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Northwest regional overview THE CONSTRUCTION SECTOR: ENTERPRISE COUNT REGIONAL AND SUB REGIONAL OVERVIEW In Summer 2007, the NWDA Research Team undertook a project to get more accurate data on the region’s sectors. Using four digit 2003 SIC codes, 17 sectors that make up the whole economy were defined, plus two additional cross-cutting industries. Data was sourced from the Office for National Statistics Inter Departmental Business Register, to show the number of enterprises, employees and business turnover for each sector. This report presents the findings and analysis for the construction sector.

NATIONAL CONTEXT Relative to the region’s working age population 1 , the northwest ‘hits below its weight’ in respect of the number of enterprises, employees and business turnover associated with the construction sector. In overall terms, the region contains: ‰ ‰

‰ ‰

13.3% of England’s working age population. 11.4% of England’s enterprises associated with the sector (compared to 11.9% of other 2 enterprises). 11.6% of England’s employees in the sector (11.4% of other employees). 9.0% of England’s business turnover for the sector (8.8% of other business turnover).

REGIONAL DIMENSION The construction sector in the northwest is comprised of 27,985 enterprises, employs 187,720 people and has an annual turnover of £21.4billion. Enterprise size - against this backdrop small enterprises, in the region, employing less than 10 people, play an important role as they: ‰ ‰ ‰

Represent 90.2% of the sector’s enterprises (86.8% of other enterprises). Provide 31.4% of the sector’s jobs (15.4% of other jobs in the region). Deliver 29.2% of the sector’s business turnover (17.6% of other business turnover).

Change over time – within the northwest, between 1998 and 2006, it can be seen that the: ‰ ‰ ‰

Number of enterprises in the sector has risen by +16.5% (other enterprises = -11.7%). Number of employees in the sector has risen by +19.7% (other employees = +0.8%). Value of business turnover in the sector has risen by +27.9%. (corrected to a 1998 base to account for inflation).

Sectoral comparisons – compared to the NWDA’s other eighteen enterprise areas: ‰ ‰ ‰

1 2

Sixteen of the region’s other 18 enterprise areas contain fewer companies. Eleven of the enterprise areas provide fewer jobs. Thirteen of the enterprise areas generate a lower business turnover.

The working age population has been agreed with the Office of National Statistics, see glossary for details. For definition of ‘other’ enterprises, employees and business turnover, refer to the glossary.

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector DATA NOTES AND GLOSSARY Data/terminology

Source/comments

Other enterprises, employees and business turnover

The term 'other' in relation to the number of enterprises, employees and levels of business turnover refers to the data for all enterprise areas within the region apart from those within the business & professional sector and those in the specific sector which the chapter/paper that is the focus of the paper being read. Consequently, for example ‘other’ for the creative and digital sector is different to the ‘other’ in the food and drink sector report. This affects all of the tables, graphs and commentary in the report.

Data contained in main report:

Office for National Statistics (Inter-Departmental Business Register) is crown copyright material and has been reproduced with the permission of the controller of HMSO.

IDBR

The data analysis has been prepared by Knight, Kavanagh and Page for the Northwest Regional Development Agency.

Enterprise and local unit level data

N.B.: The number of enterprises, employees and turnover are based on extracts from the IDBR at enterprise (business) level. Enterprise information can place data at Head Office level and result in ‘higher/lower’ numbers than might otherwise be expected. This is not, however, consistent across all areas (see also notes on turnover). The alternative is a ‘local unit’ count which reflects the number of enterprises and employees in relation to their actual place of work. See http://www.statistics.gov.uk/idbr/idbr.asp

Standard Industrial Classifications

Sectors have been defined on the basis of 4-digit SIC codes; details can be obtained from the NWDA research team upon request. Because some 4-digit codes span more than one sector, the definitions are only approximate and the data may omit some activity within the sector and include some activity outside of it.

Turnover

At its simplest this refers to the monies going through a company’s accounts. Although turnover has been used as part of the assessment, caution should be exercised in the use of the data. In addition to the company headquarters issue (referred to above) not all companies disclose data on turnover. Turnover data is not a surrogate for profit information. One of the most obvious examples being professional football clubs, many of which have high levels of turnover but few convert this to operational profit. Although turnover data for 2006 is provided at 2006 prices; time series data has been modified to remove the effects of inflation. Consequently all growth or decline reflects real change since 1998.

Working age population

The working age population, for the purposes of this exercise, has been agreed with the Office of National Statistics as males aged 16-64 years and females aged 16-59 years and is shown as a proportion of England’s population aged 16-59/64 years.

Regional Economic Strategy (RES)

The RES is regarded as the blueprint for the region’s economic development. It is the foundation for everything that the NWDA does. The current RES was launched in March 2006 and sets out a clear vision for the region’s economy and identifies specific priority actions to meet the economic challenges and opportunities of the next ten years and to close the economic gap with the rest of England. In the geography adopted for the RES, Halton is incorporated into the Merseyside area.

Nomenclature des Unités Territoriales Statistiques (NUTS)

Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics and statistical regions - for the classification of economic activities in the European Community, these regions were established by Eurostat more than 25 years ago. In the geography used for NUTS data (including GVA), Halton is included in Cheshire.

NOTE: At the time of writing this paper, GVA data was only readily available for NUTS areas and even then had gaps in its coverage due to SIC coding issues. This factor combined with the incompatible geographies used in the NUTS and RES data led to the decision that sectoral and industry GVA figures will be produced as supplementary information for RES based geographies in 2008.

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector SUB-REGIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ABSOLUTE TERMS Enterprises More than a third (36.6%) of the region’s enterprises, within the sector, are located in Greater Manchester; compared to 34.7% of other enterprises.

Northwest: Percentage of companies by sub-region (2006)

‰

50.0%

40.0% Percentage

Relative to other enterprises a slightly higher than average share of the region’s enterprises, from the sector, are located in Greater Merseyside (16.1%). ‰

60.0%

36.6%

Other enterprise areas

34.7%

30.0% Construction

23.5% 23.4%

20.0% 15.6%

15.0%

13.5%

16.1%

11.1% 10.4%

10.0%

0.0% Cheshire

Cumbria

Greater Manchester

Lancashire

Greater Merseyside

Source: IDBR ONS

Employees Almost two fifths (37.7%) of the sector’s employees, across the region, work for enterprises in Greater Manchester; compared to 38.9% of other employees.

Northwest: Percentage of employees by sub-region (2006)

‰

60.0%

50.0%

Percentage

Relative to other enterprise areas a slightly lower than average share of the region’s employees, in the sector, are located in Lancashire (20.1%) and Greater Merseyside (16.9%).

Other enterprise areas 30.0% Construction

20.0%

16.9%

10.0%

7.3% 5.5%

0.0% Cheshire

Cumbria

Greater Manchester

Lancashire

Greater Merseyside

Source: IDBR ONS

Northwest: Percentage of business turnover by sub-region (2006)

‰

60.0%

50.0%

40.0% Percentage

Relative to other enterprise areas a slightly lower than average share of the region’s turnover, for the sector, is located in Greater Merseyside (15.3%).

18.1%

19.3%

16.0%

Turnover

‰

37.7%

20.3% 20.1%

‰

Almost two fifths of the sector’s regional turnover is generated in Greater Manchester (38.8%); compared to 37.5% of other business turnover.

38.9%

40.0%

37.5%

38.8%

Other enterprise areas 30.0% Construction 20.2%

21.2%

19.9% 19.7%

20.0%

17.7% 15.3%

10.0% 4.8%

4.9%

0.0% Cheshire

Cumbria

Greater Manchester

Lancashire

Greater Merseyside

Source: IDBR ONS

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector ENTERPRISE SIZE Number of enterprises 90.2% of enterprises within the sector employ fewer than ten people and 0.2% employ 250 or more. In comparison, 86.8% of other enterprises employ fewer than ten people; 0.6% employ 250 or more.

‰

‰

Employee numbers Employment within the sector tends to be from across the spectrum with 31.4% of its employees working in small enterprises and 26.2% working in large enterprises. In comparison, across other enterprise areas, only 15.4% of people work for small enterprises while 58.2% of people work in large enterprises.

‰

‰

Business turnover Turnover within the sector tends to come from across the spectrum with 29.2% coming from small enterprises and 27.5% coming from large enterprises. In comparison, across other enterprise areas, 17.6% of the region’s turnover is generated by small enterprises while 49.5% comes from large enterprises.

‰

‰

0-9

Enterprises

Employees

Business turnover

Number of enterprises, employees and turnover by company size Northwest region (2006)

Construction

23.3%

29.2%

Other enterprise areas

16.1%

17.6%

Construction

15.4%

27.5%

18.2%

12.6%

26.2%

58.2%

Construction

8.3%

90.2%

Other enterprise areas

10.7%

86.8%

0%

10%

20%

30%

250+

49.5%

24.2%

13.7%

50-249

20.0%

16.8%

31.4%

Other enterprise areas

10-49

40%

50%

60%

70%

80%

90%

100%

Source: IDBR ONS

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector PERFORMANCE RELATIVE TO POPULATION OF WORKING AGE The following charts and data illustrate an alternative perspective to that shown above. For example, they highlight the fact that although Greater Manchester is undoubtedly the driving force of the region, it does not always make the most significant contribution. The key question, at regional and sub-regional level, being ‘does the area hit above or below its weight relative to the size of its working age population?’ Population The first diagram highlights the regional and sub-regional population of working age and provides a context for the charts that follow. For example, the Northwest is home to 13.3% of England’s population aged 16-59/64 years and 5.1% are resident in Greater Manchester.

Regional share of working age population (2006)

Lancashire 2.8%

Greater Merseyside 2.9% Rest of England 86.7%

Greater Manchester 5.1%

Cumbria 0.9%

Regional perspective The northwest contains: ‰

‰

‰

North West 13.3%

Cheshire (including Warrington) 1.7%

Construction sector - Regional share Number of enterprises (2006)

11.4% of England’s enterprises within the sector and 11.9% of other enterprises. 11.6% of England’s employees in the sector and 11.4% of other employees. 9.0% of England’s turnover for the sector and 8.8% of turnover for other enterprises areas.

Lancashire 2.7%

Rest of England 88.6%

Greater Merseyside 1.8% Greater Manchester 4.2%

Cumbria 1.2%

Cheshire (including Warrington) 1.5%

Source: IDBR ONS

In short, for enterprises within the sector, the region ‘hits below its weight’ in terms of the number of enterprises, employees and turnover. Whilst, for other enterprise areas the region also ‘hits below its weight’ in terms of the number of enterprises, employees and business turnover.*

North West 11.4%

Other enterprise areas - Regional share Number of enterprises (2006)

Lancashire 2.8%

Rest of England 88.1%

North West 11.9%

Greater Merseyside 1.8%

Greater Manchester 4.1%

Cumbria 1.3%

Cheshire (including Warrington) 1.9%

Source: IDBR ONS

* See data notes on turnover

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector In terms of ‘hitting above or below their weight’, for this sector, it can be seen that: ‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

Cheshire (including Warrington) - hits above its weight in terms of the employees and business turnover, but below it for the number of enterprises, in the sector. This points to a small number of successful large employers. Cumbria – hits above its weight for the number of enterprises, but below it for number of employees and business turnover, in the sector. This points towards a large number of small enterprises with low turnover. Greater Manchester – hits below its weight for the number of enterprises, employees and business turnover, in the sector. This indicates relatively few enterprises, small in size, with low turnover. Lancashire (including Blackburn with Darwen and Blackpool) – hits below its weight for the number of enterprises, employees and business turnover, in the sector. This indicates relatively few enterprises, small in size, with low turnover. Greater Merseyside (including Halton) – hits below its weight on all three counts, in the sector. This indicates relatively few enterprises, small in size, with low turnover.

Construction sector - Regional share Number of employees (2006)

Lancashire 2.3%

Rest of England 88.4%

North West 11.6%

Greater Merseyside 2.0%

Greater Manchester 4.4%

Cheshire (including Warrington) 2.1%

Cumbria 0.8%

Source: IDBR ONS

Other enterprise areas - Regional share Number of employees (2006)

Lancashire 2.3%

Greater Merseyside 2.2% Rest of England 88.6%

North West 11.4%

Greater Manchester 4.4%

Cumbria 0.6%

Cheshire (including Warrington) 1.8%

Source: IDBR ONS

Construction sector - Regional share Business turnover (2006)

Lancashire 1.8%

Rest of England 91.0%

North West 9.0%

Greater Merseyside 1.4% Greater Manchester 3.5%

Cheshire (including Warrington) 1.9%

Cumbria 0.4%

Source: IDBR ONS

Other businesses - Regional share Business turnover (2006)

Lancashire 1.7%

Greater Merseyside 1.5% Rest of England 91.2%

North West 8.8%

Greater Manchester 3.3%

Cumbria 0.4%

Cheshire (including Warrington) 1.8%

Source: IDBR ONS

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector Sub-regional perspective The following table provides a sub-regional summary of the data in a number of different ways for each of, the number of enterprises, employees and turnover associated with the sector: ‰

‰ ‰

Firstly, it provides a national percentage share of working age population; this is then used as a base index rate of 100. Secondly, it provides percentage rates for the sector and relative index scores. Thirdly, it provides comparator figures for other enterprise areas.

For example, 1.7% of England’s working age population is resident in Cheshire. Consequently, for the sector to pull its weight Cheshire would have 1.7% of enterprises. In reality, 1.5% of the sector’s enterprises are based in Cheshire, this represents an index score of 88.2 ([1.5/1.7] x 100). A score above 100 indicates that the sub-region performs better than one would expect, whilst a score under 100 indicates a performance below its weight. Cheshire (including Warrington) is home to: 1.7% of England’s working age population (100.0). 1.5% of enterprises in the sector nationally (88.2) and 1.9% of other enterprises (111.8). 2.1% of employees in the sector nationally (123.5) and 1.8% of other employees (105.9). 1.9% of business turnover in the sector nationally (111.8) and 1.8% of other business turnover (105.9). Cumbria is home to: 0.9% of England’s working age population (100.0). 1.2% of enterprises in the sector nationally (133.3) and 1.3% of other enterprises (144.4). 0.8% of employees in the sector nationally (88.9) and 0.6% of other employees (66.7). 0.4% of business turnover in the sector nationally (44.4) and 0.4% of other business turnover (44.4). Greater Manchester is home to: 5.1% of England’s working age population (100.0). 4.2% of enterprises in the sector nationally (82.4) and 4.1% of other enterprises (80.4). 4.4% of employees in the sector nationally (86.3) and 4.4% of other employees (86.3). 3.5% of business turnover in the sector nationally (68.6) and 3.3% of other business turnover (64.7). Lancashire (including Blackburn with Darwen and Blackpool) is home to: 2.8% of England’s working age population (100.0). 2.7% of enterprises in the sector nationally (96.4) and 2.8% of other enterprises (100.0). 2.3% of employees in the sector nationally (82.1) and 2.3% of other employees (82.1). 1.8% of business turnover in the sector nationally (64.3) and 1.7% of other business turnover (60.7). Greater Merseyside (including Halton) is home to: 2.9% of England’s working age population (100.0). 1.8% of enterprises in the sector nationally (62.1) and 1.8% of other enterprises (62.1). 2.0% of employees in the sector nationally (69.0) and 2.2% of other employees (75.9). 1.4% of business turnover in the sector nationally (48.3) and 1.5% of other business turnover (51.7).

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector PERFORMANCE AT LOCAL AUTHORITY LEVEL Number of enterprises In the region as a whole, the areas which have highest number of enterprises within the sector include Bolton, Liverpool, Stockport, Trafford and Wigan. These areas have between 1,021 and 1,355 enterprises in them. In all cases the large numbers of enterprises can be linked with highly dense areas of population, as these areas have populations of between 4,200 and 10,600 people per square mile. Number of employees The areas with the highest numbers of employees are Bolton, Liverpool, Manchester, Trafford, Vale Royal and Wigan, with between 6,911 and 12,615 employees working for enterprises within the sector. Scale of turnover In only three local authorities do average turnover levels for enterprises (within the sector) reach between ÂŁ1billion and ÂŁ2billion, these are Manchester, Trafford and Vale Royal. The data for Trafford suggests that the area may have a large number of large/profitable enterprises.

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector

CHANGE OVER TIME - 1998-2006 At national and regional levels the performance of this sector, between 1998 and 2006, is always above the equivalent average figure for other enterprise areas. Furthermore, comparative data for the sector, in the northwest, is almost always below the national equivalent for all measures of percentage change (see table below). Percentage change 1998-2006 Construction sector

Other enterprise areas

Other enterprise areas

Percentage change (1998-2006) Number of enterprises

Construction

80.0%

Enterprises

60.0%

England

+14.4%

-9.9%

Northwest

+16.5%

-11.7%

40.0%

Employees England Northwest

+27.7% +19.7%

Percentage

28.5%

20.0%

18.8%

16.5%

14.4%

16.2%

13.1%

9.9%

0.0%

+5.7%

-20.0%

+0.8%

-40.0%

-9.9% England

Northwest

-9.9% Cheshire

-8.9% Cumbria

-11.7%

Greater Manchester

-9.3% Lancashire

Greater Merseyside

-13.3%

-15.2%

-60.0%

Turnover

Source: IDBR ONS

England

+51.9%

-

Northwest

+27.9%

-

Other enterprise areas

Percentage change (1998-2006) Number of employees

Construction

80.0%

60.0%

40.0% 27.7%

Percentage

At a regional level the data for enterprises within the sector between 1998 and 2006, indicates that the: Number of enterprises has risen by ‰ 16.5%. ‰ Number of employees has risen by 19.7%. Value of business turnover has risen ‰ by 27.9%.

25.9% 19.7%

20.0%

17.9%

21.1%

20.9%

17.4% 8.7%

5.7%

4.3%

0.8%

1.0%

0.0% -4.0%

-20.0%

England

Northwest

Cheshire

Cumbria

Greater Manchester

Lancashire

Greater Merseyside

-15.6%

-40.0%

-60.0% Source: IDBR ONS

Construction

Percentage change (1998-2006) Business turnover 80.0% 69.2%

60.0% 51.9%

40.0% 27.9%

Percentage

24.0% 19.5%

19.5%

20.0%

12.1%

0.0%

England

Northwest

Cheshire

Cumbria

-20.0%

Greater Manchester

Lancashire

Greater Merseyside

-40.0%

-60.0% Source: IDBR ONS

1. Turnover data has been adjusted to a 1998 base to remove the effects of inflation. 2. The economy as a whole experienced growth between 1998 and 2006. This, however, reflects a mix of growth and decline in different sectors; as one of the areas of growth was the business and professional sector and its removal from the overall dataset creates an artificial picture of slight decline. Consequently time series data for other sectors has been excluded from the analysis as its inclusion would be misleading.

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector Change at a sub-regional level The following graphs show area performance over time whilst also enabling areas of differing size to be compared directly. This is achieved by assigning the relevant area base at 1998 as an index of 100. The data appears to reinforce the principle that successful areas will continue to grow whilst less successful ones are in danger of further decline; this may be either absolute or relative (the national base referred to is England). Number of enterprises (indexed scores - 1998 base = 100) Construction sector

AVERAGE for other enterprise areas

The national figure for the number of enterprises in the sector indicates an increase to 114 by 2006.

The comparator average rate for other enterprise areas in 2006 is 90.

The northwest index for 2006 is 116.

The northwest index for 2006 is 88.

The greatest increase for the sector is in Cumbria with a 2006 index of 129.

The smallest decrease at sub regional level is in Cumbria and Lancashire, who both scored 91.

The smallest increase at sub regional level for the sector is a score of 110 for Greater Merseyside.

The greatest decline (relative or absolute) at sub regional level for other enterprise areas is a score of 85 for Greater Merseyside.

Change in the number of enterprises 1998-2006 Other enterprise areas

Change in the number of enterprises 1998-2006 Construction sector 140

140

130

130

120

120

110

110

England

Northwest

Index rate

Index rate

Cheshire (including Warrington)

100

Cumbria

100 Greater Manchester

90

90

80

80

70

70

Lancashire

Greater Merseyside

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

Source: IDBR ONS

Source: IDBR ONS

Number of employees (indexed scores - 1998 base = 100) Construction sector

AVERAGE for other enterprise areas

The national figure for the number of employees in the sector shows an increase to 128 by 2006.

The national index for the number of employees in other enterprise areas in 2006 is 106.

The northwest index for 2006 is 120.

The northwest index for 2006 is 101.

The greatest increase in the number of employees is in Greater Manchester with a 2006 index of 126.

The greatest increase at sub regional level for employees in other enterprise areas is a score of 118 for Cheshire.

The smallest increase at sub regional level is a score of 109 for Greater Merseyside.

The greatest decline (relative or absolute) at sub regional level is a score of 84 for Cumbria.

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector Change in the number of employees 1998-2006 Other enterprise areas

Change in the number of employees 1998-2006 Construction sector 140

140

130

130

120

120

110

110

England

Northwest

Index rate

Index rate

Cheshire (including Warrington)

100

Cumbria

100 Greater Manchester

90

90

Lancashire

80

80

Greater Merseyside

70

70 1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

1998

2000

Source: IDBR ONS

2002

2004

2006

Source: IDBR ONS

Business turnover (indexed scores - 1998 base = 100) Construction sector The national figure for business turnover in the sector indicates an increase to 152 by 2006. The northwest index for 2006 is 128. The greatest increase in business turnover is Cheshire with a 2006 index of 169. The smallest increase at sub regional level is a score of 112 for Cumbria. Change in business turnover 1998-2006 Construction sector 225

200

Index rate

175

150

125

100

75

50 1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

Source: IDBR ONS

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Northwest regional overview: The construction sector KEY STATISTICS Construction sector

Other enterprise areas

All sectors

REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE National share (proportion of England’s enterprises in the Northwest) Enterprises

11.4%

11.9%

11.5%

Employees

11.6%

11.4%

11.1%

Turnover

9.0%

8.8%

6.5%

Small enterprises (those employing less than 10 people as a proportion of the sector’s enterprises in the region) Enterprises

90.2%

86.8%

88.2%

Employees

31.4%

15.4%

17.6%

Turnover

29.2%

17.6%

19.6%

Change over time (at a regional level - between 1998 and 2006) Enterprises

16.5%

-11.7%

-0.7%

Employees

19.7%

0.8%

6.3%

Turnover

27.9%

-

-6.7%

SUB-REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE Sub-regional share – Enterprises Cheshire

13.5%

15.6%

16.0%

Cumbria

10.4%

11.1%

10.2%

Greater Manchester

36.6%

34.7%

35.4%

Lancashire

23.4%

23.5%

23.0%

Greater Merseyside

16.1%

15.0%

15.4%

Cheshire

18.1%

16.0%

16.6%

Cumbria

7.3%

5.5%

5.5%

Greater Manchester

37.7%

38.9%

39.4%

Lancashire

20.1%

20.3%

19.4%

Greater Merseyside

16.9%

19.3%

19.1%

Cheshire

21.2%

20.2%

20.3%

Cumbria

4.9%

4.8%

4.4%

Greater Manchester

38.8%

37.5%

38.3%

Lancashire

19.7%

19.9%

18.1%

Greater Merseyside

15.3%

17.7%

18.8%

Sub-regional share – Employees

Sub-regional share – Turnover

Area definitions as adopted in the Regional Economic Strategy:

‰ ‰ ‰

Cheshire – including Warrington Greater Merseyside – including Halton Lancashire – including Blackburn with Darwen and Blackpool

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