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NWDA Sustainable Buildings Guidance Note

January 2008


NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

These Guidance Notes have been produced for the NWDA by the Centre for Construction Innovation an Academic Enterprise Centre of the University of Salford - School of the Built Environment.

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Contents

1.0 Introduction................................................................................................8 2.0 Policy Objectives.......................................................................................9 3.0 Assessing Policy Objectives.................................................................11 3.1 Policy Objectives Targets and Appraisal....................................................12 3.2 Other Targets.............................................................................................14 3.2.1 Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Model (BREEAM)..................................................................................................14

4.0 Process and Tool Applications..............................................................16 4.1 Concept Stage...........................................................................................16 4.2 Development and Appraisal Stage.............................................................16 4.2.1 Tools Applied at Appraisal Stage......................................................17 4.2.2 Strategy Documents..........................................................................18 4.2.3 Projected Key Performance Indicators..............................................19 4.2.4 Commitments....................................................................................19 4.3 Post-Construction.......................................................................................19 4.3.1 Tools Applied at Evaluation Stage.....................................................20 4.3.2 Strategy Documents..........................................................................20 4.3.3 Key Performance Indicator Performance...........................................21

.........................................................................................................................22 Appendix A – Measurement Tools and Appraisal.....................................23 A1.0 Generic Tools..........................................................................................24 A1.1 NW Sustainability Checklist for Developments...................................24 A1.2 BREEAM............................................................................................26 A1.3 CEEQUAL..........................................................................................29 A2.0 Carbon.....................................................................................................31 The following approaches are used to address the building performance in terms of carbon. This is generally focused on using less energy, or using energy which is generated from renewable sources, such as wind or solar. ...................................................................................................................31 A2.1 SBEM (Simplified Building Energy Model).........................................31 A2.2 EPCs (Energy Performance Certificates)...........................................32 Revision 2 - March 09

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NWDA position on EPCs........................................................34 A2.3 Strategy Document – Carbon.............................................................34 A3.0 Waste......................................................................................................35 A3.1 Strategy Document – Waste and Recycling.......................................35 A3.2 Key Performance Indicators...............................................................35 A4.0 Water Use................................................................................................37 A4.1 Strategy Document - Water................................................................37 A4.2 Mains Water Use – Key Performance Indicator.................................37 A5.0 Transport.................................................................................................38 A5.1 Strategy Document - Green Transport Plan.......................................38 A6.0 Place Shaping and Adaptation.................................................................39 A6.1 Design Review...................................................................................39 A7.0 Communities............................................................................................40 A7.1 Considerate Constructors Scheme....................................................40 A7.2 Communities Strategy........................................................................40 A8.0 Business..................................................................................................41 A8.1 Local Supply Chain............................................................................41 A9.0 Employment and Training........................................................................42 A9.1 Strategy Document – Employment and Local Economy....................42 A9.2 Key Performance Indicators...............................................................42 A10.0 Whole Life Value....................................................................................43 A10.1 Whole Life Value Strategy................................................................43 A11.0 User Satisfaction and Comfort...............................................................44 A11.1 Post Occupancy Evaluation.............................................................44

Appendix B – Policy Guidance....................................................................45 B0 Introduction.................................................................................................45 B0.1 General Objectives..................................................................................45 B0.1.1 Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting......................................45 B0.1.2 Environmental Management System (EMS)...................................46 B0.1.3 Investors in People.........................................................................46

B1. Policy Objective – Carbon.....................................................................48 B1.1 Current Policy Statements.......................................................................48 B1.1.1 International....................................................................................48 B1.1.2 National...........................................................................................48 B1.1.3 Regional .........................................................................................50 B1.2 Potential Actions......................................................................................50 B1.2.1 Energy Efficiency............................................................................50 Revision 2 - March 09

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B1.2.2 Energy Efficient Systems.........................................52 B1.3 Advisory Services....................................................................................54

B2.0 Policy Objective – Waste.....................................................................56 B2.1 Current Policy Statements.......................................................................56 B2.1.1 International....................................................................................56 B2.1.2 National...........................................................................................57 B2.1.3 Regional .........................................................................................59 B2.2 Potential Actions......................................................................................59 B2.2.1 Waste Minimisation.........................................................................59 B2.2.2 Waste Management........................................................................60 B2.2.3 Recycled Materials..........................................................................61 B2.3 Advisory Services....................................................................................63

B3.0 Policy Objective – Water......................................................................67 B3.1 Current Policy Statements.......................................................................67 B3.1.1 International....................................................................................67 B3.1.2 National...........................................................................................68 B3.1.3 Regional .........................................................................................70 B3.2 Potential Actions......................................................................................70 B3.2.1 Minimising Water Consumption......................................................70 B3.2.2 Water Harvesting............................................................................71 B3.2.3 Greywater Recycling.......................................................................71 B3.2.4 Surface Water Run-Off/Drainage....................................................72 B3.3 Advisory Services....................................................................................72

B4.0 Policy Objective – Transport...............................................................74 B4.1 Current Policy Statements.......................................................................74 B4.2 Potential Actions......................................................................................75 B4.2.1 Green Transport Plans....................................................................75 B4.2.2 Traffic Impact Assessment..............................................................75 B4.2.3 Facilities for Cyclists.......................................................................75 B4.2.4 Better Integration with Public Transport..........................................76 B4.3 Advisory Services....................................................................................76

B5.0 Policy Objective – Place Shaping and Adaptation............................78 B5.1 Current Policy Statements.......................................................................78 B5.2 Potential Actions......................................................................................78 B5.2.1 Design Review................................................................................78 B5.2.2 Design Champions..........................................................................78 B5.2.3 Community Consultation (Design)...................................................78 Revision 2 - March 09

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B5.3 Advisory Services.............................................................79

B6.0 Policy Objective – Communities.........................................................80 B6.1 Current Policy Statements.......................................................................80 B6.2 Possible Actions......................................................................................80 B6.2.1 Considerate Constructors Scheme.................................................80 B6.2.2 Community Projects........................................................................81 B6.2.3 Stakeholder Identification................................................................81 B6.2.4 Community Engagement.................................................................81 B6.3 Advisory Services ...................................................................................82

B7.0 Policy Objective – Business................................................................82 B7.1 Current Policy Context.............................................................................83 B7.1.1 EU Policy........................................................................................83 B7.1.2 National Policy................................................................................83 B7.2 Possible Actions......................................................................................83 B7.2.1 Identification of Local Supply Chain................................................84 B7.2.1 Meet the Buyer Events....................................................................84 B7.2.2 Supply Chain Development.............................................................84 B7.3 Advisory Services....................................................................................84

B8.0 Policy Objective – Employment and Training...................................86 B8.1 Current Policy Statements.......................................................................86 B8.1.1 International....................................................................................86 B8.1.2 National...........................................................................................88 B8.1.3 Regional .........................................................................................91 B8.2 Potential Actions......................................................................................92 B8.2.1 Training Plans.................................................................................92 B8.2.2 Apprenticeships..............................................................................93 B8.2.3 On-Site Assessment and Training ..................................................93 B8.2.4 Links with Local Training Bodies.....................................................93 B8.2.5 Employment Days / Drop-In Centres...............................................93 B8.2.6 Supply Chain Development.............................................................94 B8.2.7 Data Analysis..................................................................................94 B8.3 Advisory Services....................................................................................94

B9.0 Policy Objective – Whole Life Value...................................................97 B9.1 Current Policy Statements.......................................................................97 B9.1.1 National...........................................................................................97 B9.1.2 Regional .........................................................................................99 B9.2 Potential Actions......................................................................................99 Revision 2 - March 09

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B9.2.1 Whole Life Cost/Value Assessment.........................99 B9.3 Advisory Services..................................................................................100

B10.0 Policy Objective – User Satisfaction and Comfort........................101 B10.1 Current Policy Considerations..............................................................101 B10.2 Potential Actions..................................................................................101 B10.2.1 Better Briefing and Design..........................................................101 B10.2.2 Post Occupancy Evaluation........................................................101 B10.2.3 Design Quality Indicators............................................................102 B10.3 Advisory Services................................................................................102

Appendix C – Glossary...............................................................................103 C1 – Tools......................................................................................................103 C2 – Documents............................................................................................106 C3 – Government Departments.....................................................................110 C4 – Useful Organisations.............................................................................111

Appendix D – Checklists............................................................................113 D1 Major Refurbishments..............................................................................113 D2 Development less than £5million..............................................................114 D3 Development more than £5million............................................................115

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NWDA Sustainable Buildings Guidance Note

1.0 Introduction The following document outlines the approach that the NWDA will take in identifying, assessing and evaluating the actions taken by Project Applicants in support of the Sustainable Buildings Policy. The Sustainable Buildings Policy identifies 10 key policy objectives which are assessed in a number of different ways, either through performance measurement or commitment by the Project Applicant to undertake specific actions. By the application of a variety of different approaches, all of the policy objectives will be addressed. The process identifies the following key factors for the project; •

Stage of application

Value of the project

Type of project

Understanding these three key issues identifies what policy objectives should be addressed and the level of information and performance that is required from the project applicant.

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2.0 Policy Objectives The following policy objectives have been identified. These are split into primary and secondary policy objectives. Primary policy objectives are central to a wide number of government and NWDA strategies and therefore need to be closely assessed and managed. Secondary policy objectives are those issues which need to be addressed, but do not have direct targets associated with them and are managed and assessed in a less detailed way.

Policy Objective Carbon

Description Primary Policy Objectives Carbon emissions are concerned with how a building uses energy. Carbon emissions can be cut by buildings using less energy or by using energy from renewable resources,

Waste

such as wind or solar power. The construction industry, historically, produces high levels of waste. This must then be sent to landfill sites. The policy objective is to ensure that waste is diverted from landfill. This can be done by either sending the waste to be recycled or using materials that have been made from other people’s

Water

recycled waste. Water resources are becoming an increasingly important issue. The policy objective is for buildings to use less potable mains water for non-drinking use. This may be done by either using water more efficiently within the building, or using water from non-mains sources, such as rain water, as an alternative.

Transport

Secondary Policy Objectives Transport is concerned with making the most effective use of transport methods other than cars. This may mean public transport or bicycles. The building must take account of how

Place Shaping and

best to make use of these alternatives. Place shaping is concerned with good design and ensuring

Adaption

that a building “fits� well with the surrounding area. This is concerned with issues such as public spaces, linkages with the surrounding infrastructure and the general design of the

Communities

building. Community issues are concerned with ensuring that the building and building process are undertaken with sensitivity

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with regards to the local community in which Business

the project is being undertaken. Business is concerned with assessing the extent that the money being spent on the project is being spent at a regional and sub-regional level. This is to ensure that NWDA project spend is being undertaken for the benefit of

Employment and

the region or sub-region. For longer projects there may be an opportunity to create

Training

training and employment opportunities for the region. This means that project applicants will put in place measures which support the training and employment of people at the

Whole Life Value

regional and sub-regional level. Decisions about how we choose to build a building can have cost implications for their operation and maintenance. Whole Life Value means we think about these costs in advance and make decisions that will mean that these costs

User Satisfaction and

are minimised as much as possible. User satisfaction and comfort is concerned with the

Comfort

performance of a building in terms of the people who actually use the building on a day-to-day basis. Table 1 – Policy Objectives

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3.0 Assessing Policy Objectives There are a number of different tools and measures that we can use to assess each of the different policy objectives.

Policy Objective Carbon

Tools and Measures Sustainability Checklist for Developments

BREEAM

Energy Performance Certificates

SBEM

• •

Carbon Strategy Sustainability Checklist for Developments

BREEAM

Volume Recycled Material Content

Volume Waste to Landfill

Waste Strategy (Site Waste Management Plans, for

example). Sustainability Checklist for Developments

BREEAM

Net Water Use

• •

Water Strategy Sustainability Checklist for Developments

BREEAM

Place Shaping and

• •

Green Transport Strategy Sustainability Checklist for Developments

Adaption Communities

• •

Design Review Sustainability Checklist for Developments

BREEAM

Business

• •

Considerate Constructors Sustainability Checklist for Developments

Employment and

• •

Local Business % Turnover Sustainability Checklist for Developments

Training

Training Places Created

Long Term Unemployed Jobs Created

Under-represented Groups (such as mature

Waste

Water

Transport

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Whole Life Value

• •

Employment and Training Strategy BREEAM

User Satisfaction and

• •

Whole Life Value Strategy BREEAM

Comfort

User Satisfaction

Table 2 – Assessing Policy Objectives

3.1 Policy Objectives Targets and Appraisal Only the primary policy objectives have performance criteria attached to them.

Policy

2008 Target and Explanation

Objective s

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Carbon

For proposed new buildings Carbon will be assessed using the

SBEM

model. This SBEM model must be used by all new buildings under Part L of the Building Regulations, which governs energy efficiency. The SBEM gives a % of performance which is better than the identified model building used as the basis for the calculation. The 2008-2010 target for energy performance is 18% better than the TER from Part L (2006) of the Building Regulations 2006. For completed or refurbished buildings Carbon will be assessed using tan Energy Performance Certificate. This rating is known as an ‘asset’ rating as it shows the potential energy performance of the building on a scale from G to A+. The rating is not based on the actual measured performance of the building, instead it is calculated using approved software (i.e. iSBEM) that ‘models’ the building’s intrinsic performance against standard weather conditions and usage patterns. The asset rating of the building is a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) based index. It is based on the total CO2 emissions associated with the fixed building services only (such as heating and lighting). It does not include the CO2 associated with ‘small power’ devices such as PC’s, task lighting and lifts etc. The rating is calculated using approved software that compares the emissions from the ‘actual’ building to a ‘reference’ building which is assumed to use ‘mixed-mode’ ventilation - this means that naturally ventilated buildings will achieve a higher EPC rating than an equivalent fully air conditioned building. New build developments: All new build developments should achieve a BREEAM ‘Excellent’ rating. Under BREEAM 2008, mandatory energy credits for BREEAM ‘Excellent’ means that newly constructed buildings must achieve an EPC Carbon index of ‘40’ (equivalent to a mid-B EPC rating). Refurbished buildings: All buildings that have a major refurbishment should achieve a BREEAM ‘Very Good’ rating. There are no mandatory energy credits for BREEAM ‘Very Good’ under the 2008 scheme. However, the NWDA require a step change improvement in the energy performance of a building using the Energy Performance Certificate rating. The Energy Performance Rating of refurbishments must improve on the ‘baseline’ energy rating which is measured before the refurbishments have been implemented

Waste

The level of waste (net waste) is identified using 2 measures:

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Volume of waste to landfill

Volume of recycled content materials – i.e. if x cubic metres of material are used with a 25% recycled content then this will be included

The calculation for net waste is: ((Volume of Waste to Landfill - Volume of recycled content)/ Volume of waste to landfill) x 100 = % net waste NOTE: This can alternatively be done using tonnes as long as the total approach is consistent. Water

The 2008-2010 target is 40% net waste The calculation of net water is determined by two factors: The first is the more efficient use of potable water through water efficient fittings. The second is the replacement of potable water with non-potable sources through approaches such as grey water harvesting. The Building Research Establishment define the upper limit of potable water for nondrinking use consumption as: •

5.5m3 per year or 25 litres per day per full time equivalent employee is set as the base benchmark for potable water consumption. This is supported through DEFRA consultation.

Net water is calculated as follows (Potable Water Use per FTE/ Benchmark Potable Water Use) x 100 = % Net Water NOTE: This measure does not include appliances such as showers or washing machines. Where these are applied they should be water efficient, but excluded from the calculations.

The 2008-2010 target is 85% net water Table 3 – Primary Policy Targets

3.2 Other Targets

3.2.1 Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Model (BREEAM)

BREEAM is an assessment model which looks at good and best practice under a wide number of issues. It is assessed by a BREEAM Assessor and the data is audited by the Building Research Establishment. The building can be assessed using a variety of models; i.e. schools, homes, hospitals offices. The Project Applicant Revision 2 - March 09

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should use the model most appropriate for their building type. The building will receive a score and grading shown in the table below.

Rating Pass Good Very Good Excellent

Score 25 40 55 70

Table 4 – BREEAM Scoring The 2008 Target for NWDA Building Projects is Excellent. Note: The Civil Engineering equivalent of BREEAM is CEEQUAL (the Civil Engineering Environmental Quality Assessment and Award Scheme) and this assessment model should be used on developments that are purely Civil Engineering projects.

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4.0 Process and Tool Applications For different project types and sizes there will be different tools applied. It is important that all of the policy objectives are addressed where appropriate, but for some projects it will be important to have more information. The following indicates the main project types and the different tools and assessment criteria that will be required. There are three key stages that must be considered; •

Concept Stage

Development and Appraisal Stage

Post Construction

4.1 Concept Stage At the appraisal stage all projects must complete the Sustainability Checklist for Developments (see Appendix A). This is an on-line tool which allows Project Applicants to consider a wide number of sustainability issues. There are no specific targets for this appraisal stage, as the project is in early development. However, the Sustainability Checklist should be considered during the early appraisal stage.

4.2 Development and Appraisal Stage There are 3 different types of project that may be considered. •

Major Refurbishment – projects which include changes to the building structure.

<£5m Total Cost – New Build projects which do not have to go to for Board Approval.

>£5m Total Cost – New Build projects which require board approval

NOTE: All projects that have a total cost under £500K will only be required to complete the Sustainability Checklist for Developments. Although they will not be

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directly assessed by the NWDA, the Projects Applicants should commit to meeting the policy guidelines.

Policy Objective Carbon

Major Refurbishment

<£5m Total Cost

BREEAM SBEM Energy Performance Certificates

BREEAM SBEM Energy Performance Certificates

Waste

BREEAM % Net Waste

BREEAM % Net Waste

Water

BREEAM

BREEAM % Net Water

Transport

BREEAM

BREEAM

Place Shaping Communities

NA NA

Design Review Commitment to Considerate Constructors

Business

NA

Employment and Training Whole Life Value User Satisfaction and Comfort

NA

Commitment to SubRegional Supply Chain Possible Employment and Training Strategy Whole Life Value Strategy Commitment to Evaluation

NA NA

>£5m Total Cost BREEAM SBEM Carbon Strategy Energy Performance Certificates BREEAM % Net Waste Waste Strategy BREEAM % Net Water Water Strategy BREEAM Transport Strategy Design Review Commitment to Considerate Constructors Community Strategy Commitment to SubRegional Supply Chain Employment and Training Strategy Whole Life Value Strategy Commitment to Evaluation

Table 5 – Application of Tools by Project Type Development and Appraisal These issues are managed in four key ways at the development and appraisal stage. •

Tools and processes applied using design information

Strategy documents

Projected key performance indicators

Commitments

4.2.1 Tools Applied at Appraisal Stage

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BREEAM – Overall Performance

SBEM – Carbon/ Energy Performance

Design Review – Place shaping and Adaptation

For refurbishment projects a current Energy Performance Certificate will be required. Full details of this approach may be found in Appendix A.

4.2.2 Strategy Documents

Strategy Documents are short statements designed to give specific information about policy issues under the Sustainable Buildings Policy. While the information may be included elsewhere in the design or project documentation, the purpose of presenting the information in this way is to allow Project Sponsors to quickly assess the key actions that have been taken to address a specific policy objective. Examples of the types of issues that may be addressed can be found in Appendix B. Appendix B is not an exhaustive list of approaches, but should include many of the common options selected to address each of the specific goals. The Strategy Documents are only designed to be overview documents. However, stating that a certain action or project feature will be undertaken should be considered a commitment on behalf of the Project Applicant. If such commitments are made then the Project Applicant should state what will be done and when it will be done by so that progress can be assessed at project milestones. Strategy Documents should include up to 10 of the highest impact actions that will be undertaken to address the policy issue. Generally, these will be short 1-2 page documents providing headline information. Where a project is very large, of critical importance or displaying exemplar qualities this may be longer. Possible Strategy Documents may be: •

Carbon Strategy

Waste Strategy, or Site Waste Management Plan

Water Strategy

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Transport Strategy

Community Strategy

Business Strategy

Employment and Training Strategy

Whole Life Value Strategy

4.2.3 Projected Key Performance Indicators

For the Primary Policy Objectives, projected Key Performance Indicators should be presented for the primary policy objectives. This means projections of performance will be presented for; •

Carbon/ Energy Performance from SBEM data

Carbon/Energy Performance from EPCs (for refurbishment projects)

Net Waste

Net Water

4.2.4 Commitments

There are certain activities that must be engaged with later in the process. Rather than have these identified at a later stage, it is important to make it clear to the Project Applicant that they are a required part of the process and will need to be addressed either during construction, or at the post construction phase. The following issues are identified:

Considerate Constructors

Use of sub-regional supply chain

Post-occupancy evaluation

4.3 Post-Construction

Policy Objective Carbon

Major Refurbishment BREEAM SBEM

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Energy Performance Certificates

Energy Performance Certificates

Waste

BREEAM % Net Waste

BREEAM % Net Waste

Water

BREEAM

BREEAM % Net Water

Transport

BREEAM

BREEAM

Place Shaping Communities

NA NA

Design Review Considerate Constructors

Business

NA

% Spend with SubRegional Supply Chain

Employment and Training

NA

Employment and Training Strategy Outcomes

Whole Life Value

NA

User Satisfaction and Comfort

NA

Whole Life Value Strategy Evaluation

SBEM Carbon Strategy Outcomes Energy Performance Certificates BREEAM % Net Waste Waste Strategy Outcomes BREEAM % Net Water Water Strategy Outcomes BREEAM Transport Strategy Outcomes Design Review Considerate Constructors Community Strategy Outcomes % Spend with SubRegional Supply Chain Employment and Training Strategy Outcomes Whole Life Value Strategy Outcomes Evaluation

Table 6 – Application of Tools by Project Type Post-Construction

4.3.1 Tools Applied at Evaluation Stage

In the post-construction stage a number of the defined tools will have to be reapplied to the finished project to give a picture of the actual performance. These tools are: •

SBEM

BREEAM

Energy Performance Certificates (for refurbished projects)

Considerate Constructors Scheme

4.3.2 Strategy Documents

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At the post-construction stage the commitments outlined in the strategy documents should be evaluated in terms of their implementation in the final delivered project.

4.3.3 Key Performance Indicator Performance

Where Key Performance Indicators have been identified, data should be presented to show the actual performance of the measured aspects of the final delivered project. Depending on the nature of the project this may include some or all of the following;

Policy Objective Carbon

Key Performance Indicator % SBEM Performance Improvement

Waste

Recycled Content by Volume Waste sent to Landfill by Volume

Water

% Performance against identified benchmark (25l per person per day)

Business

% Project Spend with Sub-Regional Supply Chain

Employment and Training

Jobs Created Training Places Created % Site Team from Sub-Region % Site Team CSCS Cards

Table 7 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Post Construction Key Performance Indicators

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4.4 Process and Tool Applications Flowchart

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Appendix A â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Measurement Tools and Appraisal The following section looks in more detail at the different tools and approaches that are used to drive and appraise the projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s performance against the different policy objectives.

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A1.0 Generic Tools The following tools address a number of different policy objectives. They are overarching approaches to give a broad picture of the sustainability performance of a project. The policy objectives, which are covered by the application of these tools, may be found in Table 2.

A1.1 NW Sustainability Checklist for Developments The North West Regional Assembly, working with stakeholders from across the region, and supported by CCI, the Building Research Establishment, WWF and the Department for Communities and Local Government, have developed a North West Sustainability Checklist for Developments. The Checklist can be used by both Project Applicants to review good practice and demonstrate the sustainability performance of their proposed developments. The Checklist is made up of a total of 60 questions categorised into eight different sections: -

Category Climate Change

Objective To ensure that new developments are appropriately adapted to the potential future impacts of climate change and to minimise their own impact on greenhouse gases, flooding, heat gain and water

Placemaking

resources. This is related to the Carbon Policy Objective To ensure that the most sustainable sites are used for development and that the design process, layout structure and form provide a development that is appropriate to the local context and supports a

Community

sustainable community. To ensure that the development supports a vibrant, diverse and inclusive community which integrates with surrounding

Transport

communities. To ensure people can reach the facilities they need by: â&#x20AC;˘

designing out the need to travel,

â&#x20AC;˘

encouraging walking and cycling,

â&#x20AC;˘

encouraging public transport use and accommodating private cars in a way that minimises their impact and

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promotes a reduction in their use.

Ecology

To ensure that the ecological value of the site is conserved and enhanced, maintaining biodiversity and protecting existing natural habitats which can contribute to and enhance the amenity of the area. To promote the more sustainable use of resources related to both

Resources

the construction and the operation of new developments. This is Business

related to the Waste Policy Objective To ensure that the development contributes to the sustainable

Buildings

economic vitality of the local area and region. To ensure that the design of individual buildings does not undermine the sustainability of the overall development. Table A1 – Sustainability Checklist for Developments Issues

Each question has a minimum ‘pass’ answer, as well as ‘good’ and ‘best’ practice answers. Highest marks are scored for “best” and least for a plain “pass”. Upon completion of the Checklist, a report is generated, which includes the: •

Score for each section as a proportion of total available

Total scored for development (weighted locally)

Eco Footprint of the development (see example below)

Climate change mitigation and adaptation score

Clear warning where basic “pass” standard has not been achieved in a question

The answers given to specific questions for further interrogation or audit

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Appraisal Information At the pre-construction phase, a Checklist is completed and a Report generated. There is no pass or fail, but any projects which perform poorly against any of the specific categories must have a clear explanation as to why if there project is to progress to later stages.

A1.2 BREEAM

The Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) was launched in 1990 and has been formally adopted by the Government as the benchmark to measure the environmental performance of buildings.

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BREEAM provides guidance on ways of minimising the adverse effects of buildings on the global and local environment. It aims to achieve this by reducing energy usage both in the construction and management of a building as well as promoting a healthy and comfortable indoor environment for the end users. BREEAM Buildings can be used to assess the environmental performance of any type of building (new and existing). Standard versions exist for common building types and less common building types can be assessed against tailored criteria under the Bespoke BREEAM version. It is an obligation under the Office of Government Commerce Mandatory Procurement Guidelines for public procurement: all new projects are to achieve an “excellent” rating and all refurbishment projects are to achieve at least “very good” rating, unless site constraints or project objectives mean that this requirement conflicts with the obligation to achieve value for money. BREEAM is an overarching tool that assesses a wide variety of performance criteria. BREEAM assesses the performance of a building in the following areas: •

Management - Overall management policy, commissioning site management and contractors and procedures issues.

Energy use - Operational energy and carbon dioxide CO2 issues. Energy efficient heating and cooling and controlled metering. This is connected to the Carbon Policy Objective.

Health and Well being – Indoor and external issues affecting user health and well being. Eg. Fresh air provision and ventilation, lighting and lighting control, provision of local temperatures, eliminate risk of Legionnaires disease.

Pollution - Air and water pollution issues. Eg. Refrigerant recovery, specification of HGFC and CFC free materials in construction, low emission boilers.

Transport – Transport related CO2 and location related factors. Eg. Provision of secure facilities for cyclists, co-ordination with local public transport systems, consideration of national public transport systems. Consideration of construction materials and where they are supplied, ie. use of local resources.

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Land Use – Use of Brownfield rather than Greenfield sites. Treatment/ capping of contaminated land.

Ecology – Ecological value conservation and the enhancement of the site. Where possible use of site of low ecological value. Use of Environmental and ecological assessments to advise on improvements to the site e.g. habitat creation within the site.

Materials – Consideration of the environmental implications of building materials, including life cycle impacts. Eg. Specification of timber from renewable and managed sources, provision of storage for recycling, specification of asbestos free materials. This is related to the Waste Policy Objective.

Water – Consumption and water efficiency. E.g. Installation of low water content WCs, installation of water system with leak detection, water metering, grey water recycling.

Appraisal Information BREEAM must be carried out by a licensed BREEAM Assessor. They will undertake the study on behalf of the developer. This could be either an external consultant or an in-house individual. This information is then audited by the Building Research Establishment. The BREEAM takes the form of a short report and a certificate which is issued by the Building Research Establishment. The data provided for the appraisal should be the certificate and report. At the pre-construction phase the BREEAM will be a projection based on the design and the key elements of the project approach. This will give a projected score. At the post-construction phase, the performance will be based on the actual building. For both of these approaches the project will be scored on the basis of a grading fail to excellent.

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The BREEAM Assessment for NWRDA projects should be an Excellent. A1.3

CEEQUAL

CEEQUAL (the Civil Engineering Environmental Quality Assessment and Award Scheme) was developed over a period of four years by a team led by the Institution of Civil Engineers, with Government financial support from the DETR and DTI Partners in Innovation schemes, and from the ICEs Research & Development Enabling Fund. The objective of CEEQUAL is to encourage the attainment of environmental excellence in civil engineering projects and thereby deliver improved environmental performance in project specification, design and construction. CEEQUAL is an awards scheme assessing the environmental quality of civil engineering projects - a civil engineering equivalent to BREEAM for buildings. CEEQUAL uses a rigorous points-scoring-based assessment, which is applicable to any civil engineering project and includes environmental aspects such as the use of water, energy and land as well as ecology, landscape, nuisance to neighbours, archaeology, waste minimisation and management, and community amenity. A CEEQUAL award publicly recognises the achievement of high environmental performance. Awards are made to projects in which the clients, designers and contractors go beyond the legal and environmental minima to achieve distinctive environmental standards of performance. To have a project assessed and verified under the CEEQUAL Scheme, the project team first needs to send an assessment registration form to CEEQUAL Ltd. Upon registration, the applicant organisation receives a copy of the latest version of the CEEQUAL Manual and a spreadsheet scoring table appropriate to the Award applied for. The Manual and spreadsheet will be used by the Assessor, who has to be trained at a CEEQUAL Assessor Training Course. Five types of award are available: â&#x20AC;˘

Whole Project Award, which is normally applied for jointly by or on behalf of the client, designer and principal contractor(s)

â&#x20AC;˘

Client & Design Award

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Design Award, applied for by the principal designer(s) only

Construction Award, which can be applied for by the principal contractor(s)

Design & Build Award for Design & Build and other partnership contracts.

The latter four awards have been made available for project team members who have project partners who do not wish to join with a Whole Project Award application, or perhaps wish to have their own contribution assessed alongside a Whole Project Award. CEEQUAL assesses the extent to which the project has exceeded the statutory and regulatory minima (doing no more than what is legally required would be roughly equivalent to a zero score). Note that it is not possible for a 100% score to be achieved because of conflicting environmental issues in the assessment. The Award thresholds, based on the maximum possible score for that project after the scoping-out is agreed by the Assessor and Verifier, are:

Exceeded by 25%

Pass

Exceeded by 40%

Good

Exceeded by 60%

Very Good

Exceeded by 75%

Excellent (For this Award, the actual score is given on the Award Certificate)

Table A3 – CEEQUAL Award Scores

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A2.0 Carbon The following approaches are used to address the building performance in terms of carbon. This is generally focused on using less energy, or using energy which is generated from renewable sources, such as wind or solar.

A2.1 SBEM (Simplified Building Energy Model) SBEM is a recognised software approach which calculates energy use and CO2 on the basis of certain building parameters following the National Calculation Method (NCM). This must be undertaken as part of the developer obligations under Part L of the Building Regulations. SBEM is a computer program that provides an analysis of a building's energy consumption. SBEM calculates monthly energy use and carbon dioxide emissions of a building given a description of the building geometry, construction, use and HVAC and lighting equipment. The information required for an SBEM calculation includes the following: •

Building Fabric Details

Building Services Systems Details

Zones: Building Services Details

Zones: Geometrical Details

Appraisal Information The software calculates a score using a set of given parameters about a building. It compares it with a model building and gives a performance score in terms of improved performance over that model using a points system. For example, a building which performs 10% better than the model in terms of carbon emissions will be given a specific score. On completion of the SBEM calculation the software produces a number of reports giving a summary of the energy performance of the building and its compliance with Building Regulations. The SBEM performance for 2008 should demonstrate an 18% improvement over the TER as defined in part L (2006) Building Regulations 2000 Revision 2 - March 09

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A2.2 EPCs (Energy Performance Certificates) In January 2003, the European Union Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) came into force, creating a common framework to promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings across the European Union. One of the requirements of the Directive is the introduction of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs). The directive was implemented in England and Wales in 2008. Since October 2008, it has been a legal requirement for all properties including homes, commercial and public buildings to have an EPC whenever they are:   

Constructed Sold Let

EPCs are similar to the certificate now provided with domestic appliances such as refrigerators or washing machines. They give the building owners, occupiers and purchasers information on the energy performance of their building compared to a benchmark. The energy performance is expressed using an ‘asset rating’ or ‘CO2 index’ which grades the building’s CO2 performance from G (least energy efficient) to A+ (most energy efficient). A recommendation report is attached to the certificate, providing information about the ways to improve the energy efficiency of the building along with an indicative payback period for each potential improvement. In addition to EPCs, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) requires all large buildings over 1000m2, occupied by public authorities and certain public institutions to show a Display Energy Certificate (DEC) at all times. How are EPCs generated? The Energy Performance Certificate rating is known as an ‘asset’ rating as it shows the potential energy performance of the building on a scale from G to A+. The rating is not based on the actual measured performance of the building, instead it is calculated using approved software (i.e. iSBEM) that ‘models’ the building’s intrinsic performance against standard weather conditions and usage patterns.

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The asset rating of the building is a Carbon Dioxide (CO2) based index. It is based on the total CO2 emissions associated with the fixed building services only (such as heating and lighting). It does not include the CO2 associated with ‘small power’ devices such as PC’s, task lighting and lifts etc. The rating is calculated using approved software that compares the emissions from the ‘actual’ building to a ‘reference’ building which is assumed to use ‘mixed-mode’ ventilation this means that naturally ventilated buildings will achieve a higher EPC rating than an equivalent fully air conditioned building. Who can produce an EPC? EPCs may only be produced by accredited commercial energy assessors. In order to become accredited, assessors must meet in full the National Occupational Standards (NOS) in commercial energy assessment, which includes the ability to use the appropriate software for producing EPCs. There are 3 different levels of competence of commercial energy assessor. The correct level of assessor must be used depending on the characteristics of the building: Level 5: uses dynamic simulation modelling (DSM) software to produce EPCs for very complex buildings, including those with large amounts of glass and those that are curved. Level 4: uses SBEM (Simplified Building Energy Model) software to produce EPCs for complex buildings without those special features listed above. Level 3: Uses SBEM (Simplified Building Energy Model) software to produce EPCs for simple buildings. To find an accredited assessor, please visit: www.ndepcregister.com. What information is required to produce an EPC? The assessor will need to understand the internal layout and fabric of the building, therefore building plans and information on the building’s fabric properties should be made available. The assessor must be able to identify the activities carried out in each space – e.g. kitchens, storage, office space etc. The assessor will also need to Revision 2 - March 09

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understand the heating, cooling, ventilation and lighting services for each zone (including type of system, metering, controls, fuel source). NWDA position on EPCs The Northwest Regional Development Agency requires all new and refurbished buildings that are funded by the NWDA to meet minimum sustainability criteria. The targets are set out in ‘The NWDA Sustainable Building Policy’ document that requires the following: New build developments: All new build developments should achieve a BREEAM ‘Excellent’ rating. Under BREEAM 2008, mandatory energy credits for BREEAM ‘Excellent’ means that newly constructed buildings must achieve an EPC Carbon index of ‘40’ (equivalent to a mid-B EPC rating). Refurbished buildings: All buildings that have a major refurbishment should achieve a BREEAM ‘Very Good’ rating. There are no mandatory energy credits for BREEAM ‘Very Good’ under the 2008 scheme. However, the NWDA require a step change improvement in the energy performance of a building using the Energy Performance Certificate rating. The Energy Performance Rating of refurbishments must improve on the ‘baseline’ energy rating which is measured before the refurbishments have been implemented. Further information on the expected enhancements against the ‘baseline’ EPC rating can be found in NWDA’s Sustainable Building’s Policy

A2.3 Strategy Document – Carbon The Carbon Strategy Document should include specific actions that will reduce the carbon footprint of the building. This will relate to energy efficiency, through design or fabric options, mechanical and electrical selection, or the generation of renewable energy in the development. There are a wide number of options that may be selected, some of which are highlighted in Appendix B. This will be included for all projects which are of applicable scale.

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A3.0 Waste A3.1 Strategy Document â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Waste and Recycling The Waste and Recycling Strategy Document is in support of the Site Waste Management Plan, which all projects over ÂŁ250,000 will be under a legal obligation to complete from April 2008. This should include key actions that will be taken to mitigate waste during the construction process. This should include any additional information with regards to the management of waste or the use of recycled materials. It should be seen as an opportunity for the developer to highlight any innovative approaches to waste. This will be included for all projects of an applicable scale. For smaller projects, a broad overview and commitment to a number of specific options as identified in Appendix B will be sufficient. However, for larger developments additional technical expertise may be sought to review the content.

A3.2 Key Performance Indicators

There are two pieces of data that make up the Key Performance Indicator that will be applied to address waste, the amount of waste that is sent to landfill and the recycled content of materials incorporated in to the development: Use of Recycled Materials This should indicate the volume or tonnage of recycled materials used on a project, which should include recycled content of pre manufactured materials. This may be approximate, but should give an indication of the volume of waste which has been diverted from landfill. Waste to Landfill This should be the volume or tonnage of waste sent to landfill from the project. Appraisal Information

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Information must be provided to demonstrate both of these issues. For recycled content the top 10 recycled content products must be identified. For waste the details of the 10 main waste issues and actions must be included. This may be supported by information from a 3rd party waste management company. Net waste is calculated by identifying using the following calculation using either tonnes or m3. This should be consistent, using only one type of measure for the whole calculation and is as follows: ((Waste to Landfill â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Recycled Content)/ Waste to Landfill) * 100 = x% NOTE: This calculation gives the materials recycled in terms of waste sent to landfill. If the two are equal it will mean the project has zero net waste. If the calculation gives a negative figure then the project has used more recycled content than waste it has generated and therefore is waste negative. The current target for 2008-2010 is 40% net waste

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A4.0 Water Use A4.1 Strategy Document - Water The Water Strategy Document should contain information with regards to how the developer intends to address issues such as water use within the building, water harvesting and drainage. Examples of the different potential approaches are available in Appendix B. This will be included for all projects of an applicable scale.

A4.2 Mains Water Use â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Key Performance Indicator Guidance from both BRE and DEFRA have indicated that a target for office buildings of 25 litres per person per day is a robust benchmark for water use within nondomestic buildings, where water does not form a key process element. A person is defined as a full-time equivalent employee. The benchmark for water use is how the Project Applicant reduces the use of potable (drinking) water for non-potable uses, such as flushing toilets, or grounds watering. The Project Applicant must demonstrate that they have made improvements in water use. This is calculated as follows: (Actual Water Use per Person per Day (Litres)/ 25 Litres) x 100 = y% Appraisal Information The Water Strategy may be assessed by using the information provided in Appendix B. The Key Performance Indicator target for water use is 85% against the benchmark (or 21.25 Ltrs per person per day = 85% of 25 Ltrs).

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A5.0 Transport

A5.1 Strategy Document - Green Transport Plan A Green Transport Plan is a set of strategies and practical measures which are designed to reduce the impact of transport on the environment. These could include public transport links, facilities for home working or bicycle stores and showers. The extent of the plan will be based on the potential impact of the project on the environment and local transport infrastructure. Appraisal Information For smaller projects basic statements of actions taken to mitigate the transport issues may be sufficient. Some examples of these types of activities are found in Appendix B. For more complex or large scale projects, more detailed analysis may be needed requiring external expertise.

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A6.0 Place Shaping and Adaptation

A6.1 Design Review Design review is a form of peer group mentoring in which acknowledged experts in the fields of design and sustainability meet as a panel to assess the design quality of proposed new development. Design review panels can offer constructive advice on how the design and sustainability of schemes can be improved. CABE run a national design review from London, and there are a number of local design review panels in the Northwest region. The Design Reviews are carried out by an external panel through Renew in the North West Places Matter Initiative. It is envisaged that the Design Review will be conducted for larger projects. Information for Appraisal If a specific project has a Design Review conducted upon it, it must include the findings of the Design Review Panel and any response to this review. The review is not scored and takes the form of a written report. For the post-construction phase it should be included to ensure that the advice of the design review panel is reflected in the finished project. There are no specific targets attached to this approach.

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A7.0 Communities A7.1 Considerate Constructors Scheme

The Considerate Constructors Scheme is the national initiative, set up by the construction industry, to improve its image. Sites that register with the Scheme sign up and are monitored against a Code of Considerate Practice, designed to encourage best practice beyond statutory requirements. The Scheme is concerned with any area of construction activity that may have a direct or indirect impact on the image of the industry as a whole. The main areas of concern fall into three main categories: the environment, the workforce and the general public. This is measured by an independent auditor who considers a variety of different issues around site management and relations with the public. This is widely used within the construction industry and is considered mandatory for all NWDA projects.

A7.2 Communities Strategy

For larger projects, a more detailed community strategy will be required. This will need to address issues such as community engagement and consultation. The approaches that may be adopted can vary widely and will be driven by the scale and nature of the project. Information for Appraisal The Considerate Constructors approach is not assessed by the NWDA as participation ensures the management of these issues. Where there are more detailed community engagement issues the appraisal will have to consider the nature and scale of the project. Where there is a limited requirement for high levels of detail, some of the options highlighted in Appendix B may suffice. For projects where community engagement issues represent a greater risk, external advice may be required.

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A8.0 Business

A8.1 Local Supply Chain Where the NWDA is supporting projects it is important to support the goal of driving economic growth within the region. This means that it is desirable for project spend to be within region as far as is reasonably possible. This is assessed using a Key Performance Indicator which requires the demonstration of the % of project spend which has been spent within the sub-region in which a project is being undertaken, i.e. with local businesses. Appraisal Information There is no specific target for this Key Performance Indicator as projects will vary widely in terms of supply chain requirements and opportunities will vary from subregion to sub-region.

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A9.0 Employment and Training

A9.1 Strategy Document – Employment and Local Economy The issues of local employment and economy may or may not be applicable for a specific project. The option for the need of this information will be driven by; •

Role of the project within a wider regeneration context.

Length of project – shorter projects are more difficult to put skills and training measures in place.

Type of skills required – some projects require higher level skills than others.

Should this information be included, the types of approaches and issues may be found in Appendix B.

A9.2 Key Performance Indicators

For projects which have a clear regeneration and development remit, and are of sufficient scale to support such actions, Key Performance Indicators may be used to support and manage the process. Examples of Key Performance Indicators may be: •

Jobs Created

% women/ disabled/ BME employees

Training Placed Created

% CSCS Cards Held by Site Operatives

Appraisal Information No targets have been attached to this policy objective due to the variability between specific regions or sub-regions.

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A10.0 Whole Life Value

A10.1 Whole Life Value Strategy

Whole Life Value can be difficult to establish for buildings, as there are a wide variety of approaches that can be taken. In addition, it is sometimes difficult to establish historical data for many issues. The Whole Life Strategy is designed to show how decisions have been taken in respect of capital cost, the cost to build the building, against the long term running costs, either through maintenance or replacement of the building components. For each main decision that has been taken the Project Applicant should provide the following information; •

Description of the item

Change in Capital Cost

Saving over life of building

This should not include every decision that has been made rather the main 10 by value in terms of capital cost. Appraisal Information There are no specific targets that have been adopted for this as there will be variable options depending on the type and scale of the building.

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A11.0 User Satisfaction and Comfort

A11.1 Post Occupancy Evaluation

In order to identify that the delivered buildings are delivering value to end users it will be required that a post-occupancy evaluation is carried out. The scale and timing of this action will vary widely depending on the scale of the project. There are a wide variety of methodologies that may be applied and flexibility should be allowed to reflect the variable types of projects which are delivered. All approaches will include some form post-occupancy questionnaire or interviews with a sample of the occupants identifying various aspects of the building, internal environment and general design. Appraisal Information The requirement will be to carry out an appraisal and present the finding of the postoccupancy evaluation. There will be no specific target attached in terms of scoring.

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Appendix B – Policy Guidance

B0

Introduction

This Appendix is designed to provide information with regards to the following areas with regards to the various policy objectives. Each section is broken down into 4 main sections; •

Policy Objective – a simple description on the policy heading in terms of what it means for the performance of the building, delivery of the project, or supporting activities that must be undertaken by Project Applicant. This is the overarching goal of the policy heading.

Current Policy Statements – this is a review of the main EU and UK policy which is being addressed by the policy statement. This will contain the main documents, their relevance to the Built Environment and the main issues for implementation.

Potential Actions – this will be a list of the potential actions which may be undertaken by the Project Applicant in order to achieve a specific policy goal.

Advisory Services – this gives details of advisory services which may be referred to for more information.

B0.1 General Objectives Whilst each of the various Policy Objectives has specific information regarding that particular topic, there are several potential actions that could be taken which cover two or more of the policy objectives. These include the following:

B0.1.1 Corporate Social Responsibility Reporting

Project Applicants who are currently addressing the Sustainable Development Agenda should already be reporting on their own sustainability issues and this information, in many cases, is represented through a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Report.

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A CSR Report has two key elements: it prompts an organisation to look at and manage processes more effectively and it informs stakeholders about what they are doing. Project Applicants who have a CSR statement and report on what they are doing are showing a commitment to sustainable buildings and should be able to commit easily to the NWDA Policy Objectives.

B0.1.2 Environmental Management System (EMS)

Project Applicants who have an EMS to an international standard such as ISO 14001 or EMAS can deliver significant environmental benefits, including: •

Improved environmental performance

Better stakeholder relations

Cost savings through waste minimisation

Easier access to financial support

Lower insurance premiums

Lower regulatory costs

By having and implementing an EMS the Project Applicant is making a statement that they are embracing their responsibility to the environment. An EMS will also help the Project Applicant manage their performance of the following policy objectives: •

Carbon – CO2 emissions

Waste – minimisation

Water – reduced use

Transport – green transport plans

Communities – stakeholder engagement

Business – improved profitability through reduction of waste

Employment and Training – environmental training for staff

B0.1.3 Investors in People

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Improved productivity and profitability – Business and Employment and Training

Improved motivation of employees – Business and Employment and Training

Reduced costs and wastage – Business and Waste

Enhanced quality – Business and Employment and Training

Improved performance – Business and Employment and Training

Public recognition – Communities, Business and Employment and Training

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B1.

Policy Objective â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Carbon

Carbon emissions are an issue associated with the use of fossil fuels to generate energy. Carbon emissions may be generated in a number of different ways in the construction and use of buildings. For the purpose of the policy the North West Regional Development Agency are concerned only with the energy that is used in the operation of buildings, as this is the highest impact issue for the sector, with buildings using some 48% of all energy. The goal of the policy is to minimise the use of fossil fuels used by buildings in heating, lighting and ventilation by either reducing the requirement for energy overall, or using non-fossil fuels such as wind, solar or other renewable sources.

B1.1 Current Policy Statements

B1.1.1 International

The Kyoto Protocol (1997) is the Framework Convention on Climate Change which was the first major agreement to address the issues of climate change. This has recently been reviewed under the Bali Roadmap (2007), which further lays out the actions to reduce carbon emissions. These are high level agreements, which sought commitment at the governmental level. In the European Union Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (2003) requires that from 2008, buildings within the member states will perform to a certain level of energy performance. This is being enacted through Energy Performance Certificates, which will mean that UK energy performance of buildings will be in-line with the EU.

B1.1.2 National

Energy White Paper (2003) Our Energy Future This initial White Paper outlined the key issues for the UK in terms of the impact of the use of fossil fuels. This outlined a strategy for the UK to move towards a low carbon economy. Revision 2 - March 09

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Energy Review (2006) The Energy Challenge The Energy Review is a document which outlines the issues surrounding the reduction of the reliance on fossil fuels, whilst moving to secure other sustainable sources of energy. This focuses very clearly on energy efficiency as an initial strategy supported by an introduction of renewable energy sources. Energy White Paper (2007) Meeting the Energy Challenge The Energy White Paper follows on from the Energy Review outlining the strategy to implement the recommendations of the Review. Draft Climate Change Bill (2007) The Climate Change Bill is currently in draft form. This proposes to make commitments to reducing carbon emissions legally binding to be managed and monitored through a number of different approaches. Although not currently law, this may well be implemented within the next 12 months and, therefore, have an impact on the actions of the NWDA. Part L Building Regulations The Building Regulations are a wide range of specification issues that must be adhered to for a building to be commissioned. Each Part covers a different issue, such as structure or drainage. Part L looks specifically at the energy performance of the building. Non-domestic buildings are assessed using the SBEM (see main document), while housing is assessed through SAP (Standard Assessment Process) rating. Both of these approaches assess the building materials and construction to assess the energy use of the building. The Building Regulations are enforced by Building Control within local authorities. Buildings must meet Building Regulations or they cannot be built, or if they have been built they must be changed to meet regulations. Energy Performance Certificates In January 2003, the European Union Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) came into force, creating a common framework to promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings across the European Union.

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One of the requirements of the Directive is the introduction of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs). The directive was implemented in England and Wales in 2008. Since October 2008, it has been a legal requirement for all properties including homes, commercial and public buildings to have an EPC whenever they are:   

Constructed Sold Let

Climate Change Levy The Climate Change Levy is a tax raised on the use of fossil fuels, which is paid through energy bills. The tax is designed to encourage people to move away from fossil fuels to forms of fuel which have a lesser impact on the environment.

B1.1.3 Regional

The NWDAs commitment to reducing climate change is outlined in the Climate Change Action Plan, Rising to the Challenge: a Climate Change Action Plan for England’s North West-2009. This outlines the role of the NWDA is a key player in supporting organisations throughout the North West in engaging with measures to reduce climate change. The Sustainable Buildings Policy is a key part of this activity. The NWDA requires all new and refurbished buildings that are funded by the NWDA to meet minimum sustainability criteria with regards to Energy Performance Certificates.

B1.2 Potential Actions

B1.2.1 Energy Efficiency

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Insulation/ Air Tightness Insulation and Airtightness are legislated through Part L of the Building Regulations which are enforced by building control. Insulation is about using materials which keep heat inside the building, such as lagging in domestic houses. Airtightness is concerned with keeping energy within the building by preventing warm air from leaking out of the building through gaps in the structure. New buildings are assessed through the Simplified Building Energy Model, while houses are assessed through the SAP Rating. Insulation can be viewed as a highly cost effective solution in terms of energy/ carbon savings in terms of cost and maintenance. Passive Solar Design Passive solar is concerned with using the heat from the sun through the design of the building to reduce the need for powered heating or cooling systems. One approach is through the orientation of the building to use solar gain to minimise the requirement for mechanical heating and cooling. This is used in concert with material selection and the design of glazing. Thermal mass is another approach which may be used. Materials can be used which absorb heat slowly during the day keeping the building cool and then releasing it slowly at night reducing the need for mechanical heating and cooling. Natural Ventilation Natural ventilation can be used to replace or reduce the requirement for air conditioning systems. This can be done using a mixture of natural air currents or using wind to move the air through the building and keep it cool. This is an increasingly common approach to reduce or remove the need for mechanical ventilation which can be a high consumer of energy. Natural Lighting Natural lighting is concerned with using the design of the building to maximise the use of natural light. This reduces the requirement for artificial lighting. Revision 2 - March 09

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B1.2.2 Energy Efficient Systems

Combined Heat and Power Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is an energy efficient form of plant which uses fuel for heating and uses the excess heat to generate additional electricity. This creates efficiencies of some 30% over traditional heating approaches. It is commonly used in larger buildings, although micro CHP can be used in homes

Other Energy Efficient Plant and Equipment Artificial lighting, cooling or heating may be unavoidable in certain situations. Where they must be used there are often low energy alternatives which may be sourced and used. Energy Efficient Management Systems There are a number of ways of managing energy. Where the user has control or there is an automation of systems through the use of motion sensors or zoned heating and lighting, for example. The management of heating and lighting at this level can make significant contributions to energy efficiency as energy is only used when it is needed. Renewable Energy Renewable energy is generated from non-fossil based sources which are easily replaceable or freely available. This includes energy generated from the wind, sun or heat sources in the ground. It can also include energy generated from waste products. The energy may be used within the building itself or sold back to the National Grid. Photo Voltaic Cells Photovoltaic cells (PVCs) or solar panels have been in use for some time. They rely in the energy from the sun to generate electricity for use within the building and for potential sale back to the National Grid. Revision 2 - March 09

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Passive Solar Heating In addition to passive solar design, heating energy can be replaced by using solar water heating. This does not create energy to be released as electricity, but rather used to heat water and thereby replace traditional fossil approaches. Passive solar is growing in popularity for domestic water heating. The ease of installation, maintenance and the lack of a need for it to be connected to the grid mean that it is already a viable option in terms of using solar energy to reduce traditional energy consumption. Wind Turbines Wind Turbines are a common, explicit way to be seen to be generating renewable energy. They take the form of windmills which use the power of the wind to turn the blades and generate electrical energy. The energy may then be used within the building or for resale to the national grid. Ground Source Heating Ground source heating uses the heat held within the ground to heat a building, usually through under floor heating. There are a number of different approaches, but the common approach is for pipes, containing a heat carrying medium, to be placed in the ground and the medium to be pumped from the ground where it is heated into the house heating system. This approach is becoming increasingly common. Biomass Boilers and CHP Biomass is fuel that is created from biological waste materials, commonly wood which are processed into pellets. Biomass boilers work using fuel from renewable sources, such as wood pellets. These work in the same way as traditional gas boilers, although there is an increasing use of biomass approaches being combined with CHP. Energy Generated from Waste

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This approach works in a similar way to biomass. Energy is generated using treated waste to create material which can be used in boilers to generate electricity.

B1.3 Advisory Services Carbon Trust â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Design Advice This is the main national body dedicated to reducing the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s carbon footprint. The design advice section provides support for organisations to help assess their designed buildings and identify ways of reducing energy consumption. http://www.carbontrust.co.uk/energy/assessyourorganisation/design_advice.htm Renewables North West Renewables North West is a regional organisation which is dedicated to supporting the implementation of renewable energy within North West projects. It provides advice on installation and supports applications for available grants. http://www.renewablesnorthwest.co.uk/index.aspx Envirolink North West Envirolink North West offer a wide range of support and services with regards to sustainability issues generally. They have special programmes specifically dedicated to both energy efficiency and renewable energy. The also publish supply chain information to allow organisations to identify suppliers to support the engagement with energy efficiency and renewable energy. http://www.envirolinknorthwest.co.uk/Envirolink/Main.nsf?OpenDatabase Energy Saving Trust The Energy Saving Trust is a non-profit organisation, funded both by government and the private sector. They are one of the UK's leading organisations set up to address the damaging effects of climate change and we have offices in England, Revision 2 - March 09

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Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. Their aim is to cut emissions of carbon dioxide by promoting the sustainable and efficient use of energy. http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/

Centre for Construction Innovation CCI provides knowledge capital to the construction sector through research, advisory, consultancy and grant funded projects. http://www.ccinw.com/

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B2.0 Policy Objective – Waste The construction industry, historically, produces high levels of waste during the construction process. On their completion, buildings continue to produce waste through the people who live, work and use these buildings and through the process of what they have been built for. Traditionally, construction waste, household waste and non-specific waste from buildings has been disposed of by transfer to landfill sites for burial. The Policy objective of the North West Regional Development Agency is to reduce the amount of such waste that is sent to landfill. This can be done by either using materials in the construction of developments that have been made from other peoples recycled waste or by reducing the amount of waste sent to landfill by: •

minimising the use of materials

the reuse, on-site or off site, of materials

recycling waste, or

using waste for energy recovery.

Thus leaving disposal as the last option.

B2.1 Current Policy Statements

B2.1.1 International

EU Waste Framework This Directive provides the overarching legislative framework for the collection, transport, recovery and disposal of waste, and includes a common definition of waste. The Directive requires all Member States to take the necessary measures to ensure that waste is recovered or disposed of without endangering human health or causing harm to the environment and includes permitting, registration and inspection requirements. The Directive also requires Member States to take appropriate measures to encourage firstly, the prevention or reduction of waste production and its harmfulness and secondly the recovery of waste by means of recycling, re-use or Revision 2 - March 09

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reclamation or any other process with a view to extracting secondary raw materials, or the use of waste as a source of energy. The Directive's overarching requirements are supplemented by other Directives for specific waste streams.

Council Directive 99/31/EC of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste The objective of the Directive is to prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment from the land-filling of waste, by introducing stringent technical requirements for waste and landfills. The Directive is intended to prevent or reduce the adverse effects of the landfill of waste on the environment, in particular on surface water, groundwater, soil, air and human health. Hazardous Waste Directive This Directive seeks to define hazardous waste and provides additional controls on its tracking, movement and management Waste Management Planning Waste management planning is the cornerstone of any national, regional or local policy on waste management. Indeed, the establishment of a plan allows, taking stock of the existing situation, to define the objectives that need to be met in the future, to formulate appropriate strategies and identify the necessary implementation means. The drawing up of waste management plans is required by EU legislation on waste. The Directive 2006/12/EC on waste sets out the general requirement in Article 7, while specific provisions are laid down with regard to Hazardous waste in Article 6 of Directive 91/689/EEC and Packaging and Packaging Waste in Article 6 of Directive 94/62/EC .

B2.1.2 National

Waste Strategy for England 2007 (DEFRA) Revision 2 - March 09

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This waste strategy and its Annexes, together with Planning Policy Statement 10 Planning for Sustainable Waste Management (PPS10) is part of the implementation for England of the requirements within the Framework Directive on Waste, and associated Directives, to produce waste management plans. These are the national level documents of a tiered system of waste planning in England, which together satisfies the requirements of the various Directives. At regional level there are Regional Spatial Strategies (RSSs), and at local level, development plan documents. The requirement for waste management plans in these directives is partly transposed by section 44A of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (inserted by the Environment Act 1995). Section 44A requires the Secretary of State to produce, and modify from time to time, a national waste strategy in respect of England. This strategy (and its Annexes) is also a strategy for dealing with waste diverted from landfill in England, as required by the Landfill Directive. Strategy Unit Report ‘Waste not, Want not’ Recommendations Progress to January 2005 The Strategy Unit Report ‘Waste not, Want not’ made 46 recommendations. The Government’s response to the report, published in May 2003 highlighted 63 actions to be taken to achieve these recommendations. Site Waste Management Plans for the Construction Industry The construction industry is a major contributor to the UK economy, but this comes at a cost. Each year of the 400 million tonnes of solid materials used, only two-thirds is added to the building stock - the rest is consigned to landfill. Government is also concerned about the small but increasing amount of construction waste that is illegally dumped or fly-tipped. As waste controls tighten there is an increased risk of companies inadvertently employing illegal waste operatives. Powers were included in the Clean Neighbourhoods and Environment Act 2005 for regulations requiring a site waste management plan (SWMP) for works involving construction or demolition waste. Following the voluntary code of practice launched by DTI in 2004, DEFRA has developed proposals for compulsory site waste Revision 2 - March 09

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management plans in England. SWMPs aim both to reduce fly-tipping and to promote the potential resource savings from minimising waste. It is anticipated that Site Waste Management Plans will become mandatory for all construction sites with a value greater than £250,000 in April 2008.

B2.1.3 Regional

There are no specific North West policy statements regarding waste minimisation or recycling, but there are several North West initiatives on waste, including the following: •

Business Resource Efficiency & Waste Programme (BREW)

Envirolink Waste Programme

B2.2 Potential Actions

B2.2.1 Waste Minimisation

Targeting the potential areas for waste generation in construction projects can help to significantly reduce the quantity of construction waste created. There are a range of opportunities to minimise waste before it is created and the earlier they are implemented within the project the greater the potential to significantly reduce waste. Major improvements in materials efficiency are possible, without increasing cost, by minimising the overall creation of waste through the following: Design Solutions – significant volumes of waste result from onsite cutting of materials to fit dimensional constraints of a project design. By considering wastage at an early stage in the process the design can be optimised for resource efficiency. Material Procurement – the drive to reduce waste in construction projects is the responsibility of all involved. There is, however, a key role for contractors and subcontractors who procure and use materials. The efficient use of materials by Revision 2 - March 09

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contractors and subcontractors focuses on, effective estimating of waste, developing and implementing waste reduction solutions and producing accurate records of waste. Construction Logistics – the cost of material wastage on a project not only relates to the material cost but also productivity losses associated with multiple handling of materials and inefficient construction practices that arise from poor logistics. Efficient logistics can have a substantial effect on minimising waste before it arises from the construction process. Offsite Construction – offsite construction has a range of benefits compared to traditional build including the potential to greatly minimise on site waste. Through the substitution of a range of offsite construction methods there is the potential to reduce on site wastage by up to 90%. Packaging – construction sites generate more packaging waste than any other waste stream. Steps to reduce the amount of packaging waste generated, coupled with greater re-use and recycling, result in significant cost and other benefits. There are also opportunities for closed loop recycling to minimise waste in the following: Demolition and Regeneration – maximising the recovery of materials and resources from demolition has economic as well as sustainability benefits. Minimising demolition arising through recycling and identifying reuse opportunities reduces disposal costs, material procurement and has the potential to create an income. Utilities – an estimated 4.8 million tonnes per annum of materials are generated from water and gas asset renewal programmes throughout Great Britain. These works offer the opportunity for recycling and reuse of excavated materials in the reinstatement of trench openings.

B2.2.2 Waste Management

The construction industry produces around 120 million tonnes of construction, demolition and excavation waste per year with only half of this currently being recycled or reclaimed.

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Waste management involves taking action to reduce the volume of construction waste being sent to landfill. Through the identification of potential waste streams, setting targets for the recovery of materials and the process to ensure that these targets are met a range of benefits can be achieved. Construction clients and developers are increasingly looking to set targets and requirements for waste management and to move the industry from standard through to good and best practice in waste management. There are a range of tools and guidance available to help the industry meet changing policy and requirements, including the following: •

Achieving good practice Waste Minimisation and Management

Site Waste Management Plans (SWMPs)

The Code for Sustainable Homes

Waste Recovery Quick Wins

B2.2.3 Recycled Materials

Materials used in construction frequently cause some environmental pollution during their production. Quarries can damage landscapes, wood can come from unsustainable sources, metals use a lot of energy in production, PVC production produces atmospheric pollution, etc. Reclaimed materials and products made from recycled materials are likely to cause less environmental damage than new products and can also reduce refuse and land fill. On-Site and Off-Site Recycling The segregation of waste, on-site and off-site, can save waste going to landfill and enable companies to reuse and recycle more materials. Waste contractors can supply different skips which are colour-coded for specific types of waste (using the National Colour Coding scheme) or, alternatively, some offer a service of removing waste from site and then segregating it off-site at dedicated plants. There are also companies that provide ‘grinder’ or ‘mulching’ services to construction sites – they use machines that grind a variety of materials such as block, brick, gypsum, wood, trees, etc. The resultant ‘grinded’ materials can then be reused on site for a wide

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range of uses – and ‘bailing’ services which compress and bind plastics, corrugated card and paper materials. Because there are more and more materials with recycled content coming on to the market it is possible to select recycled options for a very high proportion, or even for all of the materials required for new developments. Some of the more common recycled materials and materials with a recycled content include the following: Aggregates Recycled and Secondary Aggreagtes (RSA) can be used in a range of construction materials. The opportunities for their use include the following: •

Concrete – a common construction material consisting of coarse and fine aggregates mixed with cement and water. There are many different types, classes, specifications and uses for concrete.

Bituminous material is principally composed of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate filler; aggregates typically contribute 90-95% of the mass of bituminous material.

Hydraulically Bound materials (HBM) are simply materials which set and harden with the addition a binder material and water. HBM have potential to be used in a range of paving and non-paving applications.

Unbound materials collectively comprise a vast array of different materials, which may range in size from fine grains less than a millimetre in diameter up to stony material several centimetres in diameter.

Plasterboard Approximately 3 million tonnes of plasterboard are used in construction in the UK each year. Detailed statistics on waste plasterboard arisings are currently scarce, but it is estimated that some 300,000 tonnes of waste plasterboard are generated each year from new construction activity (largely as offcuts). The amount of plasterboard waste arising from demolition and refurbishment projects is more difficult to quantify, Revision 2 - March 09

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but maybe in the range 500,000 tonnes to more than 1 million tones per year. Recycled Wood Recycled wood products are made from post-consumer and post-industrial sources. Wood waste is cleaned and processed to remove any contaminants and to reduce particle size. This material is then used to manufacture a range of quality products for different markets. Some products may be made entirely from waste wood or they may contain a proportion of virgin material. Recycled Glass Recycled glass is a hard, inert material which can be used in many different ways. The most popular and environmentally favourable approach is to remelt it to produce more glass, a process which can be repeated over and over again. This not only saves valuable natural resources but also saves energy and reduces emissions of carbon dioxide. Recycled Plastics Recycling plastic into end applications that displace virgin plastics can save on average two tonnes of CO2 for every tonne of plastic recycled. There is a wide range of markets for them and increasingly these include full closed loop recycling back into packaging.

B2.3 Advisory Services Envirowise Offers UK businesses free, independent, confidential advice and support on practical ways to increase profits, minimise waste and reduce environmental impact. http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/ http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/swmp Enworks

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A unique business support programme co-ordinating environmental and health and safety advice, training and support to businesses throughout the Northwest of England. http://www.enworks.com/ http://www.enworks.com/viewSection.php?SectionID=280&ParentSectionID=280 Environment Agency The leading public body for protecting and improving the environment in England and Wales. It is the Agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s job to make sure that air, land and water are looked after by everyone in today's society, so that tomorrow's generations inherit a cleaner, healthier world. http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/ http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/subjects/waste/?version=1&lang=_e

DEFRA The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is a UK Government Department whose overarching challenge is to enable everyone to live within their environmental means. http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/index.htm http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/index.htm NetRegs Provides free environmental guidance for small businesses in the UK. NetRegs help you to understand what you need to do to comply with environmental legislation and protect the environment. http://www.netregs.gov.uk/ http://www.netregs.gov.uk/netregs/mgmt_guidelines/1409205/?lang=_e WRAP Works in partnership to encourage and enable businesses and consumers to be more efficient in their use of materials and recycle more things more often. This helps Revision 2 - March 09

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to minimise landfill, reduce carbon emissions and improve our environment http://www.wrap.org.uk/ http://www.wrap.org.uk/construction/index.html Envirolink North West Formed and led by business leaders from the environmental sector in England's Northwest. Envirolink NWs aim is to support the development and growth of the environmental industry in England's Northwest. http://www.envirolinknorthwest.co.uk/ http://www.envirolinknorthwest.co.uk/Envirolink/Waste-sig.nsf?OpenDatabase Building Research Establishment (BRE) A world leading research, consultancy, training, testing and certification organisation delivering sustainability and innovation across the built environment and beyond. http://www.bre.co.uk/ http://www.bre.co.uk/page.jsp?id=5 Waste Aware Construction Information about the National Colour Coding scheme for the source segregation of recycled materials on construction sites, links to other sources of information and ways construction companies are able to reduce, reuse and recycle their waste. http://www.wasteawareconstruction.org.uk/

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http://www.ccinw.com/

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B3.0 Policy Objective â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Water The balance between water supply and water demand is becoming an increasingly vital issue, with the use of water within buildings, the consumption of potable water from the public supply systems or other ground water resources, steadily growing. During the past two decades we have been steadily using more water and forecasts indicate that this upward trend will continue. Water harvesting from natural sources and the recycling of greywater are becoming increasingly common methods of reducing the use of potable water from the public supply systems, but there is a need to reduce, in general, the amount of potable water that is used for non-drinking purposes. The quality of our water source is also an issue and pollution and potential flooding risks are a major consideration when we look at the way in which surface water runs off into the drainage system from the construction process and from our buildings and developments. For the purpose of the Policy the North West Regional Development Agency are concerned only with the objective for buildings to use less potable mains water for non-drinking, but the way in which surface water runs off developments must also be considered to allay fears of potential pollution and flooding. The goal of the policy is to minimise the use of potable water for non-potable purposes in buildings through the more efficient use of potable water by the installation and use of fixtures and fittings such as low-water-use WCs, taps and appliances and the replacement of potable water with non-potable water sources through water harvesting and greywater recycling such as the collection and storage of rain from roofs and the collection and reuse of shower, bath and tap water, for example.

B3.1 Current Policy Statements

B3.1.1 International

There are no specific international policy statements with regards to the use of potable water, but the World Water Council, an international multi-stakeholder platform, was established in 1996 on the initiative of renowned water specialists and

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international organisations, in response to the increasing concern about world water issues from the global community. The World Water Council's mission is "to promote awareness, build political commitment and trigger action on critical water issues at all levels, including the highest decision-making level, to facilitate the efficient conservation, protection, development, planning, management and use of water in all its dimensions on an environmentally sustainable basis for the benefit of all life on earth." By providing a platform to encourage debates and exchanges of experience, the Council aims to reach a common strategic vision on water resources and water services management amongst all stakeholders in the water community. In the process, the Council also catalyses initiatives and activities, whose results converge toward its flagship product, the World Water Forum. Authority for managing the world's fresh water resources is fragmented amongst the world's nations, hundreds of thousands of local governments, and countless nongovernmental and private organizations, as well as a large number of international bodies. Management issues have been subjected to numerous studies and debates in the international arena.

B3.1.2 National

The Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) deal with all aspects of water policy in England, including water supply and resources, and the regulatory systems for the water environment and the water industry. These include drinking water quality; the quality of water in rivers, lakes and estuaries, coastal and marine waters; sewage treatment; and reservoir safety. DEFRA work closely with the Environment Agency (which manages water resources and enforces water quality standards), the Drinking Water Inspectorate (which regulates the quality of drinking water), and the Office of Water Services, which is responsible for economic regulation of the water industry. DEFRA are currently developing a new national water strategy to be published early in 2008. It will set out Government priorities for water availability and quality. The new Water Strategy will set out a coherent policy framework to underpin the Governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitments for water availability and quality and it will outline Revision 2 - March 09

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Government’s evolving priorities, and focus water policy through a climate change lens. The aim is to improve standards of service and quality, while balancing environmental impacts, water quality, supply and demand, and social and economic effects. Relevant environmental legislation on water use and efficiency in England and Wales include the following: •

Water Act 2003

Water Resources Act 1991

Water Resources (Abstraction and Impounding) Regulations 2006 SI 641

Water Resources (Environmental Impact Assessment) (England and Wales) Regulations 2003 SI 164

Further guidance regarding water and can be found on the NetRegs website.

Part H Building Regulations – Drainage Part H of the Building Regulations requires that adequate drainage systems be provided and also deals with pollution prevention, sewage infrastructure issues, and maintenance and adoption regimes for sewers. Technical design standards included cover sanitary pipework, foul drainage, rainwater drainage and disposal, wastewater treatment and discharges, cesspools, building over or close to public sewers and refuse storage. Interim Code of Practice for SUDS The Interim Code of Practice for Sustainable Drainage Systems (SUDS) aims to facilitate the implementation of sustainable drainage in developments in England and Wales by providing model maintenance agreements and advice on their use. It provides a set of agreements between those public organisations with statutory or regulatory responsibilities relating to SUDS. The specific objectives of the document are to: •

encourage the implementation of SUDS in new and existing developments

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provide basic guidance for practitioners on the implementation of SUDS in new development

make the adoption and allocation of maintenance for SUDS more straightforward.

Production of the Interim Code of Practice is part of a wider range of actions being pursued to ensure that the potential of sustainable drainage systems to offer costeffective solutions is fully exploited.

B3.1.3 Regional

There are no specific North West policy statements regarding the use of water.

B3.2 Potential Actions

B3.2.1 Minimising Water Consumption

Sanitary use of water within a building is significant and a number of steps can be taken to minimise consumption. This issue encourages the use of low-water-use WCs, taps and appliances, etc. and fittings such as flow restrictors fitted in taps and delayed inlet valves fitted in WCs. For example: Dual Flush Cisterns – cisterns which have the facility to provide higher flush volume for solids and paper and lower flush volume for liquids Flow Restrictors – contain precision-made holes or filters to restrict flow and reduce the outlet flow and pressure Delayed Inlet Valves – prevent water entering the cistern until after the cistern has completely emptied into the bowl Water Softeners – remove the hard material found in water by passing the water through resin. Taps – spray taps on hand basins typically save up to 80 per cent of the water and energy used with standard pillar taps. Sensor and push taps can save water where taps may be left on, and they also avoid the need to touch the tap once hands are washed

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Flow regulation and leak detection devices – as well as saving water, flow regulation offers additional benefits, such as helping to balance the available pressure throughout the system. Urinals – installing urinal controls can halve the amount of water used for urinal flushing in offices Waterless and vacuum toilets – waterless and vacuum toilets are an ideal solution where the water supply is scarce or non-existent Water-efficient WCs and retrofits – dual-flush and low-flush toilets can cut water use by up to 20 per cent, and save more than half the water used in flushing toilets

B3.2.2 Water Harvesting

Water harvesting is the collection and storage of rain from roofs, for example, in order to replace the use of potable water in sanitary fittings and other non-potable uses. Correctly collected and stored, rainwater can meet all the requirements of WC flushing without further treatment – rainwater harvesting simply collects the rain which fall onto roofs, then stores it in a tank until required for use. When required, the water is then pumped to the point of use, thus displacing what would otherwise be a demand for mains-water. In the process, a volume of water is kept out of the stormwater management system, thereby helping to reduce flooding risks also.

B3.2.3 Greywater Recycling

Greywater recycling is the collection of shower, bath and tap water in order to replace the use of potable water in WCs. Greywater recycling can be accomplished by the use of greywater collection systems. Commercial greywater systems are available that reuse the slightly polluted greywater from showers, baths and hand wash basins. In contrary to the domestic process where there is a only two stepped system, this time the treatment process is more clearly divided and takes place in four steps: •

Pretreatment

Aerobic treatment

membrane filtration

clear water storage

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The AQUA-Recycling Control unit, for example, monitors the treatment process and supplies the treatment water to the point of application using the integrated booster pump set. If there is no treated water available, the control unit will automatically switch to mains water back-up via an AA type air gap ensuring a continuous supply of water.

B3.2.4 Surface Water Run-Off/Drainage

Planning a site so that water is removed from it as quickly as possible is potentially harmful to the environment as it can cause water pollution, the risk of flooding – both to the site itself or elsewhere downstream – and damage to wildlife and river habitats. In areas with combined drainage systems, surface water entering the system can also cause polluting from storm discharges and overload treatment plants. To make sure a site is not polluting the environment or increasing the risk of flooding, consideration should be made to the use of a sustainable drainage systems approach, otherwise known as SUDS. This approach provides an on-site drainage solution that takes into account the following: •

the amenity benefits

the quantity of surface water run-off, and

the quality of surface water run-off

Sustainable drainage is a design philosophy that uses a range of techniques to manage surface water as close to its source as possible. To produce a workable and effective scheme, SUDS must be incorporated into developments at the earliest siteplanning stage. Options include: •

Permeable pavements

Swales and basins

Green roofs and rainwater use

Infiltration trenches and filter drains

Ponds and wetlands

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Offers UK businesses free, independent, confidential advice and support on practical ways to increase profits, minimise waste and reduce environmental impact. http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/ http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/188575 Enworks A unique business support programme co-ordinating environmental and health and safety advice, training and support to businesses throughout the Northwest of England. http://www.enworks.com/ Environment Agency The leading public body for protecting and improving the environment in England and Wales. It is the Agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s job to make sure that air, land and water are looked after by everyone in today's society, so that tomorrow's generations inherit a cleaner, healthier world. http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/ http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/subjects/waterres/?lang=_e DEFRA The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs is a UK Government Department whose overarching challenge is to enable everyone to live within their environmental means. http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/index.htm http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/water/index.htm

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NetRegs Provides free environmental guidance for small businesses in the UK. NetRegs help you to understand what you need to do to comply with environmental legislation and protect the environment. http://www.netregs.gov.uk/ http://www.netregs.gov.uk/netregs/mgmt_guidelines/1409231/?version=1&lang=_e CIRIA A member-based research and information organisation dedicated to improvement in the construction industry. Members include representatives from all parts of the supply chains of the modern built environment, covering building and civil engineering as well as transport and utilities infrastructure. CIRIAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work is recognised as being independent, objective and authoritative. http://www.ciria.org/ http://www.ciria.org/suds/index.html Centre for Construction Innovation CCI provides knowledge capital to the construction sector through research, advisory, consultancy and grant funded projects. http://www.ccinw.com/

B4.0 Policy Objective â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Transport Transport is important for a number of reasons. The use of cars creates carbon emissions through the burning of fossil fuels. Additionally, issues such as safety, congestion and public health can all be impacted by the transport choices we make. Developments will mean a change in transport patterns for an area and it is important that developers consider what those impacts are and how they may be minimised.

B4.1 Current Policy Statements

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The Transport White Paper (2004) The Future of Transport outlines a plan for improving transport by 2030. This ties closely with the issues of Sustainable Development as outlined in the Sustainable Buildings Strategy. The key goals related to the construction of new buildings are geared towards reducing congestion, lowering carbon emissions and improving safety on the road network. The Transport Green Paper from the European Union (2007) follows on from much of these issues, outlining the issue on a EU wide basis, with possible solutions for the delivery of better transport.

B4.2 Potential Actions

B4.2.1 Green Transport Plans

Green Transport Plans are wide ranging strategy documents for developments which cover the types of actions that may be engaged with to ensure that the issues highlighted by the policy are addressed. A Green Transport Plan will be specific to the development. It will be driven by the scale of the development and the potential impact on the existing transport infrastructure.

B4.2.2 Traffic Impact Assessment

A Traffic Impact Assessment may be required for larger developments. This may be a requirement of the planning or highways authority. This demonstrates the potential impact that a development may have on the traffic in the surrounding area.

B4.2.3 Facilities for Cyclists

The provision of facilities for people to cycle to work instead of driving can be a useful way of removing the needs for parking and cars. This may include bicycle storage facilities and showers within the development to allow people to cycle to work.

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B4.2.4 Better Integration with Public Transport

Another method of removing cars is to ensure that people travelling to and from the site can make use of public transport. This may be based on the location of the site, or for larger developments, a more detailed integration with public transport links.

B4.3 Advisory Services Department of Transport â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Travel Plans A travel plan is a package of measures produced by employers to encourage staff to use alternatives to single-occupancy car-use. Such a plan for example, could include: car sharing schemes; a commitment to improve cycling facilities; a dedicated bus service or restricted car parking allocations. It might also promote flexible-working practices such as remote access and video conferencing. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/sustainable/travelplans/ HM Revenue & Customs - A Fact Sheet for Employers setting up Green Travel Plans This fact sheet explains how the tax and national insurance systems encourage employers to set up Travel Plans for their employees. A Travel Plan is a package of practical measures to reduce car use for journeys to and from work and for business travel. http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/green-transport/travel-plans.htm Friends of the Earth http://www.foe.co.uk/index.html Centre for Construction Innovation CCI provides knowledge capital to the construction sector through research, advisory, consultancy and grant funded projects.

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B5.0 Policy Objective â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Place Shaping and Adaptation Place Shaping and Adaptation is about good design. This is concerned not only with the building in isolation, but also about how it affects the surrounding area, addressing issues such as access and public space. The policy objective is in place to ensure that developments consider their wider environment and how the people who live and work in the area relate to the building on a day-to-day basis.

B5.1 Current Policy Statements The main policy statement for the good design of buildings and public spaces is driven through the Better Public Buildings policy document in 1999. This policy was published through the advisory body CABE (Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment). This stated that well designed buildings and public spaces had a huge positive impact on performance and community issues in the long run.

B5.2 Potential Actions

B5.2.1 Design Review

The Design Review process involves submitting designs to an expert panel. This panel considers the design in a wider context across a number of different design parameters and considers how the design may be improved to better address the key design issues. In the North West this process is managed through the RENEW Northwest Places Matter programme.

B5.2.2 Design Champions

Within Local Authorities Design Champions should be identified from the elected members. The involvement of Design Champions at some level within local authority projects indicates a commitment to design excellence.

B5.2.3 Community Consultation (Design)

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For larger scale projects, an innovative approach to design consultation may be considered. Approaches such as a visitor centres or 3D interactive models of proposed developments which show the public how a completed project will relate to their environment can be seen to be beneficial. This may also be supported by some form of engagement process which allows individuals to feedback on proposals.

B5.3 Advisory Services CABE The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment is the main body for design advice in England and Wales. They publish research and best practice guidance for a wide variety of different sectors and design approaches. http://www.cabe.org.uk/ Places Matter The RENEW Northwest Places Matter project is concerned supporting design excellence in the North West. It also is the body involved in supporting the Design Review process. http://www.renew.co.uk/PlacesMatter.aspx Centre for Construction Innovation CCI provides knowledge capital to the construction sector through research, advisory, consultancy and grant funded projects. http://www.ccinw.com/

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B6.0 Policy Objective – Communities Addressing the issue of communities is a complex one which is determined by the locality of the development. At the most basic level this policy commitment asks that Project Applicants consider the needs of the community in which they are working and show consideration during the design and development of the project. At a more complex level there may be considerations about how a project engages with the community through related projects or specific project outcomes for community groups. This would be particularly important for projects such as regeneration projects.

B6.1 Current Policy Statements The communities’ agenda sits with the government department for Communities and Local Government. Some of the issues of the sustainable communities’ agenda are concerned with local economy and employment, which are covered under separate policy headings. Much of the current policy is associated with housing and regeneration, mainly through the Sustainable Communities: Building for the Future (2003) report which outlines both national and regional strategies for community engagement. This focus on housing does not mean that Project Applicants should not give these matters consideration if they are building non-domestic developments.

B6.2 Possible Actions

B6.2.1 Considerate Constructors Scheme

At the most basic level, Project Applicants need to commit to being good neighbours during the construction process. The Considerate Constructor’s Scheme is an externally audited process which supports the management of issues such as complaints, vehicle movements, dust and noise. This provides a formal structure for members of the public to communicate with the site team about any issues or concerns. It is externally audited by the CCS and awards are given for the best

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managed sites. The Considerate Constructors Scheme is a baseline requirement for all Project Applicants.

B6.2.2 Community Projects

Some Project Applicants may identify a number of community projects which they may undertake as part of the development process. These are activities which involve the project team engaging with the local community by dedicating resource. This may include visits to schools to talk about health and safety, site visits for the community or small building works or voluntary projects for staff which have a direct impact on the community within the immediate locality of the project site.

B6.2.3 Stakeholder Identification

Any project may have wide numbers of stakeholders. These are individuals or groups which may have an impact on, or be impacted by, the activities of the project team. These will be defined by the scope of the project and it would be useful for the Project Applicant to identify these and identify potential strategies for dealing with each of the stakeholder groups. Activities of this type form the basis of Corporate Social Responsibility strategies, which is the basic approach for organisations to manage Sustainable Development issues, such as those covered by the Sustainable Buildings Policy.

B6.2.4 Community Engagement

This is similar to the processes put in place by the Considerate Constructors Scheme, but expands the level of communications between the project development team and the local community. This may involve the appointment of a direct community liaison or the organisation of regular events where the local community have a chance to discuss issues with the project team. Where projects are environmentally or socially sensitive it will be important to engage any interest groups to ensure that their concerns are considered in the early stages of the project. It is envisaged that potential groups would be identified through the Stakeholder Engagement process. It is probable that this approach would only be adopted for larger scale projects with clearly defined impact issues.

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B6.3 Advisory Services Academy for Sustainable Communities The Academy of Sustainable Communities is a government funded organisation concerned with the development of skills and knowledge with regards to Sustainable Communities. http://www.ascskills.org.uk/pages/home Considerate Constructors Scheme All sites registered with the Scheme are monitored by an experienced industry professional to assess their performance against the eight point Code of Considerate Practice which includes the categories Considerate, Environment, Cleanliness, Good Neighbour, Respectful, Safe, Responsible and Accountable. http://www.considerateconstructorsscheme.org.uk/htm-home/index.html Stakeholder Engagement - AccountAbility AccountAbility is the main organisation concerned with the development of standards for Corporate Social Responsibility in the UK. The link provides access to a report which provides advice on how to approach stakeholder engagement. http://www.accountability21.net/uploadedFiles/publications/SES%20Exposure %20Draft%20-%20FullPDF.pdf Centre for Construction Innovation CCI provides knowledge capital to the construction sector through research, advisory, consultancy and grant funded projects. http://www.ccinw.com/

B7.0 Policy Objective â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Business

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This is concerned with supporting the idea that NWDA grant funding supports businesses at a regional and sub-regional level. This is concerned with two key different issues. The first is the support of local businesses, generally, to ensure that investment expenditure within the region is to the benefit of businesses locally. The second issue is the development of key industries within the region. For the purposes of the Sustainable Buildings Policy the key focus is with regards to local supply chains.

B7.1 Current Policy Context

B7.1.1 EU Policy

Many of the perceived barriers of community benefits are considered to emanate through European Union procurement guidelines. These affect project over certain thresholds. EU Procurement Guidance states that contracts cannot be let in a manner which restricts free trade between member states. However, there is some consideration for what the EU refers to as social clauses in the Consolidated Procurement Directive.

B7.1.2 National Policy

Much of the current interest in the ability of public authorities to determine local supply chain as a component of procured projects was started by the McFarlane Report: Achieving Community Benefits Through Contracts (2002). This initiated consideration by public bodies that they could offer contracts on the basis of the use of issues such as community engagement, training and skills and the use of local supply chain. This concept was embedded into the National Procurement Strategy (2003) from Communities and Local Government. This outlines and action plan for local authorities to engage with local suppliers and develop markets. Much of the content of the National Procurement Strategy can be taken to extend not only to local authorities, but also for other public bodies.

B7.2 Possible Actions

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B7.2.1 Identification of Local Supply Chain

The Project Applicant may identify a local supply chain which they intend to carry out the work. This can be from their existing supply chain, or they may have negotiated, prior to commencement of the project, to engage with specific organisations in the sub-region.

B7.2.1 Meet the Buyer Events

Where a Project Applicant has no existing local supply chain, they may propose a â&#x20AC;&#x153;Meet the Buyer Dayâ&#x20AC;? in the local region to make local businesses aware of the opportunities within their region or sub-region. These events will make the process of engaging with the Project Applicant transparent and give guidance on the possible procurement requirements that there may be.

B7.2.2 Supply Chain Development

Where local firms may be engaged in the longer term, the Project Applicant may link with appropriate support networks such as Business Links or, at the sub-regional level, Constructing the Future in East Lancashire, to provide development events for businesses within their supply chain. This may include general management issues, or lead to specific accreditation such as ISO 14001 for Environmental Management Systems. This approach is beneficial in the delivery of the project and for the longer term development of local companies.

B7.3 Advisory Services Business Links http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/home?site=102

Centre for Construction Innovation

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CCI provides knowledge capital to the construction sector through research, advisory, consultancy and grant funded projects. http://www.ccinw.com/ ConstructionSkills and Supply chain readiness networks These networks are a way of improving relationships between companies, clients, sub-contractors and business services by establishing and nurturing a network of local micro/SME construction-related businesses. Clients link work opportunities to the training and business development activity carried out by the construction company. They will tell the firm what they need to do in order to win work now, and in the future. http://www.citb.co.uk/supportingyou/supportingtheindustry/strategicinitiatives/supplyc hainreadinessnetworks.asp

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B8.0 Policy Objective – Employment and Training The Regional Economic Strategy (RES) for the Northwest places a both employment opportunities and training very highly on the regional agenda: The skills base of the Northwest workforce is critical to the economic development of the region. The North West Regional Development Agency has a key role in ensuring that training, education and skills development is meeting the needs of employers and individuals. This will ensure that the Northwest remains competitive and those businesses have the skilled and motivated workforce they need to be productive. The RES states that the focus of the NWDA is on: •

Influencing the development of national skills policy and implementing effective solutions in the region

Addressing sector skills challenges and priorities

Developing leadership and management skills and capacity

Supporting the role of further and higher education in transforming the regional economy

Linking workless people to employment

Integrating regional skills activity into Sub-Regional Partnerships and key strategic sites

For the purpose of the Policy, the North West Regional Development Agency are concerned with the objectives of linking people to employment and integrating regional skills activities into Sub-Regional Partnerships and key strategic sites.

B8.1 Current Policy Statements B8.1.1 International

European Union - Social Agenda 2005-2010 The Commission has launched its new Social Agenda for modernising Europe's social model under the revamped Lisbon Strategy for growth and jobs. The new agenda focuses on providing jobs and equal opportunities for all and ensuring that the benefits of the EU's growth and jobs drive reach everyone in society. By modernising labour markets and social protection systems, it will help people seize Revision 2 - March 09

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the opportunities created by international competition, technological advances and changing population patterns while protecting the most vulnerable in society. European Employment Strategy Tackling unemployment is a major concern for European citizens. The European Employment Strategy (EES) helps European Union countries to create more and better jobs. Objectives, priorities and targets are agreed at EU level. Governments then coordinate their efforts to promote employment. Local Employment Development With the EU Treaty, signed in Amsterdam in 1997, for the first time employment was put firmly on the Union's political agenda. The commitment to co-ordinate employment policies and to promote the creation of more and better jobs was translated into the European Employment Strategy in the Luxembourg "jobs summit" in 1997. The European Employment Strategy has supported the development of a territorial dimension of employment policies, underpinned in recent years by the emergence of regional and local action plans throughout Europe. In early 2000, at the European Council in Lisbon, European leaders took a further step by placing the objective of full employment at the centre of a new integrated policy agenda where economic reform, employment policy and social cohesion must work in tandem to make the European Union the most competitive and innovative knowledge-based area in the world. Free movement of workers: general provisions - Council Regulation (EEC) No 1612/68 of 15 October 1968 on the free movement of workers within the Community To ensure the effective mobility of workers within the European Union, the Regulation is based on the general principle of eliminating any direct or indirect discrimination based on nationality as regards employment, remuneration and other working conditions, access to accommodation and a worker's right to be joined by his family.

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B8.1.2 National

The main governmental department for employment and training is the Department for Work and Pensions. The DWP is here to: •

promote opportunity and independence for all

help individuals achieve their potential through employment

work to end poverty in all its forms

Ready for work: full employment in our generation ‘Ready for work: full employment in our generation’ sets out the steps the Government will take to reach the long term goals of an 80% employment rate and world class skills. The paper responds to the ‘In work, better off’ consultation that ran from July to October 2007. It details the steps that will be taken to further reform the welfare system, ensuring that workless people have access to efficient, modern, personalised support, and moving people from being spectators on the margins – passive recipients of benefits – to become active participants – seeking work, improving their skills, and getting on. In work, better off: next steps to full employment ’In work, better off’ sets out proposals to deliver a step change in the support offered by DWP to those who are most disadvantaged in the labour market. Their goal is nothing less than full employment in our generation. At the heart of the proposals is a new ‘jobs pledge’, which will build on the groundbreaking Local Employment Partnerships announced in the 2007 Budget. The DWP are aiming for major employers to offer a quarter of a million job opportunities to the long-term out-of-work. Local Employment Partnerships: realising the untapped potential Employers across the country are signing up to work in partnership with Government to open up opportunities for people who have not yet been able to take advantage of the employment options that are out there. Revision 2 - March 09

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More information about Local Employment Partnerships and how they could benefit your business is available on the Jobcentre Plus website. The Leitch Review on Skills The Government commissioned Sandy Leitch in 2004 to undertake an independent review of the UK's long term skills needs. The Review published its interim report "Skills in the UK: the long term challenge" in December 2005. It committed the Review, in its final report, to identify the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s optimal skills mix for 2020 to maximise economic growth, productivity and social justice, set out the balance of responsibility for achieving that skills profile and consider the policy framework required to support it. The final report of the Leitch Review of Skills, Prosperity for all in the global economy - world class skills, was published on 5th December 2006. The Review sets out a compelling vision for the UK. It shows that the UK must urgently raise achievements at all levels of skills and recommends that it commit to becoming a world leader in skills by 2020, benchmarked against the upper quartile of the OECD. This means doubling attainment at most levels of skill. Responsibility for achieving ambitions must be shared between Government, employers and individuals. The Egan Review: Skills for Sustainable Communities The (then) Deputy Prime Minister invited Sir John Egan to undertake a review of the skills and training that built environment professionals require to deliver sustainable communities. The Review looked at the skills and training required by professionals, planning authorities and developers and how they can work together in achieving measurable improvements to the communities they serve. It also considered how any skills gap can best be bridged. The Egan Review report was published in April 2004.

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mission for the industry is a fully skilled and professional UK construction industry working safely and delivering value. To achieve this ConstructionSkills need to deliver the Sector Skills Agreement that has been developed and agreed with stakeholders across government, industry and education. It covers their four key skills challenges: •

Improving business performance

Qualifying the existing workforce

Recruiting qualified new entrants

Improving the infrastructure in support of these priorities

ConstructionSkills and Sector Skills Agreements ConstructionSkills is the Sector Skills Council (SSC) for the construction industry. SSCs are responsible for tackling the skills and productivity needs of their sectors and have the four key goals: •

Reduce skills gaps and shortage

Improve productivity

Increase opportunities for all individuals in the workforce

Improve learning supply

SSCs are the voice of industry. They give employers direct input into how training funding and policy are organised. Sector Skills Agreements (SSAs) are the most powerful tool a Sector Skills Council has. They identify the skills and challenges faced by the industry and demonstrate the increased employer commitment to training to address these challenges. Essentially they are deals, between the industry and the government, to: •

Ensure training meet employers' needs

Increase the numbers of employers prepared to train their employees, and

Make individuals more employable.

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The Learning and Skills Council exists to make England better skilled and more competitive. They have a single goal: to improve the skills of England’s young people and adults to ensure we have a workforce of world-class standard. Train to Gain and the Learning and Skills Council Train to Gain is a service designed to help businesses get the training they need to succeed. The LSC is the organisation responsible for making England better skilled and more competitive. They are responsible for planning and funding high–quality vocational education and training for everyone and work closely with businesses to ensure this training meets their needs effectively. If a business is to be successful it needs to compete, and to compete it needs to train its employees. For businesses, getting the right skills advice is essential to choosing the best and most appropriate training. Train to Gain helps companies to do this by using experienced Skills Brokers who can: •

offer free impartial and independent advice to businesses

match any training needs identified with training providers

ensure that training is delivered to meet business needs.

One of the key goals of the service is to make sure that both the training and the skills advice are impartial, flexible, responsive, and offered at a time and place to suit businesses. This marks a cultural shift in how skills training will be delivered, and will ensure that the delivery of training is much more responsive to the needs of every business.

B8.1.3 Regional

Regional Economic Strategy 2006 The Regional Economic Strategy (RES) has been developed in the context of a rapidly changing global environment where international competition, energy supply and climate change are all of significant concern. It has also been developed in the context of a range of European, national and regional policies. These include the government’s Regional Economic Performance Public Service Agreement (PSA) target, aimed at reducing disparities in growth rates between regions, and the Revision 2 - March 09

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Northern Way Growth Strategy. There is considerable work underway between the Regional Development Agency, Government Office and the Regional Assembly to ensure that key regional strategies, in particular the Regional Housing Strategy, the Regional Spatial Strategy (incorporating the Regional Transport Strategy), and the RES are fully aligned. Specific sections of the RES that relate to employment and training include: •

Skills and Education

People and Jobs

Learning and Skills Council North West Regional Commissioning Plan 2008-09 This is the second regional commissioning plan for the North West. Since the publication of the first, significant change has taken place so that today the work of the Learning and Skills Council is more important than ever to the region’s economic and skills development. The strategic and policy landscape has evolved with the creation of two new departments - the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills (DIUS) –that now oversee the education and skills agenda. The Leitch report has led to new targets and priorities for the LSC and the establishment of Employment and Skills Boards in Greater Manchester and Cheshire & Warrington and others developing across the region. North West Strategic Analysis – Various Sub-Regions These reports presents updated versions of the sub-regional Strategic Analysis or evidence base for the various sub-regions of the North West produced in 2006. They are primarily quantitative reports, with analysis conducted at the sub-regional and district level, where appropriate. Their purpose is to highlight the issues which are of particular importance for the various areas.

B8.2 Potential Actions

B8.2.1 Training Plans

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Training plans give an organisation a picture of the skill levels and strengths within their company and can help them decide where and when to focus their training.

B8.2.2 Apprenticeships

Apprenticeships are practical work-based schemes, developed by the construction industry to help achieve a skilled and qualified workforce. They lead to respected qualifications - National Vocational Qualifications/Scottish Vocational Qualifications that prove that the standard of work expected in the industry has been met. Apprenticeships allow a young person to learn, work, earn and get qualified, all at the same time.

B8.2.3 On-Site Assessment and Training

On-Site Assessment and Training (OSAT) helps experienced workers get the qualifications to prove they can do the job. It turns their existing skills and experience into a nationally recognised qualification such as an NVQ or SVQ. Having these qualifications also helps qualify them for a Construction Skills Certification Scheme (CSCS) card. The whole process is carried out whilst the workforce is on site so they don't have to take time off to go to college.

B8.2.4 Links with Local Training Bodies

Building links with local training bodies, such as ConstructionSkills North West, Constructing the Future (in Pennine East Lancashire) and The People Pool (in Liverpool), for example, can help in recruiting local people and accessing apprenticeship and OSAT schemes, etc.

B8.2.5 Employment Days / Drop-In Centres

The Project Applicant may consider holding specific Employment Days for the project where local people can see what the project entails and what jobs/skills the Applicant is in need of to undertake the project. The Project Applicant may whish to take this further and have a specific Drop-In Centre where local people can come and go as they please to access potential employment opportunities. Revision 2 - March 09

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B8.2.6 Supply Chain Development

Where local firms may be engaged in the longer term, the Project Applicant may link with appropriate support networks such as ConstructionSkill or, at the sub-regional level, Constructing the Future in East Lancashire, to provide development events for local people within their sub-region. This would encourage local firms to take up apprenticeships and/or encourage the employment of local people.

B8.2.7 Data Analysis

Project Applicants should be encouraged to keep information on local employment and training issues and benchmark these against the national Constructing Excellence Key performance Indicators.

B8.3 Advisory Services ConstructionSkills The Sector Skills Council for construction. They represent every part of the construction industry, from architects to bricklayers, in every part of the UK and cover every part of the skills agenda - from grants to college places. http://www.constructionskills.net/ http://www.citb-constructionskills.co.uk/index.asp http://www.citb-constructionskills.co.uk/traininglearning/ http://www.cskills.org/supportingyou/supportingyourbusiness/businessperformance/tr aininganddevelopmentplans/ Investors in People Investors in People provide straightforward, proven frameworks for delivering business improvement through people http://www.investorsinpeople.co.uk/Pages/Home.aspx

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Learning and Skills Council The Learning and Skills Council exists to make England better skilled and more competitive. They have a single goal: to improve the skills of England’s young people and adults to ensure we have a workforce of world-class standard. http://www.lsc.gov.uk/ http://www.lsc.gov.uk/regions/NorthWest Train to Gain A service designed to help businesses get the training they need to succeed. http://www.traintogain.gov.uk/ http://www.traintogain.gov.uk/Region/NorthWest/ Construction for Merseyside Construction for Merseyside Ltd (CfM) has been established by a board of private sector developers and public agencies to: •

Assist Merseyside's construction industry to become more competitive

Create more opportunities for local people to gain the skills they need to secure sustainable employment in the construction industry

http://www.constructionformerseyside.com/content/home.aspx The People Pool – Promoting employment in Liverpool The People Pool is committed to providing a professional, flexible and free service to all employers in the city of Liverpool who wish to invest in a local workforce. http://www.thepeoplepool.co.uk/html/index.html Constructing the Future

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Through investment in Housing Market Renewal, the Elevate-East Lancashire programme will have a significant impact on the construction industry in Pennine Lancashire with increased demand for skilled local labour, qualified contractors and suppliers. To ensure that these demands are met to the benefit of local residents and businesses, the Constructing the Future project has been launched by Elevate. Constructing the Future offers residents the opportunity to improve skills, gain qualifications, improve employability and access employment. http://www.elevate-eastlancs.co.uk/main/About%20us/Skills%20%26%20training? DOCID=29&page=1 Centre for Construction Innovation CCI provides knowledge capital to the construction sector through research, advisory, consultancy and grant funded projects. http://www.ccinw.com/

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B9.0 Policy Objective – Whole Life Value The whole-life value of a development takes into account many things including the costs of acquiring it (including consultancy, design and construction costs, and equipment), the costs of operating it and the costs of maintaining it over its whole life through to its eventual disposal – that is, the total ownership costs. Decisions about how we choose to construct a building can have cost implications over the total period of the buildings life, including its operation and maintenance. Whole Life Value means thinking about all of the costs of a building over its lifetime at the very earliest stage of development and making decisions to maximise the value for money of the building whilst minimising its cost: value for money is defined as the optimum combination of whole life costs and quality to meet the client’s requirements - it is not the same as initial purchase price. For the purpose of the Policy the North West Regional Development Agency are concerned with the objectives of achieving value for money from projects.

B9.1 Current Policy Statements

B9.1.1 National

Review of Civil Procurement in Central Government (Gershon 1999) Recommendations – Process: A well defined, common process for the strategic management of large, complex or novel (or some combination of these criteria) procurements should be implemented based on the following principles: •

projects have distinct phases in their life-cycle

the 'gates' between these phases can be characterised by sets of deliverables (e.g. requirements specification, procurement plan, project management plan, risk management plan)

deliverables should be assessed by people with relevant expertise who are independent of the project

important 'gates' (typically 3 in the life cycle) can only be passed as a result of successful reviews chaired by senior people who have no vested interest in the outcome of the review.

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Achieving Excellence in Construction (Office of Government Commerce 1999) Through the Achieving Excellence in Construction initiative, central Government departments and public sector organisations commit to maximise, by continuous improvement, the efficiency, effectiveness and value for money of their procurement of new works, maintenance and refurbishment. Achieving Excellence Guide 7 - Whole-Life costing This guide focuses on the need to base decisions on a whole-life approach rather than the up front capital cost of the construction. Building a Better Quality of Life (Department of Environment, Transport & the Regions (DETR 2000) - promoting a sustainability agenda A Sustainable Economic Base for Construction - Guidance to all Government Departments and Agencies stresses the need to assess whole life costs to help get best value from construction procurement. The OGC Gateway Process The OGC Gateway Process examines programmes and projects at key decision points in their lifecycle. It looks ahead to provide assurance that they can progress successfully to the next stage; the process is best practice in central civil government, the health sector, local government and Defence. Local Government Act 1999 A best value authority must conduct best value reviews of its functions in accordance with the provisions of any order made under this section

Modernising Construction (National Audit Office, 2001)

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This report is about how the procurement and delivery of construction projects in the United Kingdom can be modernised, with benefits for all – the Construction Industry as well as clients. “More attention to design and early involvement of the whole construction team could also improve the operational efficiency of completed buildings resulting in potentially greater savings over the whole life of the building.” Releasing resources for the frontline: Independent Review of Public Sector Efficiency (Gershon 2004) This document sets out the conclusions of Sir Peter Gershon's review of public sector efficiency. In particular, it sets out the scope for further efficiencies that he has identified within the public sector's back office, procurement, transaction service and policy-making functions. Achieving Excellence: Sustainable Development in Construction (OGC 2008) OGC has published new guidance on sustainable development in construction projects. This eleventh Achieving Excellence guide sets out the processes by which public sector clients should procure and deliver construction projects that promote sustainable development while still achieving the best whole life value for money.

B9.1.2 Regional

NWDA: Procurement Policy NWDA: Coordinated Sustainable procurement for Northwest Supply Chain

B9.2 Potential Actions

B9.2.1 Whole Life Cost/Value Assessment

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includes cost in use (maintenance, cleaning, security, energy and insurances, rent/rates and other specific business occupancy facilities management services), as well as taking into account associated finance and income, taxation and residual value/disposal costs. A key part of the whole life cost assessment also addresses environmental and sustainability aspects. Whole life cost concepts can be taken further still, to embrace ‘whole live value’. This involves making decisions based on broader criteria whilst also taking account of the needs of a wider range of stakeholders instead of just those typically involved in the immediate decision making process. These assessments represent the optimum method for determining true ‘best value’ solutions.

B9.3 Advisory Services Office of Government Commerce The Office of Government Commerce (OGC) is responsible for improving value for money by driving up standards and capability in procurement, from commodities buying to the delivery of major capital projects, maximising the effective use of 60% of Government spending and a £30 billion property estate. OGC is tasked with the transformation of government procurement and with driving up standards and procurement capability across central Government. The OGC will do this through: setting the right procurement standards and ensuring they are met; capitalising on the government's collective buying power to achieve value for money and playing a stronger role in the successful delivery of major projects http://www.ogc.gov.uk/about_OGC.asp

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B10.0

Policy Objective â&#x20AC;&#x201C; User Satisfaction and Comfort

User Satisfaction and Comfort is concerned with ensuring that developments deliver buildings that support the activity that goes on inside them through good design and well managed buildings. User Satisfaction and Comfort are driven by a wide variety of issues such as aesthetics, management and control of lighting and heating, movement in and around the building and other issues that confront users. This is similar in some ways to Place Shaping and Adaptation, but it regards the specific building and the people inside it as the core issue, rather than how the building fits in its surrounding area.

B10.1 Current Policy Considerations There are no direct policy considerations, although Better Public Buildings does touch on some of these issues. The issue is essentially about good practice in design and should be part of the specific considerations of the design and construction process.

B10.2 Potential Actions

B10.2.1

Better Briefing and Design

The Project Applicant may engage in briefing and design processes that may include potential tenants. This is not a requirement of the policy, but any statement that takes this approach should be considered as a positive approach.

B10.2.2

Post Occupancy Evaluation

The Project Applicant will be required to undertake a post-occupancy evaluation. This simply means that they must assess how end users feel about their building after they have been in occupation for a period of time. There are a number of approaches that may be taken depending on the scale of the development.

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All of these approaches will involve asking a number of questions of the individuals who are in occupation of the building. This can be a simple questionnaire or a more detailed approach. The current baseline for the Sustainable Buildings Policy is that a simple questionnaire is completed with a sample of the building users about the performance of the building. Examples where this is used are the Design Quality Indicators (DQI) from the Construction Industry Council and the Achieving Excellence Design Evaluation Toolkit (AEDET) used in healthcare buildings.

B10.2.3

Design Quality Indicators

The Design Quality Indicator (DQI) is a pioneering process for evaluating design quality of buildings; it can be used by everyone involved the development process to contribute to improving the quality of the built environment.

B10.3 Advisory Services CABE The Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE) stands for an improvement in people's quality of life through good design. http://www.cabe.org.uk/default.aspx?contentitemid=73 Design Quality Indicators http://www.dqi.org.uk/DQI/default.htm Centre for Construction Innovation CCI provides knowledge capital to the construction sector through research, advisory, consultancy and grant funded projects. http://www.ccinw.com/

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Appendix C â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Glossary C1 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Tools

Tool CEEQUAL

Description

Information in

Further Details

The Civil Engineering

Document See Page 27

http://www.ceequal.c

Environmental Quality

Section A1.3

om

Assessment and Award Scheme (CEEQUAL) is an awards scheme assessing the environmental quality of civil engineering projects - a civil engineering equivalent to Building

BREEAM for buildings. The Building Regulations set

http://www.direct.gov.

Regulations

standards for the design and

uk/en/HomeAndCom

construction of buildings,

munity/Planning/Buil dingRegulations/inde

primarily to ensure the safety and

x.htm

health for people in or around those buildings, but also for energy conservation and access BREEAM

to and about buildings. Building Research Establishment

See page 25

http://www.breeam.or

Environmental Assessment

Section A1.2

g/

Model (BREEAM) is an assessment model which looks at good and best practice under Considerate

a wide number of issues. The Considerate Constructors

See page 35

http://www.considerat

Constructors

Scheme is the national initiative,

Section A7.1

econstructorsscheme

Scheme

set up by the construction

.org.uk/htmhome/index-

industry, to improve its image

video.html

Energy

In January 2003, the European

See page 30

www.communities.

Performance

Union Directive on the Energy

Section A2.1

gov.uk/publications

Certificates

Performance of Buildings (EPBD)

.gov.uk/publication

came into force, creating a

s/planningandbuildi

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NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

common framework to promote

ng/

the improvement of the energy

nondwelling

performance of buildings across the European Union. One of the requirements of the Directive is the introduction of Energy Performance Certificates (EPCs). The directive was implemented in England and Wales in 2008. Since October 2008, it has been a legal requirement for all properties including homes, commercial and public buildings to have an EPC whenever they are: Constructed, Sold,Let EPCs give the building owners, occupiers and purchasers information on the energy performance of their building compared to a benchmark. The energy performance is expressed using an ‘asset rating’ or ‘CO2 index’ which grades the building’s CO2 performance from G (least energy efficient) to A+ (most energy efficient). Key

Key Performance Indicators

See page 30

http://www.constructi

Performance

(KPIs) are a standard way of

Section A3.2

ngexcellence.org.uk/

Indicators

measuring and benchmarking

Waste KPIs,

membership/benchm

against an industry standard

page 32 Section A4.2 Water KPIs, page 37 Section A9.2 Employment &

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arking.jsp http://www.ccinw.co m/sites/kpi_index.ht ml?site_id=5


NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

Local SBEM is a recognised software

Economy KPIs See page 28

http://www.ncm.bre.c

approach which calculates

Section A2.1

o.uk/

Sustainability

Method (NCM) This is an on-line tool which

See page 23

http://www.sdcheck

Checklist for

allows Project Applicants to

Section A1.1

list-

Developments

consider a wide number of

SBEM

energy use and CO2 on the basis of certain building parameters following the National Calculation

sustainability issues.

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northwest.org.uk/


C2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Documents

Document

Published

Web address

by Achieving Community Benefits

Joseph

http://books.google.co.uk/books?

Through Contracts

Rowntree

id=JsXxZ2XfhKoC&dq=achieving+community+benefits+through+contracts&pg=PP1&ots=KSO6m_X_bW&s

Foundation

ig=_srzYHdk6Tv98mfSaOBBbzd-N5c&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.co.uk/search? sourceid=navclient&hl=en-GB&ie=UTF8&q=Achieving+Community+Benefits+Through+Contracts+&sa=X&oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-

Achieving Excellence in

OGC

thumbnail http://www.ogc.gov.uk/guidance_achieving_excellence_in_construction.asp

Construction Achieving Excellence:

OGC

http://www.ogc.gov.uk/news_2008_4304.asp

Construction Bali Roadmap Better Public Buildings

Bali COP CMS

http://www.baliroadmap.org.uk/ http://www.culture.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/31A1350C-E0A4-4118-8856-

Building a Better Quality of Life

BERR

A015E34D6E64/0/better_pub_buildings1.pdf http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file13547.pdf

Building Regulations

Directgov

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/HomeAndCommunity/Planning/BuildingRegulations/index.htm

Climate Change Levy

DEFRA

http://www.cclevy.com/

Sustainable Development in


NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

Code for Sustainable Homes

CLG

http://www.planningportal.gov.uk/uploads/code_for_sustainable_homes_techguide.pdf

Council Directive 99/31/EC of

EU

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:31999L0031:EN:HTML

waste Draft Climate Change Bill

DEFRA

http://www.defra.gov.uk/corporate/consult/climatechange-bill/

Energy Review: "The Energy

BERR

http://www.dti.gov.uk/energy/review/page31995.html

Challenge" Energy white paper: meeting

BERR

http://www.berr.gov.uk/energy/whitepaper/page39534.html

the energy challenge EU Waste Framework

EU

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2006/l_114/l_11420060427en00090021.pdf

European Employment

EU

http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/employment_strategy/index_en.htm

Strategy European Union - Social

EU

http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/social_policy_agenda/social_pol_ag_en.html

Agenda 2005-2010 European Union the Directive

EU

http://europa.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l27042.htm

Buildings Hazardous Waste Directive

DEFRA

http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/topics/hazwaste/index.htm#hazwdir

Interim Code of Practice for

CIREA

http://www.ciria.org/suds/icop.htm

Sustainable Drainage Systems Kyoto Protocol

Framework

http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php

26 April 1999 on the landfill of

on the Energy Performance of

Convention on Climate Change

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NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

(UNFCCC)

Modernising Construction

NAO

http://www.nao.org.uk/publications/nao_reports/00-01/000187es.pdf

National Procurement Strategy

CLG

http://www.communities.gov.uk/localgovernment/efficiencybetter/nationalprocurementprogramme/nationalpr ocurementstrategy/

NWDA: Procurement Policy

NWDA

http://www.nwda.co.uk/pdf/PROCUREMENT_POLICY_Dec05.pdf

Our Energy Future Ready for work: full

DTI/BERR DWP

http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file10719.pdf http://www.dwp.gov.uk/welfarereform/readyforwork/

employment in our generation Regional Economic Strategy

NWDA

http://www.nwda.co.uk/PDF/RES06v2.pdf

Releasing resources for the

HMT

http://www.hm-

frontline: Independent Review

treasury.gov.uk/spending_review/spend_sr04/associated_documents/spending_sr04_efficiency.cfm

of Public Sector Efficiency (Gershon 2004) Review of Civil Procurement in

HMT

http://archive.treasury.gov.uk/docs/1999/pgfinalr.html

NWDA

http://www.nwda.co.uk/PDF/climatechange.pdf

Central Government (Gershon 1999) Rising to the Challenge: a Climate Change Action Plan for Englandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s North West-2009

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NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

Sustainable Communities:

CLG

http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/communities/sustainablecommunitiesbuilding

The Egan Review: Skills for

CLG

http://www.communities.gov.uk/documents/communities/pdf/152086

Sustainable Communities The Leitch Review on Skills

HMT

http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/independent_reviews/leitch_review/review_leitch_index.cfm

Transport Green Paper from

EU

http://ec.europa.eu/transport/clean/green_paper_urban_transport/index_en.htm

the European Union Transport White Paper: The

DfT

http://www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/whitepapers/fot/

Future of Transport Waste Strategy for England

DEFRA

http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/strategy/strategy07/pdf/waste07-strategy.pdf

2007 Water Act 2003

PSI

http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2003/ukpga_20030037_en_1

Building for the Future

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C3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Government Departments

Abbreviation

Department

Web Address

BERR

Department of

http://www.berr.gov.uk/

Business, Enterprise and Regulatory CLG

Reform Department of

http://www.communities.gov.uk/corporate/

Communities and CMS

Local Government Department for

http://www.culture.gov.uk/

Culture, Media and DEFRA

Sport Department of the

http://www.defra.gov.uk/

Environment, Food DfT

and Rural Affairs Department for

http://www.dft.gov.uk/

Directgov

Transport UK Government

http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/index.htm

DWP

Department for Work

http://www.dwp.gov.uk/

HMT NAO OGC

and Pensions HM Treasury National Audit Office Office of Government

http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/ http://www.nao.org.uk/ http://www.ogc.gov.uk/index.asp

PSI

Commerce Office of Public

http://www.opsi.gov.uk/

Sector Information


NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

C4 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Useful Organisations

Organisation

Web Address

Academy for

http://www.ascskills.org.uk/pages/home

Sustainable Communities AccountAbility

http://www.accountability21.net/uploadedFiles/publications/SES

Building Research

%20Exposure%20Draft%20-%20FullPDF.pdf http://www.bre.co.uk/

Establishment (BRE) Business Links CABE Carbon Trust

http://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/home?site=102 http://www.cabe.org.uk/ http://www.carbontrust.co.uk/energy/assessyourorganisation/design_advice.

CEEQUAL

htm http://www.ceequal.com

Centre for

http://www.ccinw.com/

Construction Innovation CIREA Considerate

http://www.ciria.org/ http://www.considerateconstructorsscheme.org.uk/htm-home/index-

Constructors

video.html

Scheme Consolidated

http://masons.com/media/611812579.pdf

Procurement Directive ConstructionSkills Design Quality

http://www.constructionskills.net/ http://www.dqi.org.uk/DQI/default.htm

Indicators Energy Saving

http://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/

Trust Envirolink

http://www.envirolinknorthwest.co.uk/Envirolink/Main.nsf?OpenDatabase

Northwest Environment

http://www.environment-agency.gov.uk/

Agency Envirowise Enworks Friends of the

http://www.envirowise.gov.uk/ http://www.enworks.com/ http://www.foe.co.uk/index.html

Earth Investors in People Learning and Skills

http://www.investorsinpeople.co.uk/Pages/Home.aspx http://www.lsc.gov.uk/

Council NetRegs Renewables North

http://www.netregs.gov.uk/ http://www.renewablesnorthwest.co.uk/index.aspx

West

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NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

Waste Aware

http://www.wasteawareconstruction.org.uk/

Construction WRAP

http://www.wrap.org.uk/

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NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

Appendix D â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Checklists The following checklists can be used to ensure that all necessary processes and application tools have been completed at the various stages of a development.

D1

Major Refurbishments

Development Name: Project Applicant: Development Stage / Applications

Carbon Complete? Comments

Waste Complete? Comments

Water Complete? Comments

Transport Complete? Comments

Revision 2 - March 09

Concept Sustainability Checklist for Developments

Policy Objective

Development &

Exit & Evaluation

Appraisal EPCs BREEAM SBEM

EPCs BREEAM SBEM

BREEAM % Net Waste

BREEAM % Net Waste

BREEAM

BREEAM

BREEAM

BREEAM

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NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

D2

Development less than ÂŁ5million

Development Name: Project Applicant: Development Stage / Applications

Carbon

Complete? Comments

Waste Complete? Comments

Water Complete? Comments

Transport

Concept Sustainability Checklist for Developments

Policy Objective

Development &

Exit & Evaluation

Appraisal BREEAM

BREEAM

SBEM

SBEM

EPCs (for refurbishment)

EPCs

BREEAM

BREEAM

% Net Waste

% Net Waste

BREEAM

BREEAM

% Net Water

% Net Water

BREEAM

BREEAM

Design Review

Design Review

Commitment to Considerate Constructors

Considerate Constructors

Commitment to Sub-Regional Supply Chain

% Spend with SubRegional Supply Chain

Possible Employment and Training Strategy

Employment and Training Strategy Outcomes

Whole Life Value Strategy

Whole Life Value Strategy

Commitment to Evaluation

Evaluation

Complete? Comments

Place Shaping Complete? Comments

Communities Complete? Comments

Business Complete? Comments

Employment and Training Complete? Comments

Whole Life Value Complete? Comments

User Satisfaction and Comfort

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NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

Complete? Comments

D3

Development more than ÂŁ5million

Development Name: Project Applicant: Development Stage / Applications

Carbon

Complete? Comments

Waste

Complete? Comments

Water

Concept Sustainability Checklist for Developments

Policy Objective

Development & Appraisal

Exit & Evaluation

BREEAM SBEM EPCs (for refurbishment) Carbon Strategy

BREEAM SBEM EPCs (for refurbishment) Carbon Strategy Outcomes

BREEAM % Net Waste Waste Strategy

BREEAM % Net Waste Waste Strategy Outcomes

BREEAM % Net Water Water Strategy

BREEAM % Net Water Water Strategy Outcomes

BREEAM Transport Strategy

BREEAM Transport Strategy Outcomes

Design Review

Design Review

Commitment to Considerate Constructors Community Strategy

Considerate Constructors Community Strategy Outcomes

Commitment to SubRegional Supply Chain

% Spend with SubRegional Supply Chain

Employment and Training Strategy

Employment and Training Strategy Outcomes

Whole Life Value Strategy

Whole Life Value Strategy Outcomes

Complete? Comments

Transport Complete? Comments

Place Shaping Complete? Comments

Communities

Complete? Comments

Business Complete? Comments

Employment and Training Complete? Comments Whole Life Value Complete? Comments

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User Satisfaction and Comfort

Commitment to Evaluation

Complete? Comments

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Evaluation


NWDA Sustainable Buildings: Guidance Note

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http://www.nwda.co.uk/docs/NWDASustainableBuildingsGuidanceNote_Full_Rev2EPCs