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d e R d o o l B Snow

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Managing Editor: Jevin Lim Senior English Editor: Shel Sweeney (MA, BA, BTeach) Science Editor: Keriner Chan Assessment questions from: Singapore Asia Publishers Pte Ltd Tel: (65) 6276 8280 Website: www.sapgrp.com Publisher: English Corner Publishing Pte Ltd

Editor’s Note: Shel Sweeney

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SCIENCE ADVENTURES - GOES GLOBAL - in Malaysia, Hong Kong, Ireland, China and Indonesia.

Hong Kong: GF Education (HK) Limited Mr Alan Lee Tel: +852 90712048 Email: alan@greenfieldbook.net

SCIENCE ADVENTURES covers NESA - Australian topics (New South Wales Education Standards Authority) and “Science for CAMBRIDGE Primary Programme”.

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We keep abreast of the latest Global Trends and Developments, while at the same time continue to include Singapore’s science syllabus - Interaction, Diversity, System, Cycle, Energy.

Cambridge education prepares students for life, helping them develop an informed curiosity and a lasting passion for learning. Reaching 4,800 schools around the world. With GRANT assistance from Enterprise Singapore, English Corner plans to expand our science comic to the wider world, thus bringing joyful learning to a greater number of children. We hope these insightful science comics find their way into your classrooms. Children in all parts of the world will discover that SCIENCE IS FUN and not just a subject taught in school.

Meet Olivia, the young naturalist who loves the earth and treasures the nature around her.

Science for Cambridge Primary Programme (Illustrated series for years 5 and 6)

Contents 4








The Peculiar Nose



The Unique Water Lily



Maths Adventures


Let’s Go Shopping

Wonderful Art


Marble Patterns

How It Works

The Secrets Of X-Ray Machines

25 Bioscience

Animals That Fly Without Wings


Our Universe



Visiting The Danube Delta


The Disinfection Robot



Blood-red Snow

Human Body My Gum Is Bleeding!

Daily Science Palm Oil





Weight Distribution





Dong Qichang The Chinese Painter and Calligrapher

Maths Corner



65 Great People


The Cloud In A Jar

Olivia Corner




Let’s Do Experiments

48 54



By Singapore Asia Publishers

New Tech


Science Experiment




General Knowledge




The Unique

Water Lily Let’s go to Bernard’s house to get out of the rain.

Kha kha!

Ding, dong!

ng! Ding, do

o! Acho

Guys, come on in!

Wipe yourselves down or you’ll catch a cold.

Dad, why don’t we let Teka and Nono into the hot spring? Sure. We can do that.

SAS – SD No. 77


This feels really good!

Kha kha!

Nono and I are very honoured to be invited!

I didn’t know you had a hot spring.

I just recently built it. You are the first two guests to enjoy it.

Getting in a hot spring now reminds me of the Nymphaea thermarum.

I see. Nymphaea thermarum?

It’s a water lily that grows around hot springs. Kha kha kha!

But exploitation of hot springs has caused the plant to disappear from the wild.

That’s too bad! Nono and I haven’t had a chance to see one yet.

Tell Me More Nymphaea thermarum is the smallest water lily in the world. It is the only water lily that grows in soil, not in water. 5

SAS – SD No. 77

It’s okay, Nymphaea thermarum is not extinct yet.

But didn’t you say it had disappeared from the wild?

These samples are still alive, but the botanists have encountered a difficulty.

Some botanists collected samples of Nymphaea thermarum.

That is a very big problem. If they can’t reproduce the plant, it will completely disappear one day.

What difficulty?

Botanists can't grow Nymphaea thermarum from seed.

Dad, are you tricking us?

Uncle Rey, why are you laughing?

Tell Me More Nymphaea thermarum was discovered by German botanist Eberhard Fischer in 1987. Samples were collected and sent to the Bonn Botanic Gardens. SAS – SD No. 77


The situation is not optimistic.

After years of research, the botanists have found a reproduction method.

Water lily species usually sprout in water. But Nymphaea thermarum seeds are different. What method?

Nymphaea thermarum grows in the wet mud near hot springs. Its seeds are not completely submerged in the water. This means that the seeds are exposed in the air and the water as well.

Luckily the problem can be solved...and Nymphaea thermarum is not extinct.

Can I search for Nymphaea thermarum photos on your tablet?

Good idea. Let me search for them.

Oh gosh! Nono has passed out!

Nono, wake up!

He may have been in the hot spring for too long. Let’s take him to the hospital for a check-up.

Why did he pass out suddenly?

Tell Me More The diameter of a Nymphaea thermarum leaf is about 1 centimetre. The diameter of the largest water lily leaf can reach up to 3 metres. The picture on the right shows the comparison of a Nymphaea thermarum leaf and the largest water lily leaf. 7

SAS – SD No. 77

Nymphaea Thermarum

Nymphaea thermarum is native to Mashyuza, Rwanda, where there is wet soil formed by the freshwater overflowing from hot springs.

Nymphaea thermarum flowers are very small. Their petals are white with yellow stamens, with the flowers held upright a few centimetres above the plant. They can self pollenate. When they bloom, their stalks bend downwards, making the fruit touch the soil.

Today, Nymphaea thermarum is planted only in the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew and the Botanischer Garden Bonn.

SAS – SD No. 77





The Peculiar


Den, Carl and Fiona are at the zoo…

There is! Let’s go and take a look.

Den, I hear there’s a new animal in the zoo.

Pig-nosed turtle? That name is weird!

Does it mean that this turtle looks like a pig?

Neither can I. Is it hiding?

I’ve found it!

I can’t see anything.


Let’s take a look and then we’ll know.

It’s hiding behind the rock.

SAS – SD No. 77

Aw! Its nose!

That is how the turtle got its name. It does look like a pig’s nose! That name suits the turtle.

The nose of the pig-nosed turtle is very important.

The pig-nosed turtle’s nose is like an air tube. The turtle can use it to breathe at the surface of the water while the rest of its body is submerged under the water. This helps protect it from predators.

Why do you say that?

Its nose has a keen sense of smell. This helps it find food under the water.

So your nose is very useful.

Is that my friend?

Tell Me More The pig-nosed turtle is also known as the pitted-shelled turtle or Fly River turtle. It is a turtle that is native to Northern Australia and Southern New Guinea. SAS – SD No. 77


No. It’s a freshwater turtle.

How is that possible? Its legs are obviously flippers.

Den, is the pig-nosed turtle a sea turtle?

This is what makes it different from other freshwater turtles.

Apart from laying eggs on the beach, the pig-nosed turtle spends most of its time underwater. In order to live underwater, the turtle’s legs have evolved into fin shapes.

Like sea turtles, the pig-nosed turtle cannot pull its head or legs back into its shell.

I see. The pig-nosed turtle is really different from other freshwater turtles.

In fact, the pig-nosed turtle has a distinctive feature - its eggs.

Tell Me More Unlike other freshwater turtles, pig-nosed turtles have small forelimb claws that are shaped like oars. Like sea turtles, pig-nosed turtles swim by moving their forelimbs back and forth. 11

SAS – SD No. 77

Of course not.

The distinctive feature is the conditions for egg incubation.

Are the pig-nosed turtle’s eggs square?

The eggs do not hatch until it rains and the rain overflows the nest.

A female pig-nosed turtle lays her eggs on the sandy beach. When the eggs have matured, they are in a sleeping state.

So pig-nosed turtle eggs need a damp environment to hatch.

The pig-nosed turtle is such an interesting animal.

That is true.

As interesting as me. Ha, ha, ha!

Tell Me More When a female pig-nosed turtle has laid eggs, she swiftly moves back to the water. Pig-nosed turtle eggs are white in colour and shaped like a ball. SAS – SD No. 77


Pig-nosed Turtle The pig-nosed turtle is the sole surviving member of the Carettochelyidae family. Pig-nosed turtles live in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes, swamps, streams, lagoons and puddles.

The shell of the pig-nosed turtle is usually grey or olive, while the belly is beige. The females are bigger than the males in size. However, the tail of a male is longer and thicker.

Pig-nosed turtles are *omnivorous and eat all kinds of animals and plants, including fig fruit and leaves, crustaceans, molluscs and insects.

*omnivorous: an animal that eats plants and meat


SAS – SD No. 77

Maths Adventures


Let’s Go Shopping Wynn and his mother are going to make an apple pie. They need to buy all the necessary ingredients. They need to buy 8 apples, 3 packets of flour, 2 packets of sugar, a stick of butter and a jar of honey.

SAS – SD No. 77


When Wynn and his mother are paying, Wynn gives the cashier 50 dollars. How much money do they have left?

$0.56 each

The price of each item is shown in the table below.

$3.20 a bag

$2.83 a bag

$3.99 a stick

$3.69 a jar

Answer: $22.58 Wynn and his mother have spent $27.42. Thus, they have $22.58 left.




SAS – SD No. 77

Wonderful Art


Marble Patter ns The patterns on those boxes look good!

These patterns have a special name. It's called ‘marbling’.

This pattern imitates the patterns of natural marble.

Why do they have such a name?

I see.

The technique of making this kind of marbling is called paper marbling.

Hi! Can I help you?

That sounds really interesting.

We’re interested in paper marbling. SAS – SD No. 77


I can show you how paper marbling is made.

First, pour some water into the basin. Then, drip the marbling ink onto the water.

That’s great!

Marbling ink, watercolour paper, a basin, a kettle of water and a small wooden stick…these are the tools that we need.

You can add any amount of marbling ink you like. You can even add it onto the previously dripped ink.

Next, create a pattern with the stick.

Finally, put the paper carefully into the water.


SAS – SD No. 77

The pattern on the water has appeared on the paper.

Pick up the paper very carefully.

That’s amazing!

The techniques of making marbling are very different from our normal painting skills.

Paper marbling is achieved by adding the marbling ink onto the water. Then carefully placing a surface, such as paper or fabric, onto the water to absorb the pattern of the ink.

You’re right; this is a different method.

You can create all kinds of patterns by using a special comb or other tools. You can be quite creative.

SAS – SD No. 77

Besides, paper marbling works are unique. No two patterns are the same.


Paper marbling is innovative. Who invented it?

I’d want to know too.

The earliest existing examples of marbled paper are from 12th-century Japan. It was called Suminagashi, which means “floating ink”.

Paper marbling is an ancient art. There’s no evidence to tell us who invented it, but it first appeared in Japan.

The paper marbling tools are simple. We should be able to try it at home.

We haven’t eaten lunch yet! Hurry up. Let’s get home!

Yes, you can. We sell marbling ink and watercolour paper here.

For centuries, paper marbling has been used to make ornaments, manuscripts and books. In which country were the earliest sheets of marbled paper discovered?

I can’t wait to try paper marbling.


SAS – SD No. 77

How It Works

Simon, hurry up!



I’m just putting your companion back in the nest.

Don’t rush me!


Chir p~Chir p~ Chir p!

Mamma mia!

Chir p~ Chir p~

Chir p

Oh, my!



SAS – SD No. 77


Ouch, my leg!

At a nearby clinic...

You have a minor fracture. You need to come back to remove the gauze after two weeks. Thanks, doctor.

This is amazing! Everything inside you can be seen clearly.

Can we see them?

X-rays are really amazing. X-rays?

X-rays are electromagnetic waves with extremely short wavelengths and a great amount of energy.

No. X-rays are invisible light. Just like UV light, X-rays are invisible to the naked eye.

Tell Me More In 1895, when studying a gas discharge, German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen accidentally discovered that a paper plate covered on one side with barium platinocyanide emitted a bright fluorescent light. When he took the fluorescent plate with his hand, he could see the image of the bones of his hand on the plate. This was the discovery and origin of the X-ray. 21

SAS – SD No. 77

How does the X-ray machine emit X-rays?

The X-ray machine has an X-ray tube that emits X-rays. X-ray tube? Where is it?




Window X ray


Behind the electronic screen when you were getting your X-ray done.

The X-ray tube is a vacuum glass tube whose structure is composed of a cathode and an anode. When turned on, the cathode filament produces electrons which rapidly flow to the anode, which then generates X-rays as a result of being struck by the electrons.

X-ray Tube

Prof., can X-rays only be used in the medical field?

How does it create images?

X-rays are strongly penetrative. Thus, the body’s soft tissue is easily penetrated. But calcium-dense tissue, like bone, absorbs some of the rays and an image is created on the film.

Tell Me More Long-term exposure to high-energy rays can have negative effects such as vomiting, bleeding, *syncope and hair loss. However, short-term exposure to the rays does not cause any side effects. SAS – SD No. 77


X-rays can also be found in other fields such as aviation (in airport security checks) and astronomy. *anode: the two points by which an electric current enters in an electrical device where oxidation occurs *cathode: the two points by which an electric current enters in an electrical device where reduction occurs *electrons: very small pieces of matter with a negative electric charge *syncope: fainting or sudden temporary loss of consciousness

My luggage was checked by a security X-ray machine at an airport the last time I travelled.

They don’t take photos of your luggage during an airport security check. All they do is scan and view it on a computer screen.

These security machines emit less X-radiation than medical devices.

We’re home!


Tell Me More *Fluoroscopy enables doctors to observe and photograph a patient’s body in real time through X-rays. This type of X-ray is suitable for examining gastrointestinal tracts. Fluoroscopy emits more radiation than regular X-rays but the amount is still rather low.

*fluoroscopy: a type of medical imaging that shows a continuous X-ray image on a monitor


SAS – SD No. 77

The Uses Of

X-rays X-rays play an important role in fighting cancer. High-energy rays can kill cancer cells and shrink the size of a tumour. However, radiation therapy is somewhat risky.

Airports are equipped with X-ray scanners. When luggage passes through an X-ray scanner, the X-rays scan the luggage to determine if it contains a dangerous item.

This use is quite unknown to most people. X-rays easily penetrate canvas and drawing paper to detect problems such as holes or pests so that the artworks can be restored.

SAS – SD No. 77






s ing W Fly Without That

Argh...I can't catch one!

I can't catch butterflies. I give up!

Since you’re so great, you can catch some for me.


It takes skill to catch butterflies. You won’t catch one scurrying around like that!

No! I’m not helping you.

SAS – SD No. 77


Nancy is so unhelpful.

Ar gh.


Tell Me More The manta ray is a *cartilaginous ocean fish. During breeding season, the manta ray sometimes beats the water with its fins, leaps and does somersaults in the air. It can leap about 1.5 metres out of the sea to look like it is flying in the air. When it falls back into the water, it makes a loud noise. SAS – SD No. 77


Huh? What is that behind me?

*cartilaginous: made of cartilage, which is the strong white tissue that supports and connects parts of the body

Back at camp... Uncle Thomas, I caught a frog.

Henry, are you scared of frogs?

I’m not! Let’s go back or Uncle Thomas will get worried.

This is a flying frog. It’s a type of tree frog. Flying frog?

As the name implies, it can fly. It is called the Wallace flying frog.

It's all due to the flattened body and the special toe structure of the flying frog.

Huh? How does it fly without wings?

Tell Me More Flying geckos live in the rainforests of the Malay *archipelago. With the help of their wing membranes, these geckos can glide to the ground from treetops or to other trees.

*archipelago: a group of islands and the sea surrounding them


SAS – SD No. 77

When the flying frog flies, it jumps off the tree, opens its webs and glides from tree to tree.

The flying frog has sucker-like, webbed toes.

It sounds like how skydiving works!

If it wants to fly further, it contracts its abdomen to generate more lift so that its gliding distance can be increased to about 15 metres.

Right. This flying style of the frog is known as “parachuting”.

Can’t it glide any farther?

How far can a flying frog fly?

It can glide about two metres each time.

Tell Me More Micro spiders, such as money spiders (scientific name: Linyphiidae), climb up to a high place and spin out their silk into the air. With the help of the wind, these spiders balloon (or kite) to float somewhere else. They often do this to look for a mate or to find a new territory. SAS – SD No. 77


Flying frogs may be able to glide, but they cannot decide where they land.

They’d be in trouble if they accidentally landed in a swamp.

What can the flying ability do for the frogs?

What’s wrong? Did you see another flying frog?


No…I left my bag containing the butterflies in the jungle.

It can help them run away from predators such as snakes.

That’s okay. It’s no big deal.

Tell Me More Colugos are mammals that live in Southeast Asia. They are about the size of a domestic cat. Colugos can glide from tree to tree by using the wing membranes between their front and back legs. They also have webbed toes. 29

SAS – SD No. 77

Flying Animals Without Wings Flying Squid The flying squid is a strange squid that can propel itself by shooting a jet of water, which enables it to jump 21 metres out of the water like a flying fish. Its body moves backward as it leaps, with its eyes and tentacles at the rear. Its fins act as wings, keeping the flying squid balanced.

Flying Lizard The flying lizard has a set of extendable and retractable elongated ribs. This set of ribs allows the lizard to glide freely among the trees. It uses its tail to control direction.

Flying Snake The flying snake has hard scales on its belly. Before it flies, it grasps a branch with its tail and straightens its body. Then it jumps up like a diver. When the flying snake flies, it keeps twisting its body to increase the contact area with the air and change its flight direction. SAS – SD No. 77


Our Universe


Visiting The That’s a lot of boats. Which one have we booked?

Danube Delta Hi. Are you Man-In-Black and Roy? I’m not sure.

Yes, I’m Man-InBlack.

I’m Odom, your tour guide. Let’s get on the boat.

Let’s get going!

I’m getting my camera out to capture the charm of the Danube Delta. It’s so quiet here.

This is the charm of nature.

So am I.


SAS – SD No. 77


The Danube Delta is home to more than 300 bird species. One of those species is the pelican.

The Danube Delta is a bird watcher’s paradise!

You’re quite right.

Since the Danube Delta is well-preserved and hasn’t suffered serious damage, it provides animals and plants with a quiet habitat.

We should take good care of these unique environments in order to maintain them.

This is everybody’s responsibility.

The delta is a landform that was formed by *deposits.

I have a question. How did the delta form?

Tell Me More The Danube Delta was formed by the spreading out of the Danube River as it approached the Black Sea. The Danube Delta is located in the easternmost part of Romania, which borders with Ukraine. SAS – SD No. 77

*deposits: layers of a substance that have been left somewhere, for example, by a river


A delta forms near an estuary that flows into the ocean or other larger waters.

When a river flows along the earth’s surface, it collects sediment such as sand and gravel. This sediment flows along the river.

When a river reaches a lake or an ocean, the water slows down and loses its ability to carry the sediment. As the sediment accumulates, a low-lying plain forms. And so does a delta.

Apart from being a sanctuary for animals and plants, the delta is important to humans.

The Danube Delta was formed by the sediment carried by the Danube River.

Tell Me More The Danube River is the second longest river in Europe. It flows through ten Central and Eastern European countries: Germany, Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Ukraine. 33

SAS – SD No. 77

The delta is where sand and gravel come from. The sand is a valuable material that can be used to build roads, houses and infrastructure.

Actually, the delta has another important function.

Yes. For example, the Mississippi Delta cushions the potential impact of strong hurricanes from the Gulf of Mexico.

The delta’s soil is very fertile and good for agricultural development.

What’s that?

So the delta is really important to our lives! Thanks for your explanation.

Tell Me More The formation of the Danube Delta was a slow process. However, not all rivers form deltas. A delta only forms when the river water flows slowly enough for silt to build up. SAS – SD No. 77

The delta acts as a hurricane buffer, reducing the impact of hurricanes on larger and more populated areas.


You’re welcome.

This pelican is so close.

Suddenly… Let me take a close-up photo of you.

Aw! It’s eating my camera!

Roy, keep your cool. It's gone. Okay!

That was scary!

Let’s keep going.

Tell Me More The Danube Delta is a UNESCO World Heritage site and a Biosphere Reserve. It is a well-preserved European delta. 35

SAS – SD No. 77


e b u n a D Delta The Danube Delta consists of an intricate pattern of swamps, rivers, streams and lakes. Near Tulcea, the Danube River splits into three branches: Chilia, Sulina and Sfantu Gheorghe.

Reed plants and floating reed islands are common in the Danube Delta. They attract various bird species to come to live, reproduce and winter there, providing ideal egg-laying and nesting sites.

The Danube Delta is home to many animals and plants. Many fish species live in the rivers there. Thus, fishing has become an occupation for the locals.

SAS – SD No. 77


  CIENCE EXPERIMENT ELECTRICITY Introduction A lemon battery can be created by inserting zinc and copper into the lemon. The small current generated by the reaction of zinc and copper in the presence of the lemon juice, which acts as an electrolyte, can be used to light up a LED (light-emitting diode) or LCD (liquid crystal display) digital clock. Aim To describe how a battery can be created with the use of a lemon and two electrodes Materials G G G G G G G

2 pieces of zinc plate (measurement: 3 cm by 5 cm) 2 pieces of copper plate (measurement: 3 cm by 5 cm) a connecting wire with crocodile clips a LCD digital clock with connecting wires a lemon a pair of scissors a knife

Procedure 1

Cut the lemon into 2 halves.


Insert one zinc plate and one copper plate into each half of the lemon.


Connect the red wire (positive) from the LCD digital clock to the copper plate on one lemon.


Connect the black wire (negative) from the LCD digital clock to the zinc plate on the other lemon.


Connect the remaining two plates to each other using the connecting wire with the crocodile clips. The set-up should look like the following diagram. connecting wire with crocodile clips red wire zinc plate

half of a lemon

black wire

copper plate

zinc plate

LCD digital clock Š Singapore Asia Publishers Pte Ltd

copper plate half of a lemon

A NSWER THESE QUESTIONS For questions 1 – 5, write down your answers in the space provided. Based on the experiment above, write down the energy conversion that occurred through the use of lemon batteries to operate the LCD digital clock. 1



Draw the symbols of the circuit diagram components in the table below. [2​​ __ 2 ​​m] Circuit component


bulb battery two batteries in series open switch closed switch 3

a  Label the different parts of the bulb using the helping words in the box.  [3m] metal casing glass bulb

filament connecting wires

inert gas metal tip

i ii iii iv v vi Tell Me More


 There is very little air in the glass bulb. Why is that so? 

SAS – SD No. 77 © Singapore Asia Publishers Pte Ltd




a Fill in the blanks. 


Current is able to flow in a/an i

circuit when the switch circuit when the

is on, while current does not flow in a/an ii switch is off.


 Circuit X below is set up using three bulbs, L1, L2 and L3, and three switches, S1, S2 and S3. L3





Circuit X


 Put a tick ‘P’ if the bulb lights up and a cross ‘O’ if the bulb does not light up 1 in the boxes accordingly. [4​​ __ 2 ​​m]

















State three ways you can increase the brightness of the bulb in the circuit below. 


Tell Me More

© Singapore Asia Publishers Pte Ltd


SAS – SD No. 77




1. chemical potential energy → electrical energy → light energy 2. Circuit Symbol component bulb

























5. • Increase the number of batteries used and arrange them in a series. •  Remove one of the bulbs. •  Arrange the two given batteries in a series.

battery two batteries in series open switch

All questions taken from:

closed switch


3. (a) (i) glass bulb (ii) inert gas (iii) filament (iv) connecting wires (v) metal casing (vi) metal tip (b) This prevents the filament from burning up. 4. (a) (i) closed (ii) open

Find out more here

Science Experiments Upper Block 5/6

LEARNING Science Upper Block 5/6

Taken from: Find out more here


W PSLE Science Partner: The Complete Guide to Lower and Upper Blocks Science

Using Electricity Safely

Electricity is useful to us in many ways. However, electricity can also be dangerous. It can give us electric shocks or even start fires. To prevent such events from happening, we must observe certain safety precautions when handling electrical appliances.

• Do not touch electrical switches with wet hands. Since water is a conductor of electricity, the electricity can pass through your body and give you an electric shock. • Do not touch a person who is being electrocuted. Knock them away from the switch or appliance which is causing the electric shock with an insulator e.g.: a wooden stick. • Do not use a multiway adaptor and plug in many plugs into one socket. The overloading of the socket may lead to overheating, sparking off a fire.

An overloaded socket with adaptors and plugs SAS – SD No. 77 © Singapore Asia Publishers Pte Ltd


Let’s Do Experiments






A Jar Suddenly…

And that one looks like a fish.

That cloud looks like a rabbit!

Enough lazing around, you two. Come and help me! Aw, busted!

Henson, the clouds in the sky today are funny. Some look like rabbits, others look like fish. We’d better keep on working!

Clouds are formed by two processes, namely evaporation and condensation.

I know evaporation but I’m not quite sure about the condensation process.


How do the clouds in the sky form?

Henson, can you explain it to us?

SAS – SD No. 77

When the water on the ground is heated by the sun, it evaporates to form water vapour and rises with the warm air. When the water vapour rises and meets the cold air, it cools down, attaches to the cloud condensation *nuclei and condenses into water droplets. When billions of little water droplets come together, they form clouds.

I still don’t quite understand‌

Neither do I.

Maybe we can do an experiment that is related to the formation of a cloud, so you can understand.

The tools needed for this experiment include a glass jar with a lid, hot water, ice, hairspray and some blue food colouring.

Great idea!

First, drip the blue food colouring into the hot water. This helps separate the water from the cloud.

Tell Me More Evaporation and condensation are two processes in which matter changes from one state to another. When water evaporates, it changes from a liquid to a gas. When water condenses, it changes from its gas form to a liquid. SAS – SD No. 77

*nuclei: the parts of atoms that contain the mass and that carry a positive electric charge 38

Then, pour the hot water into the jar.

Now I’m going to do two quick steps: one, spray the hairspray into the jar; and two, put the lid on the jar immediately.

Can we help? I’ll spray the hairspray. Then I’ll put the lid on.

Now place 3 to 5 ice cubes on top of the lid.

Watch closely at the top of the jar. You will see the formation of a cloud.

That’s a cloud. It’s amazing!

We made a cloud!

Tell Me More Clouds come in various shapes and sizes. Clouds are given different names according to their shape and height. 39

SAS – SD No. 77

When water vapour rises to the top of the jar, it begins to cool down because of the ice cubes on the lid.

In this experiment, hot water causes the air in the jar to heat up, making the water evaporate into the air.

In the atmosphere, cloud condensation nuclei can be the dust or pollutants in the air.

Since water requires a non-gaseous surface in order to change from vapour to a liquid, the hairspray is used as a cloud condensation nucleus.

With cloud condensation nuclei, water vapour can become small water droplets...and so form clouds.

There’s another experiment related to rain clouds. Are you kids interested? I see.

Tell Me More Look closely at the cloud in the jar and you will notice that the cloud is spinning inside the jar. This is a movement caused by the rising of warm air and the sinking of cold air. SAS – SD No. 77


Absolutely! We’ll help you prepare the necessary tools.

We have prepared a glass jar that is three quarters full with water. We also have shaving foam and blue food colouring.

It’s raining now.

Let’s start.

First, put the shaving foam on top of the water to make a fluffy cloud. Then, put the food colouring onto the “cloud”.

The more food colouring that is added, the heavier the “cloud” will be. The food colouring falls into the water when the foam cloud fails to hold the food colouring any longer.

The shaving foam represents a cloud, the water represents the air, and the food colouring represents the rain.

This is how rain is formed. When the clouds can no longer hold the water, the water falls to the ground as rain.

This cloud rain experiment is very interesting!

Luke Howard (November 28th 1772 - March 21st 1864) was a British manufacturing chemist and amateur meteorologist. In 1802, he proposed a *nomenclature system for clouds. Thus, he was called the Godfather of Clouds and the Namer of Clouds.

Tell Me More Clouds are an important part of the water cycle, which produces rainwater to fill up lakes, streams, rivers and oceans.

*nomenclature: a system of naming things 41

SAS – SD No. 77

Mammatus clouds are pouch-like structures that are usually related to bad weather.

Lenticular clouds are usually shaped like a lens or saucer. They are caused by wave winds from mountains.

Contrails or vapour trails are line-shaped clouds that are caused by the engine of an airplane flying in the sky. They form by mixing the hot air from the jet exhaust and the air around it. SAS – SD No. 77


New Tech



bot! o R Disinfection Afterwards...


Are you two alright? Let’s go back to the hotel and rest.

Back at the hotel...

I really need to use the bathroom.


SAS – SD No. 77

What is this? Huh?

Abr acada

br a!

Abr acada br

What are you trying to do to my disinfection robot?


Really? This little thing can disinfect?

Tell Me More The CleanseBot is light and weighs about 220 grams without the handle cover. With the handle cover, it weighs about 320 grams. It can be easily placed into hand luggage. Because it has a built-in lithium-ion battery, for safety reasons, it cannot be placed in checked baggage. SAS – SD No. 77


CleanseBot has 18 sensors built in. It has 4 UV-C lights that can eliminate 99.99 per cent of bacteria, germs and dust mites from any surface.

How do you use this thing?

Just put the CleanseBot on the bed, then press this button. Press it one time to run for 30 minutes; two times for 60 minutes.

Its UV-C lights can also prevent viruses from spreading through the air.

Conrad, the CleanseBot is going to fall off the bed!

Don’t worry. The sensors of the CleanseBot can sense obstacles. When it reaches an edge, it will automatically stop moving.

The specially-designed wheels of the CleanseBot can move on any flat or *concave surfaces.

Tell Me More Currently, the charge cycle of the battery of the CleanseBot is about 800 to 900 days. The CleanseBot has an overheating protection function that prevents the device from burning due to misuse.

*concave: curving inwards


SAS – SD No. 77

Conrad, does this device only disinfect bedsheets and carpets?

Conrad, can you lend me your disinfection robot?

No problem!

It can disinfect anything. And you can change the mode to handheld mode by fixing the handle cover.

Magic Beast, you’re so dirty! Let me sanitise you.

Magic Beast, don’t run!

Abr acada

br a!

Asher, cut it out! Conrad, come and save me!

Tell Me More Two of the CleanseBot’s UV-C lights are mounted on the top and the other two, at the bottom. In order to avoid injury, when you use the CleanseBot, try to prevent the light from coming into contact with your skin or letting it shine in your eyes. SAS – SD No. 77


About CleanseBot


Handheld mode In handheld mode, all you need to do is to put your hand under the strap, press the switch and put the CleanseBot on any surface you want disinfected.

The handheld mode uses only the bottom UV-C lights. Thus, it will not harm your eyes or skin. This mode can be used to disinfect pillow cases, toilet seats, bathroom equipment, toys and mobile phones.

Power bank mode The CleanseBot is equipped with a 3700mAh battery, making recharging easy. The battery also has a USB port to allow for charging of mobile devices. The output power of the CleanseBot is 1A and it takes about 2 hours to charge. 47

SAS – SD No. 77

Olivia Corner



Blood-Red Snow Grandpa, Ryan and Baabust are in the Antarctic… Compared to the past, these glaciers have become smaller in size.

Grandpa, Baabust, I’d like to take a look around here.

Global warming problems are getting worse.


SAS – SD No. 77


Don’t go too far away.

Penquin, where are you leading me?

That was Ryan!





Oh, that’s bad! Things are getting severe out here.

Tell Me More Snow *algae, also known as watermelon snow, smells slightly sweet like the watermelon and can turn redder as the snow melts. Snow algae can be found in mountains and polar regions around the world during the late spring or summer.

*algae: simple plants that have no real leaves, stems or roots, and that grow in or near water


SAS – SD No. 77

Grandpa, it’s too cruel! There’s blood everywhere. Who killed these penguins? Nobody killed them. The blood-red snow was caused by the snow algae.

Snow algae?

Young polar snow algae are green (containing chlorophyll). They can grow in extremely cold environments and hibernate in the winter. They are freshwater unicellular green algae that are commonly found in polar regions or high snowfields.

Polar snow algae does not wake up until the sunlight increases in the summer. The *astaxanthin in the algae begins to turn orange-red as the temperature rises.

It’s not that simple! Their astaxanthin absorbs a lot of heat energy. This speeds up the melting of more snow.

Phew! So this is a natural phenomenon.

Tell Me More Polar snow algae are often found in extreme environments such as places where there are limited nutrients, low temperatures and intense sunlight. SAS – SD No. 77

*astaxanthin: a pigment that occurs in many places, including in snow algae


The Antarctic is now in a cold weather season. So there shouldn’t be a great amount of “blood snow”.

The snow algae are reproducing in great numbers now, causing “blood snow” to appear in the Antarctic. This shows that global warming is getting worse.

If humans don’t change their lifestyles, the temperatures in the Antarctic could exceed 30 degrees Celsius in the future.

What problems will high temperatures bring?

High temperatures in the polar regions will make the sea ice melt. This will cause the penguins, polar bears and other Antarctic animals to lose their habitats, and to suffer food shortages.

Global warming not only affects the Arctic and Antarctic animals, it also threatens animals around the world.

For example, rising temperatures can cause frequent forest fires that can threaten the lives of the animals living in forests, even in rainforests.

Tell Me More In February 2020, Antarctica registered its hottest temperature ever. For the first time, the temperature exceeded 20 degrees Celsius, reaching 20.75. Nearly 20% of the snow melted in just nine days. 51

SAS – SD No. 77

How do we slow down global warming?

Buying energy-efficient products, reducing waste, planting trees and using clean fuel can all help reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Ryan, do you want to feed them? I do!

It seems that we have come to‌

Squawk... Squawk...

The Penguin Ranch!

Tell Me More Due to global warming, polar sea ice is melting and the number of surviving penguins in polar regions has reduced by 30 to 50 per cent.

SAS – SD No. 77


Most Effective Ways To Save The World Cutting down on driving not only saves fuel, but also helps reduce global warming. If you would like to go to a nearby supermarket, you can choose to walk or ride a bike. If you have to drive, you could carpool.

Plants play an important role in regulating the climate. They can absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen into the air. As a result, massive deforestation can prevent carbon dioxide from being absorbed, release the carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and cause global warming effects.

After the fossil fuel industry, the food industry creates the greatest impact on climate change. Livestock, such as cattle and sheep, produce methane. Thus, when they graze on a large scale, large amounts of methane are produced, causing the earth to become warmer. 53

SAS – SD No. 77

Human Body


My Gum Is

Bleeding! I’m starving. Dan, is the food ready yet?

Ten minutes later…

Of course! It’s good for you to eat porridge when you have a toothache.

Can I really eat this?


Don’t you want to give it a try?

SAS – SD No. 77


Forget it. I’ll look in the refrigerator and see what is there to eat.

It hurts!

Ash, you’re bleeding!

In the bathroom...

Uncle Jo’s clinic…

What am I going to do?

We’ll take you to Uncle Jo’s clinic for a check-up.

If you don’t brush your teeth well enough, your gums can become infected from plaque. Then the capillaries in your gums dilate and become full of blood. When you brush your teeth or bite something hard, the blood vessels in your gums can burst and bleed.

Uncle Jo, what has happened to Ash?

Gum bleeding is a common oral disease. There are many factors that cause gum bleeding.

Tell Me More Gum bleeding can be a symptom of many diseases such as leukemia, pernicious anaemia and liver cirrhosis.


SAS – SD No. 77

From today on, I’ll brush my teeth seriously for sure.

Ash has gum bleeding because he hasn’t kept his teeth clean enough.

Aside from teeth-cleaning issues, brushing your teeth incorrectly and using a toothbrush with hard bristles may cause gum bleeding.

Ouch, my gum is bleeding again!

Ash, lie back down.

How do hard bristles cause gum bleeding?

hard bristle

soft bristle

If the bristles are too hard, they can damage our gums. It is good to switch to a toothbrush with soft bristles.

Tell Me More Excessive stress can cause gum bleeding and bad breath. Thus, as well as going for a dental check-up, we also need to learn to relax. SAS – SD No. 77


What can we do to stop gum bleeding?

Good dental health habits, such as brushing our teeth correctly, rinsing our mouths after meals and having regular dental check-ups, are the solutions to gum bleeding.

One of the ways to prevent gum bleeding is to clean the plaque and food residues stuck between the teeth with dental floss in order to avoid the formation of calculus (tatar).

Ash, you have two decayed teeth.

Ouch! That hurts!

No. I don’t want to have them extracted.

It hurts…

Tell Me More Dental care is quite important. In general, we should see a dentist every 6 months or once a year. A dental check-up allows us to find any problems with our teeth in time to find an effective treatment. 57

SAS – SD No. 77

How to keep our

mouths clean

Getting into good hygiene habits The best way to prevent a periodontal disease is to take early preventive measures. We should clean our mouths by correctly brushing our teeth twice a day, using dental floss and going for regular dental check-ups.

Teeth cleaning is a procedure for the removal of tartar that may develop even with careful brushing and flossing, especially in areas that are difficult to reach in routine tooth brushing. It is often done by a dentist. Regular teeth cleanings may help lower the risk of some oral diseases such as periodontal disease.

Paying attention to what we eat We should take health preventive measures such as drinking less carbonated beverages. We should add more vitamin C to our daily diet. This can regulate the nutrients for our periodontal tissue and is conducive with our periodontal health. SAS – SD No. 77


Daily Science


Uncle Wiseman, can you stop the car? I want to visit that palm oil plantation.


I was just about to take you kids there.

Is palm fruit edible?

I think all fruits are edible.

Wiseman, what brings you here?

Give it a try and you’ll know if it’s edible.


At the palm oil plantation... 59

SAS – SD No. 77

Follow me. I’ll show you around the factory.

Yikes, it’s bitter. It tastes awful.

Palm fruit collection and distribution centre… This is the palm fruit that we’ve collected today.

What are you all doing?

If palm fruit is not edible, why are you still putting a lot of effort into sorting them?

We’re separating the palm fruit from the bunch stalks.

We’ll help you.

Tell Me More Southeast Asia is a tropical rainforest climate region where the temperatures are high throughout the year. The rainfall there is abundant, making it suitable for oil palm trees to be planted on a large scale. Malaysia and Indonesia are two major producers of palm oil. SAS – SD No. 77


Because the palm fruit can be made into palm oil.

Benjamin and Uncle Wiseman work together...

This little fruit is where palm oil comes from, eh?

Check out its inner structure.

Can I help?

Palm oil comes from the orange pulp of the palm fruit. The white part is the kernel, this is used to make palm kernel oil.

Palm kernel oil?

palm fruit

The palm kernel oil contains a large amount of low fatty acids.


Palm kernel oil is commonly used in non-food products such as laundry detergents, cosmetic products and soaps.

I hear palm oil can be made into biodiesel.

Yes. When it is refined and reacts with methanol, it can be made into biodiesel.

Tell Me More Palm oil is very high in calories. Excessive consumption of palm oil can lead to obesity and *hyperlipidemia.

*hyperlipidemia: a condition when the blood has too many lipids (or fats)


SAS – SD No. 77

It can be mixed with petroleum fuel and can easily be used in regular petrochemical diesel engines.

The carbon dioxide emitted from the biofuel made from palm oil can be absorbed by plants. This can reduce carbon emissions.


Compared to petroleum, palm oil fuel burns better and emits less greenhouse gases. Palm oil fuel is biodegradable and non-toxic. Palm oil is everywhere. We use palm oil products almost every day.

Palm oil is low in price and its grease is quite stable. Palm oil can be used to produce edible oil, snacks, biscuits and cakes.

Are you tricking us?

Tell Me More As the demand for palm oil has increased, it has lead to large-scale cutting of palm trees in some areas, which has caused the destruction of habitats for animals such as gorillas, tigers and rhinoceroses. SAS – SD No. 77

What’s the difference between palm oil fuel and petroleum?


Some daily cleaning products contain palm oil, such as detergents and shampoo.

Wow! Palm oil is so widely used!

The sorting is done. Let’s take the palm fruit inside the house!


Mamma mia!!!

Tell Me More Palm oil is the second largest source of edible oil in the world. It is 6-11 times more productive than other vegetable oil crops such as soybeans, cottonseeds, peanuts and sunflowers. 63

SAS – SD No. 77

Palm oil does not deteriorate easily, thus can be used for frying foods, such as instant noodles, potato chips and biscuits, to keep them crispy and delicious.

The fixed fat in palm oil can be separated from the liquid fat. The fixed fat can be used to replace more expensive cocoa butter and used as artificial butter, whereas the liquid fat can be used as a cooking oil.

Unrefined palm oil can be used to make soap. Soap made from palm oil has durable foam and is more capable of removing dirt.

SAS – SD No. 77


Great People

General Knowledge

Dong Qichang The Chinese Painter and Calligrapher

Dong Qichang was a painter, calligrapher and politician in the later period of the Ming Dynasty. Dong Qichang had high artistic achievements in calligraphy and painting.

In 1555, Dong Qichang was born in Huating (today’s Shanghai) during the Ming Dynasty. He was a studious boy who hoped to achieve something in the future.

At 17, he took part in the *imperial examination. He was quite confident and was sure that he would pass.

But he did not achieve his expected results. Your hand writing is awful. Go back and practise more! No…

*imperial examination: an examination for the officials in ancient China


SAS – SD No. 77

A few years later, he had learned everything about calligraphy and became very *conceited.

From then on, Dong Qichang was focused on practising calligraphy behind closed doors.

From today, call me Master of Calligraphy.

One day, Dong Qichang accidentally saw Wang Xizhi’s *copybook, and he realised that his calligraphy still left much to be desired.

Wow, calligraphy can be expressed in such a form!

From then on, Dong Qichang saw Wang Xizhi as a teacher, humbly learning calligraphy from him. Thus, Dong Qichang finally became a famous calligrapher. Aside from calligraphy, Dong Qichang worked hard to learn to paint.

Dong Qichang felt ashamed of how conceited he had been.

SAS – SD No. 77

*conceited: being too proud of yourself and what you do *copybook: a book containing examples of calligraphic script meant to be copied while practising calligraphy


After years of hard work, Dong Qichang finally became a senior government official. In this role, it is likely that he saw many ancient calligraphic scripts and paintings, enabling him to further improve his calligraphy and painting skills.

After becoming an official, Dong Qichang made friends with many knowledgeable people and kept good relationships with various political parties. They often discussed how to learn calligraphy and painting skills with each other.

In the time of Dong Qichang’s life, reading was a popular culture and people from all walks of life were interested in painting. Due to Dong Qichang’s high social status, his calligraphy and paintings captured the attention of people from all walks of life. Thus, he gradually became famous.


SAS – SD No. 77

He never became lazy, rather he continued to copy ancient works in order to refine his skills.

During Dong Qichang’s time in office, due to fierce party struggles and political complexity, he resigned and regained office many times.

During the times he was not in office, he studied calligraphy and painting. He often exchanged ideas about calligraphy and painting with his friends. The painting Shang You Tu, as shown below, illustrates Dong Qichang exchanging ideas about painting with a few friends.

SAS – SD No. 77


Dong Qichang believed that when it came to learning calligraphy or painting, people should learn from the ancients through extensive copying exercises, and try to improve themselves and create their own skills during this learning process.

In copying ancient works, Dong Qichang also understood many ideas. This gave him unique theoretical insights, especially into *landscape painting.

*landscape painting: painting that is composed of mountains and bodies of water


SAS – SD No. 77

Dong Qichang published his theoretical insights into landscape painting.

He divided landscape painting into Southern and Northern schools and analysed the artistic styles of these two schools. The naming of the schools had nothing to do with geographical locations.



Dong Qichang thought that the Northern school painters only painted the external appearances of things, focusing on colour details and ornamental properties. I can create a landscape in front to make it look more grand so that it attracts people's attention.

Adding water to ink can create different-layered colour effects and save costs on pigments.

But the Southern school was known as “literal painting” whose painters painted more casually using only ink and turning complexity into simplicity. This school of painters tended to express their inner feelings.

Dong Qichang thought that the aim of the Southern school painters was to entertain themselves. They painted by following their hearts’ desires. Dong Qichang’s works tend to be more Southern.

Dong Qichang’s theories also led to disputes among schools in the history of painting art.

The Northern school was also *repressed by the followers of the Southern school in different ways.

I support the Southern school.

I support Dong Qichang.

*repressed: not allowed to be expressed

In fact, Dong Qichang’s theoretical insights responded to the art world at that time. He did not belittle the Northern school. His theoretical insights also inspired the development of landscape painting. SAS – SD No. 77


Maths Corner


Weight Distribution The Laurence and David families have called three rickshaws. Each rickshaw can only carry a load of 100 kilograms. According to their weight, assign a suitable rickshaw to each person.


Each rickshaw can carry two to three people.















Answers: 1. Laurence (70.5kgs) + Matt (28kgs)= 98.5kg 2. David (66.25kgs) + Carol (30.5kgs)= 96.75kgs 3. Janet (45.25kgs) + Teresa (40kgs) + Danny (12kgs) = 97.25kgs


SAS – SD No. 77

Works of Art

Paper Marbling ANCIENT ART OF JAPANESE MARBLING Marbling is the art of floating coloured ink or paint on the surface of water, swirling it into a pattern or design, and then laying paper or fabric onto the colours to absorb them. The origin and development of marbling was said to have been invented by the Japanese as early as the 12th century (1151). This was a time when Japan was stepping away from the influence of China and developing national areas of literature, architecture and art. The oldest form of paper marbling is the Japanese marbling technique known as Suminagashi, or “ink floating�. Suminagashi ink is used in calligraphy and for book binding. This special kind of ink floats on the surface of the water and creates interesting patterns when mixed and stirred with other inks. Today, thousands of masters explore the traditional method of paper marbling and bring new ideas to this wonderful form of artistic expression. Do you know you can create the art of Japanese marbling at home?

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