Science Adventure Connect

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Proudly Singaporean Owned

Editor’s Note: Shel Sweeney Managing Editor: Jevin Lim Senior English Editor: Shel Sweeney (MA, BA, BTeach) Science Editor: Keriner Chan Publisher: English Corner Publishing Pte Ltd Singapore: Block 1003 Bukit Merah Central #03-05 Inno Centre, Singapore 159836 Tel: (65) 6225 5770 Fax: (65) 6377 0890 Hotline: 9002 0322 (after office hours) Email: sales@englishcorner.sg Website: www.englishcorner.sg Hong Kong: GF Education (HK) Limited Mr Alan Lee Tel: +852 90712048 Email: alan@greenfieldbook.net All rights reserved. No part of this magazine may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Permit No.: MCI (P) 071/12/2019 Printed in Singapore

WHAT is NEW in 2020! Still with a STEAM FOCUS and Much more! English Corner Publishing is 20 years old and continues to DELIGHT, ENGAGE and INSPIRE joyful learning for children. It is Singaporean’s spirit of “PASSION MADE POSSIBLE” that keeps us going. English Corner Publishing continues to strive with a PASSION to develop children’s love of reading interesting and wonderful magazines, books and newspapers.

SCIENCE ADVENTURES - GOES GLOBAL - in Malaysia, Hong Kong, Ireland, China and Indonesia. We keep abreast of the latest Global Trends and Developments, while at the same time continue to include Singapore’s science syllabus - Interaction, Diversity, System, Cycle, Energy.

SCIENCE ADVENTURES covers NESA - Australian topics (New South Wales Education Standards Authority) and “Science for CAMBRIDGE Primary Programme”. Cambridge education prepares students for life, helping them develop an informed curiosity and a lasting passion for learning. Reaching 4,800 schools around the world. With GRANT assistance from Enterprise Singapore, English Corner plans to expand our science comic to the wider world, thus bringing joyful learning to a greater number of children. We hope these insightful science comics find their way into your classrooms. Children in all parts of the world will discover that SCIENCE IS FUN and not just a subject taught in school.

Meet Ranger Jack. Jack is a young zookeeper who loves taking care of the animals at the Zoo. His focus is on animals and conservation. All papers used by English Corner Publishing for Science Adventures magazine are natural, recyclable products made from wood grown in well-managed forests. The manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

Jack’s friend is Olivia, the young naturalist who loves the nature and plants around her.


Science for Cambridge Primary Programme (Illustrated series for years 3 and 4)

Contents 4 Animal Corner 11 Olivia Corner Hand Painting

Biology

Diversity

The Talking Bird

Biology

Diversity

18 Science Activity The Big Ears

Physics

Interactions

23 Creative Invention Travel Sax

18

Technology

28 Wonderful World Valley Fog

Science

33 Love Our Earth Do Not Throw Away Old Clothes I-IV Play and Learn

Systems

43 Tell Me Why How A Microphone Works 48 Maths Adventures Ballet Dance Partner

Engineering

Diversity

Physics

Chemistry

Arts

Arts

70 Comedy Zone

Science

Diversity

Biology

43

66 Physics World Tree Shade Can Move

Coffee Bull Fight

Biology

Mathematics

50 Material World The Bed Has Collapsed!

55 Amazing Musician Musical Poet

Interactions

37

37 My Body Why Are Our Lips Red?

61 The Art Stories Momentum

4

Biology

Energy

Physics

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Animal Corner

Diversity

Biology

The Talking Uncle David, can I come to visit?

Sure!

Mick, the water in my kettle is boiling. I have to turn it off.

I’m free tomorrow…

Whoosh! W hoos h!

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Bird

4


Why has Uncle David’s voice changed?

I want a nut! I want a nut!

Alright. See you tomorrow.

Mick, let’s talk tomorrow.

The next day… Hi, Mick. Welcome to my house.

Ding Dong!

Hi, Uncle David.

Now I Know!

Parrots are typical climbing birds that come in a wide variety of species. Most parrots have brightly-coloured feathers. Parrots are sometimes kept as pets. 5

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Let me go to the kitchen and get some homemade juice for you.

Thank you!

Whose voice is that?

! Hello ! Hello

Am I hearing things? Or did this bird talk?

Hello

H

! ello!

Now I Know!

Parrots are mainly found in tropical forests. They make their nests on branches or build nests in tree holes.

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Mick, try my juice.

I want it too! I want it too!

I was right, this bird can talk!

Why is there a talking bird in your house? How can it talk like a human?

This is a parrot. It’s my new pet.

The parrot loves to imitate human speech. It has a specially-structured *syrinx and tongue that enable it to talk.

Now I Know!

Most parrots feed on fruits, nuts, tender shoots and twigs of trees or those on the ground; they also eat a small number of insects.

*syrinx: (bird anatomy) the vocal organ of a bird

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I trained the bird. It can only speak a few simple words.

Yes! Yes!

Not only that, my parrot can also perform a show.

The parrot is amazing! This is the first time I’ve seen a talking animal.

Really?

My parrot is great, right?

Wow! It’s awesome!

I’d like a parrot too.

Now I Know!

Parrots have two toes pointing forward and two pointing backward. This makes it possible for the parrot to grasp things and makes it easy for it to stand firmly. SAS – SC No. 77

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Oh, I almost forgot! I brought what you wanted!

Yesterday you said you wanted nuts. So I brought some for you.

My parrot is fond of eating nuts. Let’s give this pack of nuts to my parrot.

Ha, ha. It definitely wasn’t me who said that to you yesterday. That was my parrot.

Thank you! Thank you!

Oh! I thought it was you.

With the continuous development of industry, wild parrots are facing the deterioration of their living environments and, consequently, their populations are declining. Some of the species are already, or almost, extinct. Some people also illegally catch wild parrots in order to raise them or sell them.

Now I Know!

Some countries set up reserves for parrots, organise conservation associations, issue stamps and build websites for parrots. 9

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Dear Ranger Jack, Q: Do parrots come in different breeds and sizes? A: Yes. The largest parrot is the hyacinth macaw, whose body length can reach up to 100 centimetres. The smallest parrot is the pygmy parrot, which is only about 8 centimetres in length.

Hyacinth macaw

Pygmy parrot

Q: How can parrots learn to talk like humans? A: Parrots learn the sounds around them from birth. They have a well-developed and flexible tongue. Therefore, they can utter some simple, accurate and clear syllables.

Q: Why do people like to keep parrots? A: Parrots are smart and good at learning. After being trained, they can perform many tricks and shows. This has made them very popular with some people.

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Olivia Corner

Diversity

Biology

Hand Painting Daniel and his family are visiting Elton in India.

I’m exhausted after our long flight.

The next day...

There are all sorts of goods in this market place. Take a look around.

Wow! The clothes in this shop are beautiful!

Your room is ready. Go and get some rest.

This shop sells traditional Indian clothes.

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What are they doing?

Let’s go and check out the other shops.

It’s a tattoo shop!

I’m not tattooing. I’m doing hand painting.

I feel like getting my hand painted too!

Now I Know!

Henna (Lawsonia inermis) can reach 6 metres in height. Its branches are smooth.

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Sit down.

The paint will fade and fall off in a few days or weeks.

This paint can be washed off, right?

I’ve never heard of the henna plant.

The paint pigments are pastes that are made from henna leaves which have been ground and blended.

Henna leaves contain *lawsone.

It is an *evergreen shrub that is native to the tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, South Asia and Australasia.

Now I Know!

Henna leaves grow opposite each other on the stem. The leaves are oval or oval-lanceolate in shape. The surface of the leaves is glossy green, but the backs are lighter in colour.

*evergreen: a tree or bush that has green leaves all through the year *lawsone: a red-orange dye that is present in the leaves of the henna plant

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Lawsone is a dye molecule that is often used as a body painting pigment.

Is the pigment safe?

It’s not harmful to our bodies.

When the painting is finished, the tattoo is raised. When the pigment dries and falls off, the image becomes orange-red, gradually deepening to turn brown-red.

After blending, henna powder can be used to dye hair and nails.

How long the image lasts depends on your skin type. It’s pretty special!

That’s amazing.

Now I Know!

The flowers, fruits and seeds of a henna tree all contain lawsone. The leaves have a higher lawsone content. Henna powder is made by drying, milling and sifting the leaves. SAS – SC No. 77

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There you are.

Dad, you look handsome in that local costume.

What are you doing here?

I had my hand beautifully painted!

You can’t go!

Oh, I forgot to pay.

Great! Let’s keep exploring.

Now I Know!

Henna berries are small and shaped like a ball. When the berries are ripe, they crack into four sections with many seeds inside.

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Later…

Henna is widely planted in India.

Yes. Henna is one of the main cash crops in India.

Kulfi is sold there. That’s a typical ice cream in India.

Essential oils can be extracted from henna flowers and used as a raw material for cosmetics.

Let’s go and buy some.

Henna is really versatile.

Aw! My new clothes!

Now I Know!

Henna plants like a sunny environment. They can grow in sandy, clay or acid soil.

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Henna The growth of henna can be affected by the seasons. At the beginning of the rainy season, the plants grow rapidly and grow new branches and leaves. Later, their growth gradually slows down. In dry or cold seasons, the leaves turn yellow and fall off the tree.

Henna flowers have a pleasant smell. Their petals are white or red in colour. Each flower has four sepals and a tube forms at its base. The stylus is upright.

Henna plants are usually grown from seed. They are an ornamental plant that can be planted in courtyards and pots as well.

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Science Activity

The

Interactions

Physics

Big Ears We’ll harvest lots of vegetables today!

I’ll cook a hearty meal tonight!

Hur r ay

Hey, there’s a rabbit.

!

Aw, it hopped away. How did it know I was coming?

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The rabbit has a keen sense of hearing. That’s how it detected you were nearby.

Does that have something to do with its big ears?

Yes!

If my ears were bigger, would my hearing be better?

Ha, ha. Our ears can’t get any bigger.

I have an idea to make your ears bigger.

Huh?

Now I Know!

Tiny sounds can be heard when a cone is placed on the ear. This is because the *dispersion of sound is *reduced, so the loudness of sound increases.

*dispersion: the process by which things (including sounds) are spread over a wide area *reduced: made less or smaller

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Let’s get back inside. I’ll do an experiment to show you.

How are you going to make our ears bigger?

Ha, ha. I’m not really going to make your ears bigger. I’ll use some tools to make a “big ear”.

Now, listen closely to the sound from the radio.

Now I Know!

When you call out to the distance and turn your hands into a horn, you can reduce the dispersion of sound so that the sound can travel farther. SAS – SC No. 77

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The volume of the radio is low. I can’t hear it clearly.

Now, put the small end of the cone close to your ear and let the other end face the radio. How does it sound now?

The sound has become much louder with this cone. Now I can hear it clearly.

I want to try it too!

I have a big ear like the rabbit.

Now I Know!

Megaphones are often cone shaped in order to reduce the dispersion of sound and increase the loudness.

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Make Your Own Ear Trumpet Steps:

Tools: a large cardboard, transparent tape, scissors

and a radio.

1 Roll the cardboard into a cone and fix it with the tape.

2 Cut out a handle and attach it to the cone (this step is optional).

3

Turn on the radio and turn the volume down to a low level. Place the tip of the cone close to your ear, let the other end of the cone face the radio and listen carefully.

4 Notice how different the sounds are with and without the cone.

Caution

the Don’t place ne o c e th tip of r. a e r u o y into se lo c it Just place of e c n a to the entr r. a e r u yo SAS – SC No. 77

Conclusion The visible part of the ear is called the auricle and is used to gather sounds. The auricle can only collect a small amount of sound but the cone can enlarge the auricle so that more sounds can be collected. The sound becomes more concentrated when it passes through the cone and reaches the auricle. As a result, the sound is louder and clearer. 22


Creative Invention

Technology

Travel Sax k! Knoc Knock!

I’ve been abroad for a week. I wonder if they missed me.

I’m back!

What happened while I was away? Why are there dark circles under your eyes?

Deloitte, welcome back.

We haven’t been able to sleep well for a couple of nights.

Aw, did you miss me that much?

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No. We couldn’t go to sleep because of Dicky.

Because of Dicky?

What’s that sound?

This is the sound that kept us awake.

It’s Dicky blowing on the saxophone.

Deloitte, you’re back!

Now I Know!

The saxophone is a musical instrument that is blown by the mouth. The music from the saxophone is loud, therefore, it is not easy for players to find the right place or time to practise playing the saxophone. SAS – SC No. 77

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Dicky, since when did you fall in love with the saxophone?


I become interested in the saxophone a few days ago. I have been learning ever since.

I’m sorry. That’s the only time I can practise.

But you practise late every night. Tony and I can’t sleep because of the sound of your sax.

Ta-da! This is a Travel Sax!

I have a gift that is just right for you.

Now I Know!

The Travel Sax weighs only 300 grams and is 22 centimetres in length. It is about the size of a mineral water bottle. It is easy to take the Travel Sax anywhere. 25

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The Travel Sax consists of the key parts of a saxophone.

This saxophone is very small!

The Travel Sax can achieve a similar effect as a real saxophone. It can also directly output signals to these headphones.

Wow, it’s light! And now I won’t disturb others when I practise.

From now on, we’ll get a good night’s sleep.

Now I Know!

Travel Sax users can play, record or even learn the saxophone at any time through the official app. It can easily be paired with any smartphone device via Bluetooth. SAS – SC No. 77

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The Smallest Electronic Saxophone The idea of the Travel Sax came from Ramon Mañas, the founder of Odisei Music in Spain. He worked with his team to design and develop this saxophone. When he began to learn how to play the saxophone, his neighbours complained, making it impossible for him to practise. This led him to design the world’s smallest electronic saxophone.

The sound played by the Travel Sax can be fed back through the headphones. Players can hear the sound themselves, but the people around them cannot hear it. So, no matter when or where you practise the sax, you will not disturb others.

The lithium battery of the Travel Sax can be charged via USB. When the sax is fully charged, you can play it up to 6 hours non-stop. 27

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Wonderful World

Science

Valley Fog

Something is coming close to us.

Sna p!

Rustle… Rustle…

We’re going to be eaten by wild animals.

Hi! Don’t be scared. There’re no wild animals here.

What are you kids doing in the forest?

We wanted to go to the water park. But it’s too foggy and we can’t find the way.

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We’re heading to the same destination. Follow me.

The cold air makes the water vapour close to the ground saturate easily and *condense into water droplets. Then fog forms.

Fog occurs easily in winter. Why is that?

Is fog the same as haze?

Thank you.

Fog is composed of water droplets or ice crystals and has little effect on our health. Haze is made up of the dust and sulphuric acid particles in the air that can make the atmosphere *turbid. Haze is harmful to our health.

Fog

Haze

Aw! They’re different. Now I Know!

Fog is a natural phenomenon in which water vapour is cooled by cold air and condensed into tiny water droplets that float near the ground surface. When the fog meets with a rather speedy wind, it is blown away or lifted to become a cloud.

*condense: to change from a gas into a liquid *turbid: full of dirt so you cannot see through it

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Are you alright?

The fog has blurred our vision. We should be careful when we walk.

Later... The floating fog makes the scenery more beautiful.

In fact, there are many types of fog. Such as?

Valley fog usually occurs in valleys during the winter. Fog can last for a couple of days in calm and stable weather conditions.

The fog we see right now can be called valley fog.

Now I Know!

According to various condensation causes, fog can be divided into different types such as radiation fog, advection fog and steam fog. Valley fog is a type of radiation fog. SAS – SC No. 77

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Valley fog


What other factors affect how long fog lasts?

Fog can also be affected by dry and wet weather conditions in local places. Fog lasts for a shorter time in dry places but for a longer time in wet places.

Harry, if you lean over, the boat will tip over.

Oh, I dropped my oar!

The river water is so cold!

Oh no!

Now I Know!

Foggy weather occurs most often during clear and breezy nights and mornings in places where there is plenty of moisture near the ground. Japan’s Tokyo, China’s Qingdao and England’s London are the cities where fog often occurs. 31

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Fog

In order for fog to form, plenty of water vapour is needed. This water vapour can come from the evaporation of ocean or lake water, whereas some comes from the *transpiration in land and plants.

Fog generally appears translucent and fuzzy white. Fog can affect visibility, resulting in various conditions such as slow driving and traffic congestion. It can have a great impact on traffic and transportation.

Fog can block sunlight, reduce photosynthesis in plants and affect crop growth. Fog moisture can cause ripe fruits and vegetables to rot, thus bringing economic losses to the agricultural industry.

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*transpiration: the process of water passing out from the surface of a plant or leaf


Love Our Earth

Interactions

Biology

Throw Away Do Not Old Clothes Oh no!

The wardrobe can’t hold any more clothes.

You kids have too many clothes. Let’s sort them out.

Kids, sort out the clothes that you don’t wear.

When sorted...

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Are we going to throw away these old clothes?

SAS – SC No. 77


Thanks for your donation.

We can take them to our community auditorium to donate them.

Many people have come to donate their clothes.

Donating old clothes is a way to recycle and reuse our clothes.

Clothes that cannot be used will be processed into products such as dishcloths and industrial fabrics.

Now I Know!

Old clothes are recyclable. Many countries, such as America, China and Australia have recycling bins in their communities to make it easy for people to donate their old clothes. SAS – SC No. 77

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The clean donated clothes will be given to people in need.

What a fabulous idea.


Throwing old clothes into the dustbin means they will be burned or buried, and this can pollute the air and soil.

Recycling old clothes reduces the amount of rubbish and reduces carbon dioxide and pollutant emissions.

Recycling old clothes helps protect the environment. From now on, we’ll recycle our old clothes. We won’t throw them away.

That night…

Sorry, I accidentally recycled your pyjamas.

Boo, hoo…

Where are my dinosaur pyjamas?

Now I Know!

Clothes can be made of synthetic materials such as polyester and nylon. These materials do not degrade easily, therefore, they are not friendly to the environment. Recycling old clothes can save resources and reduce environmental pollution. 35

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How To Deal With Recycled Clothes Recycled clothes that are not suitable for donation can be processed into items such as carpets and gloves. They can also be used to make floor mats and curtains for cars.

Old textiles, like pure cotton or pure wool, can be re-spun and made into recycled textiles such as threads, cloths and clothing.

Recycled clothes in good condition can be processed, revamped and resold. They can also be made into products such as bags, tablecloths and quilts by cutting and resewing them. SAS – SC No. 77

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Play and Learn

Planet In this puzzle, the number beneath each picture tells you which letter of its name you should write on the line. For example, in the first square, the sixth letter of BUCKET is T. Fill in all the letters to spell out a fact about the planet.

T

 Answer: THE LARGEST PLANET IS JUPITER.

I

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Play and Learn

Egypt Capital

Cairo

National language Population Area

The Great Pyramid of Giza: the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

Egyptian Arabic

Cameleer

99,581,200 Giza

1,010,408 km² (390,121 sq mi)

Camel Great Sphinx of Giza: a limestone statue of a reclining *sphinx

Siwa

Dakhla Oasis Dakhla

Ancient Egypt costumes

Abu Simbel temples: two massive rock temples; UNESCO World Heritage Site

Date palm

*sphinx: a creature with the head of a human and the body of a lion

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II


Questions

Petroleum

Name the structure that is listed as the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. 1

What animal is believed to bring good luck to its owner? 2

3

What is the height of Mount Catherine?

Cairo

Mount Catherine: the highest mountain in Egypt (2,629 m)

Sharm el-Sheikh

Mummy

Egyptian cat: Egyptians believed cats could bring good luck to the people who housed them

Olive oil

Aswan

Ankh: an ancient Egyptian *hieroglyphic symbol

Answers: 1) The Great Pyramid of Giza 2) Egyptian cat 3) 2,629 m

*heiroglyphic symbol: a picture or symbol of an object that represents a word, syllable or sound

III

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Play and Learn

Picture Pair How quickly can you spot the two identical pictures?

1

SAS – SC No. 77

5

3

6

IV

Answer: Pictures 2 and 4.

4

2


My Body

Systems

Biology

Why Are Our Lips Red? One night… We’ve come to the earth for the first time. It is so beautiful!

Let’s find out where the humans are.

I hear there are lots of humans living on Earth. Why isn’t anyone here?

Alright.

Let’s go and check it out.

Perhaps there are humans over there!

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Hi! We’re aliens from outer space.

Oh no, Dad! Aliens are attacking our Earth.

No! We’re not attacking the earth. We just want to study humans.

Why is the colour of human lips different from ours?

Now I Know!

Our lips are made up of upper and lower lips. They are very important organs on our face. Their major functions are to help with eating food, protecting our mouth and pronunciation of words when we talk. SAS – SC No. 77

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Their lips are not blue in colour as we thought they would be. That’s because the blood in our body is red.

Why are your lips red?

What does your blood colour have to do with your lip colour?

Dad, I’d like to know too. Why are our lips not same colour as our skin?

Now I Know!

The lips are one of the most sensitive and softest facial parts. Beneath the lips are many microvessels.

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The bright red blood under our skin can be seen through our lips, giving our lips their red colour.

The skin of our lips is thin and transparent.

I see. I understand now.

Besides, different people have slightly different lip colours.

Some people have redder lips, others have lighter coloured ones. This is all normal.

Now I Know!

Healthy lips are always a lustrous reddish colour. When our lips are dry, their exterior colour looks lighter. SAS – SC No. 77

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I’m ready, let’s go!

Why are her lips so much redder than yours?

Aw! Why are there two aliens in my house?

That’s because my mum has lipstick on.

I want to have red lips!

No, me!

Now I Know!

The skin structure of the lips, which is thin and cannot be *keratinized, is different from other body parts. Thus, the microvessels in the lip skin look more obvious.

*keratinized: a process which turns the skin into a hard protective cover

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Our Red

Lips The lips are *mucosal organs. The skin covering both lips is very thin. The lip colour that we see is not the colour of the lip skin but the colour of the blood in the skin.

Blood is mostly made up of red blood cells. Therefore, the colour red of the red blood cells looks more noticeable in the blood. That is why our blood appears red and so do our lips.

The change of lip colour can reflect the condition of the human body. If you find your lips too pale, too red, or blue, it could mean your body might be diseased and you should pay more attention to your health.

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*mucosal: relating to the thin skin that covers the inside surface of parts of the body and which produces mucus to protect them


Tell Me Why

How

Engineering

A

Physics

Microphone Works

Ding Dong!

Hi! Come in.

The cable is plugged in. We can use the microphone now.

What is Uncle Gary doing?

Wow! You bought a mic!

The sound quality of the mic is excellent!

Let me sing a song to try the mic.

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I’m curious. How does a mic deliver sound?

SAS – SC No. 77


I know how a mic works.

Tell us!

Microphones come in many types. This one is a dynamic microphone.

Permanent magnet

The dynamic microphone includes a coil, diaphragm and permanent magnet.

Diaphragm

Coil

Diaphragm

Sound waves

The signals are amplified by an amplifier and transmitted to the speakers to produce sound.

Permanent magnet

Electrical signal

So that’s how sound is transmitted.

Coil

The sound waves vibrate the diaphragm through the air, and the diaphragm makes the coil vibrate. The vibration of the coil in the magnetic field generates an electrical signal that changes with sound. Now I Know!

A microphone is a *transducer that can convert sound into electrical signals. It is an important tool for people, such as performers and lecturers, who need to amplify or record sounds. SAS – SC No. 77

*transducer: a device for producing an electrical signal from another form of energy such as sound

44


It’s my turn to sing now!

I’m done singing. Who’s next?

Aw! The cable came off! Luke will sing first. You’re the next.

Alright. You won’t be able to use the mic if the cable is not well connected.

Now I Know!

A dynamic microphone is simple in structure. This mic does not easily make a howling noise when it is used along with other audio equipment in a loud environment. 45

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Can you get microphones without cables?

Wireless microphones don’t have a cable.

Wireless microphones make moving freely around easier. And there is no need to worry about the cable becoming tangled or tripping over the cable.

At Luke’s house... I shouldn’t have bought a wireless mic.

I want a wireless mic.

Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was a British physicist, chemist and inventor. He conducted an experiment in 1831 and found a magnetic field that could generate an electric current. Based on this principle, he invented the disk generator, which is the first generator in the world. Due to his great contribution, he was later known as the “father of electricity” and “father of alternating electricity”.

Now I Know!

In order to avoid interference, do not place several turned on wireless microphones together and do not place them near any receiving antenna. Interference affects the use of wireless microphones. SAS – SC No. 77

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Types Of Microphones Dynamic microphones are often used to record human voices. They can endure high sound pressure levels. Thus, they can be used to record the sounds of musical instruments such as drums and cymbals.

Condenser microphones need an additional power source to work. Since they are more sensitive, they are suitable for use in quiet recording studios.

Electret condenser microphones are characterised by their low production cost and small size. Thus, they are a very common hand-held device. They need an external power source to function. 47

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Maths Adventures

Mathematics

Ballet Dance Partner

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There’s a group of ballet dancers on the stage. Each girl will pair up with a male dancer to perform a duet dance. You can add, subtract, multiply or divide the number on the girl’s ballet dress to find a male partner for her. For example, the dancer with a 36 on her ballet dress is the dance partner of the dancer with a 9 on his shirt, because 3+6=9. Can you find a dance partner for everyone?

Answer: 7X9=63, 3+6=9, 9-4=5, 8X7=56, 6÷2=3

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Material World

The

Diversity

Bed

Chemistry

Has Collapsed! Ha, ha, ha!

That scared me!

Bump! Why did the bed collapse?

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This bed is too old.

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The mattress is also dented. It’s time to get a new one.


In a furniture shop…

What’s so special about this bed?

I would recommend this bed.

The bed frame is made of carbon steel. So it’s more stable. The mattress uses PLA (polylactic acid) fibre as its raw material.

That’s great!

It is made from materials such as corn starch and wheat starch after being fermented, converted into lactic acid, made into a polymer and spun. Is PLA fibre good?

PLA fibre mattresses have excellent air permeability, elasticity and resilience.

Now I Know!

PLA fibre uses natural renewable plant resources as its raw materials. In the production process, it does not pollute the environment. 51

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PLA fibre also has many advantages, such as having excellent moisture absorption and anti-wrinkle properties. It is widely used in clothing fabrics.

PLA fabric feels good to touch and has an anti-bacterial effect. Thus, it can be made into surgical garments.

Food packages, such as tea bags, can also be made of PLA fibre.

By the way, we also have sheets and quilts made of PLA fibre.

Can we see them?

This material is really popular.

After shopping… The shipping company will deliver the new product to our house tonight.

Let’s go to the supermarket.

Now I Know!

PLA fibre does not pill easily and has anti-mite properties. Thus, it is often used for making bed products such as pillowcases and pillow cores. SAS – SC No. 77

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Most importantly, this yogurt container was made of PLA fibre.

Is that yoghurt delicious? I’ve seen you eat it before.

PLA fibre is biodegradable. The products made of it can break down into carbon dioxide and water with the microbial activities in soil or water.

I don’t have to worry about damaging the environment.

So PLA fibre is an eco-friendly material!

Now I Know!

PLA fibre can be used as a textile material for making products such as masks and baby clothing. Fabric made of PLA fibre does not irritate the skin. 53

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PLA fibre is nontoxic and has excellent process performance. It can be used as a packaging material to make packaging bags, packaging boxes and food containers.

Due to its biodegradable properties, PLA fibre is widely used in disposable consumer products such as diapers and pads.

In medical and health care fields, PLA fibre is used to make surgical sutures, which can degrade automatically as a wound heals.

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Amazing Musician

Arts

Musical Poet Robert Schumann was a German composer, pianist and influential music critic.

I’m also one of the representatives in the Romantic music era.

Schumann was born on 8 June 1810 in Zwickau, the Kingdom of Saxony.

Schumann’s father ran a bookshop and published books as well.

I’m most interested in reading and music.

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Schumann showed musical talent from childhood.

I will educate him in both the literature and music.

Schumann began to study music from six years old. At seven, he began to learn to play the piano.

Later, Schumann started creating his own musical works.

Unfortunately, Schumann’s father passed away in 1826, when Schumann was only 16 years old.

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Schumann was not encouraged by his mother to study music.

When he entered university to study law, Schumann still had a love for music and musical creations.

Schumann, you need to focus on studying the law.

Things changed in 1830, when Schumann watched a concert performed by a violinist named Paganini.

I will give up the law and study music instead.

Schumann wrote a letter to his mother, expressing his desire to become a musician.

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With the permission of his mother, Schumann finally changed his focus to music.

The now 20-year-old Schumann learned from a piano teacher named Friedrich Wieck.

I want to become a composer and pianist.

Since Schumann started late, he was in a hurry to master the skill of playing the piano.

As a result, Schumann’s right hand became crippled from excessive piano practise. He was unable to play the piano.

I’ll force myself to intensely practise for long periods of time. Schumann, however, did not give up the piano, and piano pieces became an important part of all his works.

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I’m going to focus on composing and writing music reviews.


In 1834, Schumann founded a music journal.

Schumann strongly recommended the works of some musicians in the journal, arousing people’s interest in music.

While Schumann was learning the piano from Friedrich Wieck, he met Clara Wieck (Friedrich’s daughter).

Clara was a pianist and music *prodigy.

*prodigy: a young person with exceptional intelligence or skill for their age

They married in 1840.

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From 1844 to 1850, Schumann served as a choir leader and band commander.

The famous works of Schumann include Carnaval, Symphonic Studies and Kinderszenen.

From 1850 to 1854, Schumann composed pieces in a wide variety of genres.

I feel inspired!

But Schumann felt less mentally capable than his wife Clara. His depression gradually worsened.

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On 29 July 1856, Schumann died of a severe mental breakdown, leaving the world with musical memories.

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The Art Stories

Arts

Momentum In a gift shop in Singapore…

We’ve bought lots of gifts!

Next, I’ll take you to a nice restaurant.

Let’s go!

There is a huge Christmas tree by the road!

Jeff, thanks to you, our trip to Singapore is lots of fun!

Oh!

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What a special sculpture! Can we go and see it?

That’s not a Christmas tree. It’s a sculpture.

I’ll park the car, then we can walk over and have a look.

This sculpture is called Momentum. It was created by David Gerstein in 2007.

This sculpture is huge! Momentum is 18.35 metres tall. It’s currently the tallest outdoor sculpture in Singapore.

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There are 175 human figures in the sculpture.

The human figures on the sculpture appear like an upward spiral, representing a continuous cycle of progress. The sculpture is composed of many human figures.

The human figures are colourfully painted.

The sculptures I’ve seen before are colourless. But Momentum is brightly-coloured. It’s so eye-catching.

Yes, Gerstein is a painter as well. He blends painting into his sculptures.

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His outdoor sculptures are all over Asia, Europe and North America. Instead of displaying his works in museums, Gerstein prefers creating outdoor sculptures.

I’m interested in the outdoor sculptures of Gerstein. I’d like to see his other works.

I think we can do that.

Gloo! Gloo!

It looks like Ian is quite hungry. Let’s go to the restaurant.

Momentum is a metal sculpture that was created by me. How many human figures create this sculpture? In which country can you see it?

ha! Ha, ha,

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David Ger stein David Gerstein was born in 1944 in Jerusalem, Israel. He is an outstanding artist and public art creator. He is well known for his unique art of cut metal sculptures with personal characteristics.

In David’s creations, the colours used are bright and vivid and the way he expresses his art is contagious. The Momentum sculpture in the central business district of Singapore is one of his classic works.

It took David Gerstein about two months to design the entire Momentum sculpture and two years to complete it.

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Physics World

Energy

Physics

Tree Shade Can

Move I’m hot and exhausted. I need to find a place to rest.

There’s shade under this tree. I’ll rest here.

It’s cool here. I’ll take a nap.

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Where’s my tree shade? Why has it disappeared?

After a period of time…

Why did you take away my shade while I was asleep?

Did he take my shade away?

I didn’t take away your shade. It was already on this side when I got here.

Now I Know!

Light travels in straight lines. When light is blocked by an *opaque object, it creates dark shade. That is a shadow.

*opaque: not allowing light through, not see through

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I don’t believe it! How can tree shade move?

It is the sun that moved the shade.

If you still don’t believe me, you can wait here. Let’s see if the tree shade can move itself.

Okay, I want to see what will happen.

After a period of time...

Now I Know!

The size and shape of a shadow varies with the angle of the light.

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You’ve seen it with your own eyes. Now do you believe me?

Yes. I’m sorry. I got you all wrong.


About Shadows…

Any opaque object under the sun causes a shadow.

In the morning, shadows point to the west; at noon, to the north and in the afternoon, to the east. Changes in the sun’s position can cause the shadows in the morning and evening to become longer. But at noon, the shadows are shorter.

The farther away an object is from a light source, the smaller the shadow will be. On the other hand, the closer an object is to a light source, the larger the shadow will be. People occasionally use shadows to make shadow games such as hand shadows and shadow puppetry. 69

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Comedy Zone

Science

Coffee Mmm…what’s that pleasant smell?

It’s the aroma of coffee!

Coffee must taste good. I need to give it a try.

Learn More The caffeine in coffee is too nerve-stimulating for children. Drinking coffee can affect the growth of a child’s body and the quality of their sleep. Coffee can also inhibit calcium absorption and affect a child’s skeletal development.

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No, Bobo! Children are not allowed to drink coffee.

I heard coffee is bitter. Milk is the tastiest anyway!

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Okay. Let’s go home and drink milk.


Comedy Zone

Diversity

Biology

Bull Fight Wow! This is too dangerous!

Oh! I’m wearing a red shirt today.

Aw! I’d better run!

Learn More

Run!

A bull does not become angry at the sight of a red cloth. Bulls are, in fact, a colour-blind animal, unable to distinguish colours. The bull has been goaded into a bad mood and held in the bullpen for a long time. As a result, the bull is irritated and charges at the red cape when it is constantly waved in front of the animal. 71

That’s a horse!

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Works of Art

Singapore ’s tallest PUBLIC SCULPTURE

- MOMENTUM Sculpted by Israeli Sculptor and Painter David Gerstein, MOMENTUM is the tallest Work of Art in Singapore. MOMENTUM symbolises people working together to make Singapore a World-Class City. David Gerstein is well known for his unique work, which is full of energy and loaded with vibrant colours. Gerstein’s art is a great fit for the fantastic changes that are occurring in Singapore. Situated in the Central Business District in Finlayson Green, it is believed that MOMENTUM will become as ICONIC for Singapore‘s business and financial district as the “Charging Bull” sculpture is for New York’s Wall Street.

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