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PSYCHOLOGICA SUMMER | FAL L 2017, VOL 42.2

reflection renewal resilience The OACCPP Mag azine


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Psycholog ica is t he official m ag azine of t he Ontar io Associat ion of Consultant s, Counsellor s, Psychom etr ist s and Psychot herapist s. Volum e 4 2, Issue 2 Sum m er | Fall 20 17

03 04 06 12

PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE

17 20 24

THROUGH THE W ORKPLACE LOOKING GLASS

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CULTURAL SENSITIVITY, AWARENESS, SAFETY, COMPETENCE AND HUMILITY IN HEALTH CARE PRACTICES W ITH INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN CANADA

32

THROUGH THE SOLUTION-FOCUSED LOOKING GLASS

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by Sue Tassé

LETTER FROM THE EDITOR by Step hen Doug las

EARLY RECOLLECTIONS A Direct Pathway Beyond the L ooking Glass by Susan Prosser

MIRROR MIRROR OF MY MIND... You are Naturally So K ind by J am es McDonald Psycho- Social Factors Necessary for Psychologically Safe Workplaces by Laura Lieb rock

APPLICATIONS OF ARGENTINE TANGO IN RELATIONAL SKILL-BUILDING by Carolyn Dallm an Dow nes

LYMELAND: A CAUTIONARY TALE W hen Allopathic Medicine Fails, and I mplications for Mental Health Professionals by Lor i Dennis

by Ed Connor s I ntroducing I nnerView Guidance by Ced r ic M. Speyer

TRANSPERSONAL METHODS OF SELF-DEVELOPMENT Discovering our Highest Potential by Gab r iele M. Craig

review s

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PRESENTATION REVIEW Resilience- Focused Marriage and Family Counselling

by Step hen Doug las

T able of Contents


OACCPP

Board of Direct or s 2017

Psychologica

Sue T assĂŠ

Stephen Douglas

President, Chair of Communications

James W hetstone Past President, Chair of Nominations

Jane Alway Vice- President, Chair of Governance & Risk Management

Suzanne Dennison Vice- President, Chair of Public Policy

Holly K retschmer

Editor

Chelsea Barnett Maryann I stiloglu Sue T assĂŠ (ex- officio) Editorial Committee

Office Maryann I stiloglu Executive Director Ruth T aylor Operations Manager

Chelsea Barnett

Mary- Ann Saltstone

Communications & Professional Development Coordinator

Chair of Ethics & Professional Conduct

K amil Devonish

T reasurer

Anne Marie Bourgeois

Membership Coordinator

Chair of Professional Development

L iana Palmerio- McI vor Chair of Certification

Sakina Qasim Helen I lios L aura L iebrock Alina Repede Directors at L arge

DISCLAIMER The Ontar io Associat ion of Consultant s, Counsellor s, Psychom etr ist s and Psychot herapist s (OACCPP) d oes not sup p or t , end or se or recom m end any m et hod , p rod uct , clinic, p rog ram or per son m ent ioned wit hin it s m ag azine, new sletter, or web site. It p rovides t hese vehicles as a ser vice for your infor m at ion only. The reader is resp onsib le for confir m ing details and ver ifying accuracy of claim s. List ing s d o not im ply end or sem ent or recom m end at ion of any ser vice on t he p ar t of t he OACCPP. Neit her d oes t he OACCPP end or se any claim s, ideas, alleg ed fact ual infor m at ion, or t heoret ical p osit ions p rovided by contr ib ut or s t o Psycholog ica.

Copyr ig ht : The Ed it or ial Board of Psycholog ica welcom es and encourag es aut hor s t o resub m it ar t icles p ub lished in our jour nal for p ub licat ion elsew here or for d uplicat ion for teaching p ur p oses. Aut hor s, however, m ust seek t he ap p roval of t he Ed it or ial Board b eforehand . If ap p roval is g ranted , t he aut hor should contact t he Ed it or of Psycholog ica for a copy of t he official and final ver sion of t he ar t icle.


President 's Messag e by Sue T assĂŠ | R.P., (Cert)OACCPP As we enter the summer months, which for many of us is a more relaxed pace, I am encouraging you to include this edition of Psychologica on your summer reading list. T he Summer | Fall issue of Psychologica magazine is a wonderful

primer for the OACCPP Conference in September. We want to peak our members? interest, and introduce some of the timely topics on which we?ve focused for our largest professional development event. We hope you consider joining us this year for the 2017 Conference, ?T hrough T he L ooking Glass: Guiding T ransformations T hrough Reflections, Renewal & Resilience?. T his issue of Psychologica features articles by three of our conference presenters ? Susan Prosser (p. 6), Carolyn Dallman Downs (p. 20), and Ed Connors (p. 28). T he rest of the magazine was brought together around the conference subtitle, that is, Reflection, Renewal, Resilience. T hese themes not only inspired some brilliant writing by our members, but also perfectly represent this moment in Psychologica?s path, both where it?s been and where it?s going. REFLECTION PSY 42.2 marks the first issue following Sarah Sheard?s tenure as our content editor. For the past four years with Sarah at the helm, we?ve seen Psychologica

grow in a number of ways. Her leadership has shifted the magazine to the online format, and encouraged many new writers to contribute. Our sincerest thanks, Sarah. RENEWAL As our magazine continues to change and grow, I ?m thrilled to introduce our new content editor Stephen Douglas. Stephen brings over 25- years of therapeutic experience, and is a long- standing and dedicated member of the OACCPP. Welcome! RESILIENCE Psychologica is your magazine! And, none of it could be done without the

engagement of each and every one of our members. W hy not try your hand at writing, or join the editorial board? W hy not keep the conversation going at the 2017 conference! We can?t shape the magazine without your continued support. *** I wish you time over the summer months to experience your own reflection and renewal.

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L etter from the Editor by Step hen Doug las | M.A., R.P. It is an honour t o say hello t o t he m em b er s of t he OACCPP w ho are read ing Psychologica t od ay. Tog et her you rep resent a d iver se and talented resource of m ental healt h p rofessionals. Throug h our m ag azine, I hope you will em b race t he op p or t unit y t o lear n from one anot her, exp and ing our collect ive knowled g e, skills, and ab ilit ies. W het her you are a long -t im e reader or just b ecom ing acq uainted wit h our associat ion p ub licat ion, I hope you will g ain insig ht in explor ing Reflection, Renewal, and Resilience, alig ned wit h our t hem e for t he OACCPP 20 17 Annual Conference. We freq uent ly offer our client s t he op p or t unit y t o lear n and heal t hroug h reflection. Susan Prosser illustrates t he Ad ler ian p ract ice of explor ing Ear ly Recollect ions wit h client s. J am es McDonald descr ib es t he m ir ror -like nat ure of t he m ind t o dem onstrate t he b enefit s of introd ucing Bud d hist p r inciples ? b eyond m ind fulness ? int o t he p ract ice of p sychot herapy. And Gab r iele Craig inspires us t o em b race a four t h force, Transper sonal Psycholog y, inclusive of p sycho-spir it ual develop m ent . The renewal of our com m it m ent t o m ental healt h is dem onstrated in t w o ar t icles in p ar t icular t his issue. Laura Lieb rock w r ites of t he introd uct ion of new voluntar y p sycholog ical stand ard s in t he w or kplace t o ensure m ental healt h safet y t hroug h a com m it m ent t o evaluate 13 p sycho-social fact or s. Dr. Ed Connor s w r ites of our resp onsib ilit y t o renew our com m it m ent t o cult ural com petency and safet y in our p rovision of m ental healt h ser vices t o ind ig enous people. The resilience our client s dem onstrate is hig hlig hted t hroug h a p ower ful, vulnerab le account by Lor i Dennis of her ow n fam ily?s str ug g le wit h Chronic Lym e Disease, and im plicat ions for all m ental healt h p rovider s. Carolyn Dallm an Dow nes?essay offer s an intr ig uing synop sis of her develop m ent of Ar g ent ine Tang o as a t herapeut ic techniq ue t o enhance a couples?resiliency in m ar ital conflict . And Ced r ic Speyer w r ites of t he com pelling b enefit s of Solut ion-Focused Therapy in b uild ing our client s?resilience by reflect ing w hat is ?r ig ht ? wit h t hem . Finally, a Review sect ion is b eing rest ored t o our m ag azine. Mem b er s are invited t o sub m it t heir ow n review s of b ooks and p resentat ions of interest t o our p rofession. I have included a b r ief review and sum m ar y of a recent p resentat ion on Resilience-Focused Mar r iag e and Fam ily Therapy by Monica and W illiam Nicoll, w hich I hope will inspire you t o seek out fur t her w r it ing and p resentat ions by t his rem ar kab le d uo. My g rat it ude g oes out t o each of t hese aut hor s and m y invitat ion t o each of you reader s. Psychologica is your p ub licat ion, your op p or t unit y t o share, t o lear n, t o g row t og et her, and t o shine as a p rofession wit hin our com m unit y. Step hen Doug las MA RP Ed it or of Psycholog ica

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A member of the OACCPP since 2001, Stephen Douglas has provided healing and support for individuals, couples, and families for twenty- five years. He has long and consistently promoted the practice of psychotherapy within the field of mental and relational health; organizing regional network meetings for OACCPP members, volunteering to help create a new domestic violence program in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea, volunteering community talks on violence and addiction, and helping draw together resources to address psychosocial issues impacting upon Canada?s refugee population and indigenous peoples.

Stephen is a Registered Member of the College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario and a Certified Member of the OACCPP. He has previously published articles in Psychologica on anger management and family therapy.


T hrough T heLookingGlass The 39th Annual

Reflection

Renewal

OACCPP Resilience CONFERENCE & Annual General Meeting September 28th-30th, 2017 Radisson Admiral Toront o Harbourfront

oaccpp.ca/2017-conference

OACCPP The Associat ion of Regist ered Psychot herapist s & Ment al Healt h Professionals

Now seeking sponsorship at all levels! Contact services-coordinator@oaccpp.ca


EARLY RECOL L ECT I ONS A Direct Pathway Beyond the L ooking Glass by Susan Prosser | M.A., R.P., R.N.

We are not determined by our experiences, but are self- determined by the meaning we give to them; and when we take particular experiences as the basis for our future life, we are almost certain to be misguided to some degree. M eanings are not determined by situations. We determine ourselves by the meanings we ascribe to situations. ? A L FRED A DL ER W ho in the world am I ? Ah, that's the great puzzle. ? L EW I S CARROL L (A L I CE I N W ONDERL AND )

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As an Ad ler ian t herapist I am interested in t he entrenched p atter ns at t he root of coping b ehaviour s. I listen for t he deeper m eaning in ever y st or y ? t he st or y b eyond t he Looking Glass. This ar t icle will explain how Ear ly Recollect ions (ERs) exp ose t he source cond it ions t hat led t o t he creat ion of our client s?coping b ehavior s and p atter ns. Alice?s jour ney t hroug h t he Looking -Glass Wor ld w as infor m ed by a set of r ig id ly constr ucted r ules t hat d id n?t m ake sense b ut never t heless g uided her along a p at h. In Ad ler ian Psycholog y we are interested in d iscover ing and unear t hing t hese unconscious, p ower ful r ules. As we exp ose t hem , we b eg in t o under stand t he context in w hich t hey were deter m ined . We look at our client s? em ot ional resp onses, fam ily-of-or ig in fact or s, as well as t he b roader cult ural context and influences t hat have led a per son t o t heir system of b eliefs. These r ules m ay have for m ed for necessar y, self-p rotect ive reasons in ear ly child hood yet can b e ob str uct ive and unhealt hy in ad ult hood . I am alw ays eag er t o under stand how a per son has lear ned t o ?g ive m eaning ?t o life. This m eaning is unconscious and rem ains unchang ed unless we have an op p or t unit y, in t herapy, t o have it revealed and m od ified .

T HE FORMAT I ON OF PRI VAT E L OGI C I N EARLY CHI L DHOOD As t hey str ive t o m ake sense of t heir w or ld , child ren are keen ob ser ver s. They are also self-referent ial; t hey attr ib ute t he hap pening s of t heir w or ld t o t hem selves? for b etter and for w or se. Child ren sense w hat is hap pening around t hem and find w ays t o create an exper ience of uniq ueness, b elong ing , and p sycholog ical safet y. All of t his ?research?is d one in a w ay t hat is unseen and unknow n t o t he self and ot her s. Their conclusions translate int o m eaning -m aking , taking t he for m of conclusions ab out t he self, ot her s, and w or ld -at lar g e. These deter m inat ions are t hen exper ienced as t he w ay of b eing in t he w or ld and t he child 's b ehaviour is b or ne of t hese inter nal p rocesses, refer red t o by Ad ler as Pr ivate Log ic. Pr ivate Log ic deter m ines ?m ovem ent ?. Ad ler w anted t o b etter under stand w hich ?d irect ion? a per son w as taking and t ow ard s w hat g oal. Being per fect , keeping ot her s hap py, b eing t he centre of attent ion, b eing r ig ht , avoid ing p ain and conflict , fixing ot her s, p rotect ing ot her s, and b eing ser ved are all exam ples of p r im ar y and unconscious g oals. Effor t s can b e d irected at str iving t ow ard s a g oal, g iving up from d iscourag em ent , or

w or king ag ainst perceived t hreat s t o achieving t he g oal. The m ovem ent t hat result s m ay b e encourag ed , red irected or reinforced by p arent s, sib ling s, g rand p arent s, teacher s and ot her influences? and , per hap s, by a p sychot herapist . If a child has concluded , for exam ple, t hat in order t o feel a sense of safet y and b elong ing t hey m ust b e t he centre of attent ion, t hen t hey d iscover and event ually m aster t he necessar y skills for b eing t he centre of attent ion. As t his skill develop m ent evolves, t heir b ehaviour is reinforced unwitt ing ly and event ually b ecom es t heir w ay of b eing in t he w or ld . Their m ovem ent will b e all ab out sit uat ing t hem selves as t he centre of attent ion and t hey will b ecom e dereg ulated w hen t his d oes not hap pen. They will cont inue t o follow an inter nalized r uleb ook t hat t hey d o not know t hey are following and w onder w hy ot her s are not cooperat ing wit h t hem t o m eet t heir need s. They m ay b lam e ot her s for t heir unhap piness. We all have a p r ivate r uleb ook t hat developed from a need t o keep our selves p sycholog ically safe. The r uleb ook often involves strateg ies for em ot ional p ain avoid ance. In a per fect w or ld we w ould each have an inner GPS system t hat w ould d irect our ?b est self ?t ow ard m aking conscious choices t hat

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enhance our life, t he lives of ot her s and t he planet . Being g uided by a ?safet y m anual?, in contrast , keep s t he focus on d ang er and t hus it resp ond s p r im ar ily t o fear. So it is our g oal t o assist our client s in recog nizing t heir g reatest streng t hs and t heir b est jud g m ent , t o p rovide t hem wit h t he confidence and courag e t o b uild healt hier lives. As p sychot herapist s we have t he op p or t unit y t o red irect our client s aw ay from using t heir ?safet y m anual? and , instead , t ow ard relying on t heir ?b est self ?GPS. Once a per son can see t he context from w hich t he percep t ions were developed t hey can b eg in t o develop new p atter ns and nar rat ives t hat w or k well and t hat are in alig nm ent wit h t he core essence of t he ind ivid ual rat her t han a m ĂŠlang e of well-crafted safet y m echanism s. Often t he b est p ar t of looking at ear ly m em or ies is t hat t hey lead us r ig ht t o t he inner streng t h and b eaut y of an ind ivid ual. These core essence q ualit ies are often out side t he aw areness of t he ind ivid ual. W hen such p atter ns em er g e t he client will resonate wit h t he tr ut h revealed and is often chang ed as a result of t he revelat ion.

?Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?" "T hat depends a good deal on where you want to get to." "I don't much care where? " "T hen it doesn't matter which way you go.? ? L EW I S CARROL L (A L I CE I N W ONDERL AND ) As a p sychot herapist I w ant t o assist m y client s in b ecom ing m ore consciously aw are of w hat t hey are d oing , w here t hey are g oing , w hy t hey are g oing t here, and w hat t hey expect w hen t hey g et t here. As t he client b eg ins t o have insig ht int o t heir ow n t hinking and b ehaviour t hey b eg in t o realize t hat life could b e d ifferent . If, for exam ple, a client realizes t hat t heir p sycholog ical suffer ing is caused by an unfulfilled need t o b e t he centre of attent ion, t hey can b eg in t o lear n t hat shar ing t he attent ion can b e m ore sat isfying and help t hem t o achieve a sense of b elong ing and safet y in t heir w or ld . Our job, as t herapist s, is t o help our client s find t heir w ay int o t he crevices of t heir ow n develop m ent , and int o t he seed s of w ho t hey are at t he deepest levels. We w ant t o g uide our client s t o for g e new p at hw ays in order t o b ecom e fully alive, and freer from lim itat ions and r ules t hat no long er ap ply. As t he client b ecom es m ore aw are, a new ar ray of p ossib ilit ies m anifest . It m ay feel like a r isk t o chang e p r ior w ays of perceiving t he w or ld , b ut wit h t herapeut ic help and encourag em ent t he r isks are taken and new p atter ns em er g e. New p atter ns reconstr uct neural p at hw ays t hat allow a new w ay of b eing t o take shape. The m ovem ent in life b eg ins t o chang e and t he client is now in t he d r iver ?s seat , operat ing from a place of conscious aw areness, w hich red uces anxiet y, stress and dep ression. Hope is inspired by t he realizat ion t hat t he d irect ion life t ook in t he p ast is not necessar ily t he road t hat need s t o b e taken in t he fut ure. Therapy can assist in t he develop m ent of skills t hat allow s t he client t o take char g e and tr ust t heir new, conscious r uleb ook t hat can b e cont inually developed and ad ap ted in t herapy and ot her sup p or t ive m od alit ies. In Ad ler ian t herapy we delve straig ht t o t he root of t he Pr ivate Log ic so t hat we can see t he w or ld from t he per spect ive of t he client . ERs are an efficient w ay of uncover ing t he source of a b ehavior, and under stand ing t he client ?s percep t ions and m ovem ent . Ear ly Recollect ions reveal Pr ivate Log ic.

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To see with the eyes of another, hear with the ears of another, to feel with the heart of another. ? A L FRED A DL ER

ER Analysis is m y favour ite w ay of enter ing int o t he Looking -Glass Wor ld . The m em or ies p rovide a wealt h of infor m at ion ab out t he p atter ns of b ehaviour, core b elief system s, streng t hs, lim itat ions and t he core essences of ind ivid uals. Mag ic hap pens w hen aw areness em er g es and old b eliefs b eg in t o collap se. The new w or ld is challeng ing , confusing and scar y as long stand ing em ot ional p ain is revisited and t he conseq uent ial p atter ns are challeng ed and chang ed . Ad ler taug ht t hat w hat t he per son rem em b er s and how it is rem em b ered will reveal t he cur rent p atter ns t hat are b eing repeated in t he here and now. The p atter ns in m em or ies m at ch and reveal t he p atter ns in t he b rain t hat are at t he root of cur rent stress. T HE MECHANI CS OF COL L ECT I NG AND USI NG EARLY RECOL L ECT I ONS An ER is a specific m em or y, wit h em ot ional content , of an event t hat t ook place b efore t he ag e of 8 or 9 t hat is act ively rem em b ered . It p rovides a snap shot of one's fund am ental per sonalit y and reveals p atter ns t hat p oint t o t he Pr ivate Log ic of child hood . Ad d it ional ERs act as ad d it ional pieces of t he p uzzle t hat com e t og et her t o d isclose t he core per sonalit y and m istaken b eliefs. Typically, in m y p ract ice, I will g at her several ERs wit h a client t o help b etter under stand t he ind ivid ual b efore m e, includ ing clues t o t he root of t he p resent ing p rob lem . Tog et her we t hen explore how t he ER t hem es reflect t he cur rent p atter ns of b ehavior. I req uest t hat t he client w r ites d ow n t he ER exact ly as rem em b ered (not how it has b een ret old t o t hem ). I t hen p ose a ser ies of q uest ions: W hat is your g eneral feeling /em ot ion? W hat is t he m ost vivid p ar t of t he m em or y? W hat is t he feeling /em ot ion d ur ing t hat p ar t ? Descr ib e t he scene as if you had p hot og rap hs. W hat is t he cap t ion for t he p hot og rap h? W hat d o t he p atter ns in t his m em or y reflect in t he here and now ? Descr ib e how your child self in t he m em or y sees t he self and ot her s, by com plet ing t hese statem ent s: I am Others are: T he world is: T herefore in order to have a place to belong and feel safe I ? ..

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CASE EXAMPL E B is a 49-year -old w om an w ho w as g oing t hroug h m any chang es? job, hom e, finishing g rad uate school, and fam ily traum a. She w as feeling like a ?b oiled frog ?. She w as exhausted and b eg inning t o d oub t her self at a t im e w here she needed t o b e at her peak w hile launching a new career as a consultant . B is a b r ig ht , car ing , attract ive, and ar t iculate w om an wit h vision and ideas

p our ing out of her, b ut she w as lacking t he confidence t o b elieve in her self. I q uickly lear ned t hat she p reviously had a ver y successful career wit h exper iences and op p or t unit ies t hat m ost people could only d ream of. I could see her b ut she had lost sig ht of her self. I d id a full hist or y on her child hood and collected several m em or ies b ut for t his ar t icle I will descr ib e just her fir st m em or y and it s analysis.

?I was 6 years old and it was my first day in the French school, which I did not want to go to because French wasoutside of my comfort zone. I t was being imposed on me and I rebelled but I still had to go. I didn?t like it that it was bad to be English. So I wore my favourite shirt which said 'Be Nice To M e Because I am H aving a Bad D ay'. I felt very small when I entered the large school. I remember standing by myself on the stairs while a large group of students passed me by to go to the auditorium to get their injections and were going along blindly without any explanation as to why they had to go get an injection. I was on my way but not moving. I was contemplating how stupid it was to be forced to do something without any rational explanation and in that moment I thought of how proud I was of my shirt and thought, 'I am made to feel that I ?m the outcast English speaking kid who wears this shirt in a strict French Roman Catholic school.'? As we analyzed t his ER t og et her it b ecam e clear t hat B w as a reb el w ho could g et st op ped in her tracks w hen she w as forced int o sit uat ions. In her cur rent life she felt st op ped b ecause she w as over w helm ed and b ecause t here were dem and s on her she felt m ig ht b e lim it ing . As we explored fur t her, B realized t hat she is a leader w ho ?wear s?her independence p roud ly. In fact , in her w or k she cust om desig ns p rog ram s t o enhance

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t he uniq ueness of com p anies and ind ivid uals. She realized t hat she had a strong penchant t o resist assim ilat ion and has m ade it her career t o coach people t o resist losing t hem selves. The new aw areness t hat cam e from t he ER w as ?My uniq ueness enab les ot her s? uniq ueness.? She realized t hat she no long er had t o b e st uck on t he step b ut could clim b t he stair s wit h p r ide and confidence in b eing d ifferent .


I N CONCLUSI ON Many of t he b asic assum p t ions t hat Alice m akes ab out her environm ent are rever sed in t he Looking -Glass Wor ld . Out com es p recede event s, cakes are p assed out b efore b eing cut , dest inat ions are reached by w alking in t he op p osite d irect ion, and character s rem em b er t he fut ure and t hink b est w hile stand ing on t heir head s. As in a t herapy exper ience, t hese strang e p henom ena challeng e t he w ay Alice t hinks and in som e cases exp ose t he ar b itrar y nat ure of her under stand ing of her ow n w or ld . Alice, like m ost people in t herapy, b ecom es aw are of a new, inver ted per spect ive on life as she travels for w ard and b ackw ard t hroug h t he Looking -Glass Wor ld . As t herapist s, we enter int o t his uncer taint y wit h our client s. We're p rep ared t o take t he r ide wit h t hem in order t o help t hem d iscover t heir ow n inner aut hor it y b ased on a new r uleb ook and new nar rat ive t hat reflect s and enhances t heir b est selves.

EN D

Susan Prosser is a Senior Associate with the Adlerian Counselling and Consulting Group, where she has worked as a psychotherapist seeing individuals, couples and families since 1993. Susan's career started in nursing in 1974 where counselling was a main component or her work as a Public Health Nurse. She also taught nursing at CGEP and McGill University. Susan's approach to therapy is psychodynamic, cognitive, heart- centered, and holistic. She is currently on the Faculty at the Adler School of Professional Psychology in Toronto. Her book, Growing H ome, will be published in September 2017.


MIRROR MIRROR OF MY MIND... by James McDonald | M.A., R.P.

...YOU ARE NATURALLY SO KIND PSY 42.2 | 12


I n less than forty years since it was introduced by Jon K abat- Zinn, Mindfulness- Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) has found a home in a multitude of therapeutic approaches and settings. Psychoanalytic, emotion- focused and cognitive behavioural therapies have each integrated mindfulness practices into the flow of client work. Although mindfulness practice has its roots in Buddhism, it has been utilized as a wide- ranging tool with arguably less discussion than needed to the wider philosophy and ethics of Buddhism. ?Right Mindfulness? was only one of the steps in Buddhism?s famous Eight- Fold Noble Path to end suffering. T he goal of this article is to suggest that therapists who choose to adopt the practice of mindfulness as an intervention expand their introduction to clients, as well to explore mindfulness' broader connection to Buddhism and Buddhist tenets. To illustrate this, the reflective nature of mind is presented as a possible enhancement to mindfulness practice.

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Expanding one?s connection to Buddhism is not a simple task. T he Dzogchen Buddhist perspective (usually translated as Great Completion) presents the true nature of our mind as the awe and wonder, the phenomenal light display and the overwhelming silence of insight from mirror- like wisdom. I was first introduced to Dzogchen Buddhism in 1988 when the head of the Palyul lineage, then H. H. Penor Rinpoche held up a mirror and declared, ?T his is the nature of your mind.? At the time I was fascinated and slightly dumbfounded. W hile I initially covered my fear of uncertainty with a posture of arrogant emotional distance, the energy of wisdom always wears away at cynicism and trembling teeth by either making you toothless or by making you laugh. Regardless of the fact that most of our days are engrossed in linear, often boring conceptual thought, rote problem solving, and the swings of emotional turmoil, the nature of our mind is ever present. T he beauty of the mirror is its simple, direct, non- contrived nature. W hatever presents before the mirror is just there. T here is nothing to think about. Nothing to change. Nothing to hold onto and nothing to let go of. T he mirror completely and spontaneously opens to everything that presents itself. As the flow of the moment unfolds and the presentation shifts the mirror doesn?t complain. I t releases to the flow. T he nature of mind, this mirror- like wisdom, is happening regardless of our awareness. I n our typical daily thoughts of discrimination with all the attendant hopes, dreams, desires, opinions, and judgments, we so easily forget that we are only paying attention to reflections. We act as if our ongoing commentary regarding these reflections is of utmost importance. We feel qualified to talk about beauty and ugliness,

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truth and falsity, and the simple values of right and wrong. We applaud our own goodness, and cajole the worldly sights and sounds to make us feel good. We become embroiled in the ongoing battles of manipulation. I n typical mindfulness practice there is a tacit acknowledgement that these reflections exist as a form of awareness and that they come and go, yet we often fail to recognize these appearances as the ground state of mind without form. To quote only the first stanza of T he Heart Sutra, ?Form does not differ from emptiness, emptiness does not differ from form. T hat which is form is emptiness, that which is emptiness form." I n brief, awareness is everything and yet each moment is undefined by its nature. W hile we suffer getting lost in this torrent of values and judgments about the external world, and the sights, sounds and smells of such, the real chaos begins when the judgment lens gets turned inward. We pride ourselves on our discriminating awareness when it comes to fine wine, cigars and fashion accessories. Yet, self statements and perpetual questioning about not being good enough, being unlovable, not being able to handle the moment, and the constant barrage of fear and self- doubt are considered a viral decay. Not to put too many more nails in the coffin of judgment, but the adoring self- talk falsely called 'being positive' is the reflection of pride in disguise. Of course, pride and vanity seem more tolerable than self- loathing, but the impact of our ignorance remains the same. T he only life and validity to these frozen moments of judgment is that which our memories and subconscious being give them. Otherwise, like all moments in the mirror, pride and vanity would be but a passing reflection. Give them their due as a divine comedic haunting, laugh at the play and then move along.


With contemplation any self- judgment is seen as unhealthy. I t doesn?t matter whether you are Rodney Dangerfield, T he Evil Queen in Disney?s Snow W hite, or Narcissus staring at his face in the water, the end result is that selfabsorption has a huge downside. T he greatest sense of self is realized when self recedes into the cocoon and blossoms again as interconnection and openness. T he mirror is the formless ground of being, and its reflections are the spontaneous and creative display of mind. So how do we become acquainted with the formless ground, the place of experience without determination and judgment? One of the long- standing tools of hypnotherapy, used after an induction, is to imagine the moments of yesterday? the stressful and recurring themes of memory as if occurring on a television screen. L et?s make this a large- screen positioned off at a safe distance. By viewing in this way, we create greater emotional detachment from any possible pain and trauma. We can go back and rewind, pause the play, or ? best of all? change the storyline. T he person can be directed to comment on the show as it unfolds. As one gets used to watching the television show, we can add another dimension to this scenario. We are next going to suggest slowly approaching the screen and, with willful determination, transforming the television into a beautiful mirror. We can still watch the same play, but now there is another character in the scene. T he hero is finally able to surface. I t is the watcher's true wisdom mind. T he awareness of mirror mind, the normal internal babble, is distinguished as something separate, to which one can speak ?I ?m tired and bored with my constant chatter. Glorious mirror the show is yours." Permission is granted to be the enlightened true nature. Now watch as painful memories seem no more important than any other reflection. T his practice not only reduces

the emotional attachment and aversions to traumatic memory, but? perhaps more importantly? reduces focus on self- experience across the board. As self recedes, it becomes possible to generate compassion. 'T he Boat', as a metaphor for life?s journey, is used in many ancient traditions. Wisdom and compassion are the rudder and sails of this boat. Both are essential. T he premise of the Buddhist journey is the search for freedom, but the tacit and unstated point of departure is our neurosis. For client and therapist alike, as long as there is a self, we find neurosis and ignorance. T he therapeutic encounter unfolds as two people move in the same space together, their movement given impetus by wisdom. T he yang of formless wisdom gives birth to the yin of compassion. T he subtitle of this article? ?You are Naturally so K ind?? refers to the compassion this process evokes from within. I ntegral to the reflective wisdom mind implicit in Buddhism is an appreciation of the feminine. Wisdom is the seed or light that impregnates the depth of our compassion. T he great feminine is this ground state of darkness in which the depth of compassionate energy exists. Darkness is the womb; the yin that gives birth from the formless, and momentary waves of movement and light we call form. Over the three decades since I was introduced to this mirror- like wisdom, I have had the pleasure of rare sips on the wisdom nectar that feeds our being when we allow our true nature to be present. Wisdom is palpable and carries a subtle smile. I t is one of those curious unknown fragrances. You just know you know it but can't quite capture its essence. W hen it arrives you ask, ?W hy have you been away so long?? You recognize an undefined friend. You recognize your true nature. I t is my hope that you will be able to assist your clients in this beautiful revelation.

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J am es McDonald received a Master of Ar t s in Develop m ental Psycholog y from Yor k Univer sit y in 1981, com pleted training wit h t he Gestalt Inst it ute of Toront o in 1987, and received a Doct orate in Clinical Hyp not herapy in 1993 from t he Am er ican Inst it ute of Hyp not herapy. He has b een in t he p ract ice of p sychot herapy and coaching for t hir t y year s ser ving t he Greater Toront o Area, developing a t herapeut ic ap p roach t it led Isotropic Contem plat ion Therapy, w hich includes t he p r inciple of Reflect ion d iscussed in t his ar t icle. He can b e reached at w w w.integ ralcourag e.com .

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY: Chogyal Namkhai Norbu. T he Crystal and the Way of L ight: Sutra, T antra and Dzogchen. Snow L ion Publications, Colorado. 1999. Dzogchen Ponlop. Rebel Buddha: A Guide to a revolution of Mind. Shambala Publications, Boston. 2011. Herbert, J. D., Forman, E. M (eds.) Acceptance and Mindfulness in Cognitive Behaviour T herapy: Understanding and Applying the New T herapies. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey. 2011. Hoffmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A. & Oh, D. (2010). ?T he effect of mindfulness- based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta- analytic review?, in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Vol. 78(2), 169- 183. K abat- Zinn J. Full Catastrophe L iving: Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain, and I llness. Random House, New York City. 1990. K abat- Zinn J. Arriving at Your Own Door. Piatkus Books, L ondon. 2008. K roger, William S. Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (rev 2nd ed) L ippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. 2008. Shari Geller & L es Greenberg, T herapeutic Presence: a Mindful Approach to Effective T herapy. American Psychological Association. 2011. Sangharakshita. Vision and T ransformation: An I ntroduction to the Buddha?s Noble Eightfold Path. Windhorse Publications, Cambridge, UK . 1999. T hich Nhat Hanh. T he Heart of Understanding: Commentaries on the Prajnaparamita Heart Sutra. Parallax Press, Berkeley, CA. 1988. Waning, A. A Mindful Self and Beyond. Sharing in the ongoing dialogue of Buddhism and psychoanalysis in Awakening and I nsight: Zen Buddhism and Psychotherapy. (Eds.) Young- Eisendrath, P., Miramato, S. Brunner- Routelege. 2002.

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Our up com ing conference t hem e ?Throug h The Looking Glass? rem ind s m e of t he cur ious nat ure of t he Wonder land Alice find s her self in. We often focus on t he character s in t he tale, b ut w hat ab out t he influence of t his up side-d ow n w or ld it self ? This is a w or ld w here chess pieces com e t o life as we traver se t he b oard and we aw ake only t o q uest ion w ho is t he d ream er and w ho w as d ream t ? How d oes our ow n w or k environm ent m ir ror t his conund r um , and how is our ow n m ental healt h affected by our sense of ag ency and com m union in w or kplace cult ure? We are aw are of m any fam ilial fact or s and per sonal relat ionship s skills t hat p rom ote or hinder t he streng t h and resilience of m y client s, b ut d o we g ive eq ual considerat ion t o t he nor m s and im plicit r ules of cond uct t hat can b e ob ser ved t hroug h t he looking g lass of t he w or kplace in w hich t hey spend over 4 0 % of t heir w aking hour s? Manag ing our healt h is cr it ical for a p rod uct ive and b alanced w or k life. Many of us are trained t o b e aw are of and t o avoid w or k-related illness and injur y. The Occup at ional Healt h and Safet y Act estab lishes p roced ures for dealing wit h w or kplace hazard s and p rovides for leg al ap plicat ion of t he law in order t o ensure com pliance. Em plo yees are m and ated t o lear n ab out w or kplace hazard s t hroug h Wor kplace Hazard ous Mater ials Infor m at ion System Training (W HIMS), and ot her for m s of healt h and safet y training such as fall p revent ion, cr isis inter vent ion, fire d r ills, et c. W hile creat ing a safe and healt hy w or kplace by ad d ressing p hysical hazard s is im p or tant , t he im p act of m ental healt h issues in t he w or kplace cannot b e ig nored .

T hrough T he Workplace L ooking Glass PSYCHO- SOCI AL FACT ORS NECESSARY FOR PSYCHOL OGI CAL LY SAFE W ORK PL ACES

by Laura Lieb rock

M.H.ST., (Cer t )OACPP

Stat ist ics concer ning m ental healt h p rob lem s or illness occur r ing at w or k are alar m ing . Accord ing t o t he Mental Healt h Com m ission of Canad a in 20 11, t he m ental healt h p rob lem s and illnesses of w or king ad ult s in Canad a cost em plo yer s m ore t han $6 b illion in lost p rod uct ivit y from ab senteeism , p resenteeism (b eing unp rod uct ive w hile p resent at w or k) and t ur nover. In Sp r ing 20 13, a voluntar y stand ard w as set by t he CSA g roup and t he Bureau de Nor m alisat ion d u Queb ec (BNQ) com m issioned by t he Mental Healt h Com m ission of Canad a (MHCC). This stand ard ad d resses p sycholog ical healt h and safet y in t he w or kplace and specifies req uirem ent s for a d ocum ented and system at ic ap p roach t o develop and sustain a p sycholog ically healt hy and safe w or kplace.

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CO N T

CMHA-W ECB has recent ly ad m inistered t he Guard ing Mind s@Wor k Sur vey (GM@W, 20 12) w hich ad d resses t hir teen p sychosocial ?fact or s?. These ?elem ent s t hat im p act em plo yees? p sycholog ical resp onses t o w or k and w or k cond it ions, p otent ially causing p sycholog ical healt h p rob lem s,? are descr ib ed on t heir web site (w w w.g uard ing m ind sat w or k.ca) as follow s: 1. PSYCHOL OGI CAL SUPPORT ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here cow or ker s and super visor s are sup p or t ive of em plo yees?p sycholog ical and m ental healt h concer ns, and resp ond ap p rop r iately as needed . Eq ually im p or tant are t he em plo yees?percep t ions and aw areness of or g anizat ional sup p or t .? 2. ORGANI ZAT I ONAL CULT URE ? ?t he deg ree t o w hich a w or k environm ent is character ized by tr ust , honest y, and fair ness. In g eneral, or g anizat ional cult ure has b een descr ib ed as ?a p atter n of b asic assum p t ions invented , d iscovered , or developed by a g iven g roup.? These assum p t ions are a m ix of values, b eliefs, m eaning s and expectat ions t hat g roup m em b er s hold in com m on and t hat t hey use as b ehavioural and p rob lem -solving cues.? 3. CL EAR L EADERSHI P & EXPECTAT I ONS ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here t here is effect ive leader ship and sup p or t t hat help s em plo yees know w hat t hey need t o d o, how t heir w or k contr ib utes t o t he or g anizat ion, and w het her t here are im pend ing chang es.? 4. CI VI L I T Y & RESPECT ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here em plo yees are respect ful and considerate in t heir interact ions wit h one anot her, as well as wit h cust om er s, client s and t he p ub lic. Civilit y and respect are b ased on showing esteem , care and considerat ion for ot her s, and acknowled g ing t heir d ig nit y.? 5. PSYCHOL OGI CAL COMPET ENCI ES & REQUI REMENT S ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here t here is a g ood fit b et ween em plo yees?inter per sonal and em ot ional com petencies and t he req uirem ent s of t he p osit ion t hey hold . This m eans t hat em plo yees not only p ossess t he technical skills and knowled g e for a p ar t icular p osit ion, b ut t hey also have t he p sycholog ical skills and em ot ional intellig ence t o d o t he job.?

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6. GROW T H & D EVEL OPMENT ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here em plo yees receive encourag em ent and sup p or t in t he develop m ent of t heir inter per sonal, em ot ional and job skills.? 7. RECOGNI T I ON & REWARD ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here t here is ap p rop r iate acknowled g em ent and ap p reciat ion of em plo yees?effor t s in a fair and t im ely m anner. This includes ap p rop r iate and reg ular financial com pensat ion, as well as em plo yee or team celeb rat ions, recog nit ion of year s ser ved , and /or m ilest ones reached .? 8. I NVOLVEMENT & I NFLUENCE ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here em plo yees are included in d iscussions ab out how t heir w or k is d one and how im p or tant decisions are m ade.? 9. W ORK L OAD M ANAGEMENT ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here tasks and resp onsib ilit ies can b e accom plished successfully wit hin t he t im e availab le. This is t he p sychosocial fact or t hat m any w or king Canad ians descr ib e as b eing t he b ig g est w or kplace stressor.? 10. ENGAGEMENT ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here em plo yees feel connected t o t heir w or k and are m ot ivated t o d o t heir job well. Em plo yee eng ag em ent can b e p hysical, em ot ional and /or cog nit ive.? 11. BAL ANCE ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here t here is recog nit ion of t he need for b alance b et ween t he dem and s of w or k, fam ily and per sonal life.? 12. PSYCHOL OGI CAL PROT ECT I ON ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here em plo yees? p sycholog ical safet y is ensured . Wor kplace p sycholog ical safet y is dem onstrated w hen w or ker s feel ab le t o p ut t hem selves on t he line, ask q uest ions, seek feed b ack, rep or t m istakes and p rob lem s, or p rop ose a new idea wit hout fear ing neg at ive conseq uences t o t hem selves, t heir job or t heir career.? 13. PROT ECT I ON OF PHYSI CAL SAFET Y ? ?p resent in a w or k environm ent w here m anag em ent takes ap p rop r iate act ion t o p rotect t he p hysical safet y of em plo yees.?


My ow n w or kplace, Canad ian Mental Healt h Associat ion W ind sor -Essex Count y Branch (CMHA-W ECB), sup p or t s t he im plem entat ion of t he Voluntar y Stand ard and is on t he p at h t o integ rate p sycholog ical healt h and safet y. Even am ong st p rofessionals ded icated t o t he p rom ot ion of m ental healt h, t o illustrate t he p oint , we could recog nize room for im p rovem ent concer ning p sychosocial fact or # 2, ?Or g anizat ional Cult ure.? Our com m ittee plans t o w or k t og et her t o ad d ress t he or g anizat ional cult ure and w or k t ow ard s cont inual im p rovem ent . Take a m om ent t o consider your ow n w or kplace as well as t hose of your client s and reflect up on each of t hese 13 fact or s in t ur n. Build ing resilience wit h reg ard t o m ental healt h at w or k is an ong oing p rocess and com m it m ent t hat should b e em b ed ded t hroug hout an or g anizat ion?s p olicies and p roced ures. Quest ions for leader s on p sycholog ical healt h and safet y com m ittees or team s include: Do your staff under stand w hat it m eans t o have a p sycholog ically safe w or kplace? How d o you m easure rates of ab senteeism and p resenteeism? Does your or g anizat ion have a p olicy on w or k-life b alance? Balance, especially in our technolog ical era of alw ays b eing attached t o t he w or kplace (sm ar t p hone, com p uter ), is of vital im p or tance t o our m ental healt h. We all need t o b alance t he dem and s of w or k and our per sonal lives. As front -line m ental healt h p rofessionals, we have a role t o play in ad vancing t his aw areness, eq ually in our ow n ag encies as well as wit h our client s, hum an resource p rofessionals we contact , and t he p ub lic we eng ag e. Collab orat ively, I look for w ard t o fur t her ad d ressing p sycholog ical healt h and safet y and reflect ing on or g anizat ional ap p roaches, strateg ies, p olicies, p roced ures and interact ions t hat m ig ht affect t he p sycholog ical healt h and safet y of all em plo yees.

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L aura L iebrock is a mental health professional working in the field since 1989. Her areas of specialization include: program development, grant writing, adult education and teaching, seniors fitness, tobacco cessation policy development, privacy training, accreditation and quality improvement. She has a Bachelor?s Degree in both Psychology and Gerontology, and a Master?s Degree in Health Studies. Community involvement is important to L aura. She is an active member of 100 Women W ho Care Windsor Essex and sits on the Board of Community Support Centre Essex County.

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Ap plicat ions of Ar g ent ine Tang o in Relat ional Skill-Build ing by Carolyn Dallman Downes | M.Ed., R.P.

Roughly twenty years ago I took up the Argentine T ango. One day my instructor, Chrisa Assis, asked me to help her with an idea she had to use the T ango therapeutically. She was new to Canada but in Europe, where social dancing is deeply embedded in the culture, ?T ango T herapy? is a recognized approach used in the treatment of a wide variety of mood and neurodegenerative disorders. At the time, Chrisa had been teaching T ango to a group of students where one member of each couple had Parkinson's disease. She approached me, not only because of my familiarity with local treatment programs, but also out of a concern for a troubling pattern she had observed in the interactions of her students. As a therapist, she hoped I might have some insight to offer. She then described a pattern of pursuit and withdrawal I recognized as a classic negative interactional cycle common to troubled relationships as identified by Dr. Susan Johnson. For those not familiar with Dr. Johnson?s work, these negative interactional cycles are characterized by a pattern in which one partner, longing for connection and validation, tries to achieve this end by criticizing the other partner for abandoning, rejecting, disconnecting, or not caring for them in some way or other. I t is often difficult for the receiving partner to hear the longing for connection

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behind these complaints. I nstead what they hear is a complaint that they have failed their partner and/or have not performed up to expectation. Overwhelmed with shame, the (receiving) partner then reacts with anger and defensiveness in a variety of ways that serve to deny or minimize either the injury to their (critical) partner or their responsibility in that situation. Sometimes they perceive their partner?s pleas for connection as an attack and will exacerbate the situation by attacking back or itemizing their partner?s faults and shortcomings. All of these respondent?s tactics fall into the category of a ?narcissistic response? in the sense that they move the locus of injury away from the complainant and onto the respondent. Not surprisingly, the pursuer?s sense of disconnection is then exacerbated so they double down on their criticisms. And so on . . . I t?s almost impossible to figure out how these destructive cycles get started, but they are present in all relationships at one point or another. Any dance instructor will tell you how common these dynamics are in the partnerships of the students with whom they work. I n Chrisa?s case, where her students were dealing with the trauma of a neurodegenerative disorder like Parkinson?s, the anxiety of learning a difficult motor skill combined along with the imbalance in each partners?physical capability combined to elevate conflict and

misunderstanding between the couples she was working with. She hoped there might be a way to help her students learn to communicate and connect more effectively. I was instantly intrigued, but also uncertain where to begin. W hile these negative interactional cycles could clearly be seen, I wondered, was it possible to use this information to develop a therapeutic response? Accustomed as I was to working with couples in an office setting, using primarily verbal means, I could not yet visualize how this would translate into a dance venue and into an embodied therapeutic process. W here would we focus our efforts? How would we be able to address these interpersonal dynamics effectively? We began to research this question to see what we could learn from fields as diverse as dance therapy, couple?s therapy, somatic experiencing, neuroplasticity, and body- centered treatment of trauma. We also considered the work of practitioners who were incorporating Argentine T ango into the Eastern T raditions of Buddhist Mindfulness, Zen Walking Meditation and T ?ai Chi T ango. I discovered intriguing reports that found compared Argentine T ango favorably to Mindfulness Meditation in reducing depression and stress. Similarly, psychiatric treatment in Argentina reported success in T ango therapy with a reduction in social anxiety.

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A comprehensive theoretical framework for the use of T ango as a medium for psychological healing is offered by the work of Argentine psychiatrist, Dr. Federico T rossero. At this point, I have been unable to arrange a meeting with Dr. T rossero. For interested readers, his book "T angotherapia: Fundamentos, Metodoligia, Teoria Y Practica" is only available in Spanish. Otherwise, there is a paucity of literature on this topic, particularly in English. Nonetheless, I have been able to intuit certain core elements exist that account for Argentine T ango?s ability to provide a healing modality in which to address relational dynamics. I n particular, -

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Carolyn Dallm an Dow nes has b een at t he forefront of innovat ive p roject s t hat com b ine ar t and creat ivit y wit h hum anitar ian and t herapeut ic g oals for near ly 4 0 year s. Trained in Gestalt and Exper ient ial p sychot herapy, she went int o p r ivate p ract ice in 1989 w here she specialize in w or king wit h t he ar t ist ically and intellect ually g ifted . In 20 10 , she com pleted Core-skills Training in Em ot ion-Focused Couple Therapy wit h Sue Johnson and Gail Palm er at t he Inter nat ional Centre for Excellence in Em ot ion-Focused Therapy. Her w or k as a p sychot herapist is deeply influenced by her b ackg round in t he Easter n trad it ions of Taoism , Yog a and Med itat ion. Carolyn also d ances t he Ar g ent ine Tang o at t he ad vanced level, and m akes film s ab out t he relat ionship b et ween tang o and p sychot herapy.

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Unlike most dance therapies, Argentine T ango is relationshipbased. I t can only happen when two partners cooperate with each other. T herefore, issues of trust and connection are implicit in the activity itself. Because of its improvisational nature, Argentine T ango happens in the present moment, making it a fertile medium in which to practice moment- to- moment mindful presence in the context of a partnership. Argentine T ango moves the locus of the communication from the verbal to the embodied and the setting from the mundane concerns of everyday life to the more esoteric environment of the dance floor. T his shift of figure/ground may induce partners to challenge their reflexive responses to each other, and risk the novel and unknown.

T he question remained, how best to provide a safe and effective intervention with a couple on the dance floor? Researchers at the University of Surrey and the University of Southampton studied subjects who exhibited subclinical narcissistic tendencies and discovered that they could be moved by another?s suffering if they were able to take that person?s perspective. Could we use this information to positively impact the ?narcissistic response? typical within the negative interactional cycles between partners? I f it is possible to encourage the growth of empathy by figuratively inviting a client to imagine walking in another person?s shoes, what deeper insight might be gained asking them to literally dance in their partner?s shoes? I f they were to change roles, from leader to follower and follower to leader, might this not provide a felt experience of the other person?s perspective? T he ?Open Role/Queer T ango? movement does precisely this. Recent literature attests to its radical impact on the interactional patterns of each partner, particularly as relating to traditional gender imbalances. L ucinda Hayden, a Certified Professional Focusing T rainer in San Francisco, California, has developed an approach she calls ?Presence in Motion: T ango & Focusing?, which combines Argentine T ango with Eugene Gendlin?s experiential technique of Focusing. I n June 2016, I went to San Francisco and was privileged to observe her work in action. I was able to document her methods and their impact on the workshop participants in a short film, ?T angoFocusing: Presence in Motion.? Hayden had similarly observed the dysfunctional cycles that emerge


in the partnership dynamic. She believed that Focusing could provide a framework in which to foster relational growth; its very foundation is an egalitarian dynamic between two individuals who foster and support moment- to- moment awareness in each other. She and her co- facilitator, Tom L ewis, developed an approach that first moves the participants into connection with themselves and from there teaches them to synchronize movement with a partner. T his approach bypasses dysfunctional relational cycles by giving the partners concrete tools to frame their communication in a neutral, non- confrontational manner. Drawing on Ann Weiser Cornell?s role concepts of Empowered Focuser and Relaxed Companion, participants are taught, respectively, how to express their experience in a way that tempers the often critical/accusatory expression of a relational need and, at the same time, the listener is encouraged to simply hold the space for the other person?s experience and, above all, not to attempt to be helpful. T his short- circuits the arousal of shame and the reaction of defensiveness, because the receiver is not responsible to ?solve?, ?fix? or in any way take responsibility for the experience of their partner. At the end of each exercise, participants utilized some variation of this approach to discuss their experience with each other. Some exercises required the shifting of roles, where each person would alternatively lead and follow. Hayden and L ewis not only provided a safe framework for the exploration of feelings, but also modeled, with their own behaviour, how to give and receive feedback in what could only be described as an encouraging, even welcoming manner. T he film documents that, by the workshop?s end, not only were some participants dancing as well as though they had taken months of T ango lessons but many reported significant changes in their felt experience of themselves and their ability to connect with their partners. Further study is needed to evaluate the scope and efficacy of the T angoFocusing approach, but I believe Hayden?s work represents a breakthrough in the ability to approach the relational dynamic in an embodied way. I hypothesize that the efficacy of her approach resides in the way it short- circuits negative interactional cycles by providing participants with a neutral framework for giving and receiving information about the quality of the dyadic connection. T his brief article is by no means an exhaustive review of the ways in which Argentine T ango is being used for personal and relational interventions around the world. However, from what I have been able to glean, L ucinda Hayden?s ?Presence in Motion: T ango & Focusing? provides the most comprehensive approach thus far, grounded as it is in the well- respected and peer- reviewed methodology of ?Focusing?. I hope, at the very least, this paper might provide a springboard for discussion amongst other mental health professionals who will undoubtedly bring their own insights and methodologies to this intriguing nascent field.

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY: Cornel, A.W. Focusing in Clinical Practice. W.W. Norton & Company I nc., 500 Fifth Ave., New York, N.Y. 10110, 2013. Dallman Downes, C. T ?ai Chi T ango: Mindful Movement with a Partner, Toronto, 2014. Dallman Downes, C. T angoFocusing: Presence in Motion. Toronto, 2016. Dallman Downes, C. Por Amor De T ango, Toronto, 2004. Froitzheim, T. (Jan. 2008) Focusing, Empowerment and the Non- dual Self. I nternational Focusing I nstitute, Vol 21 No 1, 2008. Gendlin. E.T. Focusing. Bantam Books, New York, NY., 1982. Havmoeller, B,, Batchelor, R., & Aramo, O., T he Queer T ango Book. , 2015. Hepper, E. G., Hart, C. M., and Sedikides, C. Moving Narcissus: Can Narcissists Be Empathic? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40(8), 2014. Johnson, S.M. T he Practice of Emotionally Focused Marital T herapy: Creating Connection. Brunner/Mazel, I nc. 7625 Empire Drive, Florence, K Y, 1996. Johnson, S.M. Hold Me T ight. L ittle, Brown and Co., 237 Park Ave., New York, N.Y., 2008. L eonard, G., and Murphy, M. T he L ife We Are Given: A L ong- Term Program for Realizing the Potential of Body, Mind, Heart, and Soul. Penguin, Random House, New York, NY, 2005. Markham, A. Can We Teach Narcissists to Care? Psychology Today Online, Sept. 2014. Pinniger, R., Brown, R.F., T horsteinsson, E.B. & McK inley, P. Argentine tango dance compared to mindfulness meditation and a waiting- list control: A randomised trial for treating depression. I n Complementary therapies in medicine 20(6):377- 84 ¡ December, 2012. T rossero, F. T ango Terapia: Fundmentos, Metodologia, Teoria Y Practica. Continente Ediciones, Ed., 2010. Van Der K olk, B. T he Body K eeps the Score: Brain, MI nd and Body in the Healing of T rauma. Viking Press, 375 Hudson St. New York, N.Y., 2014.

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L ymeland: A Cautionary T ale W hen allopathic medicine fails, and implications for mental health professionals by Lor i Dennis | M.A., R.P.

?But I don?t want to go among mad people,? Alice remarked. ?Oh you can?t help that,? said the Cat: ?we?re all mad here. I ?m mad. You?re mad.? ? L EW I S CARROL L (A L I CE I N W ONDERL AND )

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My fam ily fell d ow n t he deep, d ar k, rab b it hole of ?Lym eland ?in t he sum m er of 20 14 . Our head long descent w as not by choice. W it hout w ar ning , we were forced int o a p ainful and seem ing ly unend ing jour ney int o t he abyss of a t ickb or ne illness we knew not hing ab out , confronted by a d isease t hat t ook over our lives in a b r utal, unsym p at het ic w ay and a m ed ical system t hat we soon d iscovered t o b e m ired in ig norance concer ning chronic Lym e d isease. My hope in w r it ing t his ar t icle is t o aler t m ental healt h p ract it ioner s t o t he m yr iad of sym p t om s t hey m ay com e across t hat m im ic p sycholog ical d isorder s, t hese sym p t om s' im plicat ion for treat m ent , and t he im p or tance of consider ing a m ed ical assessm ent for client s showing sym p t om s by a p hysician literate in Lym e d isease. My fam ily's m ed ical od yssey b eg an in ear nest on Oct ob er 30 , 20 12, w hen m y son, Matt ? t hen t went y-fiveyear s old ? b eg an t o exhib it som e ver y strang e and unexplained p hysical sym p t om s. Beg inning wit h w hat felt like a ?b ug ? or strang e flu, his vision sud denly and b r iefly went sket chy and he felt d izzy wit h a d ull, cloud y head ache in t he b ack of his head . Later t hat d ay, after a session on a rowing m achine at t he g ym , Matt st ood up, t he room star ted spinning , and he fainted . The p aram ed ics were called , and Matt w as taken t o t he hospital w here he w as exam ined and t old his episode w as likely t he result of low b lood sug ar

and dehyd rat ion. Not hing t o w or r y ab out , t he d oct or s assured him . This w as just t he b eg inning of a year and a half of a cascade of deb ilitat ing sym p t om s, wit h m any m isstep s and m isd iag noses along t he w ay. The t went y specialist s consulted over eig hteen m ont hs were confounded by his cond it ion, each unab le t o ident ify w hat w as w rong wit h him . All t he w hile m y son?s healt h cont inued t o decline. We were left t o deter m ine t he d iag nosis our selves. Chronic Lym e Disease, we d iscovered , is a ?d o-it -your self ?d isease, one t hat you m ay have t o research, navig ate, heal, and ?recover ?from your self, all wit hout m ed ical training . Sufferer s b ecom e am ateur sleut hs and develop t heir ow n knowled g e in a g reat m any m ed ical d isciplines, includ ing m icrob iolog y, neurolog y, g astroenterolog y, im m unolog y, r heum at olog y, end ocr inolog y, p har m acolog y, nep hrolog y, and hem at olog y. Each d ay we aw oke t o once ag ain find our selves in a state of confusion filled wit h fear, helplessness, ang er, loneliness, and fr ustrat ion. There w as m uch t o lear n and m any decisions t o m ake. We felt alone wit h our find ing s and com pletely over w helm ed . Lewis Car roll?s fam ous w or ks ( Alice?s Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass) introd uce us t o a strang e and m yster ious w or ld w here t hing s ap pear od d , foreig n, up side d ow n,

inside out , inver ted . Not hing reflect s w hat Alice once knew. Lym eland , t oo, is a strang e and m yster ious realm , a place w here one?s ver y found at ion, values, and b eliefs are shaken t o t he core. Not hing is as we once under st ood it t o b e. But unlike Lewis Car roll?s t om es, Lym eland is ver y real. It is a com plicated , confusing , and ter r ifying b lack hole of suffer ing , conflict ing view s, and unrelent ing m ed ical navig at ion wit h p olit ical road b locks t hat have kep t Chronic Lym e Disease and it s m illions of vict im s in t he shad ow s for m ore t han for t y year s. In t his alter nate realit y, people t he w or ld over (rep or ted in eig ht y countr ies over ever y cont inent ) suffer d aily, feel alone, m ed ically ab and oned , and som et im es are b ullied , sham ed , or denied by m em b er s of m ainstream m ed icine. Pat ient s w ho are exper iencing a slow decay of healt h are often m ade t o feel as if t hey are sim ply ?m ad .? Som e are t old by fam ily d oct or s and specialist s t hat t here is no such t hing as Chronic Lym e Disease or t hat it is no m ore t han a nuisance cond it ion t hat can b e easily treated wit h a sim ple cour se of ant ib iot ics and t hat com plaint s of sym p t om s sub seq uent t o treat m ent are sim ply p sychosom at ic. Yet Chronic Lym e Disease is all t oo real, p r im ar ily a neurolog ical illness, w reaking havoc on t he b rain and central ner vous system , as well as injur ious t o t he hear t , liver, kid neys, and ot her or g ans.

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Self- portrait of the author's son painted at age 16

CO N T

Because t his d isease affect s t he b rain and t he central ner vous system , m ore often t han not , Chronic Lym e Disease p resent s as a m yr iad of neurop sychiatr ic illnesses w hich can g et m isd iag nosed as ever yt hing from intractab le dep ression, anxiet y, rag e, detachm ent , d issociat ion, deper sonalizat ion, p sychot ic episodes, and ob sessive-com p ulsive d isorder. Chronic Lym e Disease sufferer s are desperate for m ental healt h p rofessionals (along wit h all ot her m ed ical specialist s) t o under stand Lym e so t hat p rofessionals will know t o consider it as a p otent ial d ifferent ial d iag nosis b efore p rescr ib ing p sychotropic m ed icat ion t hat m ay sim ply m ake m atter s w or se. Lym e sufferer s can b e m isd iag nosed as having b ip olar dep ression or schizop hrenia, for exam ple, w hen in fact t hey are suffer ing from Lym e encep halit is. Mental healt h p rofessionals need t o consider infect ious d iseases as a p otent ial root cause along wit h child hood traum a w hen assessing m ental healt h. The p otent ial for under lying neurolog ical inflam m at ion, im m unosup p ression, and infect ious d isease should alw ays b e considered .

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Suicid al ideat ion is also a r isk am ong Lym e sufferer s. Washing t on-b ased infect ious d isease specialist and ad vocate for Lym e Disease treat m ent , Dr. Josep h, G. J em sek w rote, ?Most of m y HIV p at ient s used t o d ie... now m ost d on't ... Som e st ill d o, of cour se. My Lym e p at ient s, t he sickest ones, w ant t o d ie b ut t hey can't . That 's r ig ht , t hey w ant t o d ie b ut t hey can't . The m ost com m on cause of deat h in Lym e d isease is suicide.? There are a num b er of reasons w hy people com m it suicide, and Chronic Lym e Disease creates a per fect st or m . The freq uent neg at ion of m ed ical attent ion can lead t o d iscourag em ent , fear, helplessness, fr ustrat ion, loss, g r ief, loneliness, and , at t im es, litt le hope for recover y. W hen an illness is chronic, w hen t here is unrelent ing suffer ing and inadeq uate relief from t he m yr iad of deb ilitat ing sym p t om s. W hen a d oct or tells a p at ient t hat t heir p hysical illness is p r im ar ily m ade up in t heir m ind , anxiet y and dep ression can ensue. Lym e can also affect t he end ocr ine system , p otent ially creat ing m ood d isorder s. The collect ion of sym p t om s exper ienced d ay in and d ay out ? ?b rain fog ?, head aches, fever s, joint p ain, ner ve p ain, shakiness, instab ilit y, d izziness, vision and aud it or y d ist ur b ances, hallucinat ions, seizures, and p aralysis? can wear d ow n a p at ient , m aking even t he m ost resilient w ar r ior s event ually w ant out . Fam ily and fr iend s d on?t know how t o help. Som e loved ones all b ut ab and on t he Lym e sufferer b ecause t hey g et fed up wit h t he constant com plaining and lim itat ions. Lym e sufferer s feel like a b urden. They can lose t heir independence, t heir livelihood s, and t heir ab ilit y t o funct ion. They feel like t hey?re losing t heir m ind s at t im es. They live wit h cog nit ive lim itat ions, m aking ever y task far m ore d ifficult . They feel w or n d ow n by t he chronic p ain and illness, by t he fear, t he inact ivit y, and t he inab ilit y t o plan or have anyt hing t o look for w ard t o. Lym e sufferer s face loss ever y d ay. Loss of healt h, loss of t he per son t hey once were, loss of independence, loss of d ream s and g oals, loss of m issed op p or t unit ies, loss of t he life t hey once had , loss of an ident it y, loss of self-esteem , loss of


loved ones w ho ab and on t hem , loss of hope, loss of finances, loss of em plo ym ent , and loss of a fut ure. Lym e sufferer s are vict im ized m any t im es over ? by t he d isease it self, by d oct or s w ho t ur n t heir b acks, by fam ily and fr iend s w ho roll t heir eyes and w alk aw ay, by insurer s w ho refuse coverag e, and by a m ed ical system t hat cont inues t o deb ate t he ver y existence of t heir d isease. Just like Wonder land , Lym eland seem s com pletely and utter ly m ad . The illness it self? along wit h it s p olit ical m achinat ions? is com plex, m ind -b end ing , and at t im es inhum ane. W it h m ainstream m ed icine failing t hose w ho are suffer ing , I am m aking it m y m ission t o ed ucate m y colleag ues ab out t he devastat ing b io/p sycho/ social effect s of t his illness. We need m ental healt h p rofessionals t o b ecom e Lym e literate and t o sup p or t Lym e sufferer s in t heir chronic illness. I w ould , of cour se, g ive anyt hing t o see m y son fully recover from t his life-alter ing illness. Alt houg h he is d oing q uite well at t his t im e and is hig hly funct ioning , we cont inue t o w or k at im p roving his healt h ever y sing le d ay. Several year s later, we are st ill searching and filing aw ay new ideas as m y son?s var ious sym p t om s cont inue t o w ax and w ane. W it hout q uest ion, t his p rocess is expensive and d raining , as it req uires t hrowing all kind s of st uff ag ainst t he w all t o see w hat m ay or m ay not st ick. As eloq uent ly stated by m y colleag ue, Lym e Literate MD Kennet h Lieg ner, ?In t he fullness of t im e, t he m ainstream hand ling of chronic Lym e d isease will b e viewed as one of t he m ost sham eful episodes in t he hist or y of m ed icine b ecause elem ent s of academ ic m ed icine, elem ent s of g over nm ent , and vir t ually t he ent ire insurance ind ustr y have colluded t o deny a d isease. This has resulted in need less suffer ing of m any ind ivid uals w ho deter iorate and som et im es d ie for lack of t im ely ap plicat ion of treat m ent or denial of treat m ent b eyond som e ar b itrar y d urat ion.? My hope is t hat m ore and m ore t herapist s will consider b ecom ing Lym e literate for t he sake of t heir client s. Chronic Lym e d isease is here t o stay. The num b er of cases is g rowing ever y d ay. Ab ove all, sufferer s need t herapist s t o sup p or t t hem in t his m ed ical m ad ness know n as Lym eland .

SEL ECT ED BI BL I OGRAPHY: Car roll, Lewis. Alice's Ad vent ures in Wonder land ; And , Throug h t he Looking -Glass and W hat Alice Found There. New Yor k: Peng uin Classics, 20 0 9. Dennis, Lor i. Lym e Mad ness: Rescuing My Son Dow n The Rab b it Hole of Chronic Lym e Disease. SoulWor k Pub lishing , 20 16. Fer r ie, Helke. 'Lym e Disease Up d ate ? May 20 17'. Vitalit y Mag azine, 20 17. Galen, Elizab et h. 'How Bad is Late Dissem inated Lym e Disease?'. Green Hear t Guid ance Blog , 20 15. Lieg ner, Kennet h B. In t he Cr ucib le of Chronic Lym e Disease: Collected W r it ing s & Associated Mater ials. Xlib r is, 20 15.

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L ori Dennis, M.A. is a Registered Psychotherapist in Private Practice in Toronto and author of LYME MADNESS, named the #1 New Release in I mmune System Health on Amazon. L ori is a member of the College of Registered Psychotherapists of Ontario, the Ontario Society of Psychotherapists, and the Ontario Association of Consultants, Counsellors, Psychometrists and Psychotherapists. I n her talk therapy practice, L ori addresses a broad spectrum of mental health concerns. She also supports L yme sufferers in her daily work. She is sharing the message of L yme Madness with communities around the world. Her next project is to create educational materials for her colleagues to address L yme literacy and mental health. loridennis@talktherapy.ca loridennisonline.com | talktherapy.ca | lymemadness.ca

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CULTURAL SENSITIVITY, AWARENESS, SAFETY, COMPETENCE AND HUMILITY IN HEALTH CARE PRACTICES W ITH INDIGENOUS PEOPLE IN CANADA By Dr. Ed Connors

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I n 1989 Maori nurses in New Zealand introduced the concept of cultural safety to the health care field. T heir intention was to develop principles that would ensure that all health care providers recognized, respected, and supported the unique identities of the Maori and safely meet their needs, expectations, and rights through culturally sensitive best health care practices. At that point in time, health care providers in many countries had begun to acknowledge that the unique cultures of I ndigenous people possibly required adaptation of the ways in which health services were being delivered to I ndigenous populations. T his article will introduce

the reader to terms and concepts that have emerged as a consequence of this initiative and are now used to promote cultural safety within health care practice, drawing practitioners?attention to significant differences between indigenous and non- indigenous cultures. Cultural sensitivity, for instance, is the awareness that cultural differences and similarities exist between cultures without assigning positive or negative value to them. Cultural awareness, accordingly, is the ability to recognize and strive to understand the values beliefs and perceptions of another culture.

The Tw o Spir it Pipe Car r ier | Im ag e cour tesy of Anne Mar ie Bour g eois

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CO N T

W hen the Maori nurses spoke of cultural safety, they identified that the health status and well- being of I ndigenous people requires improvement not only concerning improved delivery of health services but moreover that the cultural differences presented by indigenous patients must be recognized, accepted, and respected. T hey highlighted (systemic) inequities in power present in the health care system that needed to be recognized and mitigated.

I ndigenous populations. Specifically, the worldview of I ndigenous people most often separates this population from other cultural groups. T his includes how we make sense of ourselves and our relationships with all of Creation and the Creator. I n addition, the experience of colonization has impacted I ndigenous cultural groups differently from cultures that have not been affected in their recent history by this experience.

I n the years that have followed, our growing recognition of the need for cultural safety has led to the promotion of cultural competence within health care services. Cultural competence is the ability of an individual or organization to deliver health care service that meets the social, cultural and linguistic needs of patients.

I n 2007 the First Peoples Wellness Circle (FPWC) began promoting the concept of culturally safe practices through their national conferences. T he Canadian I ndigenous Nurses Association had earlier initiated this effort in partnership with the Maori nurses of New Zealand. Members of their association collaborated with the FPWC in an effort to develop this concept within the Canadian health care system. T hrough the Mental Health Commission, the FPWC has advanced the discussion about the application of cultural safety, competence and humility with I ndigenous people. T he National Aboriginal Health Association (NAHO) has subsequently published several papers on the application of I ndigenous cultural safety and competence in the health care field.

Finally, in the wake of this dialogue concerning I ndigenous cultural identity and the prioritization of cultural safety within our health care system, we must learn cultural humility. T his concept speaks to maintaining an interpersonal stance that is ?other- oriented?(person- centered) in relation to aspects of cultural identity that are most important to each person. T his differs from other cultural identity concepts in that it focuses the clinician?s attention on self- humility in addition to maintaining knowledge or awareness of the other. T his concept was identified specifically to help health care practitioners improve the quality of their interactions with their clients and community members. We recognize that cultural identity is an essential element that must be attended to when shaping the delivery of health care services. I t is apparent that these principles apply similarly to other populations, whether identified based upon age or generation, gender, sexual orientation, occupation and socio- economic status, ethnic origin or migrant experiences, religious or spiritual beliefs, and/or disability. However, there are distinct differences when considering the application of cultural safety to

PSY 42.2 | 30

During the OACCPP conference on Friday September 29, 2017, I will present a workshop that will explore how these concepts have been applied in developing health care services for First Nation?s people in Canada. T his seminar will include experiential learning opportunities to help participants reflect on their capacity to deliver culturally safe and humble practices with indigenous people in Canada. T hose who are interested in participating in this workshop are encouraged to read articles on I ndigenous Cultural Safety and Competence that can be accessed readily through a Google search of ?NAHO cultural safety and competency?, including 'Cultural Competency and Safety: A Guide for Health Care Administrators, Providers, and Educators'.


Renew al and Redem p t ion | Im ag e cour tesy of Anne Mar ie Bour g eois

Additional resource: http://www.naho.ca/documents/naho/publications/culturalCompetency.pdf

Dr. Ed Connor s is a p sycholog ist of Mohaw k and Ir ish ancestr y. Over t he p ast 35 year s he has p rovided his ser vices t o Fir st Nat ions ind ivid uals, fam ilies and com m unit ies w ho are b ot h on and off reser ves across Canad a. Dur ing t his t im e he has ser ved as an Elder Ad visor and Board m em b er of t he Fir st Peoples Wellness Circle (for m er ly t he Nat ive Mental Healt h Associat ion of Canad a) and t he Canad ian Associat ion of Suicide Prevent ion. He also ser ves as a consultant Elder Ad visor for t he Enaaht ig Healing Lod g e and Lear ning Centre. Dr. Connor s has p ar t icip ated in t he develop m ent and deliver y of cult urally safe and hum b le healt h care ser vices t o Ind ig enous people t hroug h his w or k wit h t he Mental Healt h Com m ission and t he Fir st People Wellness Circle. In 20 11, Dr. Connor s assisted wit h t he fir st cult ural ad ap tat ion of t he B.C. Healt h Aut hor it ies Ind ig enous Cult ural Com petence Online Training Prog ram (w w w.sanyas.ca), now availab le in Ontar io under t he t it le of Ontar io Ind ig enous Cult ural Safet y Training (w w w.aohc.or g / Ontar io-Ind ig enous-cult ural-safet y-training ). He looks for w ard t o lear ning wit h you at t he 39t h annual OACCPP Conference in Toront o Sep tem b er 28-30 t h, 20 17.

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T HROUGH T HE SOLUT I ON- FOCUSED L OOK I NG GL ASS I ntroducing I nnerView Guidance By Ced r ic Speyer | M.Ed ., M.A.

?We do not believe in ourselves until someone reveals that something deep inside us is valuable, worth listening to, worthy of our trust, sacred to our touch. Once we believe in ourselves we can risk curiosity, wonder, spontaneous delight, or any experience that reveals the human spirit.? ? e. e. cummings

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Throug h Alice?s looking g lass, ever yt hing is rever sed and up side d ow n. It ?s m uch t he sam e in t herapy, w hen b reakt hroug hs are m ade. As t he 13t h-cent ur y Per sian p oet Rum i w rote, ?What hurts you, blesses you / Darkness is your candle / Your boundaries are your quest.? The m ain shift in

per spect ive is from out side-in t o inside-out ; from cond it ions and circum stances t o inner streng t hs and per sonal resources; from a nar row fixat ion on t he p rob lem t o using a wide ang le lens; from coping wit h a d iag nosis t o how life can look t hroug h t he view -finder of well-b eing . W hen solut ion-focused m et hod s are successful, it chang es t he client ?s focus from w hat is w rong wit h t hem , t o w hat is r ig ht wit h t hem , t o w hat is of deeply-held value in t heir w or ld . It ?s a streng t h-b ased and cap acit yb uild ing ap p roach. The ter m ?solut ion?is a b it m islead ing , b ecause it ?s not just ab out p rovid ing p ract ical t ools and resources as a rem ed y for t he p ains of a life sit uat ion. Many client s feel t hat t hey d on?t just have a p rob lem ; t hey are t he p rob lem . So it ?s not just a m atter of saying , ?Let?s take a closer look at this and see what you can do about it.? To encourag e ?t he per son b ehind t he p rob lem ?, we w ould instead say, ?Let?s take a closer look at who you are and who you?re capable of being under the circumstances.?

An ap p roach called Inner View Guid ance takes it a litt le fur t her. It evokes and elicit s t he per son ahead of t he p rob lem ; t hat is, w ho t hey are becoming in resp onse t o t he p rob lem . Under t he stead y affir m ing g aze of t he t herapist , t he per son is not defined by t he p rob lem , just as t he weed s around t he flower d o not fade t hat w hich b loom s under t he sun. In t hat sense, our ap p roach allow s t he w holeness of t he per son t o co-exist wit h em ot ional w ound s. It is no long er a b att le b et ween hope and hopelessness, b ecause t he per son develop s an exp and ing inner -view of a m uch b ig g er land scape, w hich includes any spir it ual, transper sonal or archet yp al realm s t hat m ay b e m eaning ful t o t hem . It ?s a m atter of looking at hum an b eing s t hroug h a telescope instead of a m icroscope. W it h t his kind of vision, we m ake an assessm ent of t he p osit ive core issue (w hile ?t ouching t he p ain?of t he neg at ive issue). Throug h a p osit ive assessm ent of t he client ?s knowled g e, exper ience and wisd om we can g lean w hat is g ood and tr ue and b eaut iful for t hem . Of cour se w hen client s fir st com e t o see us, t he g ood is often over laid by sham e, t he tr ue by g uilt , and t he b eaut iful by fear. No m atter w hat t he t herapy, it takes courag e, com p assion and tr ue connect ion t o d isplace sham e, g uilt and fear wit h w ays of b eing p ar t of t he b ig g er, life-g iving st or y ab out oneself t hat are g ood , tr ue, and b eaut iful. So w hen we speak of ?solut ion-focused ?from t he Inner View Guid ance p oint of view, it isn?t ab out a specific ant id ote t o ever y em ot ional and p sycholog ical com plaint .

The stand ard solut ion-focused ap p roach is encap sulated by t he Chinese p rover b, ?Better to light one candle than to curse the darkness.? The vision of Inner View Guid ance is b est exp ressed by t he Sufi m aster Pir Vilayat Inayat Khan: ?In our relationships we need to uphold that aspect of the person which is the real person and the soul beyond their own self-doubt.? Or, if you p refer t he Bib le, ?We do not lose heart. Though our outer self is wasting away, our inner self is being renewed day by day? (2 Cor int hians

4 :16). As t herapist s, we are like g uides at t he crossroad s of w here t he client ?s life sit uat ion m eet s t heir life? t heir need s, values, per sonal q ualit ies, and soul?s p ur p ose. W hen we invoke t he healt hy p ur p ose of t he per son ahead of t he p rob lem , we st ill show em p at hy for t he client ?s p red icam ent . Yet t o g aze up on t he essence of t he per son in t his w ay, we need t o see wit h t he eye of t he hear t , hear unm et need s im plied by t he issue, and speak t o t he lar g er g enuinely heroic m eaning of t he client ?s life jour ney. That soft g aze involves looking from t he inside-out in a deeply int uit ive w ay, seeking t he p osit ive context in w hich t he p rob lem is sit uated .

Let my wandering end as the story does of the Kurd who loses his camel. T hen the full moon comes out, And he finds what he lost. ? RUMI We need t o alw ays b e searching for t he full m oon in t he client ?s life and w hat it can illum inate, no m atter how eclip sed it s lig ht . Inner View is t he soul knowled g e (root m eaning of p sycholog y) it takes t o navig ate t he inter ior land scape wit h a new m ap. EN D

Cedric Speyer is a writer, editor, supervisor, and mentor, who pioneered EAP online counselling on a large scale and helped establish its credibility as a therapeutic modality. As a subject matter expert for e- therapy, he created, designed, developed and supervised one of the world's most successful online therapeutic services. Cedric holds Masters in Counseling Psychology, Education and Creative W riting, and has trained and supervised helping practitioners for over 16 years. Cedric conceived and teaches a short- term therapeutic model called I nnerView and co- founded I GI to pursue a path and practice within the positive psychology movement.

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TRANSPERSONAL METHODS OF SELF-DEVELOPMENT Discover ing our Hig hest Potent ial by Gabriele M. Craig | DT AT I

The t houg ht of deat h d oes not in t he least d ist ur b m e, b ecause I am fir m ly convinced t hat our spir it is indestr uct ib le and t hus cont inues from eter nit y t o eter nit y. It is like t he sun, w hich t o our eyes seem s t o d isap pear b eyond t he hor izon, w hile in act ual fact it g oes on shining cont inuously. ? LETTER FROM G OETHE TO ECKERMAN , MAY 2, 1824

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T ranspersonal Psychology (T PP) is a term used to encompass a wide range of alternative approaches that recognize the connection and importance of mind, consciousness, and spirituality in healing. I t is a relatively new branch of psychology concerned with transpersonal experiences and related phenomena, including the cause and effects of such experiences. I n this short summary, I hope to offer a basic introduction of T PP, a glimpse T hrough the L ooking Glass into the deeper spiritual world of our clients and the transcendent potential for healing that therapy offers. THE ROOTS OF TPP T PP is sometimes referred to as the ?fourth force? in psychology, emerging out earlier psychoanalysis, behaviourism and humanistic psychology. According to Maslow, the fourth wave force of psychology transcends the self- actualization of Humanistic psychology, unlike the previous three that exclude the transcended part of the soul. T PP integrates the whole spectrum of human development from pre- personal to trans- personal. T PP recognizes and works with the powers of love, compassion, and fellowship that bring about change. I t accompanies the realization that when we die, our most essential Self survives. I n order to know and accept this idea, we have to experience it. T his creates a paradox, of course; how can one experience death and come out knowing that the Self survived? T ransformation and healing can grow out of such experience. T his requires curiosity, openness, the courage to explore, and the sense something greater and incomprehensible exists. Dr. Amy Mindell, who practices and teaches in Portland, Oregon with her husband Arnold Mindell, wrote ?unlearning?takes us further than ?learning more?. Psychotherapy can offer a spiritual path to allow underlying beliefs to surface. T his is not so much a question of doctrinal belief but rather openness to the divine or universal being and letting go of assumptions.

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CO N T

If your m ind is em p t y, it is alw ays read y for anyt hing ; it is open t o ever yt hing . In t he b eg inner ?s m ind , t here m ay b e m any p ossib ilit ies; in t he exper t ?s m ind t here are b ut a few. ? SHUNRYU SUZUKI All work on a transpersonal level requires the ability to be fully present, but, as Mindell suggests, it is the ability of the therapist to practice ?controlled abandon?that is essential. T he degree to which the therapist is actually capable of doing so may depend entirely on the quality of the work they have done on their own consciousness. T his is subtle work, requiring an intuitive mode of thinking. Rather than reaching into one?s toolkit, it is trusting oneself to go into a place of un- knowing and waiting for what may present itself. T he transpersonal therapist must give up their assumptions in order to encourage and enable their client to question their own. Any ?conceptual? interpretation of a client?s experiential process? including defense mechanisms that manifest as patterns of response? may cloud our perception and compassion, and block appropriate, effective and spontaneous involvement. Jung, Hillman, Rogers, and von Franz were pioneers of such soulful exploration within therapy.

NOTABLE CONTRIBUTIONS T imothy L eary formulated an ?Eight Circuit Model of Consciousness,? suggesting that eight circuits operate within the human nervous system, each corresponding to its own experience of reality. T he circuits start with those related to life on earth

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and survival, and end with post- terrestrial and evolution- focused awareness. K en Wilber suggested that consciousness can be broken down into three main categories: pre- personal or pre- egoic, personal or egoic, and the transpersonal or trans- egoic. Both of these models are considered hierarchical in that human development progresses from matter to body to mind to spirit, though progress and maturity through the developmental stages (e.g. morality, cognition, emotion, self- sense, etc.) follow a circular and uneven path. Developmental stages may not develop in a linear fashion, and as such, progress can involve circling back to pick up the process. I n contrast to the above, Michael Washburn presented a T PP model of human development that is neither hierarchical nor linear. I nformed by the Jungian perspective, he suggested the ego initially arose out of a ?source?or ?ground?and that our spirit requires a return to this origin, before it can move on. T PP has also brought clinical attention to the topic of spiritual crisis. Many of the psychological difficulties associated with a spiritual crisis are not ordinarily discussed by mainstream psychology. Among these may be near- death experiences or terminal illnesses. Jeffrey Rubin suggested that psychoanalysis neglected the resources spirituality provides to a client. From a Buddhist perspective, he advocated that meditation could enrich psychoanalytic treatment. T hrough meditation one can develop the ability to open up with less attachment and aversion, which aids the exploration of the client?s emotional being, thus leading to a reduction in self- criticism and an increase in self- acceptance. From this perspective, Rubin proposed a ?Seven Factors of Enlightenment?path of transformation, involving:


1. Mindfulness, or awareness without judgment, attachment or aversion to what is happening in the present moment; 2. Energy, that is the effort to be attentive and awake and to see clearly; 3. I nvestigation, or actively probing, exploring, and analyzing the nature of things and the various dimensions of experience; 4. Rapture, or the curiosity about and delight in each moment of experience; 5. T ranquility or calm, that is ?quietness of mind? an inner kind of silence, a silent investigation rather than thought filled?; 6. Concentration, a state in which the mind is still, focused and deeply immersed with laser- like ?one- pointedness? on whatever it experiences; and 7. Equanimity, or a balance and evenness of mind in which one is receptive and impartial toward whatever is occurring. W hile Buddhist practices of mindfulness and unattachment strengthen one?s concentration and equanimity, Rubin suggests, psychoanalysis further supports a path toward Enlightenment by cultivating active qualities like investigation of mind and conduct. French philosopher Paul Ricoeur once remarked that psychoanalysis embodies a ?pessimism of the intellect? whereas Buddhism exemplifies ?optimism of the will?. Both are needed, the tragic reality and the romantic possibility.

A PLACE FOR MYSTICISM Mysticism is aimed at changing automatic patterns of thoughts and perceptions (what we think or perceive) that are at the bottom of most human suffering. Consequently, it can play an important role

in psychotherapy. Vedanta, the Vedic literature of I ndia, is regarded by many as the beginning of mysticism. Four sections? Rig Veda, the Brahmana, the Aranyaka, and the Upanishads? were composed from 900 B.C. onwards. From the Upanishads we learn that the way to relieve the pain and suffering of life is to go beyond thought and instead experience the reality that underlies everything, the Real Self of each person. T he basic mystical experience is that of connecting with an undifferentiated unity. T he Upanishad interprets that this unity is the Real Self of the individual and that the Real Self is the Ultimate that lies beyond and within all reality, whether mental or physical. According to the mystics, during such an experience the unusual and illusionary division between self and the world of objects ceases to exist. T his experience is considered supreme bliss, of the ultimate fulfillment. T he person is no longer separated from the experience, the person becomes the experience; most importantly, such an experience is reached intuitively. Although this pure state is temporary, one who has known it is able to expand their comprehension of life and undergo a personal transformation. T he reality intuited by the mystic is convincing only when it is experienced. Sometime between the 6th and 4th century BCE lived Gautama Buddha? also known as Siddh?rtha Gautama, or simply the Buddha? who was a prince- turned- ascetic on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. T he son of a king, he abandoned all worldly traditions and attained the realization of the Ultimate, or Enlightenment. Buddha taught non- injury, forgiveness of enemies, and friendliness. T hese same beliefs were embraced by the Greek philosophers of the same period, as well in the T aoist writings of L ao T zu.

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Sufism developed in the Middle East and during the Middle Ages. T he Sufis believe that a supra- sensory reality exists and can be known by all human beings. I t was the Sufis who said that most people are ?asleep?, because their consciousness is taken up with automatic responses in the service of greed and fear. According to the Sufis, ?awakening?is the primary task of human life, it is our evolutionary destiny.

How Far You Have Com e! Or ig inally you were clay. From b eing m ineral, you b ecam e veg etab le, you b ecam e anim al, and from anim al, m an. Dur ing t hese per iod s m an d id not know w here he w as g oing , b ut he w as b eing taken on a long jour ney nonet heless. And we have t o g o t hroug h a hund red d ifferent w or ld s yet . ? RUMI (13 TH- CENTURY A.D.) Spiritual growth as defined by the Sufis is the development of a latent intuitive capacity present in all human beings. Sufis?emphasis on evolution, on the problem of conditioned thinking, and on the subtleties of behaviour and motivation makes their writings particularly interesting to students of T PP. With this in mind, we can think of the entire history of mysticism as the history of a science of intuitive development. W here the physical sciences rely primarily on rationale and reason, mysticism turns to intuitive perception. CONTEMPORARY USE OF ART AND OTHER PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES IN TRANSPERSONAL PSYCHOTHERAPY Art and music therapies offer the opportunity for clients to explore a broader understanding of our human existence through projective techniques. I n my own work as an Art T herapist, I observe the integration of transpersonal insight during the

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art- making process. Based on the understanding that the reality the is accessible through therapy is inherently subjective, expressive therapies take into account a client?s experience at the subconscious level. I n art therapy, such subconscious streams become the art itself, produced through mind and body, which then fosters consciousness. T his may lead to a higher spiritual level or transpersonal integration, and ultimately offer profound healing and acceptance of self. CRITICISM T PP is not without its detractors. One of the earliest criticisms was issued by the Humanistic psychologist Rollo May who disputed the conceptual foundations of T PP. Others have criticized the field of T ranspersonal psychology for being underdeveloped as a field of science. I ndeed, T PP is situated where the broader domain of inquiry known as transpersonal studies (including a number of unscientific approaches) intersects with the scientific discipline of psychology. Consequently, allying the goals of T PP within an integrated psychotherapeutic approach such as art therapy can be empowering. PERSONAL EXPERIENCE & TRANSFORMATION Ten years of the study of philosophy provided an excellent training ground for me to become a (transpersonal) psychotherapist. Although I searched for many years for an understanding of the spiritual side of life and death, it was through meditation, reflection, observation and discussions that I came to understand the phenomenon of being. Meditation practice can enhance self- experience by facilitating greater freedom, flexibility, and inclusiveness of self- structures. I learned to let go of judgment and of criticism. I n other words, I learned to let go of ego.


Using Wilbert?s terms, transitioning from personal egoic to transpersonal egoic, I became an observer, although a ?participating?observer of myself and ultimately, of the client. I experienced first hand the healing of my soul and the shift to Wilber?s transpersonal levels of awareness, the opening up and widening of the inner space, where acceptance of all that is takes place; where experience of becoming one in the universal takes place; and life and death are one. And, I still consider myself in process, a never- ending, always changing process. T he fundamental reality underlying appearances is not accessible through the senses, according to the mystics, but is instead accessible through mystical intuition. I t is that ?freed?intuition that gives meaning to the individual existence and does away with the fear of death. T he intuition of the nature of reality marks the transition to the next stage of evolutionary development, which is the destiny of the human race. CONCLUSION Someone who is attached only to reason, depending only on observable facts and unable to look beyond is stuck in Plato?s ?cave?, believing in the shadows without knowing where the light is coming from. Mystical intuition requires nurture and is a process, not a destination. ?A unified world is a prerequisite for intuition. To clarify, mystics describe their knowledge by identity: the knower becomes one with the known rather than observing it. Such knowledge requires a metaphysic in which each person is connected in some way with everything else; it implies a field theory in which no absolute barriers exist between entities, but all entities respond and are unified within the field? I f

we can partake of a consciousness that is not bound by the physical brain but extends throughout existence, then subject and object are one, and we can know by being the object.? ? Arthur Deikman T PP attempts to integrate timeless wisdom with modern Western psychology, to translate spiritual principles into contemporary and scientifically acceptable language. T PP encompasses the full spectrum of human psycho- spiritual development, from the deepest needs to the existential crisis of the human being to the most transcendent capacities of our consciousness. I t is considered to be an integrated and ?complete?psychology. Our knowledge of psychological development is not only helpful, but necessary to understand the purpose and logic behind the methods of mystical science. I n my personal experience, meditation illustrates well the paradox of the fullness emptiness provides. As John Rowan suggests, the therapist should approach their client ?emptily perfect and perfectly empty.?Following the ?Seven Factors of Enlightenment?the client can discover their human entitlement, meaning, awakening consciousness and an awareness of knowledge that exists in all human beings. T he therapist remains fully present and available, providing ?scaffolding?for the client during their transformation towards the healing stage and transformational level of transpersonal development.

?Quant um t heor y forces us t o see t he univer se not as a collect ion of p hysical ob ject s, b ut rat her as a com plicated web of relat ions b et ween t he var ious p ar t s of a unified w hole.? ? ARTHUR DEIKMAN

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SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Gab r iele Craig is a g rad uate of t he Toront o Ar t Therapy Inst it ute and m aintains a p r ivate Ar t Psychot herapy p ract ice. In 20 15 she ad ded Eq uine Assisted Therapy t o her ser vices w or king wit h child ren, ad olescent s and ad ult s, Traum a vict im s, Lear ning Disab ilit ies, ADHD and Aut ism . Her w or k ab out Ar t Therapy and t he Deaf has b een p ub lished in t he Br it ish Ar t Therapy Jour nal in Dec.20 0 9. Gab r iele has b een an act ive ar t ist t hroug hout her life and has b een an Ar t Instr uct or for m any year s at var ious Inst it utes and Colleg es.

Craig, Gabriele. (2009) I ntersubjectivity, Phenomenology and Multiple Disabilities, I nternational Journal of Art T herapy, Dec 2009; 14(2)64- 73, Routledge T aylor & Francis Group, L ondon and New York. Deikman, Arthur. MD, (1982) T he Observing Self, Mysticism and Psychotherapy, Beacon Press, Boston. G. Frank L awlis. PhD. (1996) T ranspersonal Medicine, A New Approach to Healing Body- Mind- Sprit, Shambala, Boston and L ondon. Mindell, Amy (1995). Metaskills: T he Spiritual Art of T herapy. New Falcon Publications, L as Vegas, NV. Rama, Swami. (2004) Perennial Psychology Of T he Bhagavad Gita, Himalayan I nstitute Press, Honesdale, Pennsylvania. Rowan, John. (2005) T he Future of T raining in Psychotherapy and Counselling, I nstrumental, Relational and T ranspersonal Perspectives, Routledge T aylor & Francis Group, L ondon and New York. Rowan, John. (2005) T he T ranspersonal: Spirituality, Psychotherapy and Counselling, Routledge, L ondon. Rubin, Jeffrey. B. (1996) Psychotherapy And Buddhism, Toward an I ntegration, Plenum Press, New York. T art, Charles. (1975) T ranspersonal Psychologies, Harper & Row, New York.

EN D

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PRESENT AT I ON REVI EW : RESI L I ENCE- FOCUSED MARRI AGE AND FAMI LY COUNSEL L I NG by Step hen Doug las | Ed it or On April 30th, 2017 M onica and W illiam Nicoll facilitated a workshop on fostering resilience in family and intimate- partner relationships. Read on for an overview of the recommendations made for marriage and family therapists at this D alton and Associates sponsored presentation.

IMPROVING THE RQ (RESILIENCE QUOTIENT) W hile contemporary treatment in mental health focuses increasingly on biological pathology and pharmacological treatment, Dr. William Nicoll began by noting, the Nicoll?s experience in marriage and family therapy suggests that familial- social factors ?particularly the communication styles and patterns established within the family- of- origin ? carry much greater influence on one?s adult relationship behaviors. Humans, like all organisms, can only thrive if they have an environment that sustains them. T he more the environment supports our capacity to thrive, the greater our resilience for difficulties to arise in interpersonal relationships. Resilience, as Dr. William Nicoll defined, is the ability to establish a positive, goal- oriented, productive and fulfilling course in one?s life; a course which leads one toward a productive and fulfilling personal, social, family / intimacy, and occupational life. I t further involves the ability to handle adversity, obstacles, stress, and setbacks in stride; to possess the resources

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necessary to ?bounce back?and resume one?s original course moving forward and growing in a positive life/relationship direction. COMPONENTS OF RESILIENCE Returning to the prerequisite environment for resilience to thrive, the Nicoll?s found that four factors need to be present: 1. A POSI T I VE SOCI AL ENVI RONMENT M UST EXI ST ? this environment could include family, school, and community systems that are supportive, and must emphasize the importance of identifying and reflecting positive qualities in an individual, use of understanding, encouragement, and assistance where needed. 2. FAMI LY M EMBERS NEED T O D EVEL OP SOCI AL - EMOT I ONAL COMPET ENCY ? first we must consider: W hat competencies are missing? T hen, we can teach these skills. 3. T HE FAMI LY M UST SUPPORT A GROW T H M I NDSET ? negative narratives can be replaced with healthier ways to function. 4. T HE FAMI LY M UST F OST ER A POSI T I VE SEL F- I DENT I FY I N EACH M EMBER? each member of the family must see themselves and others as competent, capable, valued, and needed by those close to us. T he combination of these four components, Dr. William Nicoll suggested, can be summed up as a family member?s Resilience Quotient . He further emphasized the need to explore three L evels of Behavior when symptoms of conflict occur between family members:

1. T HE F EEL I NG? attunement to and identification of our inner state of emotions, 2. T HE PURPOSE? what is the action when the feeling occurs? i.e. what function or purpose does that symptom serve?, and 3. T HE UNW RI T T EN SET OF RUL ES OF I NT ERACT I ON that each person is acting in accordance to? our rules system can develop a ?cognitive virus?, a mistaken belief that permeates our ?rules of interaction?. T ypically, these rules influence the purpose driving the behavior that result in negative feelings in conflict with the rules guiding the other person. THERAPEUTIC TOOL TO HELP IMPROVE RESILIENCY IN FAMILIES FAMI LY SCUL PT I NG Sculpting heightens awareness of what is needed. I t can be facilitated in two parts: first, how the emotion feels now, and second, a possible desired outcome for how it could feel later. T HE F I VE GOAL S OF BEHAVI OR As therapists, we can validate the important goals that exist underlying family members? behaviors: 1. Recognition and Connection, 2. Autonomy, 3. Equality and Respect, 4. Meaningful Contribution, and 5. Competence and Mastery. T his is valuable when the corresponding Five Goals of M isbehavior appear: 1. Attention or Special Service, 2. Control, 3. Superiority / Power, 4. Revenge or Counter- Hurt, and 5. Avoidance of Failure or Emotional Pain. We can help turn misbehavior around by


reframing what the children are seeking. FIVE SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL COMPETENCIES Children will also become more resilient when we teach them Five Social- Emotional Competencies: 1. Understanding and Respecting Self and Others, 2. Empathy, 3. Positive / Constructive Communication, 4. Cooperation, and 5. Responsible Contribution. THERAPEUTIC TOOLS TO HELP IMPROVE RESILIENCY IN INTIMATE PARTNER RELATIONSHIPS EXPRESSI NG A DMI RAT I ON: An initial assessment, Dr. Monica Nicoll suggested, of the health of a marriage can be evidenced by inquiring each partner to reflect on their early recollections of the relationship? their first meeting, their early attraction* ? and by considering when they last shared that attraction with one another. Usually attraction is buried under the ?negative evidence baskets? accumulated over time. I nvite couples to share with one another, ?I see in you something that I admire.? * I n arranged marriages, each can instead explore the strengths they have come to recognize and appreciate in one another.

V I SUAL I ZI NG T HE GOAL S: Remember to raise the ?magical? question: I f you woke up tomorrow and everything was the way you wanted in your marriage, what would you notice, what would be different?

REL AT I ONSHI P I NVENT ORY : How much time each day is spent on cohesion maintenance within the relationship? Examples of what

can help restore cohesion include: fun date nights, participating in what each partner likes to do together or what brings each partner joy, doing something special for your partner, and taking time to see one another not as adversaries but as the ?we?or ?us.? UNFI NI SHED BUSI NESS FROM CHI L DHOOD : With clients, ask them? one at a time? to think about a moment where they wished it was different. How does this moment feel? W here do you feel it in your body? W hen was the very first time you felt that feeling? At this point, reflect back and support some inner child healing by asking: W hat could you say or offer to that child (so you don?t continue repeating this infinity loop pattern)? D EFI NI NG L OVE L ANGUAGES (by Gary Chapman): L ove languages help identify how each person recognizes how love was expressed in their family of origin, how each shows their love now, and how they recognize love now and wish to receive it. Change is not something that happens in counselling. As Dr. William Nicoll stressed, it is something that happens in between counselling sessions. I n the first session, give the clients something to do? a kind of homework per se? that instigates a positive start. Suggest that whatever they identify a negative pattern on the infinity loop, there is something with which the negativity can be replaced. For instance, invite each person share with the other(s) the highlights of their relationship. T his can be done both in couples and family

counselling. T O CONCLUDE the workshop, the Nicolls guided attendees in a discussion of five essential ?maintenance skills?in a relationship.

T hese include: 1. SAFET Y M AI NT ENANCE? it is generally recommended to see each person individually after the first session to ask each participant individually whether there are any safety concerns; 2. L I FE SK I L L S, e.g. understanding, empathy, communication, cooperation, responsible contribution, cohesion maintenance; 3. POSI T I VE- T O- NEGAT I VE I NT ERACT I ON RAT I O ? maintain a minimum of 5:1; 4. BEHAVI OR ; and 5. BOUNDARY M AI NT ENANCE. We need all of these to function well, and must self- reflect on the gaps that exists. As a group, we discussed how these skills are used in both marriage and parenting. For example, behavioral

maintenance between a couple involves co- empowered conflict resolution, whereas behavioral maintenance as a parent requires the use of discipline that is educational rather than punitive, and utilizes consequences that are related, reasonable, respectful and reliable rather than based on threat. ?Resilience- Focused Marriage and Family Counselling?by Monica and William Nicoll was an excellent presentation, and served a good primer for Adlerian family and couples therapy. I wish to thank Dr. Dan Dalton for inviting them to Toronto.


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Psychologica 42.2: Reflection, Renewal, Resilience  

The OACCPP Magazine 2017 Summer | Fall

Psychologica 42.2: Reflection, Renewal, Resilience  

The OACCPP Magazine 2017 Summer | Fall

Profile for oaccpp
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