Part B – Findings and conclusion
Exploring the issue The PaEE review committee identified a range of possible factors that may have contributed to this gender difference in pay, in an attempt to ascertain whether the difference could be a) explained, and b) justified. Those factors judged as not contributing to the gender pay gap were: Gender differences in level of qualification Management loading.46 There were, however, a number of factors that do have a bearing on the gender pay gap, as discussed next. Some of the practices, on the face of it, do not appear to be gendered, but the resulting outcomes are gendered. 1. Length of service/recency of appointment The committee considered it a strong possibility that the following ‘explainable historical factors’ might be contributing to the gender pay gap for professors: the low numbers of women employed, and their relatively recent appointments, the greater number of male professors, in their positions for a much greater period of time, who would be receiving larger salaries because of longer tenure. It has not been possible to substantiate or reject these possibilities. An initial analysis of the HRIS data seemed to suggest that gender differences in salary increased in direct correlation to how recently an appointment was made. However, when personnel records were migrated to a new HRIS system in 2001, historical dates of appointment to the position were not transferred across. Consequently, it was not possible to test whether the higher salaries were attributable to significantly longer service. The actual date that a person was appointed to the academic rank of professor can only be ascertained by a detailed record-by-record look. This has not been undertaken over the period of the review. 2. Starting salaries In the three years previous to December 2009,47 23 ‘new’ professors were appointed at Massey University. Of these, some of whom were visiting professors, seven no longer worked at the University by December 2009. Of the 16 professors appointed in the last three years and still employed, 3 were women and 13 were men. The average salary for the female appointees was $129,686. The average salary for the male appointees was $137,701. The difference in starting salaries raises questions for further exploration about: guidelines for setting starting rates 46
Professors (or other staff) who undertake the management role of Head of Department (HOD) receive an allowance for being HOD and also annual reviews of base salary in which they are awarded for management contributions. When they revert back to being a teaching and researching professor the allowance ceases but any increase in base salaries is retained. This arrangement is not gendered by nature, and women appear to be accessing this arrangement at least in proportion to their representation at professorial level. 47 This is the date the data was collected.