CONNECTIVES 1.AND-TYPE CONNECTIVES - are similar in meaning with the conjunction and  Connectives of listing: • FIRSTLY, FINALLY, ABOVE ALL, LAST BUT NOT LEAST • ALSO, FURTHERMORE, MOREOVER, IN ADDITION,LIKEWISE, SIMILARLY, IN THE SAME

 Connectives of transition: • WITH REFERENCE TO, WITH

REGARD RESPECT TO, REGARDING, AS FOR .

 Connectives of summation: • TO CONCLUDE, TO SUM UP, IN

WAY

TO,

WITH

BRIEF, THEREFORE, IN

SUMMATION

 •

Connectives of apposition:

THAT IS TO SAY, VIZ ( =NAMELY), IN OTHER WORDS, RATHER .

 •

Connectives of result:

SO, THEREFORE, AS A RESULT, CONSEQUENTLY, THUS, HENCE

 •

Connectives of reference:

THEN, IN OTHER WORDS, THAT IMPLIES, ELSE, IN THAT CASE.

2. OR – TYPE CONNECTIVES- are meaning with the conjunction or  Connectives of reformulation:

similar

in

• BETTER, RATHER, IN OTHER WORDS, TO PUT MORE SIMPLY

IT

 Connectives of replacement

ALTERNATIVELY, RATHER, BETTER WORSE, ON THE OTHER HAND . •

3. BUT – TYPE CONNECTIVES -are meaning with the conjunction but  Connectives of contrast:

similar

in

• INSTEAD, ON THE CONTRARY, BY (WAY) OF CONTRAST, IN COMPARISON, ON THE ONE HAND, ON THE OTHER HAND, CONVERSELY.

Connectives of concession:

• BESIDES, HOWEVER, NEVERTHELESS, STILL, ALTHOUGH , THOUGH, YET, IN ANY CASE, AT ANY RATE, FOR ALL THAT, IN SPITE OF/ DESPITE OF, ALL THE SAME, EVEN IF, EVEN THOUGH

EXEMPLIFICATION • • • • •

FOR EXAMPLE SUCH AS FOR INSTANCE X IS A CASE IN POINT AN EXAMPLE IS/MAY BE/BEING…

COMPARISON AND CONTRAST

• SIMILARITIES: BOTH X AND Y HAVE/ ARE X AND Y ARE SIMILAR/ ALIKE IN THAT THEY BOTH… X IS SIMILAR TO Y IN THAT… X IS SIMILAR TO Y IN… X AND Y BOTH….. THE SAME KIND OF…. X LIKE Y….. X IS…. SO/ TOO IS Y. • DISSIMILARITIES: A AND B ARE DISSIMILAR IN THAT A HAS MUCH SMALLER….THAN B A IS DIFFERENT FROM B IN THAT….. A IS…. WHEREAS / WHILE B IS…. WITH REGARD TO…..A IS…..THAN B. ON THE ONE HAND A IS/ HAS…. ON THE OTHER HAND B IS/ HAS…. THE MAIN DIFFERENCE/ ONE OF THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A AND B IS THAT…..

ARGUMENT

INTRODUCING A POINT OF VIEW: PROS o THE FIRST THING TO BE CONSIDERED IS THAT…. o IT IS A FACT THAT…. o I BELIEVE WITH X THAT…. o YHE POINT TO BE MADE CLEAR IS THAT …. • INTRODUCING CONS o I DISAGREE WITH X WHO MAINTAINS THAT… o BUT-TYPE CONNECTIVES • STYLISTIC INVERSION  UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES…  ON NO ACCOUNT…  SELDOM DID….  NEITHER DID…  LITTLE DID SHE/HE+ VERB…. •

 NEVER DID…  NO SOONER.. THAT…  HARDLY… WHEN…  NOT ONLY… BUT ALSO…. • DRAWING CONCLUSIONS:  SUMMARISING – IN SHORT - IN BRIEF - IN A WORD - TO SUM UP  CONCLUDING –IN CONCLUSION… - ON THE WHOLE - ALTOGETHER - IN ALL  IT IS GENERALLY/ WIDELY ACCPTED/ ARGUED/ HELD/BELIEVED THAT….  THEREFORE/THUS/ON THIS BASIS/ GIVEN THIS IT CAN/ MAY BE CONCLUDED/DEDUCED/INFERRED THAT….  FROM TABLE 1 /THE TABLE/FIGURES/DATA/RESULTS/INFORMATION IT CAN/MAY BE DEDUCED/SEEN/ CONCLUDED/SHOWN/ESTIMATED/ CALCULATED/ INFERED THAT…  IN CONCLUSION/ FINALLY WE CAN/ MAY SAY/BE SAID THAT…

CAUSE AND EFFECT

• THE CAUSE/ EFFECT/ CONSEQUENCE/ RESULT/ REASON FOR/WHY (+CLAUSE) OF….IS • CAUSE THEREFORE/SO / AS A RESULT/ AS A CONSEQUENCE/ACCORDINGLY/THUS/HENCE / FOR THIS REASON EFFECT • BECAUSE OF THIS… • BECAUSE/AS /SINCE/NOW THAT…. • CAUSE CAUSATIVE VERB EFFECT = TO CAUSE/RESULT IN /LEAD TO/ PRODUCE/ BRING ABOUT • EFFECT BECAUSE OF/AS A RESULT OF/ ON ACCOUNT OF/ OWING TO/ DUE TO… • IF CLAUSE THEN MAIN CLAUSE

Essay writing:

• introduction

TO BEGIN WITH

• development

WITH REFERENCE TO IN THE SAME WAY IN OTHER WORDS

THAT IMPLIES TO PUT IT MORE SIMPLY ON THE OTHER HAND IN COMPARISON BESIDES

• conclusion

TO CONCLUDE TO SUM UP

THE FORMAL STYLE Contracted verbal forms are to be avoided Familiar language should be replaced by vocabulary FORMAL IN FORMAL SIMPLE VERBS

PHRASAL VERBS

CONDUCT DISCOVER INVESTIGATE

CARRY OUT FIND OUT LOOK INTO

formal

Impersonality is recommended. It may be achieved by using: • Introductory it • There is –type of predicates • Impersonal one • The passive voice Tentativeness and caution are recommended. It should be achieved like this: Basic meaning verbs 1. not definitely true to appear to, to seem to 2. not definitely to tend to, to be certain likely to, may well 3. possible might, may, could, can

CLASIFICATION • • • • •

TO TO TO TO TO

CLASSIFY GROUP DIVIDE ORGANIZE FALL INTO= TO CLASSIFY YOURSELF INTO

adverbs apparently, seemingly ( very) probably maybe, perhaps, possibly

VOCABULARY • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

CRITERION/CRITERIA BASIS/ BASES FEATURES CHARACTERISTICS TO CATEGORISE TO ARRANGE TO PUT INTO TO PLACE IN TO DISTINGUISH TO DIFFERENTIATE TO SUB-CLASSIFY TO SUB-CATEGORISE TO SUB-GROUP TO SUB-DIVIDE CATEGORIES, SUB-CATEGORIES SORTS SPECIES BREEDS ORDERS DIVISIONS FAMILIES MEMBERS CLASSES, SUB-CLASSES GROUPS, SUB-GROUPS TYPES , SUB-ORDER KINDS, SUB-DIVISIONS X CONSISTS OF/ COMPRISES……ACCORDING TO…. WHETHER OR NOT….THERE IS X…. WHETHER THERE IS X OR NOT…. X MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO/ON THE BASIS OF/ DEPENDING (UP)ON… THE CLASSIFICATION IS BASED (UP)ON ……. MAY BE DIVIDED…. ……..MAY BE FURTHER SUB-DIVIDED….

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