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Nora A. Zavaleta

France

Paris

A Cosmopolitan City

Universidad Anahuac Nora Alejandra Zavaleta Salinas Informรกtica Medica


[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Contenido INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 4 PARÍS: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................ 5 GEOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................... 7 IMAGEN 2............................................................................................................ 7 MAP OF FRANCE ................................................................................................... 7 IMAGEN 3: MAP PF PARIS ........................................................................................ 8 DISTRICTS AND HISTORICAL CENTRES ................................................................... 9 CITY OF PARIS .................................................................................................... 9 *Place de la Bastille ......................................................................................... 9 IMAGEN 4: PLACE DE LA BASTILLE ............................................................................ 9 *Champs-Élysées ........................................................................................... 10 IMAGEN 5: CHAMPS ELYSÉES.................................................................................. 10 IMAGEN 5: PLACE DE LA CONCORDE ........................................................................ 12 *Les Halles ................................................................................................... 12 Le Marais ..................................................................................................... 13 IMAGEN 7: LE MARAIS .......................................................................................... 13 Avenue Montaigne .......................................................................................... 13 IMAGEN 8: AVENUE MONTAIGNE ............................................................................. 14 Montmartre ................................................................................................... 15 IMAGEN 9: MONTMARTRE ...................................................................................... 15 Montparnasse ............................................................................................... 16 Avenue de l'Opéra .......................................................................................... 16 IMAGEN 9: AVENUE DE L’ÓPERA ............................................................................. 17 Quartier Latin ................................................................................................ 17 IMAGEN 10: QUARTER LATIN............................................................................... 17 MONUMENTS AND LANDMARKS .......................................................................... 18 PARKS AND GARDENS ....................................................................................... 19 JARDIN DU LUXEMBOURG ....................................................................................... 19 IMAGEN 11: JARDIN DU LUXEMBOURG ...................................................................... 20 IMAGEN 12: L’ÓPERA DE GARNIER ........................................................................... 21 IMAGEN 13: THE ÉLYSEES MONTMARTRE ............................................................. 23 IMAGEN 14: ROCK EN SEINE FESTIVAL ...................................................................... 23 FRENCIMAGEN 15: MOVIE “LE FABULEUX DESTIN D’AMÉLIE POULAIN” ............................. 24

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta CUISINE .......................................................................................................... 25 IMAGEN 16: BISTRO ............................................................................................. 26 IMAGEN 17: LE HÔTEL RITZ ................................................................................... 27 MUSEUMS ........................................................................................................ 27 IMAGEN 17: THE EIFFEL TOWER ............................................................................. 28 IMAGEN 18: THE LOUVRE ...................................................................................... 29 IMAGEN 19: PARIS’ DISNEYLAND ............................................................................. 30 IMAGEN 20: ART PIECE INSIDE THE LOUVRE............................................................... 31 IMAGEN 21: THE MOULIN ROUGE ............................................................................ 32 IMAGEN 22: CAN CAN DANCE ................................................................................. 34 ECONOMY ........................................................................................................ 34 IMAGEN 23: EURO ............................................................................................... 35 DEMOGRAPHICS ................................................................................................. 36 IMAGEN 24: PARIS’ POLULATION DISTRIBUTION.......................................................... 37 IMAGEN 25: PARISIANS ......................................................................................... 38 Density........................................................................................................ 38 Paris agglomeration ........................................................................................ 39 IMAGEN 26: PANORAMIC VIEW OF THE CITY .............................................................. 40 IMAGEN 27: NOTRE DAME CATHEDRAL AND POPULATION ............................................. 41 CONCLUSSION ................................................................................................... 42 ÍNDICE DE ILUSTRACIONES .................................................................................... 42 REFERENCIAS .................................................................................................... 43

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Introduction The purpose of this magazine is to show one, if not the greatest city, Paris. In this magazine is described important aspects of this city, such as geography, culture, monuments, museus, etc.

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París: Introduction Paris is the capital and primate city of France. It is situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-deFrance region (also known as the "Paris Region"; French: Région parisienne). The city of Paris, within its administrative limits largely unchanged since 1860, has an estimated population of 2,203,817 (January 2006),[5] but the Paris aire urbaine (or metropolitan area) has a population of 11,769,433 (January 2006),[4] and is one of the most populated metropolitan areas in Europe. France´s Flag

Ilustración 1

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

An important settlement for more than two millennia, Paris is today one of the world's leading business and cultural centres, and its influence in politics, education, entertainment, media, fashion, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities.

Paris and the Paris Region with â‚Ź552.7 billion (US$813.4 billion) in 2008, produces more than a quarter of the gross domestic product (GDP) of France. According to 2007 estimates, the Paris urban agglomeration is Europe's biggest city economy[9] and the sixth largest in the world. The Paris Region hosts 38 of the Fortune Global 500 companies[10] in several business districts, notably La DĂŠfense, the largest purpose-built business district in Europe. Paris also hosts many international organizations such as UNESCO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) and the informal Paris Club.

Paris is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. The Paris region receives 45 million tourists annually, 60% of whom are foreign visitors.[12] The city and region contain numerous iconic landmarks, world-famous institutions and popular parks.

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Geography Paris is located in the north-bending arc of the river Seine and includes two islands, the Île Saint-Louis and the larger Île de la Cité, which form the oldest part of the city. Overall, the city is relatively flat, and the lowest elevation is 35 m (115 ft) above sea level. Paris has several prominent hills, of which the highest is Montmartre at 130 m (427 ft).

Imagen 2 Map of France

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Ilustración 2: Map of France

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Paris, excluding the outlying parks of Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes, covers an oval measuring 86.928 km2 (34 sq mi) in area.[citation needed] The city's last major annexation of outlying territories in 1860 not only gave it its modern form but created the twenty clockwise-spiralling arrondissements (municipal boroughs). From the 1860 area of 78 km2 (30 sq mi), the city limits were expanded marginally to 86.9 km2 (34 sq mi) in the 1920s. In 1929, the Bois de Boulogne and Bois de Vincennes forest parks were officially annexed to the city, bringing its area to the present 105.39 km2. Imagen 3: Map pf Paris

Map of Paris

Ilustraci贸n 3: Map of Paris

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Districts and historical centres City of Paris *Place de la Bastille (4th, 11th and 12th arrondissements, right bank) is a district of great historical significance, not only for Paris, but for France, too. Because of its symbolic value, the square has often been a site of political demonstrations.

Ilustraci贸n 4:Place de la Bastille

Imagen 4: Place de la Bastille

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*Champs-Élysées (8th arrondissement, right bank) is a seventeenth century garden-promenade-turned-avenue connecting the Concorde and Arc de Triomphe. It is one of the many tourist attractions and a major shopping street of Paris. Imagen 5: Champs Elysées

Ilustración 5: Champs Elysées

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

*Place de la Concorde (8th arrondissement, right bank) is at the foot of the Champs-Élysées, built as the "Place Louis XV", site of the infamous guillotine. The Egyptian obelisk is Paris' "oldest monument". On this place, on either side of the Rue Royale, there are two identical stone buildings: The eastern one houses the French Naval Ministry, the western the luxurious Hôtel de Crillon. Nearby Place Vendôme is famous for its fashionable and deluxe hotels (Hôtel Ritz and Hôtel de Vendôme) and its jewellers. Many famous fashion designers have had their salons in the square.

Ilustración 6: Place de la Concorde

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Imagen 5: Place de la Concorde

*Les Halles (1st arrondissement) was formerly Paris' central meat and produce market, and, since the late 1970s, a major shopping centre around an important metro connection station (Châtelet-Les Halles, the biggest in Europe). The past Les Halles was destroyed in 1971 and replaced by the Forum des Halles. The central market of Paris, the biggest wholesale food market in the world, was transferred to Rungis, in the southern suburbs.

IlustraciĂłn 7: Les Halles

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Le Marais (3rd and 4th arrondissements) is a trendy Right Bank district. It is architecturally very well-preserved, and some of the oldest houses and buildings of Paris can be found there. It is a very culturally open place.

Ilustración 8: Le Marais

Imagen 7: Le Marais

Avenue Montaigne (8th arrondissement), next to the Champs-Élysées, is home to luxury brand labels such as Chanel, Louis Vuitton (LVMH), Dior and Givenchy.

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Ilustraci贸n 9: A Shop

Imagen 8: Avenue Montaigne

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Montmartre (18th arrondissement, right bank) is a historic area on the Butte, home to the Basilique du Sacré-Cœur. Montmartre has always had a history with artists and has many studios and cafés of many great artists in that area.

Ilustración 10: Monmartre

Imagen 9: Montmartre

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Montparnasse (14th arrondissement) is a historic Left Bank area famous for artists' studios, music halls, and café life. The large Montparnasse - Bienvenüe métro station and the lone Tour Montparnasse skyscraper are located there Avenue de l'Opéra (9th arrondissement, right bank) is the area around the Opéra Garnier and the location of the capital's densest concentration of both department stores and offices. A few examples are the Printemps and Galeries Lafayette grands magasins (department stores), and the Paris headquarters of financial giants such as Crédit Lyonnais and American Express.

Ilustración 11: Avenue de l' Ópera

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Imagen 9: Avenue de l’Ópera

Quartier Latin (5th and 6th arrondissements, left bank) is a twelfth-century scholastic centre formerly stretching between the Left Bank's Place Maubert and the Sorbonne campus. It is known for its lively atmosphere and many bistros. Various higher-education establishments, such as the École Normale Supérieure, TELECOM ParisTech, and the Jussieu university campus, make it a major educational centre in Paris. Imagen 10: Quarter Latin

Ilustración 12: Quartier Latin

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Monuments and Landmarks Three of the most famous Parisian landmarks are the twelfthcentury cathedral Notre Dame de Paris on the Île de la Cité, the Napoleonic Arc de Triomphe and the nineteenth-century Eiffel Tower. The Eiffel Tower was a "temporary" construction by Gustave Eiffel for the 1889 Universal Exposition, but the tower was never dismantled and is now an enduring symbol of Paris. The Historical axis is a line of monuments, buildings, and thoroughfares that run in a roughly straight line from the city-centre westwards: The line of monuments begins with the Louvre and continues through the Tuileries Gardens, the Champs-Élysées, and the Arc de Triomphe, centred in the Place de l'Étoile circus. From the 1960s, the line was prolonged even further west to the La Défense business district dominated by square-shaped triumphal Grande Arche of its own; this district hosts most of the tallest skyscrapers in the Paris urban area. The Invalides museum is the burial place for many great French soldiers, including Napoleon, and the Panthéon church is where many of France's illustrious men and women are buried. The former Conciergerie prison held some prominent Ancien Régime members before their deaths during the French Revolution. Another symbol of the Revolution are the two Statues of Liberty located on the Île des Cygnes on the Seine and in the Luxembourg Garden. A larger version of the statues was sent as a gift from France to America in 1886 and now stands in New York City's harbour. The Palais Garnier, built in the later Second Empire period, houses the Paris Opera and the Paris Opera Ballet, while the former palace of the Louvre now houses one of the most renowned museums in the world. The Sorbonne is the most Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

famous part of the University of Paris and is based in the centre of the Latin Quarter. Apart from Notre Dame de Paris, there are several other ecclesiastical masterpieces including the Gothic thirteenth-century Sainte-Chapelle palace chapel and the Église de la Madeleine.

Parks and gardens Jardin du Luxembourg.Two of Paris' oldest and famous gardens are the Tuileries Garden, created in the 16th century for a palace on the banks of the Seine near the Louvre, and the Left bank Luxembourg Garden, another former private garden belonging to a château built for the Marie de' Medici in 1612. The Jardin des Plantes, created by Louis XIII's doctor Guy de La Brosse for the cultivation of medicinal plants, was Paris' first public garden.

A few of Paris' other large gardens are Second Empire creations: The former suburban parks of Montsouris, Parc des Buttes Chaumont, and Parc Monceau (formerly known as the "folie de Chartres") are creations of Napoleon III's engineer Jean-Charles Alphand. Another project executed under the orders of Baron Haussmann was the re-sculpting of Paris' western Bois de Boulogne forest-parklands; the Bois de Vincennes, on the city's opposite eastern end, received a similar treatment in years following. Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Ilustración 13: Jardin du Luxembourg

Imagen 11: Jardin du Luxembourg

Newer additions to Paris' park landscape are the Parc de la Villette, built by the architect Bernard Tschumi on the location of Paris' former slaughterhouses, the Parc André Citroën, and gardens being laid to the periphery along the traces of its former circular "Petite Ceinture" railway line: Promenade Plantée.Entertainment and performing arts Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

The Opéra Garnier. Paris' largest opera houses are the nineteenth-century Opéra Garnier (historical Paris Opéra) and modern Opéra Bastille; the former tends towards the more classic ballets and operas, and the latter provides a mixed repertoire of classic and modern. In middle of 19th century, there were active two other competing opera houses: OpéraComique (which still exists to this day) and Théâtre Lyrique (which in modern times changed its profile and name to Théâtre de la Ville). Imagen 12: L’Ópera de Garnier

Ilustración 14: L'Ópera de Garnier

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Theatre traditionally has occupied a large place in Parisian culture. This still holds true today; and many of its most popular actors today are also stars of French television. Some of Paris' major theatres include Bobino, Théâtre Mogador, and the Théâtre de la Gaîté-Montparnasse. Some Parisian theatres have also doubled as concert halls. Many of France's greatest musical legends, such as Édith Piaf, Maurice Chevalier, Georges Brassens, and Charles Aznavour, found their fame in Parisian concert halls: Legendary yet stillshowing examples of these are Le Lido, Bobino, l'Olympia, la Cigale, and le Splendid.

Ilustración 15: Les Élysees Montmartre

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Imagen 13: The Élysees Montmartre The Élysées-Montmartre, much reduced from its original size, is a concert hall today. The New Morning is one of few Parisian clubs still holding jazz concerts, but the same also specialises in 'indie' music. In more recent times, the Le Zénith hall in Paris' La Villette quarter and a "parc-omnisports" stadium in Bercy serve as large-scale rock concert halls. Several yearly festivals take place in Paris, such as Rock en Seine.

Ilustración 16: Rock en Seine Festival

Imagen 14: Rock en Seine Festival

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Parisians tend to share the same movie-going trends as many of the world's global cities, that is to say with a dominance of Hollywood-generated film entertainment. French cinema comes a close second, with major directors (réalisateurs) such as Claude Lelouch, François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol, and Luc Besson, and the more slapstick/popular genre with director Claude Zidi as an example. European and Asian films are also widely shown and appreciated. A specialty of Paris is its very large network of small movie theatres: on a given week, the movie fan has the choice between around 300 old or new movies from all over the world.

Ilustración 17: Ámelie Poulin

FrencImagen 15: Movie “Le Fabuleux Destin d’Amélie Poulain”

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Many of Paris' concert/dance halls were transformed into movie theatres when the media became popular from the 1930s. Later, most of the largest cinemas were divided into multiple, smaller rooms: Paris' largest cinema today is by far le Grand Rex theatre with 2,800 seats, whereas other cinemas all have fewer than 1,000 seats. There is now a trend toward modern multiplexes that contain more than 10 or 20 screens.

Cuisine Paris' culinary reputation has its base in the diverse origins of its inhabitants. In its beginnings, it owed much to the 19thcentury organisation of a railway system that had Paris as a centre, making the capital a focal point for immigration from France's many different regions and gastronomical cultures.

Ilustraci贸n 18: Bistro

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Imagen 16: Bistro

This reputation continues through today in a cultural diversity that has since spread to an worldwide level thanks to Paris' continued reputation for culinary finesse and further immigration from increasingly distant climes. Hotels were another result of widespread travel and tourism, especially Paris' late-19th-century Expositions Universelles (World's Fairs). Of the most luxurious of these, the H么tel Ritz, appeared in the Place Vend么me from 1898, and the H么tel de Crillon opened its doors on the north side of the place de la Concorde from 1909.

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Ilustraci贸n 19; Le H么tel Ritz

Imagen 17: Le H么tel Ritz

Museums Paris from the eleventh century was a popular destination for traders, students and religious pilgrimages, but its 'tourist industry' began on a large scale only with the 19th-century appearance of rail travel, namely from the state's organisation of France's rail network, with Paris at its centre, from 1848.

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Ilustraci贸n 20; The Eiffel Tower

Imagen 17: The Eiffel Tower

Among Paris' first mass attractions drawing international interest were the above-mentioned Expositions Universelles that were the origin of Paris' many monuments, namely the Eiffel Tower from 1889. These, in addition to the capital's Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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Second Empire embellishments, did much to make the city itself the attraction it is today

Ilustraci贸n 21: The Louvre

Imagen 18: The Louvre

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Ilustración 22; Paris’ Disneyland

Imagen 19: Paris’ Disneyland

Paris' museums and monuments are among its highestesteemed attractions; tourism has motivated both the city and national governments to create new ones. The city's most prized museum, the Louvre, welcomes over 8 million visitors a year, being by far the world's most-visited art museum. The city's cathedrals are another main attraction: Its Notre Dame de Paris and the Basilique du Sacré-Coeur receive 12 million and eight million visitors, respectively. The Eiffel Tower, by far Paris' most famous monument, averages over six million visitors per year and more than 200 million since its Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

construction. Disneyland Paris is a major tourist attraction not only for visitors to Paris but for visitors to the rest of Europe as well, with 14.5 million visitors in 2007.

Ilustración 23: Art piece inside the Louvre

Imagen 20: Art piece inside the Louvre

The Louvre is one of the largest and most famous museums, housing many works of art, including the Mona Lisa (La Joconde) and the Venus de Milo statue. Works by Pablo Picasso and Auguste Rodin are found in Musée Picasso and Musée Rodin, respectively, while the artistic community of Montparnasse is chronicled at the Musée du Montparnasse. Starkly apparent with its service-pipe exterior, the Centre Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Georges Pompidou, also known as Beaubourg, houses the Musée National d'Art Moderne. Art and artifacts from the Middle Ages and Impressionist eras are kept in Musée Cluny and Musée d'Orsay, respectively, the former with the prized tapestry cycle The Lady and the Unicorn. Paris' newest (and third-largest) museum, the Musée du quai Branly, opened its doors in June 2006 and houses art from Africa, Asia, Oceania, and the Americas.

Ilustración 24: The Moulin Rouge

Imagen 21: The Moulin Rouge

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Many of Paris' once-popular local establishments have come to cater to the tastes and expectations of tourists, rather than local patrons. Le Lido, the Moulin Rouge cabaret-dancehall, for example, are a staged dinner theatre spectacle, a dance display that was once but one aspect of the cabaret's former atmosphere. All of the establishment's former social or cultural elements, such as its ballrooms and gardens, are gone today. Much of Paris' hotel, restaurant and night entertainment trades have become heavily dependent on tourism.

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Imagen 22: Can Can Dance

Ilustración 25: Can Can Dance

Economy With a 2008 GDP of €552.7 billion[8] (US$813.4 billion), the Paris region has one of the highest GDPs in Europe, making it an engine of the global economy: Were it a country, it would rank as the seventeenth-largest economy in the world, almost as large as the Dutch economy.[49] The Paris Region is France's premier centre of economic activity: While its population accounted for 18.8% of the total population of metropolitan France in 2008,[50] its GDP accounted for 28.9% Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

of metropolitan France's GDP.[8] Activity in the Paris urban area, though diverse, does not have a leading specialised industry (such as Los Angeles with entertainment industries or London and New York with financial industries in addition to their other activities). Recently, the Paris economy has been shifting towards high-value-added service industries (finance, IT services, etc.) and high-tech manufacturing (electronics, optics, aerospace, etc). Imagen 23: Euro

Ilustración 26: Euros

The Paris region's most intense economic activity through the central Hauts-de-Seine département and suburban La Défense business district places Paris' economic centre to the west of the city, in a triangle between the Opéra Garnier, La Défense, and the Val de Seine. Paris' administrative borders have little consequences on the limits of its economic activity: Although most workers commute from the suburbs to work in the city, many commute from the city to work in the suburbs. Although the Paris economy is largely dominated by services, Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

it remains an important manufacturing powerhouse of Europe, especially in industrial sectors such as automobiles, aeronautics, and electronics. Over recent decades, the local economy has moved towards high-value-added activities, in particular business services.

Ilustraci贸n 27: Grand Arche de la Defense

Imagen 23: Grand Arche de la Defense

Demographics The population of the city of Paris was 2,125,246 at the 1999 census, lower than its historical peak of 2.9 million in 1921. The city's population loss mirrors the experience of most other core cities in the developed world that have not expanded their boundaries.

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Imagen 24: Paris’ Polulation Distribution

Ilustración 28: Paris’ Polulation Distribution

The principal factors in the process are a significant decline in household size, and a dramatic migration of residents to the suburbs between 1962 and 1975. Factors in the migration include de-industrialisation, high rent, the gentrification of many inner quarters, the transformation of living space into offices, and greater affluence among working families. The city's population loss was one of the most severe among Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

international municipalities and the largest for any that had achieved more than 2,000,000 residents. These losses are generally seen as negative for the city; the city administration is trying to reverse them with some success, as the population estimate of July 2004 showed a population increase for the first time since 1954, reaching a total of 2,144,700 inhabitants.

Ilustraci贸n 29: Parisians

Imagen 25: Parisians

Density Paris is one of the most densely populated cities in the world. Its density, excluding the outlying woodland parks of Boulogne and Vincennes, was 24,448 inhabitants per square kilometre Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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(63,320/sq mi) in the 1999 official census, which could be compared only with some Asian megapolis. Even including the two woodland areas its population density was 20,164 inhabitants per square kilometre (52,224.5/sq mi), the fifthmost-densely populated commune in France following Le PréSaint-Gervais, Vincennes, Levallois-Perret, and Saint-Mandé, all of which border the city proper. The most sparsely populated quarters are the western and central office and administration-focussed arrondissements. The city's population is densest in the northern and eastern arrondissements; the 11th arrondissement had a density of 40,672 inhabitants per square kilometre (105,340/sq mi) in 1999, and some of the same arrondissement's eastern quarters had densities close to 100,000/km² (260,000/sq mi) in the same year.

Paris agglomeration The City of Paris covers an area much smaller than the urban area of which it is the core. At present, Paris' real urbanisation, defined by the pôle urbain (urban area) statistical area, covers 2,723 km2 (1,051 sq mi),[53] or an area about 26 times larger than the city itself. The administration of Paris' urban growth is divided between itself and its surrounding départements: Paris' closest ring of three adjoining departments, or petite couronne ("small ring") are fully saturated with urban growth, and the ring of four departments outside of these, the grande couronne départements, are only covered in their inner regions by Paris' urbanisation. These eight départements form the larger Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

administrative テ四e-de-France rテゥgion; most of this region is filled, and overextended in places, by the Paris aire urbaine.

Ilustraciテウn 30: Panoramic view of the City

Imagen 26: Panoramic view of the city

The Paris agglomeration has shown a steady rate of growth since the end of the late 16th century French Wars of Religion, save brief setbacks during the French Revolution Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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and World War II[citation needed]. Suburban development has accelerated in recent years: With an estimated total of 11.4 million inhabitants for 2005, the テ四e-de-France rテゥgion shows a rate of growth double that of the 1990s. Imagen 27: Notre Dame Cathedral and population

Ilustraciテウn 31:Notre Dame Cathedral and population

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Conclussion Paris is one of the greatest Cosmopolitan cities in the world, where art, beauty and culture are showned in every street. garden, monument and even its citizens. Ilustración 32

Índice de Ilustraciones Ilustración 1 ........................................................................................... 5 Ilustración 2: Map of France ........................................................................ 7 Ilustración 3: Map of Paris .......................................................................... 8 Ilustración 4:Place de la Bastille ................................................................... 9 Ilustración 5: Champs Elysées ..................................................................... 10 Ilustración 6: Place de la Concorde .............................................................. 11 Ilustración 7: Les Halles ............................................................................ 12 Ilustración 8: Le Marais ............................................................................. 13 Ilustración 9: A Shop ................................................................................ 14 Ilustración 10: Monmartre ......................................................................... 15 Ilustración 11: Avenue de l' Ópera ................................................................ 16 Ilustración 12: Quartier Latin...................................................................... 17 Ilustración 13: Jardin du Luxembourg ............................................................ 20 Ilustración 14: L'Ópera de Garnier ................................................................ 21 Ilustración 15: Les Élysees Montmartre .......................................................... 22 Ilustración 16: Rock en Seine Festival ............................................................ 23 Ilustración 17: Ámelie Poulin ...................................................................... 24 Ilustración 18: Bistro................................................................................ 25 Ilustración 19; Le Hôtel Ritz ....................................................................... 27 Ilustración 20; The Eiffel Tower .................................................................. 28 Ilustración 21: The Louvre ......................................................................... 29 Ilustración 22; Paris’ Disneyland .................................................................. 30 Ilustración 23: Art piece inside the Louvre ...................................................... 31 Ilustración 24: The Moulin Rouge ................................................................. 32 Ilustración 25: Can Can Dance..................................................................... 34 Ilustración 26: Euros ................................................................................ 35 Ilustración 27: Grand Arche de la Defense ...................................................... 36 Ilustración 28: Paris’ Polulation Distribution .................................................... 37 Ilustración 29: Parisians ............................................................................ 38 Ilustración 30: Panoramic view of the City ...................................................... 40 Ilustración 31:Notre Dame Cathedral and population ......................................... 41 Ilustración 32 ........................................................................................ 42

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[PARIS] Nora A. Zavaleta

Referencias Wikipedia. Paris (Homepage). Estados Unidos.(Sin Fecha, fecha de acceso: 20 de marzo del 2010) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris

Paris: A Cosmopolitan City

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Paris