ÂŁ4.99 (UK only) Issue 176 September 2013 - ISSN 1366-9028
I explore t he world
Life in the
How were castles built?
Middle Ages COME ALONG, CHILDREN! OVER HERE!
THAT’S JUST SILLY!
THESE ARE SOME OF THE HARD SHELLS THAT INSECTS USED TO HAVE 700 YEARS AGO.
I KNOW! HE’S NOT OOOH! AT ALL JUST LOOK SCARY! HE LOOKS AT HIS RIDICULOUS! FACE!
YUCK! SO UGLY!
WHAT A JOKER!
HA! HA! HA!
HE MUST HAVE BEEN A REAL LAUGH WITH THOSE BIG JAWS!
SO YOU THINK MY BIG JAWS ARE RIDICULOUS,
CALM DOWN, KARL! THEY’RE JUST LITTLE BUGS! 2
HEE! HEE! HEE! BIG UGLY MUG! HA HA! SILLY ...ULOUS OLD THING!
© Story: B. Fichou. Illustrations: Sébastien Telleschi (and throughout issue).
HE LOOKS STRONG, THOUGH!
Welcome to the Middle Ages! 4
How to become a knight
Lots of interesting info about nature, science, history…
A miller at work John was the village miller. He ground wheat into flour in his windmill. The flour was used to make bread, which was the main food for most poor people at the time.
Discover today’s world in photos.
Fox out hunting… See amazing photos of a fox as it pounces on its prey.
KARL, STOP! YOU’RE TOO OLD FOR THIS!
Investigate! How were arched doorways in castles built? Matthew and Elliot find out. Experiment! Discover for yourself how a windmill works.
+ LOTS MORE Fun cartoons, games, pet care, your jokes and questions and a great competition! UH OH!! HE’S COMING UP THE WALLS BEHIND US!
DO IT YOURSELF
LET’S GO THIS WAY! HE MUST THINK HE’S A SPIDER.
e iddl m e th ine Go to r magaz u ner of Pare of yo n win
e Gold A hoic wa r
Cover illustration: Serge Prud’homme. Photo: © D. Salvagnin (fox).
A castle in the Middle Ages
yBox is a 2 ver 0
Boys started training when they were just 7 years old. They worked as pages and then as squires. They learned to fight and ride horses and had to get used to wearing 25kg of armour…
PICS & FACTS
How to become a knight
Look at these knights riding out to battle! Find out about these soldiers who fought on horseback between the 10th and 15th centuries.
Go to ou
Learning to be a knight The sons of kings and lords were trained to be knights. They didn’t go to school and started learning to fight when they were very young.
IF ONLY I HAD A HORSE… COME BACK!
A boy left his family at 7 years old to train as a knight. He was sent to work as a page in the house of a lord (often a friend of his family). He looked after the lord’s horses and learned to ride. He practised fighting with a wooden sword.
At 13 he became a squire. He went to war with his lord. He helped his lord put on his armour and led his battle horse, called a charger, to the battlefield. After a fight, he collected weapons and rounded up horses left by the enemy.
The squire practised fighting skills. He learned to joust, fighting on horseback with a lance. He had to gallop towards a quintain and hit the straw man hanging from it. He also fought other squires, using blunt swords so they didn’t hurt each other.
He spent long days hunting. He learned to track stags, deer, wild boar, wolves and even foxes. Hunting prepared him for battle. Spending time in the forest taught him how to survive in the wild. Knights had to be observant and brave.
The young warrior became a knight when his lord felt he was ready for this honour, usually aged about 17. In a ceremony called the accolade or dubbing, the lord tapped the squire on the shoulder with a sword or gave him a small slap on the neck. Then he gave the new knight a name. The lord also gave the knight all the equipment he needed: a helmet, a shirt of chain mail, a sword and spurs. The young man took an oath, promising to follow the knightâ€™s code of conduct. This was a set of rules about how knights had to behave. A knight was expected to be faithful to his lord, protect the weak and be brave and generous. In return, the lord gave him land and sometimes money.
HE HAS SPOTTED US!
LETâ€™S GET OUT OF HERE!
Knights used wooden or metal shields to protect themselves in battle.
Knights were always fighting. In times of peace, they took part in tournaments. Lots of people came to watch these competitions and there was often a fair at the same time. Knights jousted and fought each other. The winners were given a crown or a trained hunting falcon (bird of prey).
The losers had to give up their weapons and horses. Knights also fought for their lords, attacking castles and taking land and prisoners. They would demand a ransom in exchange for their freedom. Knights also helped keep the roads safe. They had to spend 40 days every year serving their lord.
A knight’s equipment weighed A knight wore heavy, metal chain mail and armour. A foot soldier could not easily beat a knight on horseback. But if a knight fell off his horse, he was in trouble!
His heavy equipment often made it difficult for him to stand up again. If he did manage to get up, he carried on fighting with his sword and daggers. Sword (in a red sheath)
Knight never ha s rmed their ho rses or their en emie horses. s’
A knight’s sword was 1m long and weighed 2kg.
This weapon had 3 chains with metal weights on the ends.
Dagger and sheath (holder)
© Les Boucliers de l’Andlau
© Les Boucliers de l’Andlau
Helmet design over the years 1300
Helmet with throat and neck protection
Special helmet for tournament parades
© D. Monniaux
Iron helmet with eye slits and air holes
Nasal helmet with a bar to protect the nose
A knight’s equipment cost as much as 30 cows. That was a lot of money!
This metal helmet had a visor that could be pulled down over the knight’s face. It was worn on top of a chain mail hood.
This long, chain mail shirt protected the knight’s body from the neck to the knees.
A padded leather jacket helped to protect the knight’s upper body.
This one was made of wood and covered in metal. It was decorated with the knight’s coat of arms so he could be easily recognized on the battlefield.
It had a wooden handle and a sharp blade. SIR, THAT BIG GUY OVER THERE IS BUGGING COULD US! YOU TELL HIM TO STOP…
Chain mail gauntlets
These gloves protected the hands.
Both edges of the sword’s blade were sharp and could cut.
… WITH YOUR AXE? PLEASE?
Surcoat with coat of arms
Over his armour a knight wore a long sleeveless tunic decorated with his coat of arms (or badge). Every knight chose his own special design.
These were metal shin protectors.
These armoured shoes were made of iron.
The knight dug these sharp points into his horse’s sides to direct it. 9
DID YOU KNOW?
The Middle Ages lasted 597
The last Roman emperor is forced to give up his position. Historians say this is the
start of the Middle Ages.
The Hundred Years’ War between France and England starts.
The armies of the Muslim Empire are defeated in France and in China.
Augustine, a monk from Rome, arrives in England to teach the people about Christianity.
Francis of Assisi becomes a monk. He spends his life caring for the poor and the sick.
Scholars in England get together to found the University of Cambridge.
King John of England is forced to sign the Magna Carta by his nobles. This document limits the king’s powers.
The plague, or Black Death, kills millions of people across Europe.
1380 Geoffrey Chaucer begins writing The Canterbury Tales. This collection of stories tells us a lot of what we know about how people in England lived at the time.
Joan of Arc is 17 years old when she leads the French army to victory against the English.
Meanwhile, around the world… 7th century In Arabia Islam is founded by Muhammad. The Muslim Empire quickly spreads as far as Spain and China.
12th century In Asia Genghis Khan rules the largest empire in the world. It stretches across Asia and Europe.
hundreds of years! Charlemagne is crowned Holy Roman Emperor. He is the new ruler of Europe.
The Vikings sail from Scandinavia and invade many parts of Europe.
Work begins on the beautiful cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris.
A German called Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press.
Athelstan, king of the West Saxons, defeats the Vikings to become the first King of England.
Henry II of England marries Eleanor of Aquitaine and becomes king of a large part of France.
William of Normandy conquers England and becomes king.
European knights set off on the First Crusade, a religious war to capture Jerusalem from the Muslims.
Christopher Columbus travels to a new land, America.
A new period in European history, called the Renaissance, begins.
14th century In Africa Mansa Musa rules the Malian Empire, one of the richest in the world.
15th century In America Pachacuti, an Inca leader, unites the kingdoms of the Andes mountains into one empire.
ÂŠ Bayard Presse - Images Doc June 2013. Text: C. Loizeau. Illustrations: Serge Prudâ€™homme (pp. 4 to 9) and Fred Sochard (pp.10-11).
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A miller at work
I’m already up and about!
It’s early morning in 1313. Can you see the windmill on the hill? That’s where our story begins…
John White owns the mill. his son, Robin, works there with him.
Time to get up, Gertie.
Red sky in the morning, shepherd’s warning.*
Then it’s time to go and feed the chickens.
Eat your soup, Gertie.
Look at all these eggs, Granny!
Chick chick chiiiick!
Careful, girl, you don’t want to break them… Go and get ready, Gertie. You’re coming to the village with me today.
That’s great, Pa!
John uses this to position the sails into the wind. 14
* an old saying about the weather: if the sky is red in the morning it’s likely to rain so shepherds should not take their sheep out to the fields.
Morning, Mrs Morris! Robin will mill your wheat!
Are you happy, Greynose? We’re going for a walk…
Pieces of strong cloth are stretched over wooden frames to catch the wind.
The sails turn this wheel, which turns a gear that makes the top millstone turn.
This wooden building protects the machinery of the mill and keeps the wheat and flour dry.
Hopper (or funnel)
Robin pours the wheat in here.
The top stone turns and grinds the wheat seed (also called grain) that’s on the lower stone into flour.
It comes out here and is collected in sacks.
the miller is an important person and some villagers are jealous of him.
There goes the miller, off in his cart as usual! He’s lucky. His mill makes him rich!
Hello there, Peter!
His wife died a while ago, so he’s a widower now. I would not mind marrying him and being the wife of a rich man!
Colin, are you a baker’s boy now?
Yes, Gertie, I’m learning to be a baker! Morning, Mrs Darby. I brought your rye* and wheat flour.
You didn’t need to, John! I could have sent the baker’s boy.
I was passing by on my way to the abbey. 16
* another cereal plant, like wheat.
Hey, miller, you leave my wife alone!
Everyone knows that you cheat people on the weight of flour and that you flirt with all the ladies…
You old gossip! Better check on your bread. I smell burning!
Let’s go, Greynose!
Don’t be upset! The baker shouts at everyone… me, the customers, his wife…
Colin, take this delivery to the castle.
John arrives at the abbey.
Oh no, I forgot Gertie! She will have to walk home!
I’ve never seen my pa so cross! It took me a whole day to mill your six bags of flour. This mix of rye and wheat was hard to sift*.
Don’t worry, my dear! Your pa is a good man.
Master John! At last! I’m sorry it was a hard job, John. Keep a sack of flour as extra payment.
* sieve the flour to take out any bits of husk (the hard outer coating of the seeds) that have ended up in it.
I will get him!
John is away today. I will wait till Robin leaves the mill.
A while later…
Robin! Come, I need you!
Here’s my chance…
The mill is turning too fast. I will take down some of the cloth on the sails in a bit. The jealous baker makes the mill start turning even faster.
Ha ha! Your mill really is going too fast now, you silly boy! That proud miller John thinks he’s better than other people… Well, I will teach him a lesson that he will not forget quickly!
As the wind blows harder, the millstone starts to turn faster. this makes Sparks fly out. If these sparks fall on the flour or the wood floor, the mill will easily catch fire!
Oh no! What have I done?
© Illustrations: A. Soleilhac.
Phew, it’s raining!
It’s true then, red sky in the morning and all that…
The harvest festival is at the end of September.
Yummy, I love these sweet buns!
Did you hear? The lord has ordered the baker to leave the village!
It has been a good year, in spite of the fire… and I made enough money to pay the tax I owe the lord.
Let’s give thanks!
THE END 19
DID YOU KNOW?
There were no chips No chips, no mashed potatoes, no crisps! Potatoes came from South America and Europeans hadnâ€™t travelled there yet. So what did poor people in Europe eat?
Poor peopleâ€™s food in .................... ... ... ... ... od fo n ai m r ei th as w ad re B ke bread. People used wheat to ma s, such as oats, They also ate other cereal y boiled up as barley and rye, which the ps. porridge and used in sou
People in the Middle Ages
in the Middle Ages!
n the Middle Ages g soup. These were used for makin es of There weren’t all the typ People only ay. tod e hav we s vegetable could grow in ate vegetables that they their fields.
Nettles and mushrooms ......................
ds d to gather nuts and see Poor people were allowe . ges ods and hed that grew wild in the wo
A little meat ...............................
ns. a pig, a cow or some chicke Some families might own and g kin est belonged to the The wild animals in the for ’t allowed to hunt them but ren we his lords. Poor people g like y sometimes did! Stealin if they were starving the ght, cau s and if someone wa this was called poaching they could be hung.
d, of different kinds of foo Lords ate meat and lots from other countries. including things brought
90 out of 100 people were poor farmers.
They worked the land for the lords.
prayed, cured the sick and taught children.
Lords and knights went to war and ruled the peasants.
ruled over everyone.
©Bayard Presse - Images Doc June 2013. Text: P. Bouchié. Illustrations: A. Soleilhac. © Photos: Clémentinecuisinefrance; FFdecuniculture; DR; dico-cuisine.fr/DR.
© Caters News Agency/Sipa
Dubai is in the United Arab Emirates. This country is a desert. There’s often fog
as in this photograph… To get above it, you have to go to the top of Burj Khalifa, the tallest skyscraper in the world and the biggest building ever made. It has 163 floors!
Victory at last! This year’s Wimbledon was won by the Scot Andy Murray. It was the first
time in many years that this London tournament was won by a British player. 22
ÂŠ Sheng Li/Reuters
hey! have you seen any bugs around here?
Welcome to the robot restaurant in Harbin, China. A robot welcomes you and
ÂŠ Adhi Prayoga/Caters News Agency/Sipa
shows you to your table. Robot chefs cook the food. You can choose from 30 different dishes. The robot waiters move along a track to take the food to customers.
Lookout, dragonfly! This frog would love to gobble up the dragonfly that has landed on its nose. You can spot frogs and dragonflies near ponds in summer.
Giraffes use their muscly tongues to pull leaves off trees. Scientists think there are two reasons for their tongue colour. One is that there’s melanin pigment in the tongue. This is a chemical that protects skin from the sun. (We have it in our skin too.) A giraffe's tongue sticks out all day long as it feeds and could easily get burned. The second reason is that a giraffe's tongue doesn't have many blood vessels in it. This makes the tongue much tougher. That's useful as some of the trees giraffes feed on have sharp thorns!
The Vatican is a country The Vatican City State is where the Pope (the leader of the Catholic church) lives and rules. It's the smallest country in the world. It’s a walled area inside the city of Rome, the capital of Italy. The Vatican has an area of just 0.44km² (that's 3,000 times smaller than Rome) and only about 800 people live there! 24
© Bilby/Monarto Zoogical Park, Australia
Giraffes have huge blue tongues!
The first telescopes
Illustrations: B. Lefort
A telescope is used to look at things that are far away. This word comes from Greek and means ‘far seeing’. Scientists first made telescopes in the Netherlands in the early 17th century using glass lenses. Then in 1668, Isaac Newton, an Englishman, made a new kind of telescope using mirrors. It magnified the stars so they looked 40 times bigger. Since then many other kinds of telescopes have been invented. … 670,105, 000,363… 670,105, 000,364… 670,105, 000,365 stars…
iadou/Insciences.o rg © Elisabeth Menex
Did you know that liz ards (and some othe r reptiles such as sala manders and geckos ) have a detachable ta il? When a lizard is caught by a predator , it contracts certain muscles in its spine and its tail breaks of f. The old broken tail co ntinues to wriggle to confuse the predator , while the lizard escapes. It takes se veral weeks for a new tail to grow.
Hey! There's a dog on your t-shirt! If you like animals then a t-shirt like this could be just your thing. A US company uses 3D printing to put amazing images of animal heads on t-shirts: different dog breeds, elephants, tigers, bears, monkeys…
Under your lungs is a muscle called the diaphragm. It helps you breathe by contracting (getting smaller) to give your lungs more space. That's when the lungs fill with air and you breathe in. Sometimes, when you have had a big meal or you eat too fast, your diaphragm becomes irritated. It contracts suddenly and jerkily, making you take in a big gulp of air. At the same time the vocal cords in your throat tighten. So when the air passes through them you hear that 'hic' sound.
Lizard can grow new tails
© Caters News Agency/Sipa Design.
1 a sieve for straining pasta
4 a metal tower with arrow slits
3 a knightâ€™s helmet
2 a washing machine drum
Answer on page 51.
A castle in the Middle Ages Whatâ€™s happening behind these walls?
Protected by ramparts It’s not easy to get inside this castle! It’s built to protect its people against enemy attacks…
Wall walkway Soldiers walk around on the top of the walls and keep watch over the countryside.
Curtain wall This thick, strong wall is built of large blocks of stone. It goes all the way around the castle to protect it.
Small bartizan This watchtower has arrow slits for archers to aim through.
Hoarding This is a wooden hut that hangs over the wall. Soldiers get a better aim at attackers from here.
Life in the castle The lord and his family live in the castle keep. Servants and many others work here and live inside the walls with their families.
Arrow slits Archers can take aim through these narrow holes in the walls without being in danger from enemy arrows.
Treadwheel crane One man walks inside the wheel to turn it. This machine is used to lift heavy stones.
Hoarding These wooden shelters are built when there is danger of attack.
Boys’ bedrooms The mattresses on the beds are stuffed with straw. Chapel The lord’s family prays in the chapel every day. This is also where the knights’ accolade or dubbing ceremony takes place.
Kitchen Food is cooked in clay and iron pots. Meat is roasted on a spit over the fire.
Barns Cows and pigs are kept inside the castle to provide food for the people who live there.
A servant girl is pulling water up in a bucket. Guards’ room This is where the guards rest and look after their weapons.
Girls’ bedroom Soldiers stand guard here.
Windows Glass is very expensive so most windows only have wooden shutters to keep the cold out.
Store room Supplies of are kept he and hung fr
Courtyard The people who live nearby can shelter here if there’s an attack.
Portcullis This gate is made of strong iron bars. It’s raised using a winch and chains.
Weapons room The soldiers’ axes, lances and swords are kept here.
Dungeon Prisoners are chained and locked up here.
Chains They con the winc is turned and low drawbri
Tapestry hangings These decorative woven carpets cover the walls, doors and windows. They keep out cold air. Lord and lady’s bedroom It has a bed and some folding seats. Clothes and valuables are kept in chests. Latrines These toilets empty directly into the moat. Great Hall This is the main room, where the lord eats and entertains guests. He also uses it as a courtroom.
A lookout He will give a signal from the top of the tower when he sees people approaching.
Battlements This is the name for the wall that rises up above the level of the tower roof, or above the walkway on the curtain wall. The gaps in the battlements are called crenels. Soldiers can shoot through them and then stand back behind the protection of the merlons (the solid parts).
Tower It juts out from the wall so that soldiers can shoot at people attacking the bottom of the wall.
It’s used to throw stones.
nnect to ch, which d to raise wer the idge.
GAME Find the castle’s 3 cats. They love hunting mice and rats… Answers on page 51.
© Bayard Presse - Images Doc June 2013. Text: C. Loizeau. Illustrations: S. Prud’homme.
m f food and wine ere. Meat is salted rom hooks.
Keep This large tower can be seen from far away. It reminds everyone how powerful the lord is.
Forge The blacksmith works here making nails, chains and weapons. He also repairs tools.
Gatehouse This is the way into the castle. A passage cuts through the thick walls and is guarded by towers on either side. The opening can be closed by the portcullis.
Drawbridge It can be raised or lowered over the moat.
Moat This ditch is filled with brambles and nettles.
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Tusko Livingroom Leopold Stanley
Tarzine Why are there all these guys wearing armour in the forest?
Oo h! Oo h!
They must be knights from the Middle Ages who never adapted to the modern world…
Why would knights make monkey sounds?
Maybe Did you see? They they have lived have tails in the trees so long that they too! have gone back to being monkeys…
Look! All the animals around here are wearing armour!! We ver y w ird, eird…
W ho can tell!
© Bayard Presse – Images DOC June 2013. Text and illustrations: Corcal.
Great! A stream! We can at least have a drink!
Glug Glug Glug Glug
Ugh! This water has a horrible metallic taste!
Aaah! My skin is turning into metal!!!
M i ne too!!
Urgh!! You’re right. It tastes like iron!
Now we know why the animals around here are covered in iron plates… Yeah, well at least we don’t have to worry about mosquitoes any more…
… g n i t n u h t ou legends Foxes in fairy tales and ing. are often clever and cunn nters. t hu In real life, they are grea ! Watch this one in action
PHEW… THOSE BUGS MOVE FAST!
UH OH! THE FOX HAS SEEN US! 28
PHEW… WHAT A DAY!
Text: N. Tordjman. © All photos: F. Cahez.
ning and dawn is It’s 5 o’clock in the mor mowed field. breaking over a freshly den with A fox is returning to its a full stomach.
ling sound. Suddenly, it hears a rust it leaps and It stops and sniffs. Then s the ground. dives head first toward What has it found? 29
e plump moles. The fox has caught thre ross ight away. It runs off ac It doesnâ€™t eat them stra in a red flash, with the prey the countryside, quick as ha et rdly stretches its body. Its fe it , ns ru it As . th ou m its t out eps its bushy tail straigh touch the ground. It ke d. behind it to stay balance
en. She has two cubs. The fox is a female, a vix her den, the cubs When she gets back to yelps. BAD LUCK, welcome her with little But MOLES! BEST They snuggle up to her. I GET AWAY d the vixen isnâ€™t in the moo nting FROM HERE! to play. She has been hu bs have all night, so once the cu had some milk from her, she needs to rest.
e den in the day, The cubs play outside th es over them. while their mother watch and they love Theyâ€™re two months old jump, play catch to play fight. They run, ound, biting and and roll around on the gr nipping each other.
to develop skills The cubs play like this xt few months for hunting. Over the ne e, growing sharp they will reach adult siz Then they have to teeth and a bushy tail. ll need to be able leave the den so they wi to hunt on their own.
DID YOU KNOW?
Foxes see in black and E
et on ts, mice, the seas ts, dents (ra ere they are and , in fores e id s ry h t n w u n o o c g the dependin cities… here – in : everyw ea and even in E V I L Y s e THE h t y s, b mountain
: Red fo N NAME es vulpes COMMO ls ME: Vulp A N es, jacka C I F I ogs, wolv d SCIENT e k li , s : canine FAMILY otes y o rs c and N: 3 yea nd fruit, IFE SPA L E G insects a A R s AVE c), bird ,
10-year-old boy - 140cm
T FIL FOX FAC
Tail for balancing It’s about 40cm long and ends in a tuft of white hairs.
Light skeleton Foxes have light bones. They have long, slender legs and can run at a top speed of 60km per hour. They can jump more than 5m.
Drop pin gs
their droppings in Foxes usually leave can be seen, like the open where they of grass. It marks on a rock or a patch eir smell. their territory with th Fox woz here!
nning hero Zorro is a famous, cu en on TV or at who you may have se e means fox in the cinema. His nam Spanish.
white! Long whiskers These long hairs are called vibrissae. They’re about 10cm long and very sensitive to touch. At night when it’s dark, they help foxes to sense what is around them.
Good eyesight Foxes have 3D vision like us but they only see things in black and white. They can see well in the half light at dawn or dusk because the cells at the back of their eyes are extremely light-sensitive.
Sensitive hairs Foxes have long hairs on the lower part of their legs. These pick up ground vibrations, helping foxes to detect the movement of prey… or a predator!
Foxes in fiction
idered to be Foxes are often cons ness is pests but their clever stories and mentioned in many sop’s fables, legends, including Ae and the Brer Fox stories Pinocchio.
I’m a huge STAR!
Pointy muzzle Foxes have an excellent sense of smell. They hunt by following the smell their prey leaves on the ground.
Fan tastic Mr Fox
ous story (now In Roald Dahl’s fam outwits three also a film), Mr Fox is, Bunce farmers called Bogg s want and Bean. The farmer and to get rid of Mr Fox his family because they steal Fantastic Mr Fox chickens.
© Bayard Presse - Images Doc June 2013. Text: M. Beynié. Illustrations: B. Lefort. © Photo: E. Isselée; Fotolia.com.
Big ears Foxes can move their ears and pick up sounds that we can’t hear. They can hear a rodent gnawing 200m away!
Krogg and Alienna
What’s school? Look, Alienna. Lots of small humans are going into that building over there.
If I stand on your shoulders, I can look in. Humph!
Yes, I see. But... why? Right, who knows what 5 x 8 is? Me!
Hurry up! How many wives did Henry VIII have?
Wow! That’s amazing! You mean exhausting!
Those little humans are really wise. People come and ask them questions and they know all the answers! Really?
© Bayard Presse – Astrapi September 2010. Text: P. Martin. Illustrations: N. Hubesch.
Building a castle Wind power
Market games Great competition
ÂŠ Photos: A. Houdou (girl), J. Ryan Cordova (background).
How were arches in castle walls built?
Welcome to Guedelon castle. Itâ€™s being built using only techniques and materials from the Middle Ages. Elliot and Matthew explore this amazing building siteâ€Ś
Elliot The boys are here
How did they put stones in the top of the arch without them falling down?
Elliot and Matthew meet Florian, the historian in charge of building work at Guedelon castle. 38
Go to ou
ith 1 Rope w
1 Florian explains that an arched
doorway is shaped like a semi-circle on top of a rectangle. It has to be drawn out full size before it can be built. In the Middle Ages, builders used a piece of rope with 13 knots to draw circles, angles and straight lines. Pull the rope tight.
Florian teaches Matthew how to draw the arch on the floor. The rope is used like a compass to make the semi-circle.
2 In the Middle Ages,
builders cut pieces of wood to match the shape drawn on the floor. The wooden shape was used as a template for the stone cutters to follow.
3 Henry is a stone cutter.
He cuts the stone along the line that Elliot drew. It takes him a day and a half to cut a 30kg stone!
ER… NO, NO BUGS HERE, WE MATE… JUST CUT STONES.
l mustn’t let the template move!
mplate on a stone.coal te od wo a es ac pl t Ellio with a stick of char He traces its outli. ne (a kind of pencil)
4 Later, the stones are stuck together
using mortar made of sand, powdered limestone and water. 39
5 Matthew and Elliot wonder why
the builders didn’t cut the stones in squares. It would have been easier. Florian explains why using the two drawings on the right. An arch made of square stones needs a lot more mortar between the stones to hold them in place. If the stones are slightly tapered (narrower at one end), they fit together better. Less mortar is needed and the arch is stronger. The stones push against each other and hold in place more securely.
more mortar = weak
less mo rt strongar =
The width of the doorway depends on the diameter of the arch.
(a line from one side of a circle to the other, passing through the middle)
HEY! IT’S NOT FUNNY!
6 Florian suggests that Matthew and Elliot keystone voussoir (wedge-shaped stone)
door post or jamb
build a small arched doorway using pieces of wood instead of stones. That way they will be able to see how it all works. First the boys lay the ‘stones’ of their arch flat on the ground to see how wide the doorway will be.
7 Then they start to pile up
their ‘stones’ to make the arch. But even with mortar to glue them together, the ‘stones’ slip. Elliot and Matthew decide to put other stones under the arch to support it. This is what builders in the Middle Ages did too!
A pile of stones acts as support.
Now we just have to put the keystone in place.
Matthew and Elliot have made an arch. The voussoirs are in place. The boys just need to add the keystone to close the arch. Great work! You are excellent builders.
I KNEW HE WOULD SOON WORK OUT IT WAS US!
Text and photos: M. Beynié.
There we go! Now we can take away the support.
The hardest thing about building a castle is making door and window arches. The ceilings are often arched too. The walls are easy. They are made of stones placed on top of each other and stuck together with mortar. 41
Windmills look simple but they’re an amazing invention! Find out how windmills work and how we use the energy they produce.
How does a windmill work?
You will nee
: 2 kebab sti cks ● card board (from ● 2 roll s of differe a cereal bo n tc o x) loured mo ● 80cm strong thre delling cla a y d ● 2 fork s ● 2 pots o or string f modelling ● hair dryer ● toy clay figure ●
Do the same thing with the other kebab stick and roll of modelling clay.
Cut out 3 cardboard rectangles (5cm x 2cm). Cut them in half diagonally following the dotted lines in the picture. These 6 triangles will be your windmills’ sails.
Text: M. Beynié.
Take 3 sails and push the long side of each one into the modelling clay at right angles to the clay and kebab stick.
Cut one roll of modelling clay in half. Push the kebab stick through one half. Make a ball with the other half and push it onto the other end of the stick.
Repeat step 2 with the other stick. Push the other 3 sails into the clay on this stick but at an angle (look carefully at the pictures).
Make a tight knot 5cm from the ball of modelling clay.
© Photos: A. Houdou
Take the stick with the windmill that turns. Tie the string tightly to the stick and tie the toy to the other end of the string.
Balance one stick between the fingers of both hands. Blow on the sails. Do the same thing with the other stick. What happens?
Stand the forks in the pots of modelling clay. Stand the pots near the edge of the table. Place the windmill between the fork prongs. The little toy should hang over the edge of the table.
Plug in the hair dryer and turn it on, with the temperature and speed set on ‘low’. Hold it 50cm from the windmill’s sails. Switch it on. Stand so that the hair dryer blows on the windmill’s sails. What happens?
50cm from sails Pots with modelling clay
The wind from the hair dryer makes the sails turn. This turns the stick so the string wraps around it, pulling the toy figure up. Windmills can transform wind power into other types of energy to make things turn (for crushing and grinding, for example), or to pull or lift them.
In the Middle Ages Windmills were used to grind grain. A windmill provided as much energy as the muscle power of 10 men!
We use turbines with giant blades to turn wind energy into electricity. This is then used to power other machines. 43
Market day in
here are four things T in this picture that didnâ€™t exist in the Middle Ages. Can you find them? 1
atch each person M with the correct sentence. How much are you selling it for, Mr Giles?
Look out down there!
Aah... My foot!
the Middle Ages 4
The Fox tavern
ow many animals H can you see in this market scene?
Make way for Lord Mortimer!
He will burn himself!
wo people are T wearing the same clothes. Can you find them?
Could someone please scratch my nose? Answers on page 51.
Idea and text: M. BeyniĂŠ. Illustration: N. Julo.
How to feed a growing kitten As your kitten grows, it will need to eat different things. You can help it to slowly change its diet from milk to dry cat food.
Leave the kitten with its mother and brothers and sisters for as long as possible. It needs to feed from its mum several times a day. When her kittens are 4 or 5 weeks old, the mother will feed them less and less often. This gets them used to eating other food and is called weaning.
When your kitten is 1 month old,
it will have teeth. These are milk teeth just as young children have. You can start to give it some dry food for kittens. Mix some milk with the dry food at the beginning. As it learns to eat the dry food, you can give it less milk. It can start to drink fresh water instead of milk.
When your kitten is 4 months old, If your kitten can’t be fed by its mother, you can prepare little bottles
of milk for it. Don’t feed it cow’s milk as this might give it diarrhoea. Buy milk specially made for kittens. Follow the instructions on the milk container for how much and how often you should feed your kitten (usually between 4 and 8 times every day).
it will have its adult teeth. It can eat dry cat food or wet cat food for young cats. Check the amount of food and the number of meals best for its age. Your kitten will stop growing when it’s about 1 year old. Then you can feed it adult cat food.
Kittens need to be looked after by their mother until they’re at least 2 months old. She feeds them and keeps them warm and clean. She licks their tummy to help them do their droppings. Kittens that spend time playing with their brothers and sisters are less shy and their mother teaches them what they need to know to survive.
Text: N. Tordjman. Illustrations: Benjamin Lefort. © Photos: Alice Houdou, Cherry Merry/Fotolia.com
Your kitten needs to drink milk from its mother at first.
Competition with 5
es dictionari ! to be won
What to do
Write a sentence in which every word starts with the letter D. Send your entries by 15th October 2013 to: DiscoveryBox, Bayard Magazines, PO Box 61269, London N17 1DF, UK Or send by email to: email@example.com Terms and Conditions: entry in this competition implies acceptance of these rules and conditions. Open to all readers, other than employees of Bayard Presse and others professionally associated with the magazine and their immediate families. The prizes are as stated and will be awarded to the best entries on the closure date. Winners will be notified within 28 days of the competition. The prizes are subject to availability. In the unlikely event of stated prizes being unavailable, Bayard Presse reserves the right to substitute the prize for one of equal value. No cash alternative is available. No correspondence will be entered into. One entry per competition per household. In entering this competition the entrant is agreeing to receive emails from Bayard Presse and carefully selected partners. Winnersâ€™ names will be published in a future issue of the magazine.
The Oxford Primary Grammar, Punctuation and Spelling Dictionary is the essential guide to help improve childrenâ€™s spelling and writing skills.
ITION COMPET results
Engaging, child-friendly and with full-colour illustrations, this brilliant new dictionary is perfect for helping to prepare children for the newly-introduced test at the end of primary school.
More of your wonderful entries from the Use water wisely! competition (DiscoveryBox 169)
Tsuen Wan Public Ho Chuen Yiu Memorial Primary School
School Tang Shiu Kin Primary
One day, Nobody and Crazy were hiking. Suddenly, Nobody fell down the hill. Crazy called the police. He said, “Nobody fell down the hill!” The police asked, “Are you crazy?” “Yes I am!” said Crazy.
s or Write to u at s email u
bayard@ t c a t n o c s.co.uk e n i z a g a m
What animal cheats at chess? Shahzeb
What do you call a donkey with 3 legs? Hollie
“Knock, knock!” “Who’s there?” “Wanda?” “Wanda who?” “Wanda buy a new door bell?”
What falls down but doesn’t get up? William
What did one Maths book says to the other Maths book? “Boy, do I have a lot of problems!”
Why did the fl fly?
Because the sp spied her!
One day the teacher told Tim, “Your shoes are on the wrong feet.” Tim replied, “But these are the only feet I have!”
.… hello …. ear
bye bye, Karl!
see you, Karl!
looK at you! frightening sMall bugs at your age! youâ€™re RIDICULOUS! get bacK hoMe at once!!
until neXt tiMe, Karl!
Cut out this page and use it to
write to DiscoveryBox!
Send us your questions, jokes, drawings or any other messages
Fold this sheet in half and stick the corners together.
Cut along the dotted lines.
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P ro f e ss o r B a tt y ’s mad machines Does it bring back the change?
But it eats some of the bread on the way back… Story and illustrations: P. Cerf
This machine is able to go and buy bread.
Cut along the dotted lines.
Cut along the dotted lines.
Draw a picture… … of your or your least favourite favourite one! bug here!
Fold along this line.
Write your message or joke here.
Your name: 50
In your next issue of All about the night
Do you ever wonder why day turns into night? Help! Did you hear that noise? Is it a ghost? Is it an owl out hunting? Or is it a plane from the first airmail company that carried post from one continent to another? And… what about the Moon? Is it possible DiD you hear that noise??? to see the footprints of the astronauts who walked on it? There are so many things to find out about. So, if you’re not scared of the dark…
See you in the next issue! from DiscoveryBox 175
What can you see? Number 2: microscopic germs on someone’s teeth. Quiz (back cover): 1B 2A 3B 4B 5C 6A 7A 8B. from DiscoveryBox 176
What can you see? (p. 26) Number 3: a knight’s helmet. Cat game (inside foldout)
The first cat is by the door of the small tower at the back of the courtyard, The second one is on top of a barrel near the pigs and the third is in the cellar, by the barrels.
Market day in the Middle Ages (pp. 44-45)
1. The four things that didn’t exist at that time are ringed: mobile phone held by the cloth seller; bananas, a fruit that was unknown in Europe at the time; one-way traffic sign behind the man holding the bear; car parked at the end of the road. 2. Animals: there are 18: 2 foxes (fire blower’s tattoo, inn 18 sign), 4 chickens, 17 2 goats, 1 dog, 5 rabbits, 2 pigs, 11 10 9 13 16 1 bear and 1 horse. 12 15 7 3. Matching people 14 8 6 and sentences: 5 4 1F 2A 3E 4B 5D 6C. 1 2 3 4. Two people wearing the same clothes are marked by:
Quiz (back cover): 1C 2B 3A 4C 5B 6B 7B 8A.
Managing publisher: Christophe Mauratille. Editorial Manager: Elena Iribarren. Editor in Chief: Simona Sideri. Art Director: Pat Carter. Text and research: Liz Shepherd. Editor: Caroline Pook. Sales and promotion: Andréa Chhan. Budget Controller: Elda Frey. For editorial queries please contact: Bayard Magazines, PO Box 61269, London N17 6DF, UK. For a subscription in Switzerland: Edigroup SA 39, rue Peillonnex - 1225 Chêne-Bourg (Switzerland) - tel: (0041)22 860 84 02 - fax: (0041)22 349 25 92 email: firstname.lastname@example.org DiscoveryBox is published by Bayard Presse S.A, a Limited Liability company with a board of Directors and Supervisory Board and a capital of 16,500,000 Euros and having its principal place of business located at 18 Rue Barbès, 92120 Montrouge, France. Board of Directors and Management Committee: Georges Sanerot (Board President and Publication Director), Hubert Chicou, Alain Auge, André Antoni (Managing Directors). Main Shareholders: Assomption, Saint Loup Ltd, N.D.S. Association. Printers: Varoprinter, c/Artesania, Madrid, Spain and Allion Printing Co. Ltd, Hong Kong. Under law n°49956 of 16/07/1949 relating to youth publications. All rights reserved to the publisher © Images Doc, Astrapi – Bayard Presse. CPPAP: 0514 K 78793. ISSN 1366-9028 The name, surname and address of our subscribers are passed on to our in-house departments and all organisations under agreement with DiscoveryBox unless we receive a formal instruction not to do so from the subscriber, in which case the above information will only be used to carry out the subscription. Such information may be accessed or modified by the subscriber as specified by the law.
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Quiz 1 A knight’s accolade or dubbing ceremony involved: I’m
2 A squire learned to fight by hitting or knocking over:
A cutting his hair
A a horse
B cutting off his head
B a straw man
C tapping him on the shoulder
C a pole
with a sword
3 In the Middle Ages millions of people in Europe died of:
4 Poor people in the Middle Ages ate mostly:
A the Black Death
A candy floss
C bird flu
5 The toilets in a castle were called:
6 The Latin name for fox is:
A the loops
B the latrines
C the crenels
7 Isaac Newton invented:
8 In windmills grain was ground into flour using:
B the mirror telescope
B rolling pins
C the Hubble telescope
C heavy books
Answer this quiz from 1 st September at www.bayard-magazines.co.uk
Text: P. Bouchié. Illustrations: Benjamin Lefort.
A the glass telescope
This one’s mine!
Fantastic Mr Fox!