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the letter “b� issue


a magazine full of art, litter, politics, beans design, literature, science, anthropology, boxeurs, beetles, sex & foreign or forgotten languages

really rich





billy (the kid)













According to Galen,

the consequences of the influences of blood on the human constitution are not at all positive , and, in fact, seem to negate the characteristics attributed to this humor by the Hypocratic teachings and by Aristotle. However, such was not to be the case in the tradition that followed, and which marked the true codification of the doctrine of the four temperaments. In fact, in the physiognomic literature produced between the third and sixth centuries, which proved to be the determining factor in the formation and diffusion of the aforementioned theories, the sanguine krasis or complexio is the best of four. in other words,

those with a sanguine temperament are benevolent, unaffected, mild and of good character (Vindician), moderate, mild and good-looking (Pseudo Soranus), and

finally serene, helpful, prone to laughter, and talkative (Bede).

no c o r t no cn i oi m lI è i s a l l e n y h ta B a l o i r p o r p o ta c i f i r e v r e p ovat s o d n auq e l l a n i m r e t e r ro p e l l e n e h c r e ci r e i m . a g a r P i d e n at n o f n u n i atavo r t oh ’L auq ca’ d om lo c o s av e h c a n at n o f a l l ed e t no r f id avo r t i s a i v id 8 2 4 o r e mu n l a

Il mio incontro con la Bathynella si è verificato

- l a n u i d a i n g ap m o c

proprio quando stavo per

- at s o r c o l o c c i p o r t

porre termin alle mie ricerche nelle fontane di Praga. L’ho trovata in un vaso colmo d’a cqua della

n oN . e t n ata n o e c - r ap u c c o o d n e to p - n e m ata i d e m m i e n e m - e tl u id at s i v n i , e t

fontana che si trova di fron-

oh e h c r e ci r i roi r

te al numero 428 di via dei

- i n a e u d i o ta l o s i

Carmelitani, in compagnia

- p o r t r u p aM . i l a m

di un altro piccolo crostaceo

o n roi g l ad n i f ,o p

natante. Non potendo occuparmene immediata-


n i , i n at i l e m r a C i ed

mente, in vista di ulteriori ricerche ho isolato i due

ot t e r t s o c i u f o po d e h c e r atat s n o c a - m e s e e u d i ed o n u : o s r ap m o c s a r e i r a l p

animali. Ma purtroppo, fin

e n o i g a r a l è at s e u q

dal giorno dopo fui costretto

o t u to p o h i u c r e p

a constatare che uno dei due

i n g e s i d i e i m i e r af

esemplari era scomparso: questa è la ragione per cui

id u s i mo d n a s a b - e r p p a r o lo s n u

ho potuto fare i miei disegni

i t s e u q i d e t n at n e s

basandomi su di un solo

- n a r u D . i e c at s o r C

rappresentante di questi

e h c r e ci r e i m e l e t

Crostacei. Durante le mie

o n r e v n i ’ l l e n e tlov s

ricerche svolte nell’inverno

no n , 0 88 1 o n n a’ l l ed

dell’a nno 1880, non sono

- o r t a ot i c s u i r o no s

riuscito a trovare un nuovo

- m e s e ovo u n n u e r av

esemplare di questi interes-

- e t n i i t s e uq id e r a l p

santi animali.

.ilamina itnass er

A History


of Recording Hypogean Crustacea & EYE L ESS S H RI M PS


ſince 1812 in 1812 a blind shrimp was collected from a newly sunk well in the square of st. bartholomew’s hospital, london and was subsequently named gammarus subterraneus by leach in the edinburgh encyclopaedia (leach, 1814). this is the first published record of a hypogean crustacean from britain. in 1853 westwood recorded niphargus stygius from a well near maidenhead, berkshire. hogan (1859) suggests that these two records were in fact niphargus aquilex. in the middle and later decades of the 19th century naturalists discovered more

of these colourless and eyeless shrimps. these initial discoveries were made in water pumped from wells and hence the animals acquired the name “well shrimps”. the first irish “well shrimp”, niphargus kochianus irlandicus was collected from an old well sunk in limestone in dublin in 1863 by professor kinahan. new british species continued to be discovered throughout the early 20th century, including proasellus cavaticus in 1925 and bathynella natans (antrobathynella stammeri) in 1927. from the late 1930s until the

60s a large amount of biological recording was carried out in caves by the cave research group. the two main people involved in this were brigadier aubrey glennie and mary hazelton. hazelton published a series of biological records from caves in 16 parts between 1955 and 1978, which included many records of hypogean crustacea. terry gledhill of the freshwater biological association (fba) carried out work in dorset during the late 60s and early 70s, including a long-term study at the waterston cress beds, which yielded many interesting records.

The charming & violently beautiful Bathynella Natans.

red-and-black spots. another is the hyacint bean , which has purple flowers and handsome purplishred seed pods. stringless bush snap beans are among the most satisfactory vegetables to grow in the home garden. within 55 days after planting, they yeld a large crop for the amount of space they require. pole snap beans and green shell beans usually require longer than this. in order to have fresh beans all through the season, the home gardener should make severalk plantings of beans 10 to 14 days apart. stringless beans of both the bush and the pole varieties should be planted in early spring, as soon as frost is gone and the ground is warm. if it is cold, the seeds may decay. the seeds should be planted one to two inches deep. pole beans are usually planted in groups of from 4 to 6 seeds. these are called “hills�. bush should be arranged in rows 2 to 3 feet apart, with the plants about 2 to 4 inches apart in the row. beans are nice,

beans are useful for yoU !

many different kinds of beans are cultivated throughout the world. in the united states and canada the most important kinds are varieties of the kidney bean . they were first cultivated by the indians of south and central america. among the varieties are the red kidney beans, the mottled pinto beans, and the white navy beans, which are used for the boston baked beans. these kinds of beans are often eaten after they have become fully ripe, when they are called dry beans. other varieties of the kidney bean are called green shell beans. they are picked when fullgrown, but before they have ripened and turned hard. the kinds of beans called stringless beans or snap beans are picked at a still younger stage. both the halfformed seeds and the juicy pods of string beans are eaten. some

string beans have green pods. other kinds of string beans have yellow pods, and are called wax beans . kidney beans of all kinds have greater food value than most other kinds of vegetables. dry beans are very rich in proteins and carbohydrates, and may be eaten as a substitute for meat. green shell beans contain large amounts of both proteins and vitamins. stringless beans are a fairly good source of energy, and are rich in vitamons a, b, and c. an important bean, which is not a variety of the kidney bean, is the lima bean. it is a large, white, flat bean, eaten either dried or green. the mung bean is important in asia. its sprouted seeds are eaten as a cooked vegetable or raw in salads. another distinct kind of bean is the soybean. some climbing beans first found in the tropics are now grown in northern gardens for their beauty. one is the scarlet runner bean, with large, brightred flowers and seeds speckled with

Judge Roy Bean administrated law west of the Pecos, Texas (land of the free, home of the brave). “I have carefully examined the criminal statutes of Texas,” said Roy Bean, “and I find that there is plenty of law to punish one white man for another, but there is no law to punish a citizen of Texas for shooting a Chinaman. In fact, the Chinese are not mentioned in the statutes.

Your Growing Up Notes


BILLY THE KID  (1859-1861)

 T e e n a g e o u t l aw of the southwest

baboon is a large monkey. it has a large head and long, sharp teeth, and a muzzle much like that of a dog. a baboon’s arms are about as long as its legs. some baboons have short, stumpy tails, but others have tails more than 2 feet long. most male baboons are much larger than female baboons. some females weigh only about 30 pounds. but a male baboon may weigh as much as 90 pounds. four kinds of baboons live in africa and southwestern arabia. they eat eggs, fruits, grass, insects, leaves, and roots. they can carry food in pouches inside their cheeks. baboons live in groups of from 10 to 80 animals. some groups include as many as 100 animals. a large male usually rules the group. male baboons can be fierce fighters. they have even attacked leopards. the male hamadry as baboon of ethiopia has a cape of long, gray hair on its head and shoulders. ethioplans once considered this animal sacred.



and ttack s for a e i t i left l i e b i with th s t p o ss g re a t e e. ht line n g e i o h t b ra t t s s s t a i form a E perm t h e b re C t d l s ick N u n u i A o q T a h S s ag body f ro m a BASIC ghtly of the left O X E ’S power held ti t e s d t h d i i n g i s a s THE B t e , t ra iv lef o r w a rd r his s w re c e e. The rm out pped f tly ove ng blo defens right a t d i re c stunni n i s d ro s i h i h p g h c r i s e a t e h w o s o s i h a h s , s S e leg. Th t S if , h RO xer sh he left IGHT C The bo er to t THE R waist. should n. e d h n t a f positio ip ecause turn o rd i n g s his h a n u r ower b g u p t a s e u n h i o s d y A n d e . o b leg line. e s t re m to his ra i g h t p ro d u c d close in a st b l o w, ft han g e l n i . t s g i i n h i d n lds arp, st y behi He ho B, a sh he bod t JA f T o F t E igh THE L t i re w e the en it has

its power from a quick turn of the waist.

the right cross: a sharp stunning blow receives


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THE LETTER "B" ISSUE of a new 16 pp magazine project, based on graphic design and high quality texts; each issue features a different topic,...