PORTFOLIO RIBA II
JAMES Y. OSBORNE
“ARCHITECTURAL FORM IS A BOUNDARY, DEMARCATING TERRITORY RATHER THAN REPRESENTING IT” P.V. Aureli Temenos (Greek: Temple) meaning a ‘special place’ separated from the rest of the land. A Greek temple was a place of protection; for example, a wanted criminal could not be forcefully removed from the temple. Battersea is currently undergoing a dramatic character change. Its industrial heritage is being destroyed. Historically industrial areas are being converted into residential zones. This process either pushes industries out of Battersea or forces them to close entirely, sending plenty of perfectly functional industrial equipment to scrapyards. The project aims to convert an unfinished residential complex into an ‘industrial temenos’. The Industrial Museum acting as a protective place for both the industries and the industrial equipment from all over Battersea.
The Thesis drawing of a Temple as a safety island that floats in a sea of dead residential towers.
DEINDUSTRIALISATION Urban Context
SITE Battersea is a district of South West London (England) within the London Borough of Wandsworth. It is located on the south bank of the River Thames.
Battersea has a rich history of industrial manufacturing, it had starch & silk manufacturers, malt house, corn mills, oil and grease works, chemical works, plumbago crucible works, saltpetre works, foundry. As well as these, there were also plenty of wood, metal & clay workshops. Most of the factories have been demolished in the 1970s and replaced with modern apartment buildings. The Nine Elms regeneration project saw the final wave of deindustrialisation, with many businesses having to relocate or close.
KEY Deindustrialised areas
BATTERSEA POWER STATION Bettersea Power Station under construction Source: Pete Osborne
An aerial view of Bettersea Power Station under construction Source: London Helicopters
YORK PLACE HISTORY Industrial to residential
PAST 1930s aerial photo of York place. The Saccharum Works factory buildings i nthe foreground with workerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s houses filling the background. Chimneys dominate the sky, symbolising an era of industry.
Source: Historic England
1826 -1884 Silk manufacturing
1884 - 1923 Saccharum Works
1923 - 1980 Glucose Works
PRESENT The site was redeveloped in 1980s. The Glucose works were demolished and the site was divided into two areas. The fisrt section is occupied by Plantation Wharf (residential & offices). The second section was occupied by Homebase store until 2018.
1980 - PRESENT Residential & Homebase Homebase was demolished in 2019 Source: Bing maps
York Place Redevelopment
London is currently in the middle of a radical change, the rising property prices force developers to eradicate industry & offices in favour of housing. Battersea is at the forefront of this phenomena and York Place is the perfect example. One cannot stop wondering what would happen to these developments if we were to be hit by a new recession. PLANTATION WHARF The original scheme consisted of office spaces, however, throughout the years most of the units were converted into residential apartments. A planning application has been submitted to demolish a portion of the estate and build taller residential blocks. HOMEBASE The store has been demolished in order to give way to three new residential towers (11, 23 & 15 storeys), and the new Royal Dance Academy headquarters at ground level.
Ongoing construction at Homebase site. Source: Avanton
North - East Elevation
North - West Elevation
ARCHITECUTRE AS A BOUNDARY Site observations
“ARCHITECTURAL FORM IS A BOUNDARY, DEMARCATING TERRITORY RATHER THAN REPRESENTING IT” P. V. Aureli ‘The possibility of absolute architecture’
Plantation Wharf is a very ambiguous place. The distinction between ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ is somewhat blurred. On the one hand, archways act as thresholds between the urban fabric (the city) and architecture (the estate). On the other hand, the continuous architectural language creates an illusion of exteriority. The layering of spaces also intensifies the feeling of ambiguity. Upon entering the Plantation Wharf, one experiences a city within a city.
Layering of spaces
* for addiitonal information refer to ‘THE CITY IN THE CITY’ section in the ‘Additional materials’ document
BETWEEN OBJECT & CITY Plantation Wharf
THE CITY IN THE CITY. BERLIN: A GREEN ARCHIPELAGO O.M. Ungers’ book “The city in the city. Berlin: A green archipelago” has heavily influenced P.V. Aureli’s book “The possibility of an absolute architecture.” In it, Ungers proposes a series of “self-contained independent artefacts” scattered across the city. Each artefact is essentially a city that is scaled down to an urban block. Once one enters the artefact, they experience a “city in miniature”. Plantation Wharf has these qualities, with “streets” and “squares” inside it.
Medieval city of Arles (france) Source: Wikipedia
PLANTATION WHARF PLAN Source: 1st term group work
THRESHOLDS Primarily the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;internalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; body of the estate consists of a series of courtyards/streets. This situation puts significant emphasis on the transitions between different sections of the site, as they dictate the main experience of these spaces.
PLANTATION WHARF SECTION Source: 1st term group work
THRESHOLD Since the archway is the main threshold between the ‘inside’ and ‘outside’, it seemed right to see if one could further blur the experience of transition between the two states. The archway was already modified in the 90s by adding a new volume inside it, so it seemed natural to modify it even more.
ARCHWAY SECTION Source: 1st term group work
KAPEL VAN KERSELARE
Modernist intervention in an existing context
The Gothic chapel of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Our Blessed Lady of Kerselareâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; has stood on Edelare hill (Oudenaarde, Belgium), since 1460. When the chapel was destroyed by fire in 1961, the board had decided not to reconstruct it, but to design a new one. Juliaan Lampens won the competition. He initially presented a very traditional design but agreed with the priest to implement a daring new design. Unlike its Gothic predecessor, the new chapel is not visible from the public road, it was implanted further along, but there it rises with striking expressive power. It is almost as if the building was shown into the ground.
1. The original Kerselare chapel on fire. 2. An early design concept sketch. 3. The new chapel construction. (Tournai stone from the ruins were reused in the retaining walls) 4. Construction complete. Source: issuu.com
2. 1962 22 |
KERSELARE CHAPEL Section & Plan
â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Between two planesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Visitors are welcomed by way of a large cantilever in the front, they cannot enter here, but are led along the side of the tapered building, descending towards the rear, where they gain access to the interior via a cove with a water feature. They enter the church space along a passage beside the altar. There they are confronted with the dynamic expanding space that rises towards the outside, through a ten-meter tall glass wall. Just inside, they are sucked/ pushed back out. Once they recover from the surprise, if they then turn around, they discover an entirely different space, a profoundly private and quiet space. The ambiguity of front and rear, the lack of a facade, the tension between inside and outside, the slipping from open to close, from high to low, from dynamic to peaceful, all this gives the building a special and unsual character. So much so that it cannot be placed within the typology of modern church buildings.
Interior (at completion). Source: tumblr.com
TEMENOS The temenos condition is achieved by going down into a sunken area. This approach makes for a much more protected and private temenos.
JOURNEY The spacial journey of those who enter the chapel is reminiscent of the spacial journey one makes upon entering Plantation Wharf
KAPEL VAN KERSELARE ESSENCE
Distilling the most significant elment of the building
The first step was to try and distil the Kapel van Kerselare design to a couple of essential elements. Since I was looking at thresholds between ‘inside’ and ‘outside’, I thought it would be best to focus on thresholds of the chapel too. I made three plywood sections of the entrance ensemble (scale 1:20). I then made a 1:20 plywood model of the Plantation Wharf archway and begun on trying to combine the two. The Kapel van Kerselare was ‘shoved’ into the ground, so I went to ‘shove’ the chapel into the archway. The resulting design overlays an alternative spacial reality onto the existing context (archway). This creates a new transition experience as well as a new spatial context.
Model | Scale: 1:20 | Plywood
Combining the ‘essence’ model with the context
Model | Scale: 1:20 | Plywood | 27
KAPEL VAN KERSELARE IN BATTERSEA Transcription Nort-West section & GF Plan
* for 1:75 plan & section refer to ‘TRANSCRIPTION’ drawing in the ‘Additional materials’ document
SCALE 1:75 5m
PLANTATION WHARF , BATTERSEA
TRANSCRIPTION - PROJECT 3
| 29 N
TEMENOS: PLINTH Glienicke Palace porch
“A noniconic gesture such as the plinth seems to open an analogical crack in urban space even when it has been totalized by the managerial forces of urbanization. The plinth introduces a stoppage into the smoothness of urban space, thus evoking the possibility of understanding urban space not as ubiquitous, pervasive, and tyrannical, but as something that can be framed, limited, and thus potentially situated as a thing among other things.” (Aureli, 2011) In ‘The Possibility of an Absolute Architecture’ Aureli describes how when one climbs a plinth one is both part of the city and separated from it. Aware of the presence of the city, the movement, the overall urban gestalt, but as a detached observer. Surrounded by an urbanity of complexity and expansionism this plinth, as a device, delineates a boundary. An archipelago whose placement creates an inout space. In 1825 Karl Friedrich Schinkel designed Glienicke palace for Prince Carl of Prussia. The palace is located in Pozdam, Germany (Prussia at the time). The porch is an excellent example of using plinth in order to demarcate a particular area. Schinkel has also used columns in order to intensify the effect. The resulting space has a distinct character, being both separated from the rest of the palace, yet having a direct connection.
* for addiitonal information refer to ‘SAMPLING’ section in the ‘Additional materials’ document
TEMENOS: COLLONADE Nationalgalerie collonade
The collonade around the Nationalgalerie (Berlin) is extremely impressive. Essentially, it was almost like the Glienicke porch but here it was multiplied by 1000. The resulting structure creates a firm yet permeable barrier between the internal courtyard and the rest of the city. Unlike a solid wall (like the Plantation Wharf) this approach feels lighter. Just like we saw it with the Glienicke porch when one stands perpendicularly to the collonade, one can see through it, thus having a visual connection to the city. At the same time, when one stands at an angle to the collonade, it appears to be solid, thus creating more ambiguity. It seems to be a good idea to either run the collonade around the perimeter of my site or integrate it into a structure.
Berlin Museum island Source: William Kessler
A modern reinterpritation of the Nationalgalerie collonade Timber collonade | Scale: 1:20 | wood
Brick collonade | Scale: 1:20 | wood & card | 33
Altes Museum - The first purpose built exhibition space
Since I am designing a museum, it made sense to visit the Altes Museum in Museum Island, Berlin. It was built in 1830 as the first-ever purpose built exhibition space. Schinkel had pursued Humboldt’s idea of opening the museum as an educational institution for the public. No longer the art gallery was a closed off place for bougeousy, the building had to exhibit and educate it’s visitors.
TEMENOS The temenos is very strong here. As one approaches the building, they are faced with a large staircase. The process of ascending makes a clear idea of separation between the city and the building. Once on top, you move through two layers of enormous columns. The sheer scale of the space gives it a robust external feeling (even though it’s now covered). As you move through the building, the spaces become smaller, until you are forced through a small portal into a vast internal rotonda (close resemblance to Pantheon). This experience of alternating constricting spaces is very similar to that of Kapel van Kerselare. By the time one is completely “inside” they lose the specific point where they actually crossed the threshold.
‘ALTES’ HAS LANDED IN BATTERSEA
Transcribing ‘Altes museum’ into the new context
DESIGN APPROACH It seemed like the ex—Homebase site would be the best place for the new museum. At first, one had decided to demolish the existing unfinished structure and ‘drop’ the Altes museum in Battersea. Most developers would not want to work with the existing structure anyhow. The construction process was in the very early stages, so we would not have to demolish too much. Furthermore, it was important to try to utilise the existing foundations and design the new structure within the existing footprint. The design was a mix of Altes museum and Kerselare chapel. The ‘parti’ of the building followed Shinkel’s principles, whereas, the journey towards the entrance followed Lampens.
Site model | Scale: 1:200 | Wood & card
Proposal ‘sectional‘ model | Scale: 1:50 | Wood | 37
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ARCHITECTURE DURING CRISIS The way COVID-19 has affected design
COVID-19 is a tectonic historical event; no doubt historians will divide our history into PRE and POST COVID-19, like a RED line that runs across our lives. However, as someone who was directly affected by this event, I want to focus on life DURING COVID-19. To be more specific, I want to see and record the way that the pandemic has affected our lives. So initially, I set out to demolish the unfinished structure and build a new museum; however, the pandemic has brought some significant corrections. All construction work has stopped, and many developers would not be able to resume work. This means that plenty of construction projects would be placed on hold (permanently). The
time has frozen in these places, and they are naturally occurring “museums” of the pandemic. What would happen to these unfinished structures? Since most of these are residential developments, there is a high chance that construction will not resume. The pandemic has already caused the worst economic recession since the Great Depression, and the chances that the ‘housing bubble’ will finally burst are very high. The question we would face in this situation is “What are we going to do with these structures, can we adapt them for a new purpose?”, well this is what the project tries to find out.
INSTEAD OF MAKING A BUILDING WHOSE SOLE PURPOSE IS TO DISPLAY THE “INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE”, IT IS BETTER TO DO A WORKSHOP. IT BOTH SERVES THE FUNCTION OF DISPLAYING THE INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT AND AT THE SAME TIME PROVIDING A SAFE PLACE FOR LOCAL INDUSTRIES TO OPERATE IN. PLUS LOOKING AT MACHINERY AT WORK IS MORE INFORMATIVE THAN LOOKING AT A FROZEN PIECE OF METAL.
KNOWN PAST | 41
CONCEPTUAL PRECEDENT Open access facilities
DESIGN APPROACH Now that I could no longer do an expensive museum, I had to rethink my approach. While in Belgium, we visited a psychiatric clinic ‘Caritas’ by aDVVT. A derelict building was due for demolition when the head of the clinic decided to preserve it. The problem with the “demolish old and build new” approach is that it is not sustainable. The architects proposed to retain the existing structure and turn it into a “playground”. They had placed a series of ‘greenhouse’ pavilions inside the preserved structure. This approach has provided the required ‘therapy’ and ‘meeting’ spaces whilst allowing for future change. The most crucial aspect of this project is in the fact that the space is completely accessible to EVERYONE. The building is part of a bigger park, so anyone can walk in and witness a therapy session in progress. The architects had removed all doors and windows, placed trees and streetlamps inside the building, thus making it part of the park. However, there is a plinth, and it does separate the building from the rest of the park.
1. PC Caritas exterior view (plinth) 2. Interior / exterior 3. ‘Interior’ meeting rooms. Source: Filip Dujardin
Pavilion model | Scale: 1:50 | Cement & balsa wood
Making similar pavilions scattered across the site is a great way to provide workshop space, and at the same time allow visitors to spectate the process.
Space between two horizontal planes
The first step consists of creating the new ‘plinth’ that covers the entire site. The firstly the site is at a slight gradient, so we would get a plinth by merely creating a levelled platform. We also need to allow for the new surface and a low balustrade. We would also need to extend three sections of the concrete floor to create new skylights. However, this is the ONLY demolition there will be. Creation of this new plinth would separate the space from the city on the one hand, and give us a unified area on the other hand.
The second step was to create a new ‘roof’ structure. The new element would ‘cut’ through the site and unite it. There are long spans, so the new structure needs to be quite deep. As it will also support any necessary partitions, art exhibits, performance decorations etc. it would need to be very strong. A timber truss system seems to be the best choice. The structure also needs to be strong enough to allow for any future developments above the roof level.
PARTI model | Scale: NTS (EXAGGERATED) | Cement & balsa wood
TRANSPARENT SPACE Neue Nationalgalerie
The resulting scheme had a strong resemblance to the Neue Nationalgalerie, so it made sense to analyse the design further. The New National Gallery is a museum for modern art (20th century) in Berlin. The museum building was designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and opened in 1968. It is well known that Mies had designed it as a response to Schinkel’s Altes Museum. The structure is a composite of a ground plane, structural supports and a roof. The visual importance of the clear-span was directly related to Mies’ idea of museum space in general, a “defining, rather than confining space.” The fully open nature of the plan is designed to eliminate the boundary between art and community, simultaneously breaking down the fear instituted by severely partitioned spaces and inviting interaction between viewer and art.
Source: Balthazar Korab
DESIGN The Neue Nationalgalerie is split into two distinct stories. The upper floor serves as an entrance hall as well as the primary special exhibit gallery. The lower floor serves primarily as housing for the galleryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s permanent collection. It is three
quarters below ground to allow for safe storage of the artwork, its single glazed facade looks out onto the museumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sloping sculpture garden and providing sufficient indirect interior lighting.
FREEDOM & FLEXIBILITY Open plan
Source: Balthazar Korab
* for addiitonal information refer to ‘BERLIN: THEATRE OF MASKS’ section in the ‘Additional materials’ document
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
GROUND FLOOR PLAN
1. CNC Machines 2. CNC Robots 3. External multipurpose space 4. Cafe (i.e. Costa) 5. Auditorium 6. Skylights into the basement 7. Delivery ramp 8. Shop / gallery
1. Material storage 2. Sheet material storage 3. Laser cutting 4. Office 5. Storage 6. Welding
7. Waterjet cutting 8. Cutting 9. Canteen 10. Toilets 11. Showers 12. Lockers / changing cubicles
33 18 28
38 37 14
13. Bicycle strore 14. Refuse / recycling store 15. Open stations / power tools 16. Woodwork workshop desks 17. Woodworking powertools 18. External courtyard
19. Metalworking powertools 20. Metalwork workshop desks 21. Spraypainting 22. Spraypaint workshop desks 23. Machines / kilns 24. Clay workshop desks
25. Clay workshop sinks 26. Clay workshop roundtables 27. Reception 28. Delivery ramp 29. Print workshop studio 30. Dark room
31. Graining litho stone 32. Screen wash 33. Screen strore 34. Aqua tint 35. Etch room 36. Framing
37. Printers 38. Printing workshop 39. Air, water, heating plant 40. Auditorium 41. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Externalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; multipurpose space
WOHNHAUS BLOCK 1 ISO & Section
CONTINUOUS FACDE Lack of hierarchy
INFINITE GRID O. M. Ungers designed the Wonhaus Block 1 in 1981. This is a great example of Ungers’ idea of “The city in the city”. It is a selfcontained, walled-off community with carefully controlled entrance points. Just like Lampens and Mies, Ungers used stairs as a method of achieving the “temenos condition”. What is truly striking about this project is the facade. Instead of creating a different design for outside - inside, or main - secondary streets, Ungers wrapped the whole building in a monotonous grid design. This approach determines one’s experience of moving through space. It is because of the continuous “exterior” facade that one loses the point where they actually gro from outside to inside. One simply follows the facade, and yet at some point, they are “inside” the block. Using the same facade inside the courtyard intensifies this feeling,
SECTION A-A North - West
SECTION B-B North - East
PLANT / MACHINERY
LIFTS / STAIRS LOBB
YO R K P LAC E
*refer to 1:10 ‘DETAIL’ drawings in the ‘Additional materials’ document
PAIN T WORK SH O P 0m
DETAILED SECTIONS Interior / Exterior relations
AU D I TO R I U M
CL AY WORKSHOP
‘INTERNA L’ GA RD EN
CLADDING PTFE CUSSIONS
PTFE CUSSION FRAME/GUTTER
TIMBER TRUSS METAL PLATE
SECONDARY TIMBER FRAME CURTAIN RAILS
COLUMN TO TIMBER CONNECTION
DIAGONAL TIMBER BEAM
EXPLODED ISO Roof structure
PTFE CUSSION FRAME/GUTTER
TIMBER TRUSS METAL PLATE
CLADDING RAILS GLULAM COLUMN
MESH CHAINMAIL CURTAINS
ROOF STRUCTURE Worm-view iso
ENTRANCE - GROUND FLOOR 68 |
EXTERIOR SPACE - GROUND FLOOR
‘Neu Nationalgalerie’ spacial experience
Ground Floor EX/INterior
CLADDING Brick was the material that represented industrial buildings of the 19th century. The old factory that stood on this site until the 1980s was made out of red brick. However, it had since been replaced by corrugated metal cladding. It seems appropriate to use this material for the â&#x20AC;&#x153;Industrial museumâ&#x20AC;?. There are plenty of warehouses (clad in corrugated metal) in Battersea that are due for demolition. The idea is to salvage them, clean, spraypaint and reuse. The proposed scheme requires that a large surface area is protected from the elemnts. This includes both the new timber roof structure and the existing lift shafts. Using reclaimed corrugated metal cladding seems to be the ideal choice. PARTITIONS The ground floor required space organising partitions. The cladding is reminiscent of a curtain, so the same language was used for partitions. The material choice was crucial. These elements must be robust, easy to clean and have a degree of translucency. A cloth curtain would not be a good choice, since it quickly gets dirty. Metal chainmail is the best choice for this element. It is the same material as the cladding, can be painted to any colour, hard to get dirty and easy to clean, fairly light, highly durable, translucent and reasonably cheap (if bought in large quantities).
Pavilion in Tbilisi
Source: Benjamin Wells
Red chainmail curtain
Source: Kaynemaile Custom Solutions
PROPOSAL: Facade visualisation (cladding & chainmail)
*refer to drawings ‘Detail 5’ & ‘Detail 6’ in the ‘Additional materials’ document
COLOUR The original factory buildings were made of red/brown brick. The Battersea power station (the industrial icon of Battersea) is made of red/brown brick. Both the Plantation Wharf and the surrounding buildings are made of red/brown bricks. Hence it seems like RED is the only logical colour to be used here. Also, since this new structure represents ‘crisis’, it seems appropriate to use a colour that represents ‘danger’.
ENTRANCE - BASEMENT 72 |
WORKSHOP LOBBY - BASEMENT
‘Altes’ spacial experience
WOOD WORKSHOP - BASEMENT
CLAY WORKSHOP - BASEMENT
PLYWOOD The basement level was generally complete at this stage. Internal walls (cement blocks) were put up, and SPACIALLY the place was ‘ready’ to move in. Since there was the selfinflicted “ZERO DEMOLITION” rule one had to come up with a system for both wrapping up existing exposed structure and adding new spacial divides. Well, like with the ground floor level, one had to find a material that was both cheap, easily obtainable and replaceable (surfaces get damaged in workshops), and it had to have an “industrial” feel to it. It turns out there is already a perfectly suitable system for it, “construction site hoarding”.
Plywood & timber workshop interior
Source: The Modern House
PROPOSAL: Timber & plywood interior *refer to drawings ‘Detail 1, 4 & 7’ in the ‘Additional materials’ document
1: Kerselare chapel concrete floor Source: Juliaan de Jaque
2: Neue Nationalgalerie concrete tile floor Source: Fabio Candido
Second hand cement tiles Source: Gumtree & eBay
The floor is a fundamental element of this scheme. To achieve “transparency” one has to have a visual connection between “inside and outside” (glass wall). When it comes to the floor, one must have a recognisable pattern which runs from outside to inside. Juliaan Lampens used a continuous concrete pattern on the floor at the Kapel van Kerselare. Mies van der Rohe used custom made cement tiles across the entire site. Since this project is about reuse and low budget, it would make sense to reuse available materials from Battersea. Standard 600x600x50mm cement tiles perfectly fit these requirements. There is plenty of supply from all over Battersea; they are durable; it is possible to get majority of the required supply either for free or very cheap (even new tiles are cheap).
PROPOSAL: Ground floor & Basement Cement tiles run continuously *refer to drawings ‘Detail 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, & 8’ in the ‘Additional materials’ document
PROPOSAL - STREET LEVEL
PROPOSAL - AERIAL VIEW