEWAGE SERVICE The broad explanation of the work of the water company described above is central to understanding AySA’s overall approach to the city’s river clean-up efforts. It showcases that they focus primarily on potable water expansion. A large percentage of the city has access to potable water whereas a much smaller percentage has access to sewage. Their history with the MPG program and the Aguas y Trabajo Program has successfully demonstrated the company’s ability to increase access of this service to lower-income neighborhoods. However, there is evidence that more attention needs to be placed on sewage access in line with environmental protection, river clean-up, and improving community health. The following is a list of ongoing works aimed at improving the quality of existing sewage networks as well as a focus on expansion of both treatment plants and pipelines. In 2004, the percentage of individuals with access to safe drinking water and sanitation services (connection to sewage) were 79% and 44% respectively. Within Latin America, this placed Argentina slightly below the regional levels of connection of these services - especially in sanitation. The coverage of these services, however, vary between the Federal Capital and the areas surrounding the capital within the Province of Buenos Aires. According to data collected in 2007, coverage for water and sanitation for these areas were 79% and 60% combined. The issue here however, is that these numbers are the average between the Federal Capital where there is almost 100% coverage in both services, and the areas outside the Federal capital - home to 6.5 million people, where the numbers


of coverage are only 64% and 33% for water and sanitation respectively. These numbers place the region among those with the lowest access to basic services in the country. The area outside the Capital Federal is also a priority for the nation, not only because it is evidently an area in great need of increased access to services, but because they act as a priority in order to meet the Millennium Development goals. Under AySA’s Environmental Policy, the company aims to expand on their collection services and increase transport and treatment of sewage produced within the area served (La Capital Federal y Gran BA). This is stipulated under the provisions of Law 26.221 for improving the communities’ quality of life and the environment. Within their Environmental Management Policy (Plan de Gestion Ambiental), Mr. Marcelo Rigotti, the Director of Sanitation, lists that AySA is committed: -to reduce, as far as they can, harmful environmental impacts in surrounding communities; to conduct a self-functioning sewage system which improves the drainage of fluids through the large ducts -to ensure compliance with environmental regulations and other commitments; rationalize the use of nonrenewable natural resources and inputs, as well as improving efficiency in technical and economic resources -to train and inform the staff so that each employee understands their environmental responsibilities and makes a constructive contribution to achieving the environmental objectives set out in the agenda of the Environmental Management System The environmental management system will be subject to revision for the purpose of introducing the necessary modifications, and in this way, committing to continuous improvement of their activities. Finally, they stipulated an understanding of the commitments entrusted to them, stating they will strive to make good use of their work, their facility management, and achieve the best possible outcomes for their partners and their community. The following discussion elaborates on the expansion of services being rendered and proposed. AySA has four treatment plants in the Southwest, the North, El Jaguel, and Barrio Uno; the sanitation system is divided into four basins: the Southwest, the North, Berazategui, and Ezeiza. The general structure of the sewage collection networks consists of large tubes called Cloaca Máxima. Their diameter is 2-4 meters. They are pumping stations, treatment plants, and purification stations. The system is more than 8000 km. in length and dates back to 1874. Southwest basins drain the effluent of the Matanza poplulation to the Southwest treatment plant located in Aldo Bonzi. The effluents from the district of San Isidro, San Fernando, and Tigre, drain north to the North Treatment Plant. Currently, this plant has the capacity to serve a population of approximately 300,000 people, however, only 160,000 of people are currently connected. Plans for expansion of this plant would mean increased access to an additional 440,000 people, bringing the number of individuals served in these three municipalities to roughly 600,000 (IDB project info). The Ezeiza watershed drains the effluent of Esteban Echeverría and Ezeiza to the Jaguel Plant. These all flow to the Beratazegui basin. After a pre-treatment process in the E.B. Wilde plant, the sewage is sent through a large sewer outfall located in Berazategui. It travels 2.5 miles from the coast and pours the liquid through 10 diffusers into Rio de la Plata. The entire system, flowing to the Berazategui basin covers the northern areas of San Isidro and Vicente Lopez, the western areas of Tres de Febrero, San Martin, Morón, part of La Matanza and Buenos Aires, and the southern areas of Avellaneda, Lanús, Lomas de Zamora, Almirante Brown, Esteban Echeverría, and Quilmes, and of course covers the effluent drainage of Berazategui Florencia Varela. AySA has a broad plan of investment and expansion of services within la Cuenca M-R. The objectives of their Master Plan for Expansion and Improvement of Water Services and Sewage define the following as their ultimate goals for 2017 (http://www.aysa.com.ar/index.php?id_seccion=316):


- To define a program of works to be completed, define appropriate investments and integrate communities; - To ensure the production and transportation of potable water used within the radius of service and to where services will be expanded; - To ensure the provision and transportation of the effluents produced within the radius of service and to where services will be expanded; - To define quality service and achieve this goal of provision; - To ensure the integrated operation of the system of water supply and effluent disposal; - To improve environmental conditions in general. In 2007, they stated that their goal for 2011 was to increase access to sewage by 80%. This would mean connecting an additional 1.7 million people within Buenos Aires. By 2017, AySA will have connected 3.7 million inhabitants within the same parameters. In order to facilitate this process, as well as improve their ability to clean-up the environment, two sewage systems will be developed: La Cuenca sewer system – the canal project: - Planta de Pretratamiento Riachuelo (Dock Sud). - Pumping stations, outfall and diffusers. - Left Bank Collector. - Collector Baja Costanera, relieving existing collectors and improving the old network. The Berazategui sewer system: - Pretreatment Plant. - Pump Station. - Outfall and diffusers. The canal project in La Matanza-Riachuelo will break up the volume of flow going into the Wilde treatment plant, and subsequently, the Barazategui plant. This solution not only improves the current operation but also allows for the expansion of sewage into the Southern Region. This proposed plan will generally improve environmental conditions during all stages of treatment. Additionally, completing the Berazategui plant is a priority in order to more effectively control hydraulic overloading of existing facilities. This will allow for expansion of sewer services of Lomas de Zamora, Lanús, Avellaneda, Almirante Brown and Quilmes. Across the city, work in different neighborhoods is planned in an effort to expand existing services. In Lanús and Lomas de Zamora access is being increased to individuals not yet connected to the sewage system, and plans for the construction of the Sewage Plan of Fiorito are proposed. Concurrently, in Cuenca El Jagüel, planned construction of four treatment modules will enable the development of sewage networks in the municipalities of Ezeiza and Esteban Echeverria. The expansion of the Laferrere Plant in the South West Cuenca will incorporate users in the municipality of La Matanza. This expansion will focus on the flow and transportation of effluents into the Rio de la Plata. This construction is being financed by an IDB loan. In the North Cuenca there are plans underway to expand on services, which has also been developed and financed by the IDB. As described above, this plan will increase sewage connections in Tigre, San Isidro, San Fernando and San Martín. Additionally, the system in the West Basin will connect, through increased sewerage, the areas of Hurlingham, Ituzaingó, Moron, Tres de Febrero and partially St. Martin. Please refer to the Appendix for maps of the sewage expansion plans for 4 regions: Lomas de Zamora, Lanús, Avellaneda, and Almirante Brown. The general plan here is to improve and normalize the existing hydraulic system and expand service to the four regions. The improvement document lists basic objectives for various municipalities. For example, the development priorities are to install a treatment plant in Dock Sud, as well as in Berazategui. In addition to that, we have attached a map of


the sewage system through various municipalities, called the AySA-Plan Director Cloacal. This is a depiction of the flow of sewage towards Berazategui. This information is gathered from the AySA website. Also attached are pamphlets produced by AySA detailing the works being done in water as well as sewage expansion throughout several of the municipalities mentioned above. PART II RESEARCH QUESTIONS • How does project expansion impact social spatialization of Buenos Aires? How does this impact property prices and, in effect, social mobility? • How does the work done by AySA tie in with the overall objectives of the LMR clean-up project? Is the language used by AySA in official documents reflected in their practical application? • How does this loan translate into an effective solution? Does the nature and size of the loan dictate the nature of the solution? Are there alternatives to a project such as this? Could it be a decentralized/localized solution vs. the centralized solution that is taking shape? • Who is designing the plan/solution? Who is doing work on the sewage network? What is prioritized financially (financial distribution), how are funds allocated with regard to canals, industry clean-up, and sewage? Specifically, what is the breakdown of sewage financial provisions? • What other loans (like the IDB, CAF, and the BNDES) have facilitated more development in agua/cloacas expansion? How do these loans impact the overall development of an integrated water system? What do these loans stipulate as conditions? How will the unregulated areas be connected, or how not? • Certain areas have been targeted as in need of inclusion within the sewage network: how are these needs assessed? By what criteria are they chosen? • In terms of expansion, what are the specifics of increasing current systems to accommodate a larger number of users? Who decides on what is the best method of expansion? Why? • What are the consequences of increasing services? What are the short-term, medium-term, and long-term effects for the people of these communities? • Who are the people supporting/opposing these expansion efforts? Why? • What advocacy efforts have occurred on the ground? What are examples of communities that have mobilized to increase access to sewage in their neighborhoods? • What is the complimentary or contrasting work being done by other international banking institutions? Alternatively, as there are examples of communities building their own sewage networks, how will larger plans account for, integrate, or overlook existing community efforts? • In terms of becoming a national entity, how has AySA committed, or not, to being transparent in their work? PART III KEY ACTORS/ CONTACTS IIED-AL International Institute of Environment and Development-Latin America is another key actor to consider. This group will be extremely useful with regard to economic, social, and environmental impacts in Buenos Aires. Their various roles include promoting research projects, direct action, technical assistance, and training in environmental issues (IIED-AL website). As explored in previous assignments, IIED-AL has recently discussed ways in which low-income households and


neighborhoods can gain greater access to water and sanitation services. It is established through partnership-based management where different actors collaborate to accomplish a common goal. There is hope that the collective unit formed for this project will become institutionalized as a local water authority. We are curious about the details of this project and would be interested in conducting an investigation to uncover its most recent activity. The IIED-AL website offers a list of contacts and their email address; and we have already established contact with Florencia Almansi, who works with Environmental Management. She offered for us to visit IIED-AL. As such we are hoping a connection with her will lead to access to other individual resources. We are curious to expand on: -By what criteria the communities are chosen -Actor participation in the process, such as the public sector, private companies, NGO’s, and the community -How access to full water and sanitation services can be created -What the process is for building the new systems -It’s likelihood of success -If there is preparation for failure and how to measure that -The input of the community-their needs and financial means to maintain the services Interviews with key players in the organization will hopefully answer some of these research questions and will certainly form additional questions. We are specifically curious to find out if IIED-AL has reached the neighborhoods we are investigating. If so, why was their a need for services and if not, is there a way to facilitate a connection between the work of IIED-AL and the needs of our targeted communities? FARN Fundación Ambiente y Recursos Naturales will be a useful and interesting resource as their work is to promote sustainable development policy, law and institutional organization. They are highly involved with citizen participation which can hopefully provide access for myself and my group to speak with the public. We are currently in contact with the Academic Secretary, Débora Bialostozky (dbialostozky@farn.org.ar), the US Representative, Daniel Ryan (dryan@farn.org.ar), Director of the Riachuelo Area, Andrés Nápoli (anapoli@farn.org.ar), and the Coordinator of Citizen Participation Programs, Agnes Sibileau (asibileau@farn.org.ar). We have heard from Mr. Nápoli who offered that we visit the organization to further discuss matters facing the river. We are hoping to establish a relationship with the organization such that we can conduct interviews and/or gain access to some of their current policy work. We are hopeful that our questions and interest in their work will perhaps lead to research we can conduct on their behalf or an opportunity to volunteer. Their most recently published Annual Report from 2004-2005 is a very useful document for a summary of specific work undertaken by the non-profit organization. For instance, it mentions their program titled, Citizen Control for a Healthy Environment. It promotes institutional justice and provides free legal advice/protection to people who feel their rights have been violated. This organization, among many other benefits, will be useful for our research in the sense that they are advocating for the problems of la Matanza-Riachuelo to be put on a political agenda. In that case: -What does that effort look like? -Does it require community participation? To what extent? -Has there been success in reaching political recognition? -How will public policies change to address the problems of the river basin? -Who will be held accountable? -Can the organization accurately represent the needs/concerns of a particular community, or does their need to be active participation?


These are only a few questions that will guide our investigation of the role of FARN in the broader scope of monitoring the clean-up of the river basin. While, this particular research may speak to the larger group project, the questions are certainly relevant to our project regarding water and sanitation services. For instance, if FARN has not been available to represent these specific neighborhoods, perhaps facilitation can be created to establish a working relationship. Greenpeace Greenpeace Argentina has been named as one of the five monitoring agencies for la MatanzaRiachuelo. Right now we have established contact with press coordinator, Mariana Ciaschini (mariana.ciaschini@greenpeace.org) to gain insight regarding publications and also inquire about community involvement. She has offered to arrange a time for us to meet at Greenpeace when we arrive in Buenos Aires. This organization will be useful for our project in a number of ways. First, Greenpeace contains information such as reports, articles, and data on the river basin. One such report is called, Greenpeace en acci贸n-Riachuelo, found at: http://www.greenpeace.org.ar/socios/revista/057.pdf. However, more generally, in an introduction into the area of la Matanza Greenpeace presents the situation as grave and detrimental to the environment and the health of people who are living on the river (Greenpeace website). They attribute consequences of pollution and contamination to three primary causes. One is periodic flooding. According to their information site, flooding caused by heavy rainfall results in severe damage to the area because of poor drainage systems and low land levels. Consequently homes and streets are being flooded with contaminated water, increasing health risks to the local population (ibid.). Another is the high level of pollution coming mainly from industries. The table below (right) was put out by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development which shows that half of the contaminates are coming from the tannery industry. Refrigeration is responsible for 30% of contamination, and the remaining 20% of contaminates are coming from mainly leather and fur industries (ibid). If these companies are not dumping toxic substances directly into the river, they are being dumped into storm sewers or on land. Either way, the chemicals are present in the water table (ibid).


Lastly, they attribute contamination in the area to uncontrolled urban and industrial development. Greenpeace notes that specifically in the ares of the Lower Basin and Middle Rio Matanza-Riachuelo, there is a high concentration of both industries/households with poor planning and urban slums. This has led to environmental damage and reinforced poor infrastructure such that households are not getting access to potable water and sewer services (ibid.). Greenpeace proposes a plan requiring “clean” production processes, the proper use of natural resources, and it’s incorporation in the political agenda. Their two objectives for such a plan are: cleaner production for the Matanza-Riachuelo and environmental restoration for the entire basin (Greenpeace pollution website). By the year 2020, their aim is twofold; one, to achieve zero waste, discharge, and emissions of hazardous substances, including heavy metals and halogenated organic compounds and two, to progressively reduce discharges, emissions, and losses of harmful contaminates (ibid.). It is precisely these explicit, yet vague goals that raise many questions for our research. -Has this plan started? -Who are the actors which will establish and implement clean treatment technologies? -What is Greenpeace’s actual role? To coordinate/provoke implementation of a project? Advocate? -How will this be paid for? -Is there a recognition in plan proposals that health, environment, and water are interrelated and cannot be taken as separate issues? -How will it reach a political agenda and then be sustained through long-term goals? -Does this plan reflect Greenpeace’s statement in a April 2010 article suggesting that “there is too much planning and not enough action” (http://www.greenpeace.org/argentina/prensarss/intimacion-a-la-acumarr).


Second, Greenpeace will be an interesting case for community involvement because of the angle in which they address citizens’ needs. Greenpeace campaigns for issues facing the global environment using non-violent tactics such as political pressure and direct action to make change. Many of their reports, such as the overview noted above, address health concerns of the community. As such, so far we have found little information on their community involvement, which we think speaks to their advocacy on behalf of affected populations. To us this raises a number of questions regarding accuracy: -How does Greenpeace consider the needs of community members? -Is their direct involvement to address those needs? -Does Greenpeace consider that a benefit second to improving the environmental conditions? -Does Greenpeace reach small neighborhoods in the municipalities of Buenos Aires? If so, how? If not, why? PART IV METHODOLOGY Data collection and research methods for this particular type of project will require that we use primarily qualitative information from interviews and questionnaires. The majority of our research methods will be open-ended, qualitative questions. Based on the brief outline of research questions which we have mentioned above, we will be translating a master document of interview questions targeted for each of our relevant organizations. Once we establish contact with the organizations and gain access to the community through outreach projects, we will begin to frame interview questions to collect community opinions, thoughts, and concerns. Ultimately our aim is to create a baseline understanding of the works within the company focusing on an evident need for sewage expansion. We will address how the World Bank loan will impact the flow of service. We are expecting to use various types of evaluation in our project, as different goals for data results require that we tailor our methods. The overall project, by the IFP group, will take the form of a needs assessment which will incorporate the use of informal and formal surveys, review of literature, and participant interviews. However, our individual project research, as mentioned, will take the form of impact evaluation, outcome orientation, and implementation evaluation. Impact evaluation will be useful when we are looking at current water and/or sewage development projects. We will use and analyze both qualitative and quantitative research to determine if the program has any positive or negative impacts. This will be used mostly to support or oppose our established research, it will identify a causation, and confirm practical events. We are aiming to collect this information through discussions with the water company, other organizations, and community members. Outcome evaluation research will be used to track the results of programs. We can ascertain, through mostly quantitative analysis, basic facts and a straightforward description of a project. This will be most useful in the case of tracking what established projects have done and how they can be either reinvented or applied in the future. Implementation evaluation seems to be the method that will be most useful to us. It requires qualitative date collection such as participant observation, focus groups, and interviews. This will shape answers to our research questions, but will also contribute to the group as a whole. Considering the above evaluation techniques, we will also use various data collection methods. Some portions of the process will require that we use observational methods. This is necessary for collecting information from community members, especially where quantitative data is unavailable. This will take the form of participant observation on some levels. For instance, we are happy to volunteer our time to both help out and encourage dialogue among community members. Additionally, we are preparing to conduct survey research to access a wider audience. This will take the form of personal, face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. Of course, the participants will be determined


once we have key informants from the water company and the aforementioned NGO's. Lastly, in order to get a clear perspective of the entirety of the situation regarding water and sewage, we will use secondary data analysis. We are hoping to access this information from both current academic sources, institutional records, social indicators, and the research of our peers. This particular data will further inform our information and hopefully create a connection to other fields, such as health, the environment, and the role of industries surrounding the LMR. PART V PERSONAL GOALS, PROJECT CONTRIBUTION, and CONCLUSIONS Our work will be useful in the overall IFP project in the sense that we will have focused research on sewage in various municipalities of Buenos Aires. Our contribution will be to address current expansion projects, financial investment, communities' access to service, and how various other actors play a role. The result will be a clearer understanding of health, water and sanitation, and environmental concerns in order to establish a needs assessment regarding the clean-up of la MatanzaRiachuelo. Finally, we are hoping to incorporate a creative aspect in the project using photography. Ideally, the nature of the research we conduct will speak to the need for photo documentation of community perceptions. It is unclear from what angle we will be taking photos or if community members themselves will stand behind the camera; but we think a powerful visual narrative will emerge from documenting inequalities in access to water and sanitation services. Our idea is to establish key contacts in designated communities. From there we are hoping that by using a camera, people (or one person) will be inspired to document their access - positive or negative - to water and sanitation. It will serve as an alternative perspective and provide visual evidence to contextualize our research. PERSONAL GOALS Liz: While I have had previous experience with field research, I have never worked under the framework of development in an urban setting. As such one of my personal goals is to find a niche while out of my comfort zone. I am confident I will embrace the experience and learn from it. I am also looking forward to reaching my goal of adding a personal contribution to the general needs assessment for the IFP project. I am hoping for a specific and effective contribution that will be useful for both my personal research plan and the broader 5 year project. Lastly, I have a personal goal of developing a project appreciable to a larger audience. Albeit not explicitly defined, I hope my contribution is accessible to universities, communities, local NGO's, and the water company. Mandy: Unlike Liz, I haven’t really done extensive field research. Really, no matter what the outcome of our project may be, I will be happy to just be in the field, experiencing what it is like to conduct research, ask informed questions, and produce something academic. I’m specifically looking forward to learning about the water company, and the way in which they take their responsibilities to heart. I think this experience is merely the beginning of a longer journey of work in this field. Furthermore, I am very excited about being a part of this larger project, the OMR, and feel that my contribution from working in the water company will be central to building a baseline of information that will impact the next five years of this project. My ultimate goal is to take what I do this summer, and turn an aspect of what we find into a thesis I can feel passionate about. PART VI TIMELINE


In order to make these research questions operational, we will generally follow this timeline. Once meetings have been established with key contacts before we arrive, they will fit into the given time slots. Because all of our information will be compiled to produce one outcome, it is likely that interviews and data collection will happen collectively. Given the general framework, our timeline is as follows: Week 1 Orientation, Regional Tour, Confirmation of meetings (ie. Florencia Almansi, FARN representatives, Greenpeace representatives). Goal throughout: photograph all that we deem relevant to better represent findings. Update our blog consistently. Week 2 Carry out scheduled meetings with the above actors and establish survey schedule. Begin internship with the AySA - get bearings within the organization and clarify expectations. Confirm our TOR with AySA. Become oriented with the individuals that will be guiding our work. Week 3 Data collection. Meetings with key actors (IIED-Al, FARN, Greenpeace, pursue AySA). Final preparations for community interviews. Continue on with work with AySA as interns.

Week 4 Meetings with potential new actors provided by IIED-AL, FARN, Greenpeace. Conduct surveys. Week 5 Carry on with interviews and data collection. Conduct follow-up meetings with key actors. Week 6 Finish photography throughout the week, Patch holes/collect any missing data. Week 7 Compilation and analysis of research findings. Conclusion of internship with water company. Week 8 Present findings.


Works Cited AySA http://www.aysa.com.ar/index.php. Euclid Infotech-1 http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Argentina+: +AySA+evaluating+sidestream+elevated+pool+aeration+for...-a0210562612. Euclid Infotech-2 http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Argentina+:+AySA+to+invest+70%25+of+budget+in+MatanzaRiachuelo.-a0210393938. FARN, Fundaci贸n Ambiente y Recursos Naturales http://www.farn.org.ar/farn/en_index.html. Greenpeace http://www.greenpeace.org/argentina/contaminaci-n/agua/riachuelo. IDB and AySA Investment Plan, el norte: http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=1591287. Plan de Gesti贸n Ambiental: http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=1591334. IIED-Am茅rica Latina www.iied-al.org.ar.

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Objetivos de trabajo del Perfil Ambiental