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Part B – Findings and conclusion


Women’s starting salaries are lower than those of men

Exploration of gender differences in starting salaries has been an area of focus for PaEE reviews since early reviews in the Public Service first identified this issue. At that time, this was a surprise finding, as until then the assumption and expectation had been that men and women appointed to the same job with the same skills were starting on the same pay. The need to pay attention to this issue was reinforced in 2010 with the release of a study 69 showing income differences in male and female graduates from the point that they enter employment, and which increase over time. Key findings70 from this paper were that, while women are graduating in increasing numbers with 62 per cent of all bachelors’ graduates in 2006 being women: there is an average income gap of around 6% between men and women with a bachelor’s qualification or above just one year after entering employment there is an increase in this gap to 17% after five years (2002–2006). The facts This aspect of the review focuses on starting pay rates for the same jobs. Data available71 for the last two years in relation to average starting salaries for men and women show a tendency for female appointees to be paid less than men. To investigate this issue at Massey University the committee considered all occupations in which more than one staff member had been employed between December 2007 and December 2009. The general staff positions in Table 22 are the ANZSCO categories (each of which may include multiple Massey University job categories and/or multiple general staff Grades), and the academic staff positions are those used in the collective agreement. There were 28 occupations listed. Of these 11 occupations were removed from analysis: eight were single sex categories three were categories which included both men and women but data were suppressed because of fewer than three men or women in any cell. This left 17 categories populated by both men and women that were considered by the committee. Using the threshold of 5% difference as the point at which gender differences in pay must be explored (see discussion earlier in this report), the committee found the following: gender pay differences favouring men, ranging from 5% to 16%, in 8 occupations a gender pay difference of 9% favouring women in 2 occupations. These differences are detailed in Table 22, beginning with the largest variance favouring men and ending with the largest variance favouring women.


Ministry of Women’s Affairs (2010). Analysis of Graduate Income Data 2002-2007 by Broad Field of Study. Ibid, p. 6. 71 The number of appointees of both genders to any particular occupation over such a short period is small – just 17 occupations – so these data need to be treated with some caution. There were, however, more than four men and women in 16 of the 17 occupational groups. 70


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