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A walk in the park?

AAdeep deepdive diveinto intotramping trampingincidents incidentsin inNew NewZealand Zealand

Produced by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council

2018

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

1

Produced by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council


Est. 1965

The New Zealand Mountain Safety Council The New Zealand Mountain Safety Council (MSC) is a national organisation with a mandate to encourage safe participation in land-based outdoor activities. It does this through the development and promotion of safety messaging, by identifying and responding to insights provided by the ongoing collection and analysis of data, and by building partnerships with relevant organisations.

Safer places, safer activities, safer people.

INSIGHTS

ORGANISATIONAL EXCELLENCE

MESSAGING

PARTNERSHIPS

From the Chief Executive Welcome to the next phase of The Mountain Safety Council’s journey into building a comprehensive analysis of what’s going on in the New Zealand outdoors. Our intention has always been that all those involved in the tramping sector can use this document as the reference point and ensure we’re all making decisions that are based on evidence. These insights will be central to the many conversations with our sector partners to implement targeted, evidence-based safety initiatives and safety messaging. The data presented will likely challenge pre-conceived ideas or assumptions. We share the confidence of our Council and data partners that evidence-based decisions will lead to safer outcomes. Establishing this robust evidence base was a direct result of strong partnerships. We thank our partners Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC), New Zealand Police, Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC), Ministry of Justice – Coronial Services Unit, Sport New Zealand, Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment (MBIE), Department of Conservation (DOC), Tourism New Zealand, and National Coronial Information System (NCIS), for their provision of data and analytical support. Equally strong partnerships will be required as we lead the work with the sector to better understand causal factors through Issue Specific Advisory Groups. Then, again with our partners, we can focus our collective efforts to identify what can be done to reduce incidents.

Mike Daisley CEO New Zealand Mountain Safety Council

2

Published by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council, 2018


Contents Introduction

4-5

Participation

6-9

New Zealand Participation

6-7

International Visitor Participation

8-9

Incidents

10-23

When?

10-13

Who?

14

Where?

15

Injuries

16-17

Severe Injuries

18-19

Search and Rescues

20-21

Fatalities

22-23

Hotspot Areas

24-69

Hotspot Comparison

LAKE HARRIS LOIC LASSUEUR

Page

24-27

Auckland

28-31

Central North Island

32-37

Taranaki

38-41

Tararua Ranges

42-45

Tasman

46-49

Westland

50-53

Aoraki/Mount Cook

54-57

Queenstown Lakes

58-63

Southland

64-69

Deep dives

70-86

New Zealanders vs. International Visitors

72-77

Falling

78-81

Fatality Causation

82-86

What’s next?

87

Methodology

88-94

TARARUA FOREST PARK (COVER IMAGE) NATHAN WATSON New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

3


1,539,133 People tramped in New Zealand during 2017

936,367 New Zealanders

602,766 International visitors

4

TONGARIRO ALPINE CROSSING OLGA SMITH


INTRODUCTION

Following ‘There and Back’ When There and Back was released in 2016, it marked the first in a series of insights publications which the NZ Mountain Safety Council (MSC) was committed to producing. ‘Insights’, along with ‘Messaging’ and ‘Partnerships’, is one of three platforms that make up the organisational structure of the MSC. Developing insights means understanding participation and ‘what’s going wrong’, sharing what we know with others and taking an evidence-based approach to finding solutions. A Walk in the Park? is the third insights publication to be released following There and Back, 2016 and A Hunter’s Tale, 2017. A Walk in the Park? is the most comprehensive insights exploration that we have undertaken. We’ve found richer and deeper data than we had available for There and Back. We’ve spent an extensive amount of time in reading, coding and checking every tramping specific search and rescue (SAR) and fatality. We’ve also spent time with each of our data partners refining the data as it relates to tramping. This ensures that the insights we’ve discovered are trustworthy, robust and critically are backed by these agencies.

TOTAL RECORDED INCIDENTS

Injuries: 40,199 (01/07/07 - 30/06/17) Search and rescues: 2,323 (01/07/10 - 30/06/17) Trampers involved in search and rescues: 3,669 (01/07/10 - 30/06/17) Fatalities: 57 (01/07/07 - 30/06/17) AVERAGE TRAMPING INCIDENTS PER YEAR

In some places, the statistics in this publication will be different from the Tramping insights published in There and Back. This is not because the insights in There and Back were wrong, but rather because we now have a much richer and deeper level of understanding about what has been happening to trampers in New Zealand over the past ten years. This publication is the culmination of months of work with a wide range of our partners. We feel especially excited to share these insights with the Tramping community of New Zealand as they will lead to ‘Issue Specific Advisory Groups’ that pull together relevant experts to understand how to use the insights developed in A Walk in the Park? to create interventions to help prevent the issues.

NATIONAL INCIDENT RATE (01/07/16 - 30/06/17)

1:279

For every 279 trampers, 1 was injured and sought medical care.

1:3,109

For every 3,109 trampers, 1 was involved in a Search and Rescue.

1:219,876

For every 219,876 trampers, 1 never made it home.

4,020

5.7

Fatalities

524

Injuries

Trampers involved in search and rescues

What is tramping? Tramping is a uniquely New Zealand term which is used to describe the activity of walking in the outdoors, typically in the non-urban regions of the country where one is ‘in the outdoors’, as opposed to just ‘out-of-doors’. To create a clear and consistent approach for the purposes of this insights publication, MSC have defined tramping as any walking activity in the outdoors where the participant had intended to be out for over three hours. This then naturally includes all day walks, day hikes, day tramps and any overnight walking, hiking or tramping activity. For more information please head to the methodology section at the back of this publication.

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

5


Participation We begin by looking at tramping participation in New Zealand.

New Zealand trampers Tramping is a popular activity for New Zealanders. Around 1 in 4 adults indicated in the Active NZ survey that they go for at least one tramp each year. For the purposes of this publication ‘tramping’ includes ‘day walks’ as well as ‘overnight’ and ‘multi-day’ trips.

DOMESTIC TRAMPING PARTICIPATION

936,367

At least one Day Walk

671,111

At least one Overnight Tramp

263,107

NZ TRAMPERS PARTICIPATED IN 2017

Annual trips The average New Zealand tramper completes eight trips per year. This could be a combination of day walks and multi-day tramps.

8x 7,461,537

NB: 0.2% of survey respondents did not specify tramping type.

TRAMPING TRIPS A YEAR FOR A TYPICAL NEW ZEALAND TRAMPER

DOMESTIC TRAMPING TRIPS IN 2017

Club members

Tramping Clubs

2%

Of the 936,367 New Zealand adults who tramped in the past year, only 17,407 (or 2%) of them are members of a tramping club.

71% OF TRAMPING CLUB MEMBERS ARE AGED 50+ 6

TOTAL DOMESTIC TRAMPERS


NZ PARTICIPATION

24% OF ADULT NEW ZEALANDERS WENT ON A TRAMP IN 2017

AGE GROUPS OF DOMESTIC TRAMPERS

GENDER OF DOMESTIC TRAMPERS

ANNUAL PARTICIPATION

219,037

213,974

196,203 164,975

68,204

49.2% 50.8% 18-24

25-34

35-49

50-64

Male

65+

Female

AGE GROUPS

ETHNICITY OF DOMESTIC TRAMPERS

WHERE DOMESTIC TRAMPERS LIVE AUCKLAND

31% WAIKATO

10%

BAY OF PLENTY

103,827

6%

Other European

733,014 NZ European

MANAWATU

5%

89,105 Mā ori

WELLINGTON

12% 80,424 Asian

CANTERBURY

13% OTAGO

6%

31,164 Pacific Is.

16,748 Other

NB: In the Active NZ survey, ethnicity is self-determined. A tramper can identify with more than one ethnicity.

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

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THE TOTAL NUMBER OF INTERNATIONAL TRAMPERS INCREASED BY 34% BETWEEN 2014-2017

International trampers in NZ International tramping visitors are defined as those who participated in an outdoors walk of more than three hours, including overnight trips and DOC Great Walks. Short walks under three hours are excluded, however some of these could be considered a tramping trip given the remote nature and challenging terrain possible in many parts of New Zealand.

34% increase in participants 544,698 ANNUAL PARTICIPATION

451,187

INTERNATIONAL TRAMPING PARTICIPATION

602,766 INTERNATIONAL VISITORS WENT TRAMPING IN NEW ZEALAND IN 2017

602,766

447,366

2014

2015

2016

2017

The top 10 countries account for 83% of all international trampers

TOP 10 COUNTRIES OF RESIDENCE Other

102,470 Australia Japan

140,697

8,983

17%

Switzerland

23%

9,470 1.5%

1.6%

Canada

14,575

2.4%

COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE VISITING TRAMPERS IN 2017

2.8% Netherlands

16,785 France

24,558

4%

81,315 13%

11% 12%

11% Germany

China

66,054 UK

68,244

8

USA

69,612

45% OF INTERNATIONAL TRAMPERS WERE 20-34 YEARS OLD


INTERNATIONAL PARTICIPATION

IN 2017, APPROXIMATELY 1 IN 6 INTERNATIONAL VISITORS WENT TRAMPING WHILE ON THEIR VISIT TO NZ

TOP 10 PROPORTION OF VISITORS WHO TRAMP We know that not everyone who visits New Zealand goes tramping. Some countries have a higher propensity to participate in tramping than others. When viewing the top ten list based on propensity to participate, things look a lot different:

TOTAL

Austria Belgium 7,005 8,387

Germany 99,070

62% Trampers

75% 67%

In 2017 there were an estimated 1,324,686 Australians who visited New Zealand, but only 11% of them participated in tramping. While this percentage is low, they remain the highest source of international trampers.

France Switzerland Netherlands Spain 35,565 13,278 39,641 17,021

62%

56%

47%

UK 233,702

USA 310,452

29%

26%

Canada 59,089

Australia 1,324,686

11% 25%

39%

Non Trampers

INTERNATIONAL TRAMPERS’ GENDER

PARKS VISITED BY INTERNATIONAL TRAMPERS International visitors to New Zealand who went on at least one tramping trip indicated that they also visited the following national parks. Note: this does not mean that they went tramping in each of these national parks. Six of the national parks are not shown.

50% 50% Male

46%

Fiordland National Park incl. Milford Sound

Female

41% 39% 38% 33%

35% OF VISITING TRAMPERS WERE ON A RETURN VISIT

10%

Mt. Aspiring National Park incl. Lake Wanaka

Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park

Tongariro National Park

Abel Tasman National Park

Te Urewera incl. Lake Waikaremoana

2.6%

Rakiura National Park/Stewart Is.

2.4%

Kahurangi National Park

5 Most popular 3 Least popular

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

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Incidents

We now look at trampers who were injured, involved in a search and rescue or were in a fatal incident.

The last decade A ten year period is a good length of time to identify specific trends but also account for years and seasons where there has been a higher or lower level of tramping participation due to isolated events or weather conditions. As published in There and Back, tramping injuries continue to increase each year. Search and rescues are also increasing albeit at a slower rate. However, there was a significant drop in incidents between 2015-16 and 2016-17. Fatality numbers have continued to fluctuate around an average of six per year.

INCIDENTS BY YEAR

5,372

TOTAL INCIDENTS

5,504

4,575 4,124

40,199

3,407

3,415

3,437

2009-2010

2010-2011

3,632

3,729

2011-2012

2012-2013

3,004

INJURIES

2007-2008

2008-2009

2013-2014

2014-2015

590

2015-2016

2016-2017

603

552 531 495

493

3,669

405

PEOPLE INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES

2010-2011

2011-2012

2012-2013

2013-2014

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

10

7 5

57

7 6 5

6 5

4 2

FATALITIES 2007-2008

10

2008-2009

2009-2010

2010-2011

2011-2012

2012-2013

2013-2014

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017


NATIONAL INCIDENTS

THERE HAS BEEN AN 83% INCREASE IN INJURIES OVER THE LAST 10 YEARS

A typical year Most tramping is completed over the summer period when the weather is generally warmer and drier and the days are longer. The spread of injuries, search and rescues and fatalities generally followed this pattern. There were, however, a relatively high number of search and rescues in April, and December was the most common month for fatalities.

INCIDENTS BY MONTH 581

ANNUAL AVERAGE

485

515

483 396 293

319

241

4,020

195 165

159

JUL

AUG

187

INJURIES

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

85

59

64

61

53

524

29

PEOPLE INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

26

27

28

JUN

JUL

AUG

35

35

OCT

NOV

23

SEP

DEC

1.3

0.8

0.7 0.5

0.5

5.7

0.4

0.4 0.3

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.1

FATALITIES

JAN

TONGARIRO ALPINE CROSSING BEVAN SMITH

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

DEC

11


THERE WAS AN AVERAGE OF 10 TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN A SEARCH AND RESCUE EACH WEEK

A typical week More incidents occur on Saturdays than any other day. 45% of injuries occur on the weekend, which is often the most popular time of week to go tramping.

INCIDENTS BY DAY OF WEEK WEEKLY AVERAGE 11%

10%

12%

11%

11%

24%

21%

14%

14%

13%

11%

12%

18%

18%

14%

77

INJURIES

10

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES

12%

16%

9%

16%

9%

25%

MON

TUE

WED

THU

FRI

SAT

0.1

FATALITIES

SUN

REMUTAKA FOREST PARK BEVAN SMITH

12


NATIONAL INCIDENTS

41% OF INJURIES OCCURRED BETWEEN 11AM-2PM

Public Holidays When comparing a public holiday to a normal weekend we generally see a significant increase in incidents. Queen’s Birthday stands out with around three times the number of injuries and search and rescues that a regular weekend day has.

INCREASE ON HOLIDAYS INJURIES Daily average

Waitangi 2.6X

Easter 1.9X

Queen’s Birthday 2.9X

ANZAC 1.8X

SEARCH AND RESCUES

Daily average

Waitangi 2.5X

Easter 1.9X

Queen’s Birthday 3.0X

Xmas/ New Year 1.9X

ANZAC 2.6X

A typical day Around midday is the most common time for a tramper to get injured. The dip in injuries between 1-2pm is quite noticeable, and likely to be associated with lunch breaks. Search and rescues and fatalities more commonly occur in the afternoon and early evening.

INCIDENTS ACROSS A DAY

PERCENTAGE OF INCIDENTS

INJURIES

SAR

FATALITIES

20%

15%

10%

5%

0% 0000

0100

0200

0300

0400

NIGHT

0500

0600

0700

0800

0900

1000

MORNING

1100

1200

1300

MIDDAY

1400

1500

1600

1700

AFTERNOON

1800

1900

2000

EVENING

2100

2200

2300

0000

NIGHT

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

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35% OF TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUE WERE UNDER 25

Who? Certain demographics were more commonly involved in tramping incidents. Under 25â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s are disproportionately high amongst the search and rescue numbers. Males are over-represented in fatalities. It is also interesting to see that 49% of fatalities were for trampers who were on their own, either from the outset or after being separated from their group. NB: Breakdown excludes incidents and participation for trampers <18.

AGE BREAKDOWN OF INCIDENTS AND PARTICIPATION

31%

31%

26% 28%

25%

23%

18%

25% 21% 21% 18%

18% 18%

31% 24%

23%

21%

13%

20%

17%

14% 11%

10%

8%

7% 18-24

25-34

35-49

INJURIES

50-64

65+

18-24

25-34

35-49

50-64

65+

INVOLVED IN SAR

18-24

25-34

35-49

50-64

65+

18-24

25-34

35-49

50-64

65+

GROUP RIE

50-64

65+

SEPARATED

SOLO

S

SA R FAT ALIT

35-49

GROUP STATUS DURING INCIDENT

GENDER BREAKDOWN OF INCIDENTS

INJU

25-34

INTERNATIONAL VISITOR PARTICIPATION

NEW ZEALANDER PARTICIPATION

FATALITIES

18-24

5%

62%

33%

SAR

IES

30%

51%

INCIDENTS

5%

44%

FATALITIES

42%

58% 44% 56% 70%

ROBERT RIDGE NATHAN WATSON

14


INCIDENTS - NATIONAL

40% OF TRAMPING FATALITIES OCCURRED IN SOUTHLAND AND OTAGO

Where? Tramping is a recreational activity which often requires people to travel to their location. By looking at fatalities and injuries it is possible to see both where incidents occurred and the home location of the person involved. Of all trampers injured around New Zealand, 21% either lived in Auckland, or were an international visitor with a contact address in Auckland. Of all tramping fatalities to New Zealanders, 14% of locals were from Wellington, and 11% were from Otago.

21% of injured trampers were from Auckland.

AUCKLAND

2%

12%

21%

5%

WHERE INCIDENTS OCCUR VS. WHERE THEY LIVE WAIKATO

2% % OF WHERE TRAMPING FATALITIES OCCURRED

10% 0

10%

TARANAKI

% OF WHERE TRAMPING INJURIES OCCURRED

2% 3%

0

2%

% OF WHERE DECEASED TRAMPERS LIVED MANAWATU/ WANGANUI % OF WHERE INJURED TRAMPERS LIVE

5%

NELSON/TASMAN

16%

7%

9%

5%

7%

8%

4% 2% 2%

12%

CANTERBURY

13%

SOUTHLAND OTAGO

7%

14%

14% of trampers who died were from Wellington.

5%

19%

2% 4%

WELLINGTON

WEST COAST

16%

7%

0 3% 21%

12%

11%

7%

15%

NORTH AMERICA

EUROPE

MIDDLE EAST/ ASIA

9%

16%

12%

12% SOUTH AMERICA

2%

AUSTRALIA

5%

11% of tramping fatalities were in Otago. Go to page 72 for more on New Zealander vs. International visitor tramping insights. New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

15


68% OF TRAMPING INJURIES WERE THE RESULT OF A FALL

Injuries What happened? Over ten years, 40,199 people went to a medical practitioner for an injury sustained while tramping. 80% of these were for damage to a muscle, ligament or tendon (categorised as ‘soft tissue’ injuries). 68% of all injuries were caused by a slip, trip and/or fall.

40,199

COMMON CAUSES OF TRAMPING INJURIES Other Blister

Carrying heavy load

Fall

3% 4%

5%

17%

TRAMPING INJURIES RECORDED (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

19% INJURY CAUSES

Twisted ankle or knee

38% 13% Slip Trip

KEY INJURY AREAS ON THE BODY

TYPES OF TRAMPING INJURIES Other

Fracture

Back/Spine

Laceration/puncture

12%

4%

6% 10%

Soft tissue

DIAGNOSIS

25%

Knee 80%

Ankle

21%

TERRAIN TYPE AT TIME OF INJURY (Of the cases we could identify)

39%

Uneven/loose

8,578

16

29% Steep

6,355

13% Track

2,818

8%

Trees/roots/ moss/slime

7%

In or near a river

5.5% Other

1,715 1,583


INJURIES

FEMALE TRAMPERS WERE MORE COMMONLY INJURED AS THE RESULT OF A FALL

Who are they? Gender Females receive more injuries than males. This is trending upwards. Between 2007-08 females had 56% of all injury claims. By 2016-17, this number increased to 60%. Females are more likely to experience a slip, trip or fall, a twisted/ rolled ankle or knee and a blister.

INJURY SEVERITY BY GENDER

MIN MO

Age

OR

DER

SEV

ATE

ERE

Trampers aged 50-64 are the most commonly injured age group. This is well above the average for the New Zealand population.

38%

• Younger people are more likely to be injured by ‘bite/ sting’, ‘blister’, ‘smoke/heat/fire,’

54% 62%

• Middle-aged people by ‘other back injury’, ‘slip’, ‘twisted/rolled ankle or knee,’

INJURY SEVERITY

46%

43%

57%

• Older people by ‘caught or stuck’, ‘long fall’, ‘trip’, ‘plant’.

What’s the cost? ACC contributes to the cost of treatment for all accidents to any person in New Zealand; this includes international visitors. They also pay for 80% of an individual’s lost income as a result of requiring more than a week off work due to the injury sustained.

‘Slips’ were the number one cause of injury and were the largest cost at a total of $10 million, leading to a total of 22,000 days off work over ten years.

Twisted /rolled ankle or knee

Slip

11,742

Misc. fall

5,776

Trip

5,362

Heavy load

Trip

1,628 TOTAL ACC CLAIMS

Heavy load

Trip

$0.7

1

$3.3

$6.5

3,995

Heavy load

8

TOTAL CLAIM COSTS OF TOP INJURY TYPES IN $MILLIONS

TOTAL COMPENSATED DAYS OFF WORK IN THOUSANDS

$10

22

16

Slip Fall

Slip

$3.9

Fall Twisted ankle or knee

6 Twisted ankle or knee

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

17


Severe injuries What is severe? We wanted to look closer at this increase, so we categorised every injury according to severity.

SEVERITY OF TRAMPING INJURIES Severe

We define:

2,535

• ‘Severe’ injuries as those where there is any of the following: >$2000 compensation cost, 10+ claim days, or based on keywords: concussion or brain injury, fracture or dislocation, amputation, death.

6%

• ‘Minor’ injuries as those where the claim cost is under $200 and there are no compensation days.

Moderate

• ‘Moderate’ injuries as all other injuries. We also promote some ‘minor’ injuries to moderate because they mention dental injuries or ‘head injury’ (but with no apparent brain injury markers).

PROPORTION OF TOTAL 40,199 INJURIES

59%

This shows us that:

35%

Minor

• Minor and Moderate injuries are increasing substantially and have nearly doubled in number between 2007-17. Minor injuries are increasing at an annual rate of nearly 8%.

23,786

• Severe injuries have not increased substantially, showing only a small annual increase of less than 2% between 2007-17.

Injuries by year SEVERITY OVER THE YEARS

MINOR

MODERATE

SEVERE

3,202

3,368

2,659 1,710

1,910

2,024

2,096

2,190

1,052

1,250

1,152

1,144

1,202

1,272

242

247

197

240

2011-2012

2007-2008

18

2,220

2008-2009

239

2009-2010

2010-2011

2,407

1,839

1,850

265

331

286

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

1,466

1,651

237

251

2012-2013

2013-2014

13,878


SEVERE INJURIES

‘LONG’ FALLS RESULT IN AN AVERAGE OF 42 DAYS OFF WORK

Time of day Severe injuries follow a similar pattern to minor and moderate injuries in terms of what time of day they occur. The only noticeable difference is a slightly lower proportion of injuries around midday.

SEVERITY OF INJURIES ACROSS A DAY

ALL INJURIES SEVERE PERCENTAGE OF INJURIES

20%

15%

10%

5%

0% 0000

0100

0200

0300

0400

0500

0600

0700

NIGHT

0800

0900

1000

1100

MORNING

What’s the cost? Severe injuries account for 68% of the cost of all tramping injury claims despite representing only 6% of claims. Over ten years, this has cost $30 Million and resulted in 79,171 days off work.

COSTS OF INJURIES

1200

1300

MIDDAY

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

AFTERNOON

1900

2000

EVENING

2100

2200

2300

0000

NIGHT

79,171 DAYS MISSED FROM WORK (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

Minor/moderate

Severe

$10M

$20M 32%

$20M COMPENSATION

COST OF INJURIES ACCORDING TO SEVERITY

(01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

68%

Outcome • The injuries most likely to be severe were falls of more than two metres (15% of all long falls result in a severe injury) and ‘smoke/ heat/fire’ (10%). • The injuries most likely to be moderate are ‘slip’ (39%), ‘trip’ (39%), ‘caught or stuck’ (37%). • The injuries most likely to be minor are ‘bite/sting’ (90%), ‘blister’ (87%), ‘poor footwear’ (87%).

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

19


Search and rescues What happened? Over seven years, NZ Police and the Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) were asked to respond to 2,323 incidents for trampers who were either in trouble or had been reported overdue. This involved at least 3,669 trampers. The number of incidents each year is trending slightly upwards.

2,323 3,669 SEARCH AND RESCUE INCIDENTS (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

SEARCH AND RESCUE INCIDENTS INVOLVING HUMAN ERROR RISE STEADILY THROUGHOUT THE DAY, PEAKING AROUND 5PM

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

Coordinating Authority Approximately 1,913 search and rescues were co-ordinated by NZ Police and approximately 410 coordinated by the RCC. As Personal Locator Beacon (PLB) use is becoming more widespread, RCC is becoming responsible for the coordination of a larger proportion of incidents each year.

BREAKDOWN OF CO-ORDINATING AUTHORITY

TOTAL SAR INCIDENTS

278

308

330

340

352

384 331

87% 87

87%

84%

82%

80%

83%

74%

13%

13%

16%

18%

20%

17%

26%

2013-2014

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

POLICE RCC

2010-2011

2011-2012

2012-2013

NEWTON RANGE JO STILWELL

20


SEARCH AND RESCUES

80% OF ALL SEARCH AND RESCUE INCIDENTS ARE RESOLVED WITHIN 6 HOURS. 4% TAKE LONGER THAN 24HRS

Outcomes 62% of all tramping search and rescue incidents are for lost/ OUTCOME OF SAR INCIDENTS missing/overdue people. 1 in 4 search and rescue incidents were incidents where a tramping party was reported as overdue by their trusted contact, but were actually not at risk. Examples of why they were overdue include being delayed due to weather, Injured and required medical attention minor injury or track damage. Occasionally, they had failed to notify their trusted contact that they had made it home.

Lost/missing/ overdue and NOT at risk

711

451 24%

How did they get help?

38% SEARCH AND RESCUE INCIDENTS

There are numerous ways in which a tramper, or their trusted contact, can raise the alarm for help.

38% Lost/missing/ overdue and NEEDED help

Cellphones and landlines account for a combined 70%. Although the total number is increasing every year, PLBs are a distant second at 18%; in 2010-11 there were 35 PLB initiated rescues. That number has more than doubled to 88 in 2016-17. Meanwhile, landline and radio use is decreasing with less than half the number of activations from each of these sources in the same period.

696

3% Other

COMMUNICATI0N DEVICE USED

3%

In person

51%

19%

Cellphone

Landline

1,189

434

18%

Personal Locator Beacon

424

6% Radio

143

69

ANNUAL TREND OF COMMUNICATI0N DEVICE USED 225 192

190

169

152

159

73

73

72

80

35

39

56

62

102

34

2010-2011

75 50

56

30

21

15

15

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

11

23

24

2011-2012

2012-2013

2013-2014

88 69

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

21


OF THE 57 FATALITIES, 32 WERE NEW ZEALANDERS AND 25 WERE INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

Fatalities What happened? Over ten years, 57 trampers lost their lives due to an accident. 54% were due to falling, and 21% due to drowning in a river. There were also a small number of trampers who died due to medical conditions such as a heart attack, which we have not counted.

TRAMPING FATALITIES ACROSS NZ

84% occurred in one of the hotspot regions explored in this publication.

57

21%

North Island

FATALITIES

(01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

2%

Chatham Islands

CAUSE OF TRAMPING FATALITIES

77%

South Island

31

12

FALLING

DROWNING

6

HYPOTHERMIA

2

AVALANCHE

2 GLACIAL ICE FALL

4

OTHER/ UNKNOWN

FATALITIES BY PLANNED TRIP LENGTH MULTIDAY TRAMP

OVERNIGHT TRAMP

DAY WALK

SHORT WALK >3HRS

58%

9%

25%

9%

FATALITIES BY TRACK GRADE

EASIEST /SHORT WALK

INTERMEDIATE TRAMPING TRACK

4

6

ADVANCED TRAMPING TRACK EXPERT ROUTE

OFF TRACK

22

13 13

21


FATALITIES

21 OF THE 57 FATALITIES WERE SOLO MALES

Who are they? A surprisingly high number of fatalities occurred while an individual was either solo tramping, or had separated from their group. Solo trampers who didn’t make it home are disproportionately high among:

AGE AND GENDER OF TRAMPING FATALITIES

10

• People aged 35-49

9

MALE

8

• Men

8 6

• Those tramping in the Tasman area

5

4

• Those that were tramping on a route or off track

3

• Those that died by falling (rather than by hypothermia or in a river).

3 1

FEMALE

16-24

25-34

35-49

50-64

65+

GROUP STATUS OF TRAMPING FATALITIES SEPARATED

GROUP

51%

5%

SOLO

57

44%

GROUP STATUS VS. AGE OF TRAMPING FATALITIES 16-24

AGE

25-34

35-49

50-64

65+

6

13 12 12 14

GENDER

GROUP STATUS VS. GENDER OF TRAMPING FATALITIES

40

MALE

FEMALE

17 New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

23


Hotspots Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s zoom in Although itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s worthwhile knowing what has happened to trampers across New Zealand over the past ten years, we needed to work with partners at the local level to understand the pertinent issues specific to that region. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve gone beyond the five hotspots found in There and Back and have expanded the list to include another four hotspots which have a high number of tramping incidents.

24


HOTSPOT LOCATIONS PAGE

LAKE CONSTANCE LOIC LASSUEUR

Hotspot Comparison

26-27

Auckland

28-31

Central North Island

32-37

Taranaki

38-41

Tararua Ranges

42-45

Tasman

46-49

Westland

50-53

Aoraki/Mount Cook

54-57

Queenstown Lakes

58-63

Southland

64-69

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

25


Hotspots We now look at nine areas of New Zealand where tramping incidents occur.

9

How do they compare? Hotspots have primarily been chosen because they represent a high proportion of New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tramping incidents. Some have been selected to focus on unique issues which are going on in that area. All tramping hotspots have a rich history of tramping participation and significant differences to other hotspots.

PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL INCIDENTS IN HOTSPOTS 13% of all tramping injuries were in Auckland, a total of 5,100 AUCKLAND

TOTAL FOR NEW ZEALAND

5%

13%

INJURIES

INVOLVED IN SAR

40,199 3,669 (2007-17)

(2010-17)

2%

CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

FATALITIES

57

14% of trampers involved in a search and rescue were in the Central North Island, a total of 500 trampers

(2007-17)

7%

14%

2%

TARANAKI

3%

2%

4%

TASMAN

8%

TARARUA RANGES

11%

3%

18%

WESTLAND

3%

5%

14%

AORAKI/MOUNT COOK

1% 3%

QUEENSTOWN LAKES

SOUTHLAND

6%

8%

19% of tramping fatalities were in Southland, a total of 11

26

4%

19%

7%

8%

18%

5%

9%


HOTSPOT LOCATIONS

22% OF ALL TRAMPING SEARCH AND RESCUE EVENTS ON A SATURDAY WERE IN THE CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

Total SAR across days of the week When we viewed the country as a whole, we noted that Saturday is the busiest day for search and rescue operations. However, this is not true of all hotspots. Orange dots represent the most common days in the week for each hotspot. The percentage shown is the proportion of all New Zealand search and rescues in each hotspot on that particular day of the week. AUCKLAND

CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

TARANAKI

6%

6%

22%

11%

6%

7%

TARARUA RANGES

6%

8%

TASMAN

WESTLAND

8%

8%

AORAKI/MOUNT COOK

5%

QUEENSTOWN LAKES

12%

8%

10% 10% of tramping search and rescues on Sundays were in Tasman.

5%

4%

8%

SOUTHLAND

MON

TUE

12%

12%

WED

THU

FRI

SAT

SUN

322

Rescues in parks

38 Coromandel State Forest Park

47 Mt. Richmond National Park

57 Nelson Lakes National Park

57 Arthurâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Pass National Park

58 Kaimai Mamaku Conservation Park

60 Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park

65 Waitakere Ranges

81 Kahurangi National Park

95 Egmont National Park

107 Mt. Aspiring National Park

130 Tararua Forest Park

Fiordland National Park

Tongariro National Park

157

14% of all search and rescues incidents for trampers were in Tongariro National Park.

NB: Another 1,049 search and rescues occurred across remaining public land between 2010-17.

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

27


AKL

Auckland

Auckland is New Zealand’s largest city, accommodating more than a third of the national population (1,657,200 in 2017). The city hosts more than 2.35M (2017) international visitors each year. Auckland has a diverse ethnic make-up; most residents are of European descent, particularly British and Irish, but there are large communities of Asian, Pacific Islander and Māori. Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population of any city on Earth. It also has a much higher percentage of Asian people than anywhere else in New Zealand. The climate in Auckland is very mild, which is reflected in the fact that people tend to go walking and tramping in Auckland throughout the year and are not limited to the warmer summer months as we see in other parts of New Zealand. Rainfall is typically plentiful all year round, with sporadic heavy falls and thunderstorms a common feature. Most parts of Auckland receive around 2,000 hours of sunshine per year. This is similar to Kaitaia, Hamilton, Christchurch and Alexandra. The Auckland region does not feature any national parks, but it still has plenty of remote outdoor environments and many popular tramping destinations. There are 34 regional parks across the region, all managed by Auckland Council, with only a small amount of public conservation land managed by the Department of Conservation (mainly offshore islands and marine reserves). The two largest regional parks are the Waitākere and Hunua Ranges which account for the majority of tramping participation, and subsequently the majority of injuries and search and rescue incidents. Having slightly higher elevation, the climate in these ranges is typically cooler and wetter than the rest of Auckland. The Hunua Ranges has the highest point in the Auckland region, Kohukohunui, at 688m which receives more than 1,800mm of rain per year. The Waitākere Ranges receive more than 1,500mm per year. Auckland is surrounded by water with easy access to coastal areas and many off-shore islands. Many residents and visitors opt to go for day walks on these nearby islands, such as Rangitoto Island, which is a popular walking and tramping destination with approximately 200,000 visitors each year. In recent years ‘Kauri dieback’ has become a growing problem in the surrounding forests. In early 2018 a ‘rāhui’ was placed over the Waitākere Ranges by local iwi, Te Kawerau a Maki. This cultural restriction by the mana whenua of the area urges people to stay away from the ranges to allow the forest, and in particular the kauri, to heal. Auckland Council supports the principles of the rāhui and is working on improving alternative walking and tramping tracks across the Auckland region which will not spread kauri dieback. In time it’s probable that this will lead to changes in participation patterns.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 NORTHERN REGIONAL PARKS

270,000 WESTERN REGIONAL PARKS

762,000 SOUTHERN REGIONAL PARKS

365,000 RANGITOTO ISLAND

200,000

28

Auckland City

WAITĀKERE RANGES


AUCKLAND RANGITOTO IS.

KOHUKOHUNUI

HUNUA RANGES

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

29


AKL

2.8% OF NZ SEARCH AND RESCUE EVENTS WERE IN THE WAITĀKERE RANGES

Auckland insights Over ten years there were 5,100 injuries to trampers in Auckland. This is the largest number of tramping injuries for any hotspot. There were also 188 trampers involved in search and rescues over seven years. Displaying these incidents on a map of Auckland shows that these were mostly concentrated in the Waitākere Ranges, with Hunua Ranges and Rangitoto Island also featuring.

SAR EVENTS IN AUCKLAND

TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR HOTSPOT

63%

1

WAITĀKERE RANGES

FATALITY (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

24%

188

HUNUA RANGES

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

5,100 INJURIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

Incidents by year Injuries to trampers are increasing each year, which is consistent with what we’ve seen across the country. However, it’s not as clear whether search and rescues are increasing.

10 YEAR TREND OF INCIDENTS 1 22

INJURIES

SAR

FATALITIES 12

325

2007-2008

30

412

2008-2009

401

2009-2010

428

2010-2011

10 412

2011-2012

13 487

2012-2013

11

22

13 785

736 523

2013-2014

591

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017


AUCKLAND

24% OF SEARCH AND RESCUES FOR TRAMPERS IN THE AUCKLAND REGION WERE AGED 25-29

Incidents by month 719 587

INJURIES

581

574

414 355

15

286

310 247

239

12

SAR

11

10

9

FATALITIES

418

370

9 5

5

MAY

JUN

9 6

6

AUG

SEP

6

1 JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

JUL

OCT

NOV

DEC

What happened? The vast majority of people involved in search and rescues were New Zealanders. We also know that around 1 in 4 of them were aged between 25 and 29.

Two out of three search and rescue incidents in Auckland were due to the tramping party getting lost or being reported as missing or overdue. Medical/Injury Unknown

Lost/missing/ overdue

33%

64%

International Visitors

3%

28 15%

SEARCH AND RESCUES IN THE AUCKLAND REGION

85%

CAUSE OF ALL SAR EVENTS IN AUCKLAND HOTSPOT

Ethnicities

New Zealanders

160

In Auckland the proportion of those either injured or involved in search and rescue was significantly higher for people of Asian ethnicity than across the rest of New Zealand. European

Asian Pacific Islander MÄ ori

Other

83% 73%

14%

73% 50%

6% 19%

8%

ALL NZ INJURY

7%

AUCKLAND INJURY

14% 23%

ALL NZ SAR

AUCKLAND SAR

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

31


CNI

Central North Island The Central North Island has the oldest national park in New Zealand - Tongariro National Park - and is a very popular recreational area, especially for trampers. The region is home to the North Island’s highest mountain, Mount Ruapehu (2,797m) and New Zealand’s largest lake, Lake Taupō. It is also home to New Zealand’s most popular day walk/tramp - the Tongariro Alpine Crossing and the Tongariro Northern Circuit - which is one of New Zealand’s nine Great Walks. There are many more tramping opportunities within the national park as well as the surrounding conservation areas including Pureora Forest Park and Kaimanawa Forest Park. Tongariro National Park has over 554,000 domestic visitors each year. 224,000 are from Auckland with a further 100,000 from Wellington and 80,000 from the Waikato region. The Central North Island has a wide variety of outdoor environments to explore. There are rolling hills around Lake Taupō, dense bush and tussock plains to the south-east and the famous volcanic moonscapes of the mountains to the south, which are flanked on their eastern and western sides by lush native forests. Like the terrain of the area, the climate can vary widely. Rainfall is generally plentiful year-round. Total volume varies widely from the town of Taupō at approximately 960mm per year through to Whakapapa Village receiving about 2,760mm per year. Frequent high winds, especially in exposed places around the barren volcanic rock fields of the mountains, are a common element of any tramping trip. These mountains, namely the impressive Mount Ngauruhoe, Mount Tongariro and Mount Ruapehu dominate the skyline and have a significant impact on the weather and often create a micro-climate for outdoor enthusiasts. Ambient temperatures can also vary, with the average daily temperature in January being 21-32°C in Taupō and 17-27°C in Whakapapa Village. However, both locations can drop below 0°C at any time of year. In the high country of Tongariro National Park, conditions are frequently much colder, especially in the winter. Temperatures are often well below freezing and snowfall is a common occurrence.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 TONGARIRO ALPINE CROSSING

141,000 TONGARIRO NORTHERN CIRCUIT

8,500 TARANAKI FALLS

54,000 Taupo

32


CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

LAKE ROTOPOUNAMU

TONGARIRO ALPINE CROSSING MT. TONGARIRO

MT. NGAURUHOE

VISITOR CENTRE

TONGARIRO NORTHERN CIRCUIT

TARANAKI FALLS

MT. RUAPEHU ROUND THE MOUNTAIN

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

33


CNI

Central North Island insights THE CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND HAD THE HIGHEST NUMBER OF SEARCH AND RESCUE INCIDENTS

Over seven years, the Central North Island had 500 trampers involved in search and rescue. This is by far the largest number of search and rescues in any of the nine hotspots. There were also at least 2,636 injuries to trampers over ten years.

TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR HOTSPOT

1

FATALITY (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

500

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

2,636 INJURIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

Incidents by year Search and rescue incidents for trampers in the Central North Island continue to increase each year. Between 2010-11 and 2016-17 there has been a 168% increase. In comparison, all other hotspot areas are relatively stable, or decreasing.

10 YEAR TREND OF INCIDENTS

INJURIES

SAR

56

FATALITIES

2007-2008

34

2008-2009

238

2009-2010

340

350

45 36 277

214

67

73 25

207

1 65

226

2010-2011

239

2011-2012

353

192

2012-2013

2013-2014

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

Te Maari Crater eruptions (Aug and Nov 2012)


CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

25% OF ALL TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN A SEARCH AND RESCUE EVENT IN THE CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND HAD A SEVERE INJURY

Incidents by month 413

402

386

330 309

INJURIES

65

63

182

159

137

110

45

79

40

SAR

63

48

66 32

19 11

FATALITIES

8

12

15 9

1 JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

What happened? 56% of all tramping-related search and rescues in the Central North Island were for international visitors. This is well above the national average. 42% of people involved in search and rescue events in the Central North Island were aged between 20-29.

25% of all trampers involved in search and rescue in the Central North Island suffered a severe injury. In comparison, the percentage of severe injuries in the Tasman hotspot, which has the second highest number of search and rescues, is 14%. Lost/missing/ overdue

Medical/Injury

International Visitors

47%

51%

280

Unknown

2%

44%

CAUSE OF ALL SAR EVENTS IN CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND HOTSPOT

SEARCH AND RESCUES IN THE CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

56%

New Zealanders

219

42% OF PEOPLE INVOLVED IN A SEARCH AND RESCUE IN THE CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND WERE 20â&#x20AC;&#x201C;29 YEARS OLD NORTHERN CIRCUIT FRAMETHEADVENTURENZ New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

35


CNI

Tongariro National Park

Other

45 12%

Of all public conservation land in the Central North Island hotspot, 88% of all search and rescue incidents involving trampers were in Tongariro National Park. Kaimanawa Forest Park accounts for just 5%.

SEARCH AND RESCUE INCIDENTS IN THE CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

This places Tongariro National Park at the top of the list for tramping-related search and rescue incidents out of all public conservation land in New Zealand, accounting for just under 14% of all events over seven years. This is double the amount of the next closest; Fiordland National Park.

Tongariro National Park

88%

The Tongariro Alpine Crossing

322

HEAT MAP OF SAR EVENTS

Over the last seven years, just under 10% (226) of all trampingrelated search and rescue incidents in New Zealand occurred on the Tongariro Alpine Crossing. There were 294 trampers involved in these 226 incidents. Participation continues to increase each year with around 141,000 people walking the Tongariro Alpine Crossing in 2016-17, up from 77,000 in 2010-11.

TONGARIRO ALPINE CROSSING

141,000

MT. NGAURUHOE

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17

PARTICIPATION OVER THE YEARS VS. SAR EVENTS MT. RUAPEHU PARTICIPATION

141,320

INVOLVED IN SAR

129,159 115,913

80,664

68 © Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

99,378

51

52

77,022 42

43

2013-2014

2014-2015

20,493 24 14

2010-2011

36

2011-2012

2012-2013

2015-2016

2016-2017

Te Maari Crater eruptions (Aug and Nov 2012)


CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

294 TRAMPERS WERE RESCUED FROM THE TONGARIRO ALPINE CROSSING IN THE LAST 7 YEARS PARTICIPATION BY MONTHS VS. SAR EVENTS

INVOLVED IN SAR

PARTICIPATION 117,009

101,427 98,488 TOTAL 2010-2017

74,127 56

93,812

48

69,407

41

37 30 28

24,575 11,379 9 19

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

26,720 6,705 5

5,101 6

7,743 3

12

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

What happened? A number of surveys conducted on the Tongariro Alpine Crossing estimate that approximately 75% of trampers are international visitors. Despite this, only 66% of search and rescues were for international visitors and 34% for New Zealanders.

New Zealanders

101

Where exactly? Due to the vast numbers of search and rescues over the past seven years, we were able to pinpoint the specific coordinates for each event and identify where the largest number of people got into trouble. Many of the injuries and people who became lost due to poor visibility occurred around Red Crater and on Mount Ngauruhoe. Those who found the track harder than they expected, or didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t allow enough time before it got dark, ended up requiring assistance between the bush line and Ketetahi carpark.

34%

SEARCH AND RESCUES ON THE TONGARIRO ALPINE CROSSING

66% International Visitors

192

NGAURUHOE SUMMIT

TONGARIRO ALPINE CROSSING 17%

Red Crater

4%

Mangatepopo Hut

4%

18%

Blue Lake

6%

Ketetahi Shelter

Mangatepopo Carpark

19% Ketetahi Carpark New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

37


TAR

Taranaki

The Taranaki region is named after the dormant volcano which dominates the landscape and is the second highest mountain in the North Island at 2,518m. The main summit of Mount Taranaki is also the central point of Egmont National Park, which extends as an almost perfect circle down to agricultural land synonymous with dairy farming in the region. Mount Taranaki is situated at the western edge of the North Island and is constantly battered by prevailing NW winds. The predominant westerly airstream makes this area one of the windiest in New Zealand, and conditions in the park can change rapidly. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quite common to see the mountain covered in cloud. Most of the northern part of the Taranaki Region receives over 2,000mm of rain each year, however Mount Taranaki is extremely wet. An average of 7,029mm of rain is recorded at the North Egmont Visitor Centre each year, and this occurs over an average of 192 rain days. With the exception of the Pouakai Range to the north of Mount Taranaki, most tramping and walking tracks tackle either the summit climb directly or circumnavigate the mountains cone-shaped, bushclad sides. Numerous shorter trips extend out from the main national park visitor sites. Notably, North Egmont, East Egmont and Dawson Falls; all three providing road access deep into the heart of the parkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s forests. The national park receives approximately 97,000 visitors annually; the overwhelming majority of visitors (approximately 80%) are local residents of the region. However, people from other regions of New Zealand and overseas are starting to visit Taranaki in greater numbers.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 POUAKAI CROSSING

6,800 TARANAKI SUMMIT TRACK

25,200

New Plymouth

38


TARANAKI POUAKAI POUAKAI CROSSING

VISITOR CENTRE

MT. TARANAKI

TARANAKI SUMMIT TRACK

FANTHAMS PEAK

VISITOR CENTRE

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

39


TAR

Taranaki insights Over ten years, 1,088 trampers were injured in Taranaki and one didn’t make it home. Over seven years, 162 trampers were involved in search and rescue. Although this is a lower number than the other hotspots in the North Island, many of these were on the Taranaki Summit Track, making it the third-highest track for search and rescue in New Zealand. The summit has also had four fatalities over this time period. However, these were ‘mountaineering’ rather than ‘tramping’ fatalities.

HEAT MAP OF SAR EVENTS

SUMMIT TRACK TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR HOTSPOT

1

+4 MOUNTAINEERING FATALITIES

FATALITY (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

162

NEW ZEALAND VS. INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES

International Visitors

(01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

57

1,088

35%

INJURIES

GENDER OF THOSE INVOLVED IN SAR

SEARCH AND RESCUES IN TARANAKI

(01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

105

65%

Female

Incidents by year

33%

Injuries and search and rescue numbers were relatively stable for the better part of the past ten years, however a recent climb in injuries and a high number of search and rescues in 2015-16 makes this trend worth keeping an eye on.

10 YEAR TREND OF INCIDENTS 14 24

SAR

FATALITIES 1

79

2007-2008

40

93

2008-2009

17 76

2009-2010

83

2010-2011

13

15

103

108

2011-2012

67%

44%

New Zealanders

INJURIES

Male

2012-2013

12 116

2013-2014

12

143

182

105

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017


TARANAKI

65% OF TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN A SEARCH AND RESCUE IN TARANAKI WERE NEW ZEALANDERS

Incidents by month 160 154

151 132

INJURIES

23

115

15

71

69

14

13

SAR

57

53

48

5

5

38 6

5

40 7 5

FATALITIES

5

4 1

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

Taranaki Summit Track 44 of the search and rescues in Taranaki were in the vicinity of the Taranaki Summit Track. This equals 2% of all search and rescues in New Zealand and involved 60 people. Participation on the summit track has been climbing steadily since 2012, rising from around 5,000 per year to 25,000 in 2016-17. 21,918

PARTICIPATION VS. SAR EVENTS OVER TIME

15,437

25,248

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

60

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

22

16,177 14,295

PARTICIPATION INVOLVED IN SAR 5,730

11 9

8

5,369 4

2010-2011

3,855

4

2011-2012

4,404

2013-2014

2014-2015

2015-2016

4,077

NB: Ascending Taranaki during winter is mountaineering.

2,125 8

2 FEB

1,790

8 397

JAN

2016-2017

18

17 TOTAL 2010-2017

2012-2013

2

MAR

APR

MAY

128 2

JUN

0

JUL

1

AUG

0

157 2

SEP

OCT

411 0 NOV

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

2

DEC

41


TRA

Tararua Ranges With its proximity to Wellington, the Tararua Ranges are one of the most frequently accessed conservation areas in the country, with 152,000 people visiting each year, 130,000 of whom are from Wellington. The ranges act as the divide between Kapiti and Horowhenua to the west and Wairarapa to the east. The western slopes of the ranges are subject to prevailing moisture-laden winds, channelled by the fierce winds of the Cook Strait to the south-west. Annual rainfall peaks at over 6,000mm in the highest parts of the range but this decreases at lower elevation levels, particularly to the east, to 1,600mm annually. The Tararua Ranges have a long and proud tramping history. The New Zealand Forest Service established it as the first State Forest Park in 1954. New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s first tramping club, the Tararua Tramping Club, built one of the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s earliest dedicated tramping huts, Field Hut, in 1924. The 116,535 hectare Tararua Forest Park covers more than three-quarters of the Tararua Range. Nowadays it is administered by the Department of Conservation (DOC) and extends from the Pahiatua Track in the north, to the Rimutaka Saddle in the south. The main entrances are at Holdsworth on the eastern side of the ranges and Otaki Forks on the western side. The Tararua Ranges are widely considered among New Zealand trampers to present some of the most challenging tramping conditions. Despite the relatively low elevation, the combination of steep and dense bush-clad mountains and exposed ridgelines with frequent severe weather make the Tararua Ranges a true test of tramping skill and ability.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 FIELD HUT TO MT. HECTOR

2,200 WAIOHINE GORGE TO HOLDSWORTH

6,200 WAIOHINE GORGE TO CONE HUT

2,700

Wellington

42


TARARUA RANGES MITRE PEAK

MT. CRAWFORD

OTAKI FORKS

MT. HOLDSWORTH

FIELD HUT

HOLDSWORTH CARPARK

MT. HECTOR

WAIOHINE GORGE SOUTHERN CROSSING

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

43


TRA

Tararua Ranges insights Over ten years, there were 1,353 injuries to trampers in the Tararua Ranges. The 186 trampers involved in search and rescue were spread over many areas of the park and reflects the large network of tramping tracks which exist throughout the park. There were also five tramping fatalities, four of which were due to hypothermia, reinforcing just how well prepared trampers need to be at all times of year.

TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR HOTSPOT

HEAT MAP OF SAR EVENTS

5

HOLDSWORTH

OTAKI FORKS

FATALITIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

186

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES

WAIOHINE GORGE

(01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

SOUTHERN CROSSING

1,353 INJURIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

Incidents by year Injuries and search and rescues have remained reasonably stable over the past seven years with an average of 16 search and rescues and 135 injuries each year.

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

10 YEAR TREND OF INCIDENTS

INJURIES

SAR

FATALITIES 2

19 13

20

19

12 159

110

2007-2008

44

121

2008-2009

148

2009-2010

126

2010-2011

122

2011-2012

131

2012-2013

15

153

142

2013-2014

2014-2015

2015-2016

3 14

141

2016-2017


TARARUA RANGES

19% OF PEOPLE INVOLVED IN A SEARCH AND RESCUE IN TARARUA RANGES WERE AGED 15-19

Incidents by month Tramping incidents in this hotspot do not reflect the same amount of seasonal change that we see in areas with higher elevation. A prominent example of this is that Queenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Birthday weekend (in June) has four times the number of injuries than a normal weekend in the Tararua Ranges. 165

162 146

155 142 118

INJURIES 105 90 75

SAR

68

14

13

11

10

10

4

FEB

16

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

10

10

9 3

2

FATALITIES JAN

67

60

2

1

JUL

AUG

2 SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

What happened? With the dense bush, an extensive network of tracks and highly changeable weather, nearly three-quarters of search and rescues in the Tararua Ranges are for lost, missing and overdue trampers. Lost/missing/overdue

74%

Medical/Injury

25%

Unknown

INCIDENTS BY GENDER IN THE TARARUAS Male New Zealanders are more commonly involved in search and rescues and fatalities. Trampers aged between 15-24 make up a third of all the search and rescues.

1%

INJU

RIE

S

SA R FAT ALIT

CAUSE OF ALL SAR EVENTS IN TARARUA HOTSPOT International Visitors

18

IES

20% 38% 50%

INCIDENTS

80%

10%

50%

62% SEARCH AND RESCUES IN TARARUA RANGES New Zealanders

90%

168

TARARUA RANGES LOIC LASSUEUR

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

45


TAS

Tasman

The Tasman hotspot is located in the north-west of the South Island and features some of the most diverse landscapes found anywhere in the country. The region is traditionally one of the most popular tramping areas in New Zealand. It has three national parks: the coastal gem of Abel Tasman National Park, the large and mostly remote Kahurangi National Park and at the northern tip of the Southern Alps, Nelson Lakes National Park. The area boasts numerous high-quality tramping facilities with over 100 backcountry huts and thousands of kilometres of tramping tracks for all abilities. The two Great Walks, Heaphy Track and Abel Tasman Coastal Track, are notable mentions in the region. However, they’re not to be outdone by many more exceptional tramping options elsewhere in the area. The highest peak in the area is Mount Franklin, which is found within Nelson Lakes National Park, standing at 2,340m. At the foot of this mountain, the world’s clearest water provides a trampers paradise at Blue Lake. Rainfall is fairly evenly distributed across the year, although February and March are typically the driest months of the year, whereas the wettest months are observed in winter and spring. Parts of the Tasman mountains receive in excess of 6,000mm of annual rainfall. The region’s plentiful forests benefit immensely from the regular rain and sun meaning the river valleys are often full of native New Zealand wildlife. Nelson and Tasman are renowned for receiving a great deal of sunshine, particularly in Nelson City itself where the average annual sunshine of approximately 2,400 hours is among the highest recorded in New Zealand. Every year visitors from New Zealand and overseas flock to the area. Visitors to Kahurangi National Park number around 75,000 and Nelson Lakes National Park sees about 250,000. These sites are easily eclipsed by the hugely popular Abel Tasman National Park, which hosts 500,000 visitors each year.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 HEAPHY TRACK

8,600 MT. ARTHUR TRACK

5,000 ABEL TASMAN COASTAL TRACK

44,000 ROBERT RIDGE ROUTE

3,000 TRAVERS-SABINE CIRCUIT

2,600 ANGELUS HUT

3,600 OLD GHOST ROAD

3,800 46

Nelson


TASMAN

ABEL TASMAN COASTAL TRACK

HEAPHY TRACK

MT. ARTHUR TRACK

OLD GHOST ROAD

ROBERT RIDGE ROUTE ANGELUS HUT

TRAVERS-SABINE CIRCUIT MT. FRANKLIN

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

47


TAS

Tasman insights

ABEL TASMAN COASTAL TRACK

Over ten years, 3,324 trampers were injured in Tasman and ten trampers didn’t make it home. There were also 400 trampers involved in search and rescue over seven years. Tasman comes second across the nine hotspots in all three incident categories. As seen in the heatmap, search and rescues are spread throughout the hotspot, with a higher concentration in Nelson Lakes and Abel Tasman National Parks.

HEAPHY TRACK

TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR HOTSPOT

MT. ARTHUR

HEAT MAP OF SAR EVENTS

10

FATALITIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

400

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

OLD GHOST ROAD

3,324 INJURIES

TRAVERS-SABINE CIRCUIT

(01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

Incidents by year Injuries have been trending upwards over the past ten years, however they have dipped recently. Search and rescues are relatively stable.

10 YEAR TREND OF INCIDENTS

INJURIES

SAR

26

FATALITIES 41

2

3 32

1 32

1 229

2007-2008

48

285

2008-2009

258

2009-2010

278

2010-2011

318

2011-2012

292

2012-2013

3 39

352

2013-2014

32

30 371

2014-2015

497

2015-2016

444

2016-2017


TASMAN

35% OF TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUE IN TASMAN WERE AGED 50-64

Incidents by month 588

INJURIES 394

409

434

395

37

172

SAR

27

24

141

21

106

102

116

13

14

17

14 9

FATALITIES

1

3

1

JAN

FEB

MAR

225

242

12

11

33

4

1 APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

What happened? Lost/missing/overdue

Medical/Injury

59%

37%

Male Unknown

4%

GENDER OF FATALITIES

80%

Female

20% CAUSE OF ALL SAR EVENTS IN TASMAN HOTSPOT International Visitors

CAUSES OF FATALITIES IN TASMAN Falling

5

113

Drowning (river) Never found

2

28%

3

???

7 OF THE 10 FATALITIES WERE SOLO TRAMPERS

SEARCH AND RESCUES IN TASMAN

72% New Zealanders

285

ABEL TASMAN BEVAN SMITH

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

49


WST

Westland

Westland, situated on the west coast of the South Island, is one of New Zealand’s wildest and wettest regions. Covered in conservation land from the coast to the highest peaks, it boasts the highest average rainfall in the country. Truly, Westland is an outdoor paradise! The towering Southern Alps not only provide a picture-perfect backdrop for trampers, they also have a considerable impact on the local weather. At relatively high elevations the annual rainfall regularly exceeds 10,000mm. Lower elevation locations along the coast in the region typically record between 2,000-3,000 mm of rainfall annually. Temperatures in lowland areas remain mild throughout the year, with temperatures less than 0°C and greater than 25°C occurring infrequently compared to most other regions of New Zealand. In the middle of the hotspot lies Westland Tai Poutini National Park, which extends from the top of the Southern Alps to the rugged and remote coast. It is world famous for its glaciers, in particularly the Franz Josef and Fox Glaciers, due in part to their easy access and close proximity to the coast. It is also home to Copland Track, which is popular with trampers and has natural hot pools at Welcome Flat as an added attraction.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 COPLAND TRACK TO WELCOME FLAT

2,500

Greymouth

50


WESTLAND FOX GLACIER FRANZ JOSEF GLACIER

WELCOME FLAT HUT

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

51


WST

Westland insights Over ten years there were 1,151 injuries and eight fatalities to trampers in Westland. There were also 201 trampers involved in search and rescue over seven years. Although these numbers are not as high as some of the other hotspots, many of the search and rescues and fatalities occurred on short or day walks.

31% OF TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN A SEARCH AND RESCUE IN WESTLAND WERE AGED 25-34

TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR HOTSPOT

8

FATALITIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

201

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

1,151 INJURIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

Incidents by year Injuries have remained relatively stable over the past ten years, with a slight increase recently. Search and rescues have been relatively stable, with a significant decrease in 2016-17.

10 YEAR TREND OF INCIDENTS

INJURIES

SAR

FATALITIES

1 20

2 117

126 101

2007-2008

52

2008-2009

87

2009-2010

2010-2011

2 17

1 21

113

114

2011-2012

2012-2013

28

118

2013-2014

18

115

2014-2015

18

122

2015-2016

2 9

138

2016-2017


WESTLAND

QUEENâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S BIRTHDAY WEEKEND HAD 4.4 TIMES THE DAILY AVERAGE NUMBER OF INJURIES

Incidents by month 176 157

INJURIES

148

139

25

112

18

75

69

17

59 45

13

SAR

45

47

10 8

8

7 4

FATALITIES

2

1

JAN

FEB

APR

9

3

1 MAR

79

3

1 MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

9

NOV

DEC

What happened? Almost two out of three search and rescues in Westland were for lost, missing or overdue trampers, which is similar to what is seen across New Zealand as a whole. Six of the eight fatalities occurred on short or day walks which shows how easily areas with considerable risk can be accessed in this hotspot. Medical/Injury

Lost/missing/overdue

36%

62%

CAUSES OF FATALITIES IN WESTLAND Falling

3

Drowning (river) Glacial Ice Fall

3

2

Unknown

2%

CAUSE OF ALL SAR EVENTS IN WESTLAND HOTSPOT

LAKE MATHESON STEFRAN

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

53


AOR

Aoraki /Mount Cook

Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park is home to the highest peaks of the Southern Alps, including New Zealand’s tallest mountain, Aoraki/Mount Cook, standing at 3,724m. In total there are 19 peaks over 3,000m and many permanent ice fields and glaciers, which have contributed to making this area popular with mountaineers from all over the world. Even though most of the area is considered alpine terrain and is synonymous with alpine climbing, there are many excellent tramping options that attract walkers and trampers, in particular the Hooker Valley Track and Mueller Hut Route. Historically, the Copland Pass, which crosses the main divide over to Westland, was one of New Zealand’s most popular alpine pass crossings for trampers. However, erosion in the Hooker Valley has made this crossing significantly more challenging and rendering the Hooker Hut inaccessible. As a result, very few people undertake this trip nowadays. There are numerous huts within the area, ranging from basic shelters to serviced huts, with the most accessible and popular being Mueller Hut. This hut can be reached from Aoraki/Mount Cook Village after a physically demanding four-hour ascent from the valley floor. Other excellent tramping options exist in the vicinity such as the Dobson Valley to the south, and further east in the Two Thumbs Range. These regions provide an alternative from more popular tramping options in the national park, which are the centre-piece of the area. The weather conditions in the area, in particular at higher altitudes in the national park, can be unpredictable and change rapidly and frequently drop below 0°C, even in summer. The imposing Southern Alps play a significant role in shaping the local weather. Tramping in this environment, you’re almost certain to experience New Zealand’s famously changeable weather, locally referred to as ‘four seasons in a day’.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 SEALY TARNS TRACK

9,600 MUELLER HUT

3,100 HOOKER VALLEY TRACK

85,000

Tekapo

54


AORAKI/MOUNT COOK MT. TASMAN

AORAKI/MOUNT COOK

HOOKER VALLEY TRACK MUELLER HUT

VISITOR CENTRE

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

55


AOR

Aoraki/Mount Cook insights Over ten years there were 396 injuries and two fatalities to trampers in Aoraki/ Mount Cook. There were also 94 trampers involved in search and rescue over seven years. This hotspot has the highest percentage of search and rescues for international visitors. Around one in three of the search and rescue incidents were for trampers on the Sealy Tarns/Mueller Hut Track.

34% OF TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH & RESCUE IN AORAKI/ MOUNT COOK WERE ON THE SEALY TARNS/ MUELLER HUT TRACK

TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR HOTSPOT

2

FATALITIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

94

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

396 INJURIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

Incidents by year Injuries continue to trend upwards, however the numbers seem to be quite low compared with the numbers of visitors estimated by DOC track counters. Search and rescues have remained stable, with one year which had double the average number of incidents.

10 YEAR TREND OF INCIDENTS

9

INJURIES

SAR

FATALITIES 1

1 33

56

9

2008-2009

29

2009-2010

2010-2011

16

9

8

8

42 28

2007-2008

8

38

2011-2012

31

2012-2013

50

2013-2014

36

2014-2015

48

2015-2016

61

2016-2017


AORAKI/MOUNT COOK

38% OF TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH & RESCUE IN AORAKI/MOUNT COOK WERE AGED 16-24

Incidents by month INJURIES

54

53

58 46

12

12

17

11

SAR

41

34

30 21 10

15

17

0 1

1

SEP

OCT

10

6 5

4 2

FATALITIES

2

1 JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

What happened? Aoraki/Mount Cook is one of only two hotspots in which there are more search and rescues for international visitors than New Zealanders. Close to half of all search and rescues in Aoraki/ Mount Cook were due to an injury or medical condition. Lost/missing/overdue

51%

JUL

AUG

NOV

DEC

New Zealanders

33 35% SEARCH AND RESCUES IN AORAKI/ MOUNT COOK

Medical/Injury

46%

2

Unknown

65%

3%

International Visitors

61 CAUSES OF FATALITIES IN AORAKI/MOUNT COOK Falling CAUSE OF ALL SAR EVENTS IN AORAKI/MOUNT COOK HOTSPOT

HOOKER VALLEY YAP ZHI YUEN

2

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

57


QTL

Queenstown Lakes Queenstown Lakes, which includes Wanaka and Mount Aspiring National Park, is full of majestic mountains, crystal clear lakes and rivers as well as glacially carved valleys. Unsurprisingly, this has resulted in it becoming New Zealand’s premier tourist destination for outdoor recreation, and is the launching-place for many popular walking and tramping tracks. For both international and domestic travellers it also acts as the gateway to two incredible national parks: Fiordland National Park and Mount Aspiring National Park, as well as many more excellent conservation areas abundant in backcountry huts and tramping options. Mount Aspiring National Park is the second most visited national park (for international visitors who undertake at least one day walk or tramp during their time in New Zealand) with over 220,000 visits each year. It also receives an estimated 41,000 domestic visitors each year. The tallest mountain, Mount Aspiring/Tititea at 3,033m, is the mountain that gives the park its name. There are numerous vantage points throughout the Wanaka area where you can view this striking mountain. Popular tramping options in the area include Ben Lomond Track, on the edge of Queenstown, the worldfamous Routeburn Track which sees trampers cross the divide into Fiordland and close by the Greenstone, Caples and Rees-Dart trips. Further north around Wanaka and Mount Aspiring, the West Matukituki Valley and Rob Roy Track are two popular options. Both are fast becoming dwarfed in popularity by Roy’s Peak, arguably the Tongariro Alpine Crossing of the south. West of Lake Wanaka, the infamous Rabbit and Gillespie Passes, including the Wilkin, Young, Siberia and East Matukituki river valleys, provide numerous challenging multi-day trips for those trampers looking to test themselves. Being a predominantly mountainous area, the weather changes rapidly, even in summer. Many mountain tops are covered all year round by permanent glaciers. Annual rainfall varies from as little as 500mm inland up to 8,000mm where the higher peaks provide cloud piercing barriers for storms arriving from the Tasman Sea. While the summer months from November to April experience a low average temperature between 5°C and 11°C, the winter months vary between 0°C and 4°C.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 CASCADE SADDLE

700 ASPIRING HUT

3,000 RABBIT PASS

700

ROB ROY TRACK

22,000 ROUTEBURN TRACK

21,100 ROYS PEAK

64,000

REES/DART CIRCUIT

2,000 BEN LOMOND TRACK

22,000 GREENSTONE/CAPLES

3,500 58 58

Queenstown


QUEENSTOWN LAKES RABBIT PASS MT. ASPIRING/ TITITEA

CASCADE SADDLE

REES/DART CIRCUIT

ROB ROY

ASPIRING HUT

ROYS PEAK

ROUTEBURN TRACK

BEN LOMOND GREENSTONE/ CAPLES

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

59


QTL

Queenstown Lakes insights Over ten years there were 2,622 injuries and ten fatalities to trampers in Queenstown Lakes. There were also 300 trampers involved in search and rescue over seven years. This makes it the hotspot with the most injuries in the South Island and the second highest hotspot for fatalities, which it shares with Tasman.

WAITANGI WEEKEND HAS 3.5 TIMES THE DAILY AVERAGE NUMBER OF INJURIES IN QUEENSTOWN LAKES

TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR HOTSPOT

10

FATALITIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

300

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

2,622 INJURIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

Incidents by year Despite remaining relatively stable between 2007 and 2013, injury numbers have begun to trend upwards over the past four years.

10 YEAR TREND OF INCIDENTS

INJURIES

SAR

3 29

FATALITIES 1 27

2

1 24

1 21

22

1 217

234 171

2007-2008

60

2008-2009

2009-2010

210

2010-2011

204

2011-2012

212

2012-2013

1 30

266

2013-2014

317

2014-2015

386

2015-2016

31

405

2016-2017


QUEENSTOWN LAKES

32% OF PEOPLE INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES IN QUEENSTOWN LAKES WERE AGED 25-34

Incidents by month 399

383

410

334 35

275

INJURIES

253

29

19

SAR

74

8

FATALITIES

1

1

JAN

FEB

MAR

136

115 19

APR

MAY

8

68

6

1

1

JUN

JUL

81

20

94 15

8

10 7 1

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

5 DEC

What happened? Falling accounts for 70% of all tramping fatalities in Queenstown Lakes. It also has a high percentage of incidents involving trampers who were solo or became separated from their group. They accounted for six out of the ten fatalities and 42% of search and rescue incidents. Lost/missing/overdue

53%

Medical/Injury

43%

CAUSES OF FATALITIES IN QUEENSTOWN LAKES Falling

7

Unknown

4%

Drowning (river)

3

CAUSE OF ALL SAR EVENTS IN QUEENSTOWN LAKES HOTSPOT

BEN LOMOND BEVAN SMITH

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

61


QTL

Focus areas The Ben Lomond Track and Routeburn Track each had 26 search and rescue incidents, making them fifth equal for tramping search and rescue incidents on New Zealand tracks. This is closely followed by the Rees-Dart circuit which had 24 search and rescues.

TOTAL SAR EVENTS OVER 7 YEARS

ROUTEBURN TRACK

26

BEN LOMOND TRACK

26

REES-DART CIRCUIT

24

Ben Lomond Track The Ben Lomond Track begins in the heart of Queenstown, and is easily made shorter by a gondola ride. This ease of access attracts a large and diverse number of people to climb the mountain. However, it is not as simple as it may seem, and has seen a high number of people caught out in the dark and many taking wrong turns and ending up lost or bluffed.

SAR EVENTS ALONG THE BEN LOMOND TRACK

62 62

BEN LOMOND AND ROUTEBURN ARE 5TH EQUAL FOR TRAMPING SEARCH AND RESCUES ON NZ TRACKS


QUEENSTOWN LAKES

90% OF QUEENSTOWN LAKES TRAMPING FATALITIES WERE IN MOUNT ASPIRING NATIONAL PARK

Mount Aspiring National Park Nine of the ten fatalities which occurred in the Queenstown Lakes hotspot were within Mount Aspiring National Park. This makes it the conservation area with the second highest number of fatalities in New Zealand after its neighbour Fiordland National Park.

Mount Aspiring National Park

107

Mount Aspiring National Park

16%

9

5%

TRAMPING FATALITIES IN NEW ZEALAND (2007-17)

Other

SEARCH AND RESCUES IN NEW ZEALAND (2010-17)

84%

95% 95%

Other

48

2,216

Routeburn Track The Routeburn Track is New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most popular Great Walk with more than 21,000 people completing it each year during the Great Walks season. Many more walk it in a day or walk outside of the Great Walks season when it is not required to book huts in advance. It has seen two fatalities on the Fiordland side in the past ten years and 26 search and rescues over the past seven years.

21,100

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 Harris Saddle

SAR EVENTS ALONG THE ROUTEBURN TRACK Earland Falls

Lake Mackenzie Routeburn Falls

Lake Howden

Routeburn Flats

The Divide Routeburn Shelter

FIORDLAND NATIONAL PARK

Cascade Saddle Cascade Saddle had three tramping fatalities due to falling in 2008, 2011 and 2012.

CASCADE SADDLE LOIC LASSUEUR

MOUNT ASPIRING NATIONAL PARK

Falling fatalities

3

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

63


STH

Southland Southland District is situated at the southern end of New Zealand and is home to two National Parks: Fiordland National Park which is the country’s largest and arguably remotest, and the newest, Rakiura, which encompasses about 85% of Rakiura/Stewart Island. Together these two parks host four of the nine DOC Great Walks. While only 30,000 people reside in Southland District, Fiordland National Park is visited by more than 100,000 domestic visitors and more than 400,000 international visitors each year. Rakiura on the other hand, being an offshore island only accessible by small plane or a typically rough boat ride, receives around 12,000 domestic visitors and 23,000 international visitors each year. Southland is the most southern and the most western part of New Zealand and is generally the first to be influenced by weather systems moving onto the country from the west or south. Aside from a few tiny remote islands in the Southern Ocean, nothing stands between Antarctica and the coast of Southland or Rakiura. Winter is typically the least windy time of year, it is also for many areas the driest. The western ranges, with annual rainfall exceeding 8,000mm in some parts, are among the wettest places on earth. On average, the temperatures are lower than the rest of the country with frosts and snowfalls occurring relatively frequently each year. On average, Southland receives less sunshine than the remainder of New Zealand. This part of New Zealand is incredibly diverse. The windswept beaches of Rakiura and the Fiordland coast are broken only by pristine rivers, usually churning with white water as they flush out the huge rainfall the region gets each year. During the last ice age, the valleys were carved through glacial erosion. When they retreated, they left deep fjords. Nowadays, the lush forests are full of native birdlife and nowhere is this more evident than Rakiura/ Stewart Island where trampers are woken by a deafening ‘dawn chorus’ that was mentioned by early explorers to New Zealand. Trampers to Fiordland and Rakiura/Stewart Island are truly spoilt for choice. Excellent tramping options exist across the region from short walks through to remote and challenging multi-day options. The Milford Road features many top spots branching out into the valleys or higher into the alpine landscape. Gertrude Saddle is one example that has seen its popularity rise sharply in recent years. The Kepler and Routeburn Tracks receive the highest number of unguided (freedom) trampers.

APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF TRAMPERS IN 2016/17 HOLLYFORD TRACK

3,000 GERTRUDE SADDLE

4,700 MILFORD TRACK

15,000 ROUTEBURN TRACK

21,100

Te Anau

KEPLER TRACK

14,000 RAKIURA TRACK

6,100 64

Invercargill

Rakiura/Stewart Is.


SOUTHLAND HOLLYFORD TRACK MILFORD SOUND GERTRUDE SADDLE ROUTEBURN TRACK

MILFORD TRACK

KEPLER TRACK

VISITOR CENTRE

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

© Mapbox, © OpenStreetMap

65


STH

Southland insights Over ten years there were 2,427 injuries and 11 fatalities in Southland. There were also 282 trampers involved in search and rescue over seven years. This makes it the number one hotspot for tramping fatalities and third-highest for search and rescue.

9 OF THE 11 TRAMPING FATALITIES WERE IN THE LAST FOUR YEARS

TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR HOTSPOT

11

FATALITIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

282

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

2,427 INJURIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

Incidents by year Southland is the only hotspot where we can clearly see that fatality numbers have increased in recent years. Injuries are also trending upwards. The number of search and rescues for trampers are declining.

10 YEAR TREND OF INCIDENTS

INJURIES

SAR

FATALITIES

2007-2008

66

28

1

1 195

30

184

2008-2009

221

2009-2010

262

2010-2011

220

2011-2012

27

221

2012-2013

2 22

246

2013-2014

2 33

259

2014-2015

3 31

301

2015-2016

2 23

318

2016-2017


SOUTHLAND

19% OF ALL TRAMPING FATALITIES IN NEW ZEALAND WERE IN FIORDLAND NATIONAL PARK

Incidents by month 415

INJURIES

33

386

395 365

36

263 204 25

48

SAR

27

49

10 3

4

1 JAN

FEB

MAR

1

1

APR

MAY

2 3

JUN

What happened? Southland is the only hotspot to have a much higher number of search and rescues for injuries and medical events than for people lost, missing or overdue. 16% of all search and rescues in Fiordland were for a severe injury Medical/Injury

64%

Lost/missing/overdue

32%

19

54

11

FATALITIES

24

122

99

22

JUL

3

6

1 AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

31% OF INJURED TRAMPERS IN SOUTHLAND WERE AGED 50-64

Unknown

4%

CAUSE OF ALL SAR EVENTS IN SOUTHLAND HOTSPOT

CAUSES OF FATALITIES IN SOUTHLAND Drowning (river) Falling

6

KEPLER TRACK LOIC LASSUEUR

1

Hypothermia Avalanche

2

2

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

67


STH

Fiordland National Park 88% of tramping search and rescues in Southland were in Fiordland. This was 7% of all tramping search and rescues in New Zealand, making it the second-highest national park for tramping search and rescue. 19% of tramping fatalities in New Zealand were in Fiordland National Park. The three Great Walks in Fiordland had six of New Zealandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tramping fatalities over the past ten years. Four of these were outside the Great Walk season.

Fiordland National Park

Fiordland National Park

TRAMPING FATALITIES IN NEW ZEALAND (2007-17)

Other areas

44%

81%

Other areas

46

157

7%

11

19%

2,166

FIORDLAND NATIONAL PARK HAD THE SECOND-HIGHEST NUMBER OF SEARCH & RESCUES OF ALL NZ CONSERVATION AREAS

SEARCH AND RESCUES IN NEW ZEALAND (2010-17)

56%

93%

HEAT MAP OF SAR EVENTS

Gertrude Saddle

HOLLYFORD TRACK

Gertrude Saddle had two recent falling fatalities. One in 2016 and the second in 2017. The number of people walking this route has more than tripled in the past six years.

CAUSES OF FATALITIES ON GERTRUDE SADDLE Falling fatalities

2

MILFORD TRACK

68

GERTRUDE SADDLE ROUTEBURN TRACK


SOUTHLAND

MILFORD TRACK HAD THE SECOND-HIGHEST NUMBER OF SEARCH AND RESCUES FOR NZ TRACKS

Milford Track

15,000

Milford Track ranks second in New Zealand for search and rescues, having seen 45 incidents over the past seven years. A higher proportion of international trampers were rescued from Milford Track than New Zealanders. The two fatalities, which occurred in the past ten years were to international visitors, one of these was outside APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF the Great Walks season.

TRAMPERS IN 2016/17

SAR EVENTS ALONG THE MILFORD TRACK

Mackinnon Pass Mintaro Hut

Pompolona Lodge Glade House

Quintin Lodge Clinton Hut

Dumpling Hut

Hirere Falls

Boatshed

Unknown

CAUSES OF FATALITIES ON THE MILFORD TRACK Falling

1

2 4%

Drowning (river)

SA R

1

PAR T

New Zealanders

17

INVOLVED IN SAR 12,792

74%

60%

14,986

13,405

12,754

9

9

8

7 5

MILFORD TRACK PARTICIPATION AND SEARCH AND RESCUES 2010-2017

36%

14,438 12,757

N

26%

PARTICIPATION OVER THE YEARS VS. SAR EVENTS

PARTICIPATION 13,021

ICIP ATIO

International Visitors

28

5 4

2010-2011

6,121

2011-2012

5,753

2012-2013

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

6,122

6,027

12 TOTAL 2010-2017

2013-2014

5,727 4,770

7

7

751

40 2

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

7

NB: Participation for this comparison only contains data from the Great Walk booking season.

7

MAY

0

0

0

0

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

3

2 OCT

NOV

DEC

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

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Deep dives A closer look When There and Back was released there were several tramping statistics which were intriguing, but we felt there was more to uncover before we could identify any specific issues. Many of these have already been revealed in the earlier parts of this publication. Now we shift our focus to three specific areas. Firstly, we explore the differences between incidents which occur to New Zealanders and those which occur to international visitors. We then explore â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;fallingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; incidents: where and when they are occurring, who is typically involved and what might be causing them. Finally, we wrap up with an investigation of all tramping fatalities in the past ten years and the multiple common factors which contributed to them.

70


DEEP DIVES PAGE

New Zealanders vs. International Visitors

72-77

Falling

78-81

Fatality Causation

82-86

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

71


New Zealanders vs. International Visitors

Here we compare incidents between New Zealanders and international visitors.

What happened? On average, New Zealanders spend more time tramping each year than international visitors. It therefore follows that over ten years, more New Zealanders were injured, required rescue or did not make it home. However, this general principle was altered when we explored different variables such as location or age.

IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF FATALITIES

NEW ZEALANDERS

5

8

17

DROWNING

FALLING

INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

HYPOTHERMIA

1

1

2

1

4

14

DROWNING

FALLING

PINNED BY UNKNOWN BOULDER

2

HYPOTHERMIA AVALANCHE

GLACIAL ICE FALL UNKNOWN

Total by year There is a small trend upwards for search and rescues. However, this is not related to a noticeable increase for either New Zealanders or international visitors alone. In the past five years there has been a slightly higher number of international trampers in the fatality statistics than the previous five years. Overall, there were more fatalities to New Zealanders.

NZ VS. INTERNATIONAL INCIDENTS

SA R

ANNUAL TRENDS FOR SAR EVENTS

FAT ALIT

418

380

393

382

309

309

258

181

145

2010-2011

2011-2012

2012-2013

184

196

2014-2015

2015-2016

135

133

2013-2014

56%

172

TOTAL TRAMPING INCIDENTS

68%

2016-2017

ANNUAL TRENDS FOR FATALITIES NEW ZEALANDERS INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

6

5

5

4

5

4

4

4

3 2

2

2

2

2

1

2

2 1

1 0

2007-2008

72

2008-2009

2009-2010

2010-2011

2011-2012

IES

INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

NEW ZEALANDERS

2012-2013

2013-2014

2014-2015

2015-2016

2016-2017

2

32%

44%


NZ VS. INTERNATIONAL

68% OF TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SEARCH AND RESCUE WERE NEW ZEALANDERS

Search and rescues Search and rescues for international trampers are more evenly spread throughout the year, whereas for New Zealanders it tends to increase more around peak periods. A similar pattern is seen throughout the week with New Zealanders being more commonly involved in search and rescue during the weekend, and visitors having a more even spread throughout the week.

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SAR BY MONTH

TOTAL 2010-2017

NEW ZEALANDERS INTERNATIONAL VISITORS 413

280

272

257 215 169

150

150

144

133

143

145

69

45

37

JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

179

152 108

151

152

91

41

47

51

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

TRAMPERS INVOLVED IN SAR BY DAY OF WEEK TOTAL 2010-2017

Average

154

170

167

144

161

173

177

164

334

350

302

255

271

473

463

350

TUE

WED

THU

FRI

SAT

SUN

INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

NEW ZEALANDERS MON

ROUTEBURN LOIC LASSUEUR

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MOST TRAMPING FATALITIES IN WINTER WERE INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

Fatalities Comparing the five-year, and ten-year fatality averages for New Zealand and international visitors, we’ve seen a slight decrease in the proportion of New Zealanders and a slight increase in the number of international visitors. More fatalities in winter were to international trampers than New Zealanders.

VISITORS AND NEW ZEALANDER FATALITIES

INTERNATIONAL NEW ZEALANDERS 200 7- 2 201

2-2

SUM

012

WIN

017

ME

WE

R

WE

TER

EKD

EKE

AY

ND

23%

61%

52%

FATALITIES 2007-12 VS. 2012-17

39%

FATALITIES WINTER VS. SUMMER

42%

48%

37% 43%

63%

FATALITIES WEEKEND VS. WEEKDAY

57%

58% 77%

77%

The proportion of fatalities to international visitors is increasing.

The proportion of fatalities to international visitors was considerably higher in winter than in summer.

The proportion of fatalities to international visitors was considerably higher during the week than in the weekend.

Country of origin By far, the highest number of trampers who didn’t make it home were from New Zealand. The next highest country of residence to have suffered tramping fatalities while in New Zealand was Germany.

2

Canada

1

UK

1

1

Korea

Poland

3

USA

3

5

1

Israel

Germany

Taiwan

1

32

Czech

1

Chile

1

1

New Zealand

Malaysia

France

1

Singapore

74

3

Australia


NZ VS. INTERNATIONAL

20-29 YEAR OLDS ACCOUNTED FOR 48% OF INTERNATIONAL VISITOR SEARCH AND RESCUES AS WELL AS FATALITIES

Age groups International trampers who didn’t make it home were more highly represented in the 18-24 age category, while New Zealand trampers were more commonly from the 50-64 age category. 70% of search and rescues for international trampers were under 35. For New Zealanders, the number of search and rescues is spread much more evenly across age groups.

AGE BREAKDOWN OF TRAMPING FATALITIES

TOTAL 2007-2017

NEW ZEALANDERS INTERNATIONAL VISITORS 11 8 4

13

7

6

5

2

1

18-24

25-34

35-49

0

50-64

65+

AGE GROUPS

COMPARING PARTICIPATION WITH SAR FOR AGE GROUPS

ANNUAL AVERAGE

PARTICIPATION INVOLVED IN SAR

164,975 164,975

291,037

196,203

213,974

196,203 48 45

44

45

185,111

49

49

25-34

35-49

50-64

NEW ZEALAND RESIDENTS’ AGES

118,784

139,972

18

18

68,204 68,204

45,857

26

18-24

TONGARIRO NORTHERN CIRCUIT FRAMETHEADVENTURENZ

99,946

65+

18-24

25-34

35-49

50-64

9 65+

INTERNATIONAL VISITORS’ AGES

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

75


48% OF INTERNATIONAL VISITOR TRAMPING FATALITIES WERE ON A DAY WALK/SHORT WALK

Trip type The percentage of fatalities on day walks and short walks was much higher for international trampers.

COMPARING TRIP TYPES FOR FATALITIES

NEW ZEALANDERS

INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

Fatality on day /short walk

22%

Fatality on day /short walk

48%

Fatality on Overnight Tramp

Fatality on Overnight Tramp

78%

52%

Group vs. solo International trampers involved in search and rescue were far more commonly tramping on their own or separated from their group.

GROUP OR SOLO SAR EVENTS GROUP

77% 1,882

2,448

1,146

76

59% 674

55

SEPARATED

SOLO

58

15% 365

27% 312

UNKNOWN

143

105


NZ VS. INTERNATIONAL

92% OF INTERNATIONAL VISITOR TRAMPING FATALITIES WERE IN THE SOUTH ISLAND

Where? The proportion of New Zealand to international visitor incidents across the country varies considerably. In Auckland, tramping search and rescues are largely dominated by New Zealanders. At the other end of the country in Fiordland, tramping fatalities were almost all international visitors.

TOTAL INCIDENTS ACROSS HOTSPOTS

AUCKLAND

28 0 1

156

NEW ZEALANDER INVOLVED IN SAR

INTERNATIONAL VISITOR INVOLVED IN SAR CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND (7 years of data) This excludes 49 trampers involved in search and rescues for whom we did not know their origin.

1

280

219

0

NEW ZEALAND FATALITIES TARANAKI INTERNATIONAL VISITOR TRAMPING FATALITIES

105

56

1 0

(10 years of data) Sizes for these are proportionate to fatalities only.

TASMAN

TARARUA RANGES

285

113

7

3

168

18

5

0

285 New Zealanders were involved in SAR in Tasman over 7 years WESTLAND

117

74

3

5

AORAKI/MOUNT COOK

33

0 2

61

QUEENSTOWN LAKES SOUTHLAND

164 158

102

2

127

6

4

9

9 international visitor fatalities were in Southland over 10 years

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

77


Falling We now look closer at the main cause of incidents: falling.

How many? Falling is the number one cause of incidents to trampers. This includes slips, trips and falls. In the data analysed for A Walk in the Park? there were the following:

TOTAL INCIDENTS FOR FALLING

PROPORTION OF INCIDENTS THAT WERE FALLS

MINOR/MODERATE INJURIES

31

SEVERE INJURIES

SAR

FATALITIES

ALL OTHER CAUSES

FATALITIES

(01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

649

SEARCH AND RESCUES (01/07/10 - 30/06/17)

65%

1,678

54%

51%

SEVERE INJURIES

34%

(01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

19,381

PERCENTAGE THAT FELL

65% OF SEVERE INJURIES WERE FROM FALLING

MODERATE/MINOR INJURIES (01/07/07 - 30/06/17)

Falls by year There has been a small - but noticeable - increase in falls over the past ten years. Specifically, injuries caused by falls have been increasing. Search and rescues due to falls have been increasing, but not so markedly. Fatalities have remained stable at around three per year.

2,530

2,630

2,204 2,044

MINOR/MODERATE INJURIES 1,409 156

1,557

1,615

1,708

1,835

1,849

221 199 181

158

164

157 139

161 142 112

SEVERE INJURIES 98

103

96

95 85

SAR 60

FATALITIES

78

2

2007-2008

4

2008-2009

2

2

2009-2010

2010-2011

4

2011-2012

4

2012-2013

4

2013-2014

3

2014-2015

3

2015-2016

3

2016-2017


FALLING

18% OF SEARCH AND RESCUES FOR TRAMPERS WHO FELL WERE IN THE CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

Where did they fall? AUCKLAND

Queenstown Lakes and Southland feature most prominently for fatalities. The Central North Island has the highest number of search and rescues for people who have fallen. Auckland has the highest number of injuries caused by falling.

2,571

37

193

1

HOTSPOTS FOR FALLING MINOR/MODERATE INJURIES

TARANAKI

SEVERE INJURIES

554

52

62

4

SAR TASMAN FATALITIES

1,452

151

45

5

CENTRAL NORTH ISLAND

1,234

110

120

0

SOUTHLAND

1,063

114

49

QUEENSTOWN LAKES

6 1,229

116

7

52

When? PERCENTAGE OF INCIDENTS

Falls that result in minor or moderate injuries peak around midday, whereas severe injuries, search and rescues, and fatalities peak in the afternoon.

20%

15%

10%

5%

0% 0000

0100

0200

0300

0400

NIGHT

0500

0600

0700

0800

0900

1000

MORNING

1100

1200

1300

MIDDAY

1400

1500

1600

1700

AFTERNOON

1800

1900

2000

EVENING

2100

2200

2300

0000

NIGHT

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

79


Who fell? The proportion of incidents that are falls are significantly higher for over-50s than younger people. The proportion of fatalities due to falls is significantly higher among men than women, but this is not true for search and rescues or injuries. Neither New Zealanders nor international visitors have a higher propensity to fall.

AGE GROUPS VS. SEVERITY OF FALLEN TRAMPERS

MINOR/MODERATE INJURIES

SEVERE INJURIES

INVOLVED IN SAR

FATALITIES

38%

29% 25%

23%

23%

22% 19%

16% 13% 10%

29%

19%

19% 15%

14%

16%

15%

12%

13% 10%

9%

6% 0

2% <16

16-24

25-34

35-49

GENDER VS. SEVERITY OF FALLEN TRAMPERS

23%

47%

53%

56%

44%

59%

41%

FEMALE

80

FATALITIES

77%

MALE

INVOLVED IN SAR

SEVERE INJURIES

MINOR/MODERATE INJURIES

50-64

65+


FALLING

A LACK OF APPROPRIATE FOOTWEAR WAS A FACTOR IN 18% OF FALLING FATALITIES

Causal factors DIRECTION OF TRAVEL AT TIME OF FATAL FALL

41%

19%

13%

10%

Descending

Ascending

From a viewpoint

Traversing

Unknown

4

3

5

13

6

CAUSAL FACTORS OF FALLING FATALITIES

HEIGHT OF FALL CAUSING FATALITY Ultimately, the height of a fall is the most significant factor that determines whether a tramper who has fallen will suffer a minor injury, a severe injury or a fatality.

A few common causal factors were seen across all falls which resulted in a fatality. Specifically, a lack of competence was a contributing factor for many incidents. See more on this in the Fatality Causation deep dive.

46% 25%

Lack of competence

Insufficient/inadequate equipment

50+m

52%

Goal focused/Desire to get to destination

25%

Searching for shortcut/ alternative route

18%

TERRAIN TYPE AT TIME OF FALL

STEEP

20-50m

19%

<20m

23%

UNEVEN/LOOSE

75%

41% 15%

16%

30%

23% 19%

11%

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

81


Fatality causation We now delve into factors which contributed to tramping fatalities

What’s going on? Although it is useful to know what, where and when different tramping incidents have occurred, in order to prevent future incidents it’s important to understand who was involved and what factors led to the incident occurring. Any time an incident happens, there are usually several factors which led to the incident occurring. If any one of these factors were not present, then the incident probably would not have occurred. We have called these ‘causal factors’. There is also one ‘immediate cause’, this might be falling, being swept down a river, or succumbing to hypothermia. Discovering the immediate cause is easy, and we can identify this for both injuries and fatalities. Identifying the causal factors involved in the lead up to an incident is a bit more challenging.

Categories The Mountain Safety Council (MSC) identified 58 causal factors as having the potential to lead to a fatality. These were allocated across a total of nine categories. ‘Competence’ is the most commonly occurring category. This category includes causal factors covering skills, experience, ability and choices made by the individual. The next most common category is ‘social and psychological’ factors. This includes causal factors focused on the mindset of the individual which are often influenced by the situation they are in. Each factor brings out behavioural patterns which are possible to identify through witness observation and decisions made by the individual.

However, for fatalities this is still possible. To do this, we accessed coronial findings and police reports for as many of the fatalities as we could. Some of these cases had not yet had a coronial finding published, yet the Coroner provided police evidence for us to draw reasonable conclusions. In a few cases, particularly those where the deceased was never found, the coronial findings did not contain much information for us to identify many causal factors. In total, we were able to draw causation findings from 53 of the 57 tramping fatalities that occurred over the ten year period. Overall, the numbers presented in this section are the minimum number of cases for which each causation factor was present. There is good reason to believe the number (or percentage) may have been higher.

58

CAUSAL FACTORS WITH POTENTIAL TO LEAD TO A FATALITY CAUSAL FACTORS OF TRAMPING FATALITIES

66% 28%

Equipment

62% 30%

Substance Abuse

32%

Weather

55% 32%

82

Social/Psychological Fatigue

0%

0%

Competence

Terrain Information/Knowledge Infrastructure Failure


FATALITY CAUSATION

WE ANALYSED CAUSATION FOR 53 OF THE 57 TRAMPING FATALITIES IN THE LAST 10 YEARS

Overall causal factors Looking at all tramping fatalities, the three most common causal factors were ‘steep terrain’, ‘goal focus’ and ‘lack of relevant experience.’ Steep terrain is often present in falling fatalities, however ‘goal focus’ and ‘lack of relevant experience’ is spread across all causes of fatality. Interestingly, ‘goal focus’ is a factor among 68% of cases where ‘lack of relevant experience’ was a factor.

COMPETENCE Lack of recent/relevant experience Overambitious choice of route Lack of a specific skill

11

Unwise attempt to cross a river Lack of physical fitness

1

13

19 18

4

Failure to advise sufficient intentions prior to departure

SOCIAL/ PSYCHOLOGICAL

20

Goal focused/Desire to get to destination

9 9

Searching for a shortcut or alternative path Misperception of risk/ Underestimated risk Familiarity/Complacency Social proof Conformity

2 2

4

TERRAIN

Steep Terrain

Ice/Snow

ROUTEBURN BEVAN SMITH

25 10

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

83


FOR FATALITIES WHERE IGNORING ADVICE WAS A CAUSATION, 88% WERE MALE

Immediate causes When grouping fatalities according to the immediate cause, a few distinct themes emerge. For example, not all river crossing fatalities occur to people without river crossing skills, but it has always been an unwise attempt to cross the river that has led to the fatality.

CAUSAL FACTORS BY IMMEDIATE CAUSE

GENDER PROPORTION FOR TOP FATALITY TYPES

Below are the numbers of cases we could analyse from the total:

28

25%

Overambitious choice of route

25%

Goal focussed/Desire to get to destination

25%

Insufficient/Inadequate equipment

7

FATALITIES FALLING

Lack of recent/relevant experience

21% 18%

Searching for a short cut or alternative path

18%

Ice/Snow

11

Female

OF THE 31 FATALITIES FROM FALLING

Male

24

OF THE 11 FATALITIES FROM RIVER CROSSING Male

100% Unwise attempt to cross a river 73% 64%

3

River level had risen

FATALITIES RIVER CROSSING/ DROWNING

Goal focussed/Desire to get to destination

55% Lack of river crossing skills

6

84

45%

Time pressure

45%

Fatigue

Female

8

Female

OF THE 6 FATALITIES FROM HYPOTHERMIA

100%

Overambitious choice of route

100%

Insufficient/inadequate equipment (incl. footwear)

100%

Lack of shelter

67%

Lack of communications

67%

Goal focussed/Desire to get to destination

1 FATALITIES HYPOTHERMIA Male

5


FATALITY CAUSATION

FOR FATALITIES WHERE IGNORING SIGNAGE WAS A CAUSATION, 100% WERE INTERNATIONAL VISITORS

Group vs. solo

Day vs. Multiday

On average, solo trampers are associated with fewer causal factors. This is largely because there was no one with them when they died or when they planned their trip, so there was less evidence collected by Police during their investigation. Despite that, inadequate or insufficient equipment and a strong desire to get to their destination - despite the risks - were causal factors in many of the solo fatalities. For those who were in a group at the time of their death, a lack of experience and suffering fatigue were the most common factors.

Looking at the length of trip that the tramper intended to take highlights some clear differences. For multiday trampers, the most common factors were ‘goal focus’, ‘lack of experience’ and ‘lack of sufficient equipment’. For day walkers, the most common factors were ‘ignoring signage’, ‘overambitious choice of route’, ‘misperception of risk’ and ‘searching for alternative path’. In both cases, steep terrain was common.

CAUSAL FACTORS FOR GROUP VS. SOLO TRAMPERS

26 27

OF THE 19 FATALITIES OF DAY TRAMPERS

OF THE 28 FATALITIES OF SOLO TRAMPERS 42% 31%

Lack of skill

38% 30% 27% 30%

8%

Searching for a shortcut or alternative path

26% 38% 37% 27%

Misperception of risk

42% 52% 42% 23%

31% 35% 6%

Ignoring signage

38% 19%

Overambitious choice of route

Insufficient/inadequate equipment

Weather factors

38% 31%

Searching for a shortcut or alternative path

11% 25%

Goal focused/Desire to get to destination

43% 31%

Misperception of risk

11% 38%

19%

Steep terrain

Fatigue

Insufficient planning

27%

Goal focused/Desire to get to destination

7%

Lack of recent/relevant experience

0%

Lack of appropriate footwear

19%

19%

41%

Overambitious choice of route

Insufficient/inadequate equipment

OF THE 38 FATALITIES OF MULTIDAY TRAMPERS

25%

Lack of recent/relevant experience

19%

7%

16 37

OF THE 29 FATALITIES OF TRAMPERS IN GROUPS

30%

4%

CAUSAL FACTORS FOR DAY WALK/MULTIDAY TRAMP

6% 8%

51%

Ignoring advice

19% 31%

8%

Steep terrain

Ignoring signage

New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

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Correlations

A

A combination of the same two causation factors will often appear in multiple fatalities. This starts to reveal a few distinct themes. It might make sense that when cold temperature contributed to a tramping fatality, in 89% of the cases the tramper was also wet. But some interesting correlations also appear such as a lack of river crossing skills and lack of communications or an unwise attempt to cross a river and being under time pressure.

B

CAUSATION FACTOR ‘A’

CAUSATION FACTOR ‘B’

C Overlap of cases where BOTH of these factors contributed to a tramping fatality

CAUSAL FACTOR CORRELATIONS

9

8

8

11

8

8

Cold (trampers)

Unwise attempt to cross a river

7

Lack of shelter

6

Lack of river crossing skills

10

Insufficient planning

18

6

6

Lack of river crossing skills

Insufficient planning

11

9

6

Lack of communications

Misperception of risk/ Underestimated risk

8

Wet (trampers)

4

19

Time pressure

8

Ignoring signage

7

Tired

13

20 Goal-focused (desire to get to destination)

6

20

Tired

5

6

Lack of recent/ relevant experience

Lost

Goal-focussed (desire to get to destination)

7

Insufficient/inadequate equipment

5

Unwise attempt to cross a river

Unwise attempt to cross a river

15

5

11

11

6

8

Unwise attempt to cross a river

River level risen

14

Overambitious choice of route

86

5

10

Wet (trampers)

19 Lack of recent/ relevant experience

4

12

9

Wet weather/raining

18 Overambitous choice of route


Our process Data collection

Data analysis

Inhouse unpacking

Partnership feedback

Insights

Share

What’s next? This publication is the culmination of months of work with a wide range of our partners. However, we’re not stopping here! Closely following the launch of this publication, MSC will start a number of ‘Issue Specific Advisory Groups’. These groups will involve relevant experts using the insights revealed by A Walk in the Park? to develop interventions focused on preventing the issues.

ROUTEBURN LOIC LASSUEUR

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Methodology Finally, we outline how we developed the insights in this publication.

Data sources The data analysed by MSC for this publication can be grouped into four main categories: • Participation • Injuries • Search and Rescues • Fatalities

‘Each data source covers a slightly different length of time.’

The table below represents the specific data sources and relevant date ranges. When viewing the information presented in this publication it’s important to keep in mind that each data source covers a slightly different length of time. Where necessary we have used annual averages or compared data in a way that accurately portrays information spanning varying time periods. Each dataset has been supplied to MSC by a partner organisation. These partners have continued to be involved in the analytical stages of the project. The data supplied has been handled in accordance with strict confidentiality and privacy standards. No identifiable personal information is contained within this publication.

PARTICIPATION DATA

Type of participation

Data source

Data consists of

Dataset timeframe

Domestic

Sport NZ

Active NZ Survey results

5 January 2017 - 4 January 2018

International

Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment

International Visitor Survey results

December 2013 - December 2017

Public Conservation Land

Department of Conservation

Calibrated track counters, hut book entries, and booking data

1 July 2016 - 30 June 2017 (unless otherwise specified)

Guided Great Walks

Ultimate Hikes

Booking data

1 July 2010 - 30 June 2017

Auckland Regional Parks

Auckland Council

Calibrated regional park track counters

1 July 2016 - 30 June 2017

INCIDENT DATA

Data

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Data source

Data range start

Data range end

Dataset timeframe

Injury

Accident Compensation Corporation

1 July 2007

30 June 2017

10 years

Search and Rescue

NZ Police and Rescue Co-ordination Centre

1 July 2010

30 June 2017

7 years

Fatality

National Coronial Information System and Coronial Services Unit

1 July 2007

30 June 2017

10 years


METHODOLOGY

‘MSC have defined tramping as any walking activity in the outdoors where the participant had intended to be out for over three hours.’

Definition of ‘tramping’ Tramping is a uniquely New Zealand term which is used to describe the activity of walking in the outdoors, typically in the non-urban regions of the country where one is ‘in the outdoors’, as opposed to just ‘out-of-doors’. However, individual interpretation will lead people to describe tramping in different ways and what some define as tramping may not be the same as others. When combining multiple datasets of one activity type to develop insights there will naturally be some level of subtle variation, what one individual called tramping on their ACC injury claim form another might have called day walking.

to be out for over three hours. This then naturally includes all day walks, day hikes, day tramps and any overnight walking, hiking or tramping activity. These walking activities have taken place in a non-urban outdoor environment, for example national or regional parks or other public conservation Land. Mountaineering activities are not included in this publication. The exception is a brief reference in the Taranaki Hotspot section to provide a broader picture of fatalities on Mount Taranaki. Mountaineering or climbing using technical equipment such as crampons, ice axes and ropes to ascend a mountain have not been classified as tramping.

To create a clear and consistent approach for the purposes of this insights publication, MSC have defined tramping as any walking activity in the outdoors where the participant had intended

Participation Participation data used as part of this project were sourced from five datasets: • The 2017 edition of the Sport NZ Active NZ Survey (domestic adult trampers only) • The Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment (MBIE) International Visitor Survey (international trampers only) • Department of Conservation (track counter, hut book and hut booking data for a range of sites) • Ultimate Hikes (booking data for three guided tracks) • Auckland Council (Regional Park visit counts)

ACTIVE NZ SURVEY We use those who identify themselves as having participated in a ‘day tramp and/or an overnight tramp’ over the last 12 months. We only use the adult version of the survey which covers 18 and over, in which 27,038 people responded. The results were weighted to reflect under/oversampling of some sub-groups. This survey was carried out from 5 January 2017 – 4 January 2018.

INTERNATIONAL VISITOR SURVEY Data from MBIE’s ‘International Visitor Survey’ - conducted quarterly throughout 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017 calendar years - was used. We didn’t use earlier years because the survey format changed, meaning it was no longer comparable. We use those who say they have ‘gone for a walk, hike, trek or tramp’ that is: • A New Zealand Great Walk • Other trek /tramp that included an overnight stay • A walk that took over 3 hours but not overnight.

The results are weighted to reflect under/oversampling of some subgroups.

DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION TRACKS There were five types of data we explored to get the best estimate of the numbers of walkers on particular tracks: • Hut book counts: these were scaled up by 20% to compensate for nonsigning • Track counters: each count is scaled down by a calibration constant, which is set by each operational area through their knowledge of how many times a counter will be activated for the number of people who walk along each particular track • Great Walk bookings: these only capture walkers who book a date through the Great Walks season. Outside of this season trampers can still walk these tracks. However, numbers of people doing so is not nearly at the same level • Other bookable hut bookings • Ultimate Hikes booking data.

The common element of these data sources is that they are all used to estimate the number of tramping person-trips. We then had multiple discussions with local DOC staff to ensure that they agree with the numbers we’ve used in this publication.

AUCKLAND COUNCIL TRACKS The council supplied track counter estimates of visitors to each regional park with a calibration estimation for the number of walking/tramping visits in each park. Note: in this context, ‘walking’ includes quite short walks (15 mins) which is different to other participation datasets. New Zealand Tramping Insights developed by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council - 2018

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Injuries ACC supplied data relating to injury claims. This data was acquired after the successful completion of an ACC ethics approval process. This data includes all claims from people who have sought medical attention after a tramping injury. Regardless of the person’s nationality, if they sought medical attention their claim is included. Therefore this data represents all injury claims from both New Zealand and International trampers in New Zealand. We worked through a manual process to clean the data. This required removing some injuries that were not due to tramping (e.g. were actually trampolining). Where necessary, we corrected the accident location (e.g. any injury sustained on the Milford Track must logically have occurred in the Southland region).

We received two datasets covering all search and rescues recorded by NZ Police and the Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC). We then merged the two datasets and divided all incidents into Category 1 (NZ Police led) and Category 2 (RCC led). Some results in this report are for Category 1 only, others cover both categories depending on the context and data captured. We only analysed cases where the person sought was tramping. In some cases, we have reclassified searches from ‘walking’ to ‘tramping’ because the length of their intended trip was long enough to count as a tramp. We used a manual approach to clean the data. We filtered out: • Incomplete cases

We used a keyword-based approach to determine the cause of injury. The injury types used are: Bite/sting; Blister; Carrying heavy load; Caught or stuck; Slip; Long fall; Miscellaneous fall; Plant; Poor footwear; Smoke, heat and/or fire; Trip; Twisted/ rolled ankle or knee. In some cases, none of the above applied, or it was not clear what injury they sustained. These were excluded from the analysis.

• Medical events

We also used a keyword-based approach to determine the type of terrain through which the injured person was travelling. The terrain types used are: In or near a river; Uneven/loose terrain; Trees and Roots, Moss and Slime; Mud and Clay; Ice and Snow; Steep Terrain; Pathway; Open Country. We also used keywords to determine whether the injured person was going uphill or downhill.

• Hoaxes in general

We used a process to identify whether injuries sustained were Minor, Moderate or Severe. This method is described in the Severe Injury section on page 18. Note: Claim costs and compensation days increase over time, so what is presented are the total figures as at the date we received this information. This is likely to now be a slightly larger number as costs and compensation days for some cases analysed in this publication will have accumulated since then.

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Search and rescues

• Duplicate records • False PLB activations • PLB activations outside NZ • PLBs accidentally activated • Records from SAR training exercises

• Searches involving mental health (suicide, dementia) • Searches for lost children who were not tramping.

Where necessary, we manually corrected the coordinates of the location where the event occurred. We also identified the conservation area and tramping track where the event occurred where possible. We classified events as involving a solo tramper, a group of trampers, or a tramper that has been separated from their group. We then examined search and rescues at the incident level where a question requiring a total count or information related to the time or location of the event was asked. We examined the data at the person involved level, where demographic information such as age, gender or nationality was explored.


METHODOLOGY

Fatalities This data was acquired through two sources: 1) Research-based access agreement with the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). The NCIS is an online data storage and retrieval system for Australian and New Zealand coronial cases. All closed coronial cases in New Zealand have been entered into the NCIS database since 1 July 2007. 2) Direct support from the NZ Coronial Services Unit, part of the Ministry of Justice, approved by New Zealand’s Chief Coroner. This includes both open and closed coronial cases.

‘To ensure all fatalities were relevant to the MSC’s mandate each coronial case file was individually reviewed to ensure it met the relevant criteria.’

Several important business rules were applied to this dataset to identify and isolate tramping fatalities relevant to the MSC’s mandate. This includes the removal of: • Natural cause, suicide (mental health) and fatalities related to criminal activity e.g. a heart attack while tramping • Fatalities involving a person engaged in an activity through a commercial operation e.g. tramping with a professional guide.

To ensure all fatalities were relevant to the MSC’s mandate each coronial case file was individually reviewed to ensure it met the relevant criteria. As well as referencing fields which were determined by the coroner, MSC also manually identified the following categories for analysis: • New Zealand immigration status - this identified those who we have termed ‘International Visitors’ as being on either a Tourist Visa, Working Holiday Visa or short-term Student Visa. We also identified New Zealand Residents • Residential address (or country if not NZ) • Whether the deceased was tramping as part of a group or on their own • GPS coordinates of the place of death • Intended trip length • Time of incident • Track name • Track category - according to DOC’s track grading system: Easiest, Easy, Intermediate, Expert, Route, Off-track • Conservation Area.

TONGARIRO ALPINE CROSSING BEVAN SMITH

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Causal Factors of Fatalities Although the Coroner rules on the immediate cause of any non-intentional fatality, we wished to explore which other factors contributed to each fatality. A common set of causal factors were identified and then each coronial report, alongside any evidence provided by the Coronial Services Unit, was read and assessed against this common set of factors. A total of four people read each report and robustly discussed each causal factor. We did not allocate any causal factors to the four active cases where there was no evidence or coronial report available. A high threshold was applied. There needed to be clear evidence that each factor identified would certainly have led to the fatality. To pass the causation threshold, it needed to be confirmed that if this factor was not present, then the tramper would most probably have not died.

In a few cases, particularly those where the deceased was never found, the coronial findings did not contain much information for us to identify many causal factors. Therefore, the causation numbers presented are an absolute minimum. It is likely that some causes would be present in a higher number of cases. In total, we drew causation findings from 53 of the 57 tramping fatalities that occurred over the ten year period.

‘... we wished to explore which other factors contributed to each fatality.’

Causal factors were identified under several categories and are broadly defined below:

COMPETENCE

92

Lack of recent/relevant experience

The deceased (and/or their travelling companions) had not had any recent experience relevant to the terrain and conditions they were in. They may have had prior experience, however this was a significant amount of time prior and the individual would now not be considered “current” in their knowledge and skill.

Lack of skill

The deceased (and/or their travelling companions) did not have a skill, or set of skills, required for the activity and/or terrain they were in. Examples of skills lacking may include navigational skills, river crossing skills or alpine travel skills (such as safe descent/rope work/crampon use/avalanche awareness etc).

Insufficient planning

The deceased (and/or their travelling companions) had not sufficiently planned for this trip (such as gathering information about the track or current conditions, checked the weather, packed sufficient supplies, left intentions etc) or prepared for potential circumstances which may have presented themselves (such as higher river levels, poor weather, unexpected night out etc).

Risk-seeking behaviour

The deceased actively chose to confront clear and obvious risks (e.g. stood on the edge of waterfall, climbed a cliff without a rope).

Overambitious choice of route

The deceased chose a route that was beyond their skill level (e.g. attempting to climb Mount Cook without sufficient mountaineering skills).

Lack of physical fitness

The deceased was not physically prepared for the trip and was struggling due to this lack of fitness

Failure to advise sufficient intentions prior to departure

The deceased did not pass on a clear plan of their trip with a trusted contact. If they had, then it is likely that they would have been rescued before they perished.

Unwise attempt to cross a river

The deceased attempted to cross a river when this would have been ill-advised.


Insufficient/Inadequate equipment

The deceased (and/or their travelling companions) did not carry sufficient and adequate supplies for the trip (such as navigational tools, good footwear, clothing, food and water, crampons in snow/ice conditions).

Equipment failure

Equipment used during the journey failed, contributing to the fatality.

Attempt to retrieve equipment

The deceased had dropped or misplaced an item of equipment and was attempting to recover this.

METHODOLOGY

EQUIPMENT

SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS Taking or searching for an alternative path/shortcut

The deceased (and/or their travelling companions) were searching for an alternative route, such as a short cut, exposing themselves to unnecessary risk.

Time pressure

The deceased (and/or their travelling companions) were under time pressure.

Lost

The deceased was not where they believed they were, or was unsure of their location.

Nervous/Scared

The deceased was clearly nervous, and this lack of confidence was a contributing factor.

Goal focused/Desire to get to destination

The deceased (and/or their travelling companions) were focussed on getting to a particular destination (such as a hut, peak or end of the track) and this ambition meant that they ignored other risk indicators which would suggest that they should stop and consider changing their plans.

Only chance

The deceased (and/or their travelling companions) considered this opportunity the only chance to complete this journey. In their mind there was no possibility of doing this another time or of waiting for a day or two for conditions to change.

Misperception of risk/ Underestimated risk

The deceased (and/or their travelling companions) underestimated (or were not aware of) the degree of risk they were exposed to and so did not prepare or act to a sufficient extent in order to eliminate or minimise this risk.

Familiarity/Complacency

The deceased had completed a number of similar trips in the past, and this led to them being complacent to the risks which were evident and not controlling these risks adequately.

Social proof

Evidence that other people had been in a dangerous place beforehand has led the deceased (and/or their travelling companions) to conclude that it must be safe without sufficiently considering the risks and controlling these (e.g. following footsteps or seeing others in a dangerous location, and following them without thought).

Getting dark

Night was approaching, and as a result the deceased (and/or the companions of the deceased) made decisions which compromised their safety, and led to the fatality.

Conformity

The deceased has followed another member of their group that they considered to be an authority or leader, and has assumed that this person has considered all the risks and either put in place appropriate control measures, or decided that the risks were inconsequential. The deceased did not speak up about the risk or challenging the actions or inactions of the authority figure for any reason (such as the desire to avoid conflict, or of being labelled in a negative way). Also commonly referred to as Group-think or Risk-shift.

Group splits up

The deceased and their travelling companions, either deliberately or accidentally, separated.

FATIGUE Tired

The deceased was experiencing tiredness.

Hungry

The deceased was hungry.

Cold

The deceased was cold and probably shivering or starting to show signs of oncoming hypothermia.

Wet

The deceased was wet.

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SUBSTANCE IMPAIRMENT Alcohol

The deceased had been drinking alcohol and this affected their cognitive and decision-making ability.

Drugs

The deceased had consumed illegal drugs and this affected their cognitive and decision-making ability.

Prescribed/Legal medication

The deceased had consumed legal or prescription medication and this affected their cognitive and decisionmaking ability.

WEATHER Cold conditions

The weather was cold.

Wet weather/Raining

The weather and/or terrain was wet.

River level risen

The river level had risen above normal flow due to recent rain or snowmelt.

Windy

The weather was windy.

Snowing

The weather was snowing, sleeting or hailing.

Low visibility

The deceased found it difficult to see where they were going due to fog/cloud or night time.

TERRAIN Uneven/Loose terrain

The terrain was loose and/or significantly uneven, causing the deceased to trip or slip or for a rock above to be dislodged and strike the deceased.

Steep terrain

The terrain was steep.

Wet rocks

The deceased slipped on a wet rock.

Ice /Snow

The presence of ice and/or snow contributed to the fatality (e.g. The deceased stepped onto ice or snow and slipped, the deceased was caught in an avalanche or ice fall).

INFORMATION/KNOWLEDGE Poor signage

Poor or inaccurate signage contributed to the fatality (e.g. deceased misunderstood the sign, the sign gave wrong information, there was insufficient signage where signage may have prevented the fatality).

Insufficient track marking/ following bait lines

Insufficient track marking contributed to the fatality (e.g. deceased misunderstood the track marking, or followed a bait line).

Ignoring signage

Signage was present which sufficiently informed the deceased of the risks, however the deceased choose to continue regardless.

Ignoring advice

The deceased was given advice not to continue, or to choose a different route, but they chose to continue regardless.

Hazards not identified/No warnings

Significant risks were present, but were not identified or warned about. Also, if the hazards had been identified, it is likely that the fatality would have been prevented.

Memory failure

There is clear evidence that the deceased was given clear instructions which would have prevented the fatality, but forgot these instructions.

INFRASTRUCTURE FAILURE

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Hut, Platform or Bridge damage/Failure

Built infrastructure such as a hut, bridge or platform was damaged, or failed, contributing to the fatality.

Track damage

Track damage directly contributed to the fatality.


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KERRY ADAMS

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- Published 2018 -

Made possible with the support of the following partners:

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Profile for New Zealand Mountain Safety Council

A Walk in the Park?  

A Walk in the Park? is the third insights publication to be released following 'There and Back, 2016' and 'A Hunter’s Tale, 2017'. We now di...

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