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The New York

Forest Owner A PUBLICATION

OF

THE NEW YORK FOREST OWNERS ASSOCIATION

March/April 2006

Member Profile: Peter and Tim Levatich Volume 44 Number 2

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THE NEW YORK FOREST OWNERS ASSOCIATION Officers & Directors

In This Issue . . . FROM THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

MARY JEANNE PACKER .................................................................................... 3

IN

THE

MAIL .........................................................................................................4

Alan White, President 22 Bruce Scudder Rd. Halcott Center, NY 12430; (845) 254-6031

HOW TO: MAKE EASEMENTS EASY... ALMOST

Geff Yancey, Vice President 32 Oliver Street Rochester, NY 14607; (585) 271-4567

ASK A PROFESSIONAL ........................................................................................6

Kelly Smallidge, Secretary 611 County Rd 13 Van Etten, NY 14889; (607) 589-7530 Steve Teuscher, Treasurer 1392 Lillibridge Rd Portville, NY 14770; (716) 933-0370 Peter Smallidge, Chair Editorial Committee and Ex-Officio Board Member Cornell University, Fernow Hall Ithaca, NY 14853; (607) 255-4696 2007 Renee Bouplon, Hudson, (518) 822-0613 Charles Bove, Bethpage, (914) 644-2330 Bob Malmsheimer, Cazenovia, (315) 470-6909 Geff Yancey, Rochester, (585) 271-4567 2008 Dan Cleveland, Erin, (607) 732-7884 Cindy King, Amsterdam, (518) 842-3556 Gene Reinshagen, Painted Post, (607) 796-6202 Kelly Smallidge, Van Etten, (607) 589-7530 2009 Harry Dieter, Honeoye Falls, (585) 533-2085 Steve Teuscher, Portville, (716) 933-0370 Alan White, Halcott Center, (845) 482-3719 Frank Winkler, Andes, (845)676-4825

CONNIE BEST ................................................................................................. 5

KIDS CORNER–AGE THAT TREE!

REBECCA HARGRAVE ..........................................................................................9

WILD THINGS IN YOUR WOODLANDS

KRISTI SULLIVAN ............................................................................................ 10

NYFOA AWARDS .......................................................................................... 12 HOW TO MANAGE THE FOREST TENT CATERPILLAR – A DECISION-MAKING PROCESS

DOUGLAS C. ALLEN ....................................................................................... 16

NYFOA PARTNERSHIPS - NYSAF

CRAIG VOLLMER ............................................................................................ 19

MEMBER PROFILE – PETER & TIM LEVATICH

SHAVONNE SARGENT ....................................................................................... 21

KNOW YOUR TREES – QUAKING ASPEN ....................................................... 22

Chapter-Designated Directors Dick Patton, Allegheny Foothills; (716) 761-6333 Carl Wiedemann, Capital District; (518) 895-8767 John Druke, Central New York; (315) 656-2313 Anne Osborn, Lower Hudson; (845) 424-3683 Thomas Gilman, Northern Adirondack; (518) 359-3089 Bob Preston, Niagara Frontier; (716) 632-5862 Bob Manning, Southern Adirondack; (518) 251-4638 George Franke, Southern Tier; (607) 334-9813 Vacant, Southern Finger Lakes; Ray Cavallaro, Western Finger Lakes; (585) 288-3411 Mary Jeanne Packer, Executive Director PO Box 210, 124 E. 4th Street Watkins Glen, NY 14891; (607) 535-9790 Liana Gooding, Office Administrator P.O. Box 541 Lima, N.Y 14485; (800) 836-3566

The New York Forest Owners Association is a 501(c)3 foundation and tax deductible donations to this organization will advance NYFOA’s educational mission. All rights reserved. Contents may not be reproduced without prior written permission from the publisher. NYFOA does not necessarily support or approve procedures, products, or opinions presented by authors or advertisers. © 2006 New York Forest Owners Association

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VOLUME 44, NUMBER 2 The New York Forest Owner is a bi-monthly publication of The New York Forest Owners Association, P.O. Box 541, Lima, N.Y 14485. Materials submitted for publication should be sent to: Mary Beth Malmsheimer, Editor, The New York Forest Owner, 134 Lincklaen Street, Cazenovia, New York 13035. Materials may also be e-mailed to mmalmshe@syr.edu. Articles, artwork and photos are invited and if requested, are returned after use. The deadline for submission for the May/June issue is April 1, 2006. Please address all membership fees and change of address requests to P.O. Box 541, Lima, N.Y. 14485. 1-800-836-3566. Cost of family membership/subscription is $35. This magazine is printed on Accent Opaque paper produced at International Paper’s Ticonderoga, New York, mill from working Adirondack forests, managed responsibly in accordance with the principles of the Sustainable Forestry Initiative.

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COVER:

Photo shows Peter and Tim Levatich walking through their jointly owned woodland. Turn to page 21 to read the complete member profile article. Photo courtesy of the Levatich’s.

The New York Forest Owner 44:2

March/April 2006


Executive Director

From The

NYFOA’s Annual Meeting was held February 25 in conjunction with the New York Farm Show at the NYS Fairgrounds. I enjoyed the opportunity to meet Association members there and to learn more about all of the great things you are accomplishing in your chapters. The members present took part in an important vote on amending the Association Bylaws. You can download a copy of the newly-adopted Bylaws from the Association website www.nyfoa.org. The Association and its chapters recognized the contributions of a number of outstanding members. Details of the awards appear in this edition of The Forest Owner. Jerry Michael was honored as outgoing NYFOA Treasurer with a special service and leadership award. I truly appreciate Jerry’s hard work in support of our organization over the six years that he served in that role. A three-day forestry workshop series was offered at the DEC Log Cabin on the Fairgrounds this year as part of the Farm Show. I was impressed by the breadth of programming, the knowledge of the presenters, and the record attendance of members and other forest landowners. A big thanks goes to Stihl, Inc., for their donation of two new MS 250 Chain Saws that were given away in free drawings. The winners were NYFOA member Paul Marohn, whose name was drawn at the Annual Meeting; and new member Barry Blanchard, whose name was drawn at the NYFOA/DEC/CUCE Farm Show booth. Over 1,000 people visited the booth and talked with volunteers about forest management and land ownership topics. Thank you to all of the NYFOA members who volunteered to staff the booth. With this edition of The Forest Owner, our focus continues on providing NYFOA members with “news you can use.” We look at the potential impacts of invasive www.nyfoa.org

species in your forests; and describe actions you can take to prevent their spread or to eradicate invasives from your woodlot. NYFOA was once again a sponsor of Forestry Awareness Day in Albany. Over 15 NYFOA members volunteered to help staff the Association’s exhibit that was on display in the Empire State Plaza; and took part in visits to almost 20 members of the State Legislature and their staff people. Other sponsors of Forestry Awareness Day include the Empire State Forest Products Association and the NY Tree Farm Program. NYFOA member Hugh Canham served admirably as the Forestry Awareness Day Program Chair. Alan White (NYFOA President) led a panel seminar on forestland taxation which gave participants an overview of current legislation and proposals. Pending legislation of interest to NYFOA members includes A4463/S2810 that would establish a conservation easement tax credit for land subject to a conservation easement for twenty-five percent of school district, county and town property taxes; and A6638/S6818 that relates to excluding the value of trees for the purposes of real property tax assessments. This proposed legislation helps to work toward addressing two of the four issues brought forward last fall by the new Council of Forest Resource Organizations of which NYFOA is a founding member. Learn more about these bills and how they impact you, and about the Council of Forest Resource Organizations positions, on the Association’s website www.nyfoa.org. I was saddened to learn of the loss of NYFOA member Wayne Marx of the town of Spencer. Wayne died as a result of injuries he sustained when a tree he was cutting on his forest land fell on him. He was active in the Southern Finger Lakes Chapter. Jim Ochterski, Chapter Chair, said, “Wayne was known for his service to his community and to other forest owners. He was a contact to help get our NYFOA publicity out to the public in Chapter counties.” –Mary Jeanne Packer Executive Director

NYFOA STORE Show your support for the Association! All items display the NYFOA logo. 1. Sweatshirt………………….....$20.00 Green M, L, XL Grey M, L, XL 2. Long Sleeve T-Shirt………...$14.00 Green M, L, XL Grey M, L, XL 3. Short Sleeve T-Shirt………...$10.00 Green M, L, XL Grey M, L, XL All shirts are heavy weight cotton with white lettering on the green and green lettering on the grey. 4. Baseball Style Cap………..…$14.00 Tan/Green Brim, one size 5. NYFOA Member Sign…….…$ 2.00 12x12 Heavy Gauge Plastic Yellow with green lettering 6. Mugs………………………..…$ 4.00 White with green lettering 7. Cutting Boards…………...….$ 5.00 Wood, 5 ½ x7 inches Item# Description

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Name:___________________________ Address:_________________________ City:____________________________ State / Zip: ______________________ Telephone: ______________________ Make check payable to NYFOA and send this form to: NYFOA PO Box 541 Lima, NY 14485 Questions? Call 800-836-3566

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In The MAIL

Letters to the Editor are the opinions of the authors themselves and not necessarily of the New York Forest Owners Association. They may be sent to: The New York Forest Owner, 134 Lincklaen Street, Cazenovia, NY 13035 or via e-mail at mmalmshe@syr.edu

There were no letters to the editor for this issue of the magazine.

Forest Owner’s

NYFOA Annual Meeting Photos

LIABILITY INSURANCE

Left: At the Annual Meeting, NYFOA President Alan White (right) presented to Jerry Michael the Forestry Leadership Service Award for his many years of service to NYFOA as Treasurer and member of the Board of Directors.



Home and Land Equipment Buildings



Bill Kemp, Agent Phone (607) 656-4752 Fax (607) 656-9776 e-mail wkemp@frontiernet.net

The Southern Finger Lakes Chapter received the 2005 NYFOA chapter growth award. Reciving the award on behalf of the chapter is Dick Harrington.

New member Barry Blanchard, whose name was drawn at the NYFOA/DEC/CUCE Farm Show booth, received the Stihl MS 250 Chain Saw.

Susan J. Keister, L.L.C. Forestry Consulting and Environmental Management Services Per diem based fee structure for bid sales = no commissions

NYS-DEC Cooperating Consulting Forester SAF Certified, WBE Services Include: Management Plans Timber Stand Improvement -Flep -480a

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General permit and environmental management advice including wetlands, mining, local timber harvesting and special use permits.

7025 Harpers Ferry Road • Wayland, N.Y. 14572 585-728-3044/ph • 585-728-2786 / fax • susanjkeister@frontiernet.net 4

The New York Forest Owner 44:2

March/April 2006


HOW TO:

Make Easements Easy...Almost CONNIE BEST

W

hether you’re a registered forester or responsible forest owner, you probably know the “whys” of conservation easements. You know they can help protect your land, generate financial gains from forest stewardship, and leave a lasting legacy for future generations, in addition to their many public benefits. Like computers and cell phone plans, however, conservation easements come in all shapes, sizes, and configurations. And a conservation easement, after all, is a long-term commitment. (Remember, easements are permanent deeded restrictions on land use.) With that in mind, here are some tips to help you assess what you need—and how to make sure you achieve all your management goals. Step 1: Identify Your Goals Before you proceed you have to know where you want to go. So ask yourself: Which of your property’s natural qualities are outstanding and in need of protection? What land uses are compatible with sustaining these conservation values? How much timber harvesting do you anticipate, and where? Is the land used for grazing? Will that continue to be a desired use? The flip side of such questions is identifying unwanted uses. These can include property parcelization, houses or other structures, road placement, and certain agricultural or forestry practices. Some of these could be effectively limited or prohibited by the easement. In addition to land management issues, it’s also wise to consider the financial costs and benefits of conservation. You’ll want to consult with an attorney and an accountant, for example, for advice on how the types of restrictions you have in mind might affect the market value of the land and whether to sell or donate the easement.

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A land trust can be extremely helpful in guiding your exploration of options and showing you where an easement might and might not be effective. Your chosen conservation partner can help you navigate the sea of details, avoid the devil, and safely reach your destination. Step 2: Choose Your Partner Every conservation easement has two partners: the grantor (or landowner) and the grantee—the keeper of the landowner’s vision. Remember that by granting a conservation easement, a landowner confers certain rights to the grantee. These include the right to protect the land’s conservation values, stop uses that damage those values, enter the property (with reasonable notice) for monitoring purposes, enforce terms through the courts, and require restoration of damaged conservation values. Thus, for obvious reasons, it’s vital that the owner choose the right partner. Grantees can be either state agencies or nonprofit land trusts. There are limitations on which agencies can or will hold easements, and your options will vary by state. Land trusts, or conservancies, are nongovernmental, charitable, nonprofit organizations. Not every land trust is set up to hold easements or is capable of knowledgeably monitoring working forest conservation easements. Your basic due diligence should start with such questions as, How long has the organization been in existence? Does it hold other, similar easements? Is it in good financial shape? Does it have a stewardship endowment (to ensure its ability to carry out its responsibilities under the easement)? Does it belong to the National Land Trust Alliance and adhere to the Alliance’s standards and practices?

Once you’ve narrowed the field, sit down and talk to the land trust’s principals—the people with whom you’ll be negotiating the specific terms of your easement. You want someone whose competence is unquestioned, but also someone you feel comfortable with. After all, you’ll be working together for a long, long time. Step 3: Dotting the “i”s Now that you’ve settled on your goals and your partner, all that remains is hammering out a document that meets your objectives as well as your partner’s. A working forest conservation easement is likely to set a goal of maintaining a particular forest type and preventing nonforest development, create a simple “short list” of logging restrictions (for lasting protection of sensitive resources), and stipulate that operational details be spelled out in forest management and/or timber harvest plans. Typical restrictions limit or prohibit subdivision, residential development, and agriculture and may create special management areas for sensitive habitats. Your own easement will be tailored to your specific needs, which will probably mean two or three drafts before both parties are satisfied. Only when every “t” is crossed and “i” is dotted is it time for the easement to be signed and recorded with the county. You’ll also need to complete a sister document that describes the property and its conservation values. This is the “baseline report”—a crucial reference point for future easement monitoring. Akin to appraisals or forest management plans, the baseline report includes continued on page 8

SAF Certified

(518) 943-9230 forest@mhcable.com

5476 Cauterskill Road Catskill, NY 12414

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Ask A Professional PETER SMALLIDGE

Peter Smallidge

Landowner questions are addressed by foresters and other natural resources professionals. Landowners should be careful when interpreting answers and applying this general advice to their property because landowner objectives and property conditions will affect specific management options. When in doubt check with your regional DEC office or other service providers. Landowners are also encouraged to be active participants in Cornell University Cooperative Extension and NYFOA programs to gain additional, often site-specific, answers to questions. To submit a question, email to Peter Smallidge at pjs23@cornell.edu with an explicit mention of “Ask a Professional.” Additional reading on various topics is available at www.forestconnect.info

Question: I want to be able to take some measurements in my forest. Is there a good way for me to accurately measure and describe my forest?

Answer: Measuring your forest can be a fun and useful activity. Know, however, the challenge of accurate measurements is more daunting than most forest owners will want to undertake. Forest measurements will require skill with math, compass and pacing, tree identification, and some basic forestry tools. Accurate forest measurements, collected by you or a forester, will help you gain a better understanding of the forest you own, help you make decisions about what you can do with your forest land, let you monitor changes in your forest over the years, and help you describe your forest to others. My response to your question will allow a basic understanding of forest inventory. My response, however, will not allow most forest owners to achieve the same degree of accuracy as if they worked with a professional forester.

The most important decision in forest measurements is to know what characteristic or value of your forest you want to describe and how accurately you need to describe it. I assume your question is for the measurement of detailed characteristics of forest vegetation. The simpler characteristics, such as species lists, can be obtained by regularly walking your forest and

keeping track of the trees you see or the birds you hear. To measure forest vegetation, first divide your forest into units that have similar characteristics. These units, called stands, might show pine plantation, former sugarbush, an old pasture gone to young saplings, dry oak ridge, lowland red maple, or mature cherry hardwoods. Draw the boundaries of

Collecting data on tree growth and tree size can help a forest owner understand which species dominate a stand, how fast they are growing, and what future management options exist.

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The New York Forest Owner 44:2

March/April 2006


these stands onto a map or aerial photograph. The stand boundaries will often match with soil type boundaries or match with historic land uses. This activity is called “stand typing” and “stand mapping.” Within each stand, you will want to take measurements at a number of points. Taking measurements at several points, rather than measuring every tree, is called sampling. The number of points needed to accurately describe a stand depends on the variability of what you are measuring. A reasonable rule of thumb for our purpose here is to use a minimum of 10 points per stand, plus one additional point for each acre over 10 acres. If your stand is more than 40 acres, you can reduce the density of points per acre. You will want to locate your sample points without bias. The most straightforward approach is to locate your points on a grid of approximately 200’ by 200’ to equal about 1 point per acre. Points will need to be closer together for stands less than 10 acres. Also, the grid does not need to be square; if your stand is more rectangular then adjust the grid to conform. You can mark your grid onto your map, or on a clear overlay, to help you visualize your path in the woods. You will use the grid of points in one of two ways. The most straightforward approach is to establish a circular plot around the point. A ¼ acre plot has a radius of 58’ 8” while a 1/10 acre plot has a radius of 37’ 3”. The larger plot is appropriate for sampling a mature forest and the smaller plot for sampling an immature forest. Within each plot you record the species and diameter for each tree, plus any additional information about that tree such as defects, number of logs, etc. Each measurement on the ¼ acre plot will eventually be multiplied by 4 and the measurements on the 1/10 acre plot will be multiplied by 10. Thus, use caution in estimates of tree volume and size, because all errors are magnified. The second way you would use the grid is for the points to be the center for prism or angle gauge sampling. However www.nyfoa.org

Your computer, in addition to other field tools, can be a powerful advantage to forest inventory if you become familiar with the software available through USFS and others. Be careful to know the limitations and operations of the software because they all have the potential to erroneous results from poor data.

“point sampling” techniques require a more exhaustive discussion than is possible here. Once you have collected your field data, it is time to crunch the numbers. Actually, you will want to collect data for a couple plots (or use fabricated numbers) and then practice number crunching to make certain you are collecting the information that is useful to you. The mathematics and details of formulas necessary to provide estimates of vegetation characteristics per acre are more than I can cover here. In general, determine the average for a value on all the plots in a stand, for example, number of trees, then divide the average value by the plot size (0.25 or 0.10) to obtain the value per acre. Other values you might desire include basal area, board foot volume, and cord wood volume. Alternatively, become familiar with the NED-2 software mentioned below that will provide the calculations for you after you have carefully specified the inventory methods. Now, the obvious question to conclude with: would you feel comfortable making decisions with the measurements you determine? Some forest

owners would, others might not. If you want simple numeric descriptors of your forest, then this process will work. If you will make important decisions based on the results of the sampling you may want to contact a forester for assistance. Some useful websites to help with your sampling process include: http://ceinfo.unh.edu/Forestry/Pubs/ measure.pdf www.cnr.berkeley.edu/departments/espm/ extension/INVENTOR.HTM www.sfrc.ufl.edu/Extension/ffws/fi.htm

Software: www.fs.fed.us/ne/burlington/ned/

See also: Timber management for small woodlands. Goff, GR, JP Lassoie, KM Layer. 1995. Cornell University Cooperative Extension Information Bulletin IB-180. 57 pages. www.cce.cornell.edu/store Submitted by:Peter J. Smallidge, NYS Extension Forester and Director, Arnot Teaching and Research Forest. Cornell University, Department of Natural Resources, Ithaca, NY 14853. www.ForestConnect.info

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How to.. (continued) written descriptions, maps, photographs, and other data on the state of the property, particularly the areas affected by the easement terms. Although considerable information is available for many properties, additional surveys or data collection may be required to complete the baseline report. Step 4: Lasting Stewardship The grant of the easement is just the beginning of a conservation partnership between the grantor and the grantee. The land trust, as grantee, will work with the landownergrantor to make sure the easement terms are respected and the conservation values are well stewarded. Remember: Any relationship worth having takes work. But knowing what you want, and finding a partner you trust and can communicate with, will yield economic and ecological dividends for generations to come. This article first appeared with the title “Easements Made Easy (Almost)” in the Western Forester, a bimonthly publication of the World Forestry Center for SAF’s Oregon and Washington state societies. Best is cofounder and managing director of the Pacific Forest Trust. For more information, contact her at Pacific Forest Trust, 416 Aviation Boulevard, Suite A, Santa Rosa, CA 95403; (707) 578-9950; cbest@pacificforest.org; www.pacificforest.org.

1890 E. Main St. Falconer, NY 14733 716-664-5602

This article appeared in the March 2004 issue of “The Forestry Source” a publication of SAF. It is reprinted with their permission.

Forest Management Planning Ž Timber Sale Administration Natural Resource Assessment & Planning Ž Forest Inventory & Valuation Timber & Forestland Tax Support Ž Assurance Ž Litigation Support Forest Restoration & Rehabilitation Ž Arboricultural Consulting SAF Certified Foresters Ž Full Professional Liability Insurance Coverage We have been assisting clients with their trees and forests in New York, Pennsylvania, and New England for over 20 years. With offices in: Syracuse Area 315-676-7810 ab@forestryexperts.com

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Our approach is broad. Our results are credible. Our commitment is genuine. 8

The New York Forest Owner 44:2

March/April 2006


Kid's Corner

Do you have a photo of you and your kids or grandkids in your forest? If so, The New York Forest Owner would like to see it! Send an electronic or hard copy to Forest Owner editor, MaryBeth Malmsheimer, (address on page 22) and it may end up on this page!

REBECCA HARGRAVE

Age That Tree! Materials • Tree cookie (round of wood cut from the end of a log), stump, or piece of firewood. • Sand paper • Water • Magnifying glass • Red Marker • Pins • A piece of Paper

and smooth down the rough surfaces. Find the center of the cookie, this is the pith, or age zero. Start counting at zero, and work your way out to the edge of the bark. You may find it easier to mark every 10 years with a marker if your cookie has a lot of rings.

It’s easy to find out how old a tree was when it was cut. Every year trees create a new layer of wood right underneath the bark. As the year ends, a boundary is created at the edge of the layer, allowing us to see each layer as a ring. Counting the rings will tell you the age of the tree! To prepare your wood cookie for counting, take a piece of sandpaper,

Using a pin, mark the year you were born, when your brothers and sisters were born, or even your parents. Think about all your tree lived through. Make a time line of important events by writing the event on a little piece of paper and pinning it to the wood. Find wood cookies or firewood from different species of trees, some may be easier to read than others. Find one that

How old is your tree? ______ If it was cut this year, when did your tree start to grow? _______

grew really fast- wide rings, and one that grew very slow- narrow rings. Wood cookie projects are great science and fair projects, too! Rebecca Hargrave is the Community Horticulture and Natural Resources Educator at Cornell University Cooperative Extension in Chenango County.

tupperlake@fountainforestry.com lakegeorge@fountainforestry.com

www.nyfoa.org

What topics would YOU like to see covered in the Forest Owner? Contact the Editor at mmalmshe@syr.edu

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Wild Things in Your Woodlands KRISTI SULLIVAN

SPOTTED SALAMANDER The spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) is large and stout, with a broad, blunt head. It is recognized easily by the round yellow spots on its back, arranged in two irregular rows running down the length of its black or dark gray body. There can be as many as 50 spots, and these usually extend from the head to the tip of the tail. The belly tends to be a slate-gray color with gray flecks along the sides. Adults generally measure from 4 - 7 inches and can be as large as 10 inches. Males reach maturity usually when they are 2 to 3 years old, whereas females take usually 1 to 2 years longer to breed. A spotted salamander can live for more than 20 years. The aquatic larvae of spotted salamanders are dull green with white or light bellies, and generally lack any particular markings.

T

he spotted salamander is relatively common and widespread in New York State. Spotted salamanders are most noticeable in the early spring when they congregate in large numbers to breed over a short period of time. During this period of explosive breeding, which usually occurs in March or early April, spotted salamanders can be seen at night making mass migrations toward nearby pools and ponds. The breeding migration generally is triggered by the first warm, steady spring rains, even if there is snow remaining on the ground. The males, who often arrive first, begin swimming about in a highly active state that becomes nearly a frenzy when females arrive in the pond to mate. During courtship and mating, adult male spotted salamanders deposit gelatinous white sperm packets on sticks or on the bottom of the pond. These packets are very easy to spot and serve as the first clue that spotted salamanders are present in a pool or pond. A female will swim over the packet and take up the sperm 10

into her cloaca. Within one to a few days, the female lays eggs in gelatinous masses of usually 100 to 200 eggs, attaching the egg clusters to aquatic vegetation or sticks. Eggs usually take from 30 to 50 days to hatch, depending on the temperature of the water. The new hatchling starts out as an elongate tadpole, with gills near its neck region, and short buds in place of front limbs. As the tadpole develops, toes form on the front feet, rear legs sprout near the base of the tail, and it ultimately loses its gills and tail fin, all in preparation for life on land. Temperature, water level, and food availability combine to influence the length of the tadpole stage. The minimum time it takes for a spotted salamander to metamorphose into its terrestrial form is two months; usually newly transformed animals begin leaving the water in late summer and early fall. In the water, the larvae eat small crustaceans, mollusks, and insect larvae. On land, spotted salamanders eat beetles, earthworms, snails, slugs, insects, and spiders. Once

transformed, they will remain on land for the rest of their lives, except briefly during spring breeding periods. While congregated together in their breeding pools, spotted salamanders can be seen readily, even by a casual observer. During the rest of the year, however, the spotted salamander is largely fossorial, retreating to underground burrows. In moist environments or damp weather, individuals occasionally can be encountered under logs, stones, or boards during the day, or out foraging at night. In winter, they hibernate underground in burrows sometimes more than three feet deep. The spotted salamander is an important component in both aquatic and terrestrial communities. Eggs and larvae provide food for a wide variety of aquatic animals, and predatory fish, birds, snakes, and turtles eat adults. Because of their complex habitat requirements, spotted salamanders are sensitive to the loss of both wooded and aquatic habitats. Furthermore, their tendency to migrate

The New York Forest Owner 44:2

•

March/April 2006


between these habitats during the breeding season makes them highly vulnerable to mass mortality. Cars crush a substantial numbers of adults each spring, on roads that separate upland sites from breeding ponds. Spotted salamanders may move more than 1/2 mile from bodies of water where they breed, but will return to the same pond to breed year after year, often using the same exact path each year to travel from upland to aquatic sites. To provide habitat for spotted salamanders, landowners can enhance and protect both their aquatic breeding sites and the surrounding woods. Shallow woodland pools that dry up during late summer or fall (and do not support predatory fish) provide particularly valuable breeding habitat. Protecting these and other breeding sites from pollution (chemicals, sediments from erosion) and disturbance is essential for these animals. By marking the boundaries of breeding pools during the wet season, landowners can help prevent disturbances within the boundaries of the pools during drier times. In surrounding woodlands, maintaining a mostly closed forest canopy ( >75 percent within 100 feet, and > 50 percent within 400 feet of the pool or pond) will provide optimum habitat for the spotted salamander and many other amphibians. A closed canopy shades the forest floor, keeping soils moist and leaf litter abundant. Coarse woody debris (logs, tree tops, etc.) can also be left on, or added to, the forest floor to provide safe havens for the spotted salamander throughout much of the year. Maintaining minimal disturbance between breeding pools and adjacent woodlands allows spotted salamanders to move freely between the two. Disturbances such as road construction, skid trails, or large ruts can create barriers to travel if they occur close to breeding pools and ponds. Locating skid trails away from (400 feet) breeding pools, and harvesting timber when the ground is either frozen or completely dry, provides extra consideration for the spotted salamander. Kristi Sullivan coordinates the Conservation Education Program at Cornell’s Arnot Forest. More information on managing habitat for wildlife, as well as upcoming educational programs at the Arnot Forest can be found by visiting the Arnot Conservation Education Program web site at www.dnr.cornell.edu/arnot/acep/ Portions of this article were adapted from Stephen J. Morreale’s Spotted Salamander Species Account in “Hands-On Herpetology: Exploring Ecology and Conservation” by R. L. Schneider, M. E. Krasny, and S. J. Morreale. For more information on timber harvesting guidelines for vernal pool animals, ordering information for Forestry Habitat Management Guidelines for Vernal Pool Wildlife can be found at http:// www.wcs.org/international/northamerica/mca/publications

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Please specify Name and Address to be printed on signs: Name:________________________________________ Address: _____________________________________ Limited to two lines of type (abbreviate where possible). Type is about 5/16 inches high.

Mailing Address (UPS Shipping Address if different from mailing address) Name:______________________________________ Address: ___________________________________ ___________________________________________

Make checks payable to NYFOA. Mail form to NYFOA at PO Box 541, Lima, NY 14485. For more information call 1-800-836-3566 * Minimun order is 50 signs with additional signs in increments of 25. ** Shipping Costs: 50 signs, $4.50; 75 signs, $4.75; 100 signs, $5.25; 100+ signs, add $.75 for each 50 signs over 100 (150 would cost $5.25 plus $.75 for the additional 50 for a total of $6.00).

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NYFOA AWARDS Heiberg Memorial Award Presented to Cotton Hanlon

Mike Hanlon (left) and Doug Cotton (right accept the Heiberg Memorial Award from Hugh Canham at the NYFOA Spring Meeting.

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otton-Hanlon, Inc., an 85-year-old forestland management company based in Schuyler County, N. Y., has been presented the Heiberg Memorial Award for 2006 by the New York Forest Owners Association. This is the first time since the award was established that it has gone to a corporation rather than an individual. This prestigious award, memorializing Svend O. Heiberg, a world-renowned professor at SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, recognizes outstanding contributions to forestry and conservation in New York. Heiberg was one of the original founders of the New York Forest Owners Association in 1962. The award was presented at the Association’s annual membership meeting held Saturday, Feb. 25 during the New York Farm Show on the New York State Fairgrounds in Syracuse. Cotton-Hanlon, with its office in Cayuta, owns 33,000 acres of hardwood timberland in New York and Pennsylva12

nia, was cited for its innovative forest management that supports the industry as well as the needs of the local community. “Their efforts have resulted in countless numbers of people gaining a better understanding of the important role that forests and the forest industry play in strengthening the economy and environment of New York,” said Hugh O. Canham, who coordinated the Heiberg Memorial Award for the New York Forest Owners Association. Doug Cotton, president of CottonHanlon and a third-generation leader of the company said, “Our commitment is to sustainable forestry for the long term.” Cotton is joined at the helm by Mike Hanlon, company vice president and also a grandson of a company founder. While both men worked for the company in a variety of jobs while they were growing up, once they reached adulthood, they pursued careers in other sectors – Cotton in corporation sales and administration, and Hanlon in public accounting – before assuming leadership roles in the family business. Cotton-Hanlon was established in 1921 by Berton J. Cotton and Howard A. Hanlon, himself a fourth-generation lumberman. The company began as a small sawmill in Chemung County, N.Y., and slowly evolved into a forest products company with sawmill operations in New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia and South Carolina. The hardwood lumber manufacturing operations were consolidated in 1973 in Cayuta at one sawmill,

one of the largest and most efficient mills in the Northeast. The manufacturing business was sold in 1993 to Coastal Lumber Co., and is today owned by Wagner Hardwoods. With the sale, Cotton-Hanlon’s focus shifted to timberland management, a program started in 1950, according to Mike Hanlon. Each of the company’s 420 lots has a management plan that outlines projected activities for the next 50 to 100 years. In addition to forest management and timber production, planned and on-going activities include hunting leases, natural gas revenue, pasture leases, and the sale of public fishing rights to the state. Bob O’Brien, Cotton-Hanlon’s chief forester, said 93 percent of the company’s land is leased to hunters. Revenues from the continued on page 14

Heiberg Award Recipients 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

David B. Cook Floyd Carlson Mike Demeree No Award Fred Winch, Jr. John Stock Robert M. Ford C. Eugene Farnsworth Alex Dickson Edward W. Littlefield Maurine Postley Ralph Nyland Fred C. Simmons Dr. William Harlow Curtis H. Bauer Neil B. Gutchess David W. Taber John W. Kelley Robert G. Potter Karen B. Richards Henry G. Williams Robert M. Sand Willard G. Ives Ross S. Whaley Robert S. Stegemann Bonnie & Don Colton Michael C. Greason Douglas C. Allen John C. Marchant Harriet & John Hamilton Vernon C. Hudson Peter S. Levatich James E. Coufal James P. Lassoie John T. Hastings Albert W. Brown David J. Colligan Jack McShane Peter Smallidge Cotton-Hanlon

The New York Forest Owner 44:2

March/April 2006


Outstanding Service Award Presented NYFOA’s Chapter to John Druke Activity Award

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he New York Forest Owners Association presented its Outstanding Service Award for 2006 to John Druke of Kirkville New York. The award recognizes outstanding service to the Association membership. John’s continued dedication to the organization and his hard work certainly qualify him for this award. Chief among his accomplishments has been his untiring efforts at organizing and running the New York Forest Owners Association’s participation in the annual New York Farm Show where he arranges for speakers to present workshops on forestry at the show, and staffing for the information booth at the show. John Druke was born in Vermont and served a long and distinguished career in the U.S. Air Force, retiring with the rank of colonel. After retiring in 1987, John and his wife Martha purchased an abandoned farm in Madison County. Since then the Drukes have practiced sustainable forest management on the almost 400 acres of forest they own. They joined the New York Forest Owners Association in 1994. John completed the Master Forest Owner program in 1997 and has also completed graduate courses at the SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry. He has served as CNY Chapter Chairman and as chapter www.nyfoa.org

representative to the NYFOA Board of Directors. The award was be presented at the New York Forest Owners Association annual membership meeting on February 25th which was held in conjunction with the annual Farm Days at the NYS Fairgrounds in Syracuse. NYFOA is very proud to honor one of its own. John Druke deserves much credit for the current success of both NYFOA and the Annual Meeting held at the Farm Days. We are all thankful for his contributions.

Outstanding Service Award Recipients 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Emiel Palmer Ken Eberly Helen Varian J. Lewis Dumond Lloyd Strombeck Evelyn Stock Dorothy Wertheimer David H. Hanaburgh A. W. Roberts, Jr. Howard O. Ward Mary & Stuart McCarty Alan R. Knight Earl Pfarner Helen & John Marchant Richard J. Fox Wesley E. Suhr Alfred B. Signor Betty & Don Wagner Betty Densmore Norman Richards Charles P. Mowatt Eileen and Dale Schaefer Erwin and Polly Fullerton Billy Morris Donald G. Brown Henry S. Kernan Hugh & Janet Canham Jerry Michael John Druke

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he NYFOA Chapter Activity Awards were presented at the NYFOA annual meeting on February 25, 2006. This award thanks a volunteer individual or couple from each chapter for helping the Chapter to operate in reaching members and other private forest owner outreach in the area. Below is a listing of each award recipient: Matthew Smith, Cherry Creek, NY received his award for his untiring efforts on behalf of private forest owners in the Allegheny Foothills. “Matt enthusiastically supports all activities to help private landowners care for their woodlands” stated Dick Patton, Chair of the Allegheny Foothills Chapter of the New York Forest Owners Association. “Particularly noteworthy is the never-ending variety of speakers, wood products industry tours, and private property woodswalks demonstrating model forestry practices he plans for the members and community at large.” “Matt exemplifies the personal commitment so essential to the success of the New York Forest Owners Association. In addition to his ongoing coordination of outreach programs, he was a key member of the team which renovated and upgraded the display which is used at fairs, malls, schools and other places to promote understanding of natural resources,” Patton added.



Jeffrey A. Wiegert received his award for his fantastic efforts on behalf of private forest owners in the Catskill and Lower Hudson region. “Jeff’s commitment to helping landowners take better care of their woodlot sets a high standard for all of us. Jeff’s work definitely improves the quality continued on page 14

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Chapter Awards (continued)

Heiberg Award (continued) leases pay about 70 percent of the company’s property taxes. Cotton and Hanlon say this type of diverse, controlled use reduces the pressure on harvesting timber and allows the company to achieve its objectives for sustainable forestry. “Forest management is not a static business,” said Cotton. “We need to address emerging issues every day.” “What we’ve done with our land and resources shows that landowners can make forest management pay,” says Cotton. “But,” adds Hanlon, “you have to be willing to work at it.” Cotton-Hanlon’s commitment to forestry and conservation extends well into the community. Doug Cotton and Mike Hanlon regularly host tours of their forest lands for school groups and local, state and federal lawmakers. They also partner with Cornell Cooperative Extension and the New York Forest Owners Association to host and organize wood walks for other forest landowners and members of the public. In both 2004 and 2005, CottonHanlon provided support to send local science teachers to the Northeastern

Teachers’ Tour, a four-day educational program sponsored by the Temperate Forest Foundation with the theme of sustainable forestry. The company also participates in educational programs across the state. Cotton-Hanlon sponsors teams of students from area high schools in regional and state-level Envirothon competitions. Doug Cotton is director of New York’s Project Learning Tree and Mike Hanlon is president-elect of the Empire State Forest Products Association. In 2005, the company’s practices and commitment earned it second place in the National Hardwood Lumber Association’s Forest Stewardship Award.

The NYFOA chapter growth award was presented to the Southern Finger Lakes Chapter. Congratulations!

of the forest for all its values: recreation, scenic beauty, wildlife habitat, cleaner air, quality water, flood control, renewable timber resource and carbon sink” said Anne Osborn, chair of the Lower Hudson Chapter of the New York Forest Owners Association. “We are delighted that Jeff has received this recognition.” Osborn observed, “Jeff’s day job as supervising forester for the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in New Paltz allows him to remain in touch with issues important to forest landowners including taxes, forest management opportunities and dissemination of educational information. As a volunteer Event Coordinator for the Lower Hudson Chapter, Jeff has organized and led many tours and workshops exposing participants to the many wonders that our northeastern hardwood forests have to offer. We and our natural resources greatly benefit from his expertise and commitment.” Jeff, who served as chapter chair of the Lower Hudson Chapter from 1994-1998 and the Lower Hudson Chapter of the New York Society of American Foresters from 1996-2000, is a Certified Forester. Wiegert stated that, “private forest landowners are generally not recognized for the benefits that they and their properly managed forest lands provide to society including clear air and water, wildlife habitat, forest products and open space protection. I’m humbled to receive this award.”

NYFOA Executive Director, Mary Jeanne Packer presented the LHC Award to Jeffrey Wiegert.

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The New York Forest Owner 44:1

January/February 2006


Phyllis and Jim House, Averill Park, NY received their award for their outstanding efforts on behalf of private forest owners in the The CDC Award is greater Capital presented to Jim and District Area. Phyllis House. “The Houses are supporters of all opportunities to help private landowners better understand the value and potential of their woodlands,” said Renee Bouplon, Chair of the Capital District Chapter. “This recognition is well deserved. Jim is an active Master Forest Owner Volunteer, trained by Cornell to meet with landowners about the importance of good forest stewardship and the benefits of being a NYFOA member. Phyllis is always on hand with her planning and craft demonstration skills, greatly enhancing events for members and the community at large.” Bouplon added.



Robert and David Preston, Williamsville, NY, a father and son team, received their award for their exempelary efforts on behalf of private forest landowners in the Niagara Frontier area. “Bob and Dave have inspired many owners to take a more active role in caring for their woodlots in the Niagara Frontier Chapter area,” stated Alan White, President of the New York Forest Owners Association, “They were instrumental in the formation of the chapter and have continued in numerous leadership roles.”



Bob Coupal received his award for his untiring efforts on behalf of private forest owners in the North Country. Bob lives in Canandaigua, but regularly visits his forestland in Parishville, St. Lawrence County, and

www.nyfoa.org

actively participates in North Country landowner programs. “Bob repeatedly demonstrates his commitment to reaching private land owners and the community at large on the care of our forests and other natural resources,” declared Tom Gilman, chair of the Northern Adirondack Chapter of NYFOA. “In particular, as the editor and producer of our newsletter, he merits wide recognition for its excellence in communicating with our members and the public.”



Peter and Betty Gregory of Burnt Hills, NY received their award for their unparalleled efforts on behalf of private forest owners. “Peter and Betty freely give of their time and energy to help landowners learn more about their woods,” said Robert Manning, Chair of the Southern Adirondack Chapter of the New York Forest Owners Association. “We are extremely pleased that they have been recognized for their efforts.” Manning added. Peter has been instrumental in organizing and staffing the NYFOA booth at the Saratoga County Fair for many years. Betty has served as the Chair of the Membership Committee for the past seven years. The Gregorys own forest property in Shushan, Washington County, which is managed in accordance with a plan drawn up by a professional forester.



Peter and Timothy Levatich, father and son stewards of Hobnob Forest in Brooktondale received their award for their outstanding efforts on behalf of private forest landowners in a multi county area. “Peter and Tim have inspired many owners to take a more active role in caring for their woodlots,” said Jim Ochterski, chair of the Southern Finger Lakes Chapter of the New York Forest Owners Association. “They have hosted numerous events for adults and students, taking a personal interest in each visitor

while explaining sound forest management in every day understandable terms.”



Larry Lepak, Greene, NY, received his award for his untiring efforts on behalf of private forest owners in the Southern Tier. “Under Larry’s leadership, the Southern Tier Chapter has presented dozens of programs on sound forest stewardship to hundreds of area residents,” stated Jerry Michael of Binghamton, a NYFOA Board Member. “In addition, Larry has practiced enlightened forest management and wetlands restoration on his property near Whitney Point and has hosted numerous tours and woods walks on his property to share his knowledge and accomplishments with others,” added Michael.



Keith and Marianne Maynard, Bloomfield, NY, received their award for their years of service on behalf of private forest owners in the greater Rochester and surrounding areas. “The Maynard’s commitment to helping landowners take better care of their woodlots is exemplified by The WFL Award is their planning and arranging of presented to Keith Maynard. four winter meetings each year, “ declared Anne and Tony Ross, chairs of the Western Finger Lakes Chapter of the New York Forest Owners Association. “We are delighted that the Maynards have received this recognition.” “Keith is an enrolled agent with the IRS and freely gives his time and expertise with programs relating to forestry tax issues” they added. “Forest taxation can be complicated, and Maynard’s guidance is invaluable.”

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How to Manage the Forest Tent Caterpillar – a decision-making process D C. A s OUGLAS

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any forest owners in the eastern half of New York State have experienced the ravages of this defoliator during the past two or three years. In addition to pragmatic concerns about the damage defoliation may cause, people are generally disturbed by the sight of leafless trees during the summer. They are irritated when inundated with caterpillars and, eventually, many folks become exasperated by an invasion of parasitic flies. Another frustrating aspect of an outbreak is the need to decide what, if anything, should be done to protect trees. This decision should be based on several factors, the most important of which are the recent defoliation history of the owner’s property and adjacent holdings, the occurrence or threat of other environmental stresses, and management objectives. A look at the history of forest tent caterpillar (FTC) in New York State is a good place to begin this decisionmaking process. Most likely, this

insect has been with us for a long time, probably since soon after broadleaved forests re-established in our part of North America following the last ice age. Its periodic outbreaks are a natural part of our northern hardwood ecosystems. The first recorded outbreak in our region occurred in 1857 in western New York. This was followed by a localized infestation ten years later in the same area. A “serious” outbreak materialized in eastern New York (Washington Co.) around 1889. The State Entomologist at that time claimed these episodes were “insignificant” compared to the “unprecedented” outbreak that occurred throughout St. Lawrence, Lewis, Oneida, Otsego, Greene, Delaware and Warren counties between 1897 and 1900. “Hundreds of acres were stripped” and “very serious injuries occurred” throughout this seven county region and probably in adjacent areas as well. Caterpillars were so numerous

Figure 1. During an outbreak of FTC, clumps of caterpillars are evident on foliage and boles of host trees.

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LLEN

Figure 2. This large fly (actual length from face to wingtip is 0.50”) is an important natural enemy of FTC.

in Otsego Co. that trains were unable to negotiate slippery tracks! Localized infestations occurred approximately every ten years until 1950. By then, surveys and reporting procedures were more efficient. Records suggest the extent of the outbreak of 1950 through 1955 has never been matched before or since! The amount of area infested peaked during 1954 with approximately 2,000,000+ acres of heavy defoliation, 900,000+ acres of moderate defoliation, and 12,000,000+ acres of light defoliation. According to these estimates, the infestation encompassed a total of more than 15,000,000 acres! I am not sure how these figures were derived, but in view of the fact that at that time it was estimated the state contained approximately 14.5 million acres of forest land, clearly this outbreak was widespread! The next time a notable outbreak occurred was in the early 1980s when approximately 200,000 acres in Delaware County and surrounding areas were heavily defoliated. This was followed in the

The New York Forest Owner 44:2

March/April 2006


Figure 3. This map is the result of an aerial survey by the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, and it shows where noticeable defoliation appeared in 2005. Defoliation also occurred in northeastern counties, but due to financial constraints this region was not flown.

early 1990s by an outbreak in the Tug Hill region. What have we learned from past outbreaks? • Defoliation in a given area usually occurs for 2 to 4 years. • The principle hosts are sugar maple, black cherry, oak and aspen. • When other environmental conditions are favorable for tree growth and survival, overstory mortality following two to three years of heavy defoliation rarely exceeds 15 to 20 percent. • Mortality is much higher in regions that experience a drought along with the stress of defoliation. We believe this is why following only a single year of heavy defoliation (Fig. 1) during the Delaware Co. outbreak many stands experienced 90% or more mortality of overstory sugar maple. The effects of drought are often magnified on well drained soils, and this is exemplified by www.nyfoa.org

the oak mortality observed in some areas during the present outbreak. Sap volume and sugar content can be substantially reduced for a few years following even a single summer of heavy defoliation. Diameter growth of overstory sugar maple and black cherry is significantly reduced following each year of heavy defoliation. Heavy defoliation of black cherry may result in the proliferation of epicormic branches (shoots that arise spontaneously from dormant buds on the tree bole when the latter is exposed to increased sunlight), which may reduce the quality of veneer or lumber. Dispersing caterpillars and the excessive abundance of a large parasitic fly (Fig. 2) in and adjacent to settled areas becomes a major nuisance as an outbreak progresses.

How a forest owner should respond depends, first of all, on his or her

management or ownership objectives and, of course, economic constraints. When sap production, sawtimber or aesthetics are a major concern, foliage protection by aerial spraying is the only solution. The products of choice at this time are formulations of the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (bass-ill-us thur-in-gee-en-sis, or “B.T.”). This material is very specific to foliage feeding caterpillars. Beneficial predaceous insects are unaffected by it. Nor does it have an adverse effect on birds or small mammals that are exposed to it or that prey on treated forest tent caterpillars. Syrup producers are understandably anxious about the economic impact of FTC, and people who reside in forested areas are concerned about aesthetics in the immediate vicinity of a camp or home. These forest owners may wish to protect foliage at the very beginning of an outbreak to prevent even one year of heavy defoliation. The potential for significant defoliation can be anticipated when forest owners notice an unusual abundance of caterpillars on their property this year but experience only light defoliation or if an adjacent property experiences defoliation. Either one of these situations indicate significant defoliation is likely to occur on the owner’s property next year. Regardless of forest management objectives or aesthetic concerns, when making this management decision two factors should be taken into consideration. First, one or even two years of moderate to heavy defoliation is not Continued on page 18

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Figure 4. FTC adult. The moth is a strong flier, and it will readily disperse from one stand to another.

likely to threaten the existence or continued development of a stand. With the exception of maple syrup producers, the immediate consequence is usually nothing more than a period when growth will be slowed and many trees will exhibit varying degrees of crown dieback (i.e., mortality of fine branch tips that progresses from the upper crown towards mid-crown). Results from a long-term study of sugar maple in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada by the North American Maple Project from 1988 through 1997 revealed that overstory maples are able to survive

as much as 30% crown dieback. This dieback is a response to stress, and when the stress is relieved crowns eventually recover their original volume. To a certain degree, northern hardwood stands have adapted to periodic episodes of insect defoliation and, as long as other environmental conditions during and immediately following an outbreak remain favorable, surviving trees are able to restore growth and vigor. As mentioned above, however, one year of heavy defoliation will affect the quantity and quality of sap produced in a defoliated sugarbush. Of all forest owners, maple syrup producers are the most vulnerable to economic loss following defoliation. Secondly, it takes at least one to two years of moderate to high FTC numbers before populations of natural enemies (including diseases) are likely to respond and attain levels where they are able to significantly reduce FTC populations. Spraying large areas too early when an outbreak threatens may delay the beneficial effects of these natural control agents. The most effective way for a concerned forest owner to manage an outbreak is to be aware of what is happening in and adjacent to your woodlot and collaborate with willing neighbors to spray as large an infested block as possible. This will not only protect foliage on individual properties, but it will also reduce the likelihood caterpillars will migrate from

one woodlot to another in search of food. Anticipating what to expect from the current outbreak (Fig. 3) is difficult. At this time, I have no reason to believe the population will not continue to move away from its origin in central St. Lawrence Co. Natural mortality has significantly reduced numbers in areas that have experienced two or so years of heavy defoliation, but surviving moths (Fig. 4) are strong fliers and, barring adverse weather or the rapid build up of disease, noticeable defoliation is likely to pop up in new areas this summer. This is the 84th in the series of articles contributed by Dr. Allen, Professor of Entomology at SUNY-ESF. It is possible to download this collection from the NYS DEC Web page at:http://www.dec.state.ny.us/ website/dlf/privland/forprot/health/nyfo/ index.html.

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The New York Forest Owner 44:2

March/April 2006


NYFOA Partnerships—NYSAF

The Importance of the Society of American Foresters To Forestland Owners.

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oresters are the original environmentalists. They have passion for and care more about the forest than they can possibly convey. Not many people realize that there is a professional organization that represents them and communicates their reverence to the forest. Fewer realize that this same organization sets the standards by which they conduct themselves and the standards by which they are trained. It is the passion, caring, conduct, and training that makes the Society of American Foresters (SAF) an important organization to the profession of forestry, our forests, and society at large. Although not very well known, SAF has been representing professional foresters for Craig Vollmer more than Chair, NYSAF 100 years. Our membership is quite diverse, working in many different capacities as professional foresters — government; industrial; teachers; procurement; private consultants; watershed managers; urban foresters; students; and many many others. Within these areas of practice, we range from forest technicians to CEO’s of multinational companies. Nationwide, nearly 15,000 foresters and natural resource managers call SAF their professional home. To talk about foresters, one needs to first ask the question: “What is forestry?” I could quote its definition from a dictionary, but I don’t think that would be adequate enough. Throughout my career, I have often observed forestry used synonymously with “timber” or “silviculture.”

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These are important, and in many cases form the base for forestry, but it is far more comprehensive and complex. As foresters we must function within and understand many diverse disciplines, such as ecology; habitat; soils; water; biology; fire; meteorology; recreation; aesthetics; wetlands; insect and disease; and more. Overall, forestry is a scientific approach to the management and protection of forest resources to attain a desired condition or benefit. I like to think that on a team of natural resource professionals, foresters often function as the quarterback. We are able to bring people together around natural resources; we are able to think, plan, and strategize at the landscape scale; and we work within planning horizons that often exceed our own lifetimes. As members of SAF, we are drawn together through a set of shared core values. Our members believe that: • Forests are a fundamental source of global health and human welfare, • Forests must be sustained through simultaneously meeting environmental, economic, and community aspirations and needs, • Foresters are dedicated to sound forest management and conservation, and 271 County Road #9 Chenango Forks, N.Y. 13746

• Foresters serve landowners and society by providing sound knowledge and professional management skills. We feel that this is important to forestland owners because is it demonstrates that we care — we care about the forest and we care about what it means to you; and we care enough about both of these to continually enhance and maintain our understanding of the forest. These values demonstrate our commitment and ability to help you attain your specific goals for your forest. The belief system of SAF Foresters extends further through adherence to a code of ethics, and a mission statement that guides us as an organization. The SAF code of ethics guides our actions as those entrusted with the care of our forests. The SAF mission statement defines our purpose: • advancing the science, education, technology, and practice of forestry; • enhancing the competency of our members; and • using the knowledge and skills of the profession to ensure the continued health and use of forest ecosystems and the present and future availability of forest resources to benefit society. continued on page 20

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Our mission statement and code of ethics demonstrate our credibility, competency, and commitment as a profession. They represent the assurance we strive to convey to the public and to the forestland owners we serve - you. One of the more important programs that SAF offers to its members (and indirectly to you) is certification. This is especially important in those states that do not offer licensure of foresters, such as New York. The Certified Forester® (CF) credential distinguishes an SAF forester within the profession, especially those who work with or provide services to the public. One of the assurances that this provides to forestland owners is that the forester meets a minimum educational requirement and is receiving continual forestry education. You can be sure that a Certified Forester is applying the best and most current forestry practice when managing your forest. SAF functions nationally and locally, where it is divided into state or multi-state divisions. New York (NYSAF) is one such division. It represents approximately 550 forestry professionals across the state. Although seemingly small in number, as

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a group we are in direct contact with hundreds of thousands of acres of forestland throughout New York State, across a broad base of ownership and ownership objectives. We are the connection between the science and the forest, to meet the needs of those who own the land and the public that benefits from the land. As individuals, we are forest and natural resource managers serving you directly, but as an organization we serve you indirectly through activism. NYSAF actively promotes forestry to the public, forestland owners, and our legislators. We work in this capacity through many avenues; one of which by our membership in the recently formed Council of Forest Resource Organizations, of which NYFOA is also a member. It is through our combined efforts and larger collective number that we hope to better support and influence legislation that is good for forestry and forestland owners. If you own and manage forestland, I hope that you will involve a professional forester and I hope that you will consider one that is an SAF member. I also hope that I have given you a little insight as to why — we represent a higher level of forestry

professionalism, because we have standards and values and we have access to the latest information regarding the science and practice of forestry. Only you can decide if this is important to you and your forest. For more information about the Society of American Foresters and forestry, you can go to www.nysaf.org or to www.safnet.org. –Craig Vollmer Chair, NYSAF Craig Vollmer is the Chair of NYSAF, a Certified Forester, and is registered with the NYSDEC as a Cooperating Consultant. He is a Managing Partner of Brooks Forestry and Resource Management Co., LLC of Central Square, NY and consults to private forestland owners, municipalities, organizations, and corporations throughout NY and PA. He resides with his family and maintains an office in the Town of Lee Center, Oneida County, NY.

The New York Forest Owner 44:2

March/April 2006


Member Profile: Peter & Tim Levatich SHAVONNE SARGENT

A walk with Peter and Tim Levatich through their jointly owned woodland assures the visitor that successful family forest management is not a thing of the past—at least, not here. Over each hill on their 130 acres is evidence of another carefully planned management practice, diverse in activity, but pointed toward the common end of sustainable forest management. This is no “cut and run” property—it has been owned and actively managed by Peter Levatich since 1976. Since they first set out 30 years ago, Peter and eventually his son Tim have focused on improving the future forest while obtaining yields for today. This strategy has been a learning process which they have shared with the wider community of forest owners. Peter and Tim Levatich began timber stand improvement (TSI) in their woodland in 1976 via firewood production and marketing. Tim was in high school at that time and he and a friend handled cutting and splitting while Peter made and maintained equipment. When Tim went on to become a forestry student at the University of Maine, Orono, they felled select big trees for furniture work. Between 1988 and 1992, Peter owned and operated a portable Woodmizer sawmill and sold high-quality boards to woodworkers in the Ithaca area and beyond. When Tim returned to Ithaca, they began to manage the forest together. This task was made easier when www.nyfoa.org

Tim moved in next door to Peter in 1997. Peter and Tim grow and harvest forest products from firewood to high quality timber, along with some not so common products such as the ground cover myrtle. Recent work includes a seed tree harvest, adjusting their management schedule to control a sugar maple fungus (Fusarium), and successfully establishing several acres of maple regeneration. Over the years, they have been able to experiment with a variety of approaches to establish desired tree species regeneration. Peter shared the knowledge he gained through these experiments in a set of illustrated instructions about collecting, germinating, and outplanting red oaks. Management of the Levatich property has been more than just a family venture. Assistance from Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) foresters has been important in planning and management along the way. Peter and Tim have also been generous to share their knowledge and experience with other landowners. Through the years, they hosted numerous woods walks for Southern Finger Lakes (SFL) chapter events, statewide NYFOA events, Cornell classes, and many others. They both take a personal role in greeting participants and offer detailed and understandable explanations of their woodlot management procedures. These woods walks have inspired many forest owners to take an active role in stewardship. Among the

most important lessons Peter and Tim teach is to “think long term”—a family legacy with many benefits for the rest of us. As forest owners, the Levatiches have a distinguished list of accomplishments and awards. The parcel they now jointly manage was selected as the New York Tree Farm of the Year in 1997. Peter received the Heiberg award for providing exemplary service to the values and interests of NYFOA in 1998. This year, Peter and Timothy Levatich received the NYFOA Chapter Service Award for the Southern Finger Lakes Chapter. As a family, the Levatiches have invested considerable time and energy into sustainable management of their forestland. Their commitment continues to create a positive legacy in the forest and in the landowner community. Peter and Tim Levatich plan on continuing their active hosting of NYFOA - SFL activities with a day-long mix of natural history, forestry, and equipment use demonstrations at our Woodland Owner’s Field Day in November 2006. Shavonne Sargent, Forest Resources Extension Program Assistant, Cornell University, Department of Natural Resources, Ithaca, NY 14853.

21


Know Your Trees QUAKING ASPEN

(Pooulus tremuloides Michaux) Quaking aspen is the most widely distributed tree in North America. It is common in most sections of New York State but is infrequent on the pine barrens on Long Island. It is to be classed as a short-lived, shade intolerant “weed” tree, but has value for wildlife and as a cover tree in slashes, burns, and in old fields where it quickly establishes itself. The wood is soft, weak, not durable, light brown to white in color, and is used primarily in the manufacture of mechanical pulp, excelsior, crates, and boxes. Bark—on young trunks and branches yellowish green to whitish in color, on old trunks roughened with broad, flat blackish ridges. Twigs—smooth, shiny, reddish, brown in color.

Winter buds—terminal bud 1/4 inch long, narrow, conical, often incurved, sharp-pointed, shiny, reddish brown in color; lateral buds smaller. Leaves—alternate, simple from 1 1/2 to 3 inches in width, somewhat triangular in shape with rounded base, serrate margin, with flattened stem which allows the slightest breeze to flutter the leaves, from which the name “quaking aspen” is derived. Fruit—a scattered cluster of small, curved capsules, maturing in early spring. Seeds–within capsule, each with a tuft of hairs, carried long distances by the wind when capsule breaks open. This explains why the aspens spring up so quickly after fires on burned-over

areas and in abandoned fields. Outstanding features—tiny teeth on margin of leaves; shiny twigs.

Information originally appears in “Know Your Trees” by J.A. Cope and Fred E. Winch, Jr. and is distributed through Cornell University Cooperative Extension. It may also be accessed via their web site at http://bhort.bh.cornell.edu/tree/trees.htm

www.futureforestinc.com Phone: 585-374-2799 FAX: 585-374-2595

22

The New York Forest Owner 44:2

March/April 2006


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March/April 2006 issue of the New York Forest Owner. Published by the New York Forest Owners Association; P.O. Box 541; Lima, NY 14485; (800...

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