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NURSI NG PI COT QUESTI ONSI N PUBLI CHEAL TH


Sur name

Name Pr of es s or Cour s e Dat e Nur s i ngPI COTques t i onsi npubl i cheal t h Thes t udywi l lc onc ent r at ei nex ami ni ngt heappl i c at i onofPI COTf or mul ai n t he fiel d ofpubl i cheal t h.Some oft he i s s uest hatwi l lbe us ed i nc l ude Al z hei mer ’ sdi s eas e,v as ec t omy ,f ur unc ul os i s ,pr emat ur e bi r t h,pr egnanc y , andt heDown’ ss y ndr ome.Thes el ec t edi s s ueswi l lbeus edt odi s c us show nur s esus e PI COT f or mul at o ac qui r e nec es s ar yi nf or mat i on needed f or effec t i v ei nt er v ent i on. The PI COT f or mati s of t en us ed t of or mul at e ques t i ons i n Nur s i ng Ev i denc eBas ed Pr ac t i c e.PI COT i san ac r ony m,whi c hs t andsf orpat i ent pr obl em/ popul at i on,i nt er v ent i on,c ompar i s on,out c ome,and t i me ( L i pman 35) .Thepat i entpr obl em/ popul at i ongui desapr ac t i t i onert ounder s t andt he pat i ent ,s ex ,age,heal t hs t at us ,ort he popul at i on underc ons i der at i on. I nt er v ent i onl eadsonet oas kt heques t i onr egar di ngt hepl anf ort hepat i enti n ques t i on,t hati s ,s pec i fic medi c at i ons ,t her api es ,and t es t s .Compar i s on i mpl i est heav ai l abl eal t er nat i v esf ort hec hos enpl an.I nt hatc as e,t her ec an be no t r eat mentorv ar i ous t r eat mentopt i ons .The out c ome hel ps t he pr ac t i t i onert onar r ow downt owhati ss ought .Thefiel dc ani nc l udec er t ai n el ement si nc l udi ng f ul lheal t h,no s y mpt oms ,and l es ss y mpt omsamong ot her s( Mat eoandMar qui s87) .Ti mei sanot herf undament alc omponentof Ev i denc eBas edPr ac t i c e.Thet i mef r amef oranyc as ei sal way senl i s t ed.I n s omec as es , t heTc anal s oi mpl yt het y peofs t udy .


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PI COTques t i onsf al li nt of ourt y pes ,namel y :pr ev ent i on/ t her apy ,di agnos i s , et i ol ogy ,andpr ognos i s .ThePI COTf or matas s i s t si nc r eat i ngaus ef ulc l i ni c al ques t i onands ear c hi ngf orr el ev antpubl i c at i onsands t udi es . Fori ns t anc e, i fa nur s edes i r est ounder s t andt heeffec toffluv ac c i nat i onont headv anc ement ofpneumoni ai nanol dadul t ,t hepr of es s i onal c anfil l i nt hebl anks pac esl i ke t hi s : I n-( P) ,how does-( I )c ompar et o-( C) effec t-( O) ov er-( T) . Theques t i onwi l l t henappear asf ol l ows ; i napat i entaged65y ear s , howdoest heappl i c at i onof ani nfluenz a v ac c i ne c ompar et ot he f ai l ur et or ec ei v ev ac c i ne i nfluenc et he r i s k of c ont r ac t i ngpneumoni adur i ngaflus eas on? I nmos tc as es ,ques t i onsmaybef or mul at edbas edont hef ourc at egor i es . Fori nt er v ent i on,i twi l lc ov erawi des panofac t i v i t i esemanat i ngf r om dr ug t r eat ment s ,c l i ni c alt her api es ,s oc i alac t i v i t i es ,andl i f es t y l ec hangesamong ot her s( L i pman59) .I nt er v ent i onsc anenc ompas sei t herpopul at i onheal t h ac t i v i t i es ori ndi v i dualpat i entc ar e.Forex ampl e,a 30y earol d mal e ex per i enc esr ec ur r entf ur unc ul os i sf ort hepas ts ev enmont hs .Theepi s odes keepr ec ur r i ngdes pi t ebei ngt r eat edwi t hdr ai nageandv ar i ousc our s esof ant i bi ot i c s .Thepat i enti nqui r edwhet hert her ec ur r ents ki nboi l sc oul dbe pr ev ent ed. Thec as ec anbec onv er t edi nt oanans wer abl eques t i on, us i ngt he PI COT f or mul a as f ol l ows :I n pat i entwi t h per s i s t ents ki n boi l s ,does pr ophy l ac t i cant i bi ot i c s ,c ompar ed t o no t r eat ment ,l es s ent he r ec ur r enc e r at e?Theques t i oneffec t i v el ys at i s fiedt hepopul at i on,i nt er v ent i on,c ont r ol , andout c omer equi r ement s . Et i ol ogyand r i s kf ac t or sar eques t i onst hatas s i s ti nex ami ni ng pos s i bl e c aus esofi l l nes sordi s eas e( Fr es hwat erandGar y32) .Theyar et heoppos i t e ofi nt er v ent i onques t i onss i nc et heyt ar gethar mf ulout c omesofex pos ur eor ac t i v i t i es .


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Suc hques t i onsof t enemer ger egar di ngpubl i cheal t hi s s ues ,l i kei nc r eas ed r i s kofc anc erduet oex pos ur et oanenv i r onment al c hemi c al ori nc r eas edr i s k ofhear tdi s eas ebec aus eofc ons umi ngc er t ai nf oods . Ex ampl e: Wal t erdes i r es t o di s c us st he pos s i bi l i t y ofa v as ec t omy .He has been i nf or med t hat v as ec t omyi nc r eas est her i s koft es t i c ul arc anc erl at eri nl i f e. Asapr ac t i t i oner , y ouunder s t andt hatt her i s ki sl ow,butwantt ogi v eWal t eramor epr ec i s e ans wer .API CO ques t i onf ort hec as ewi l lgol i ke:I nmen,doesunder goi nga v as ec t om my , c ompar edt onothav i ngone, hei ght ent her i s kofdev el opmentof t es t i c ul arc anc eri nt hef ut ur e? Popul at i on–adul tmal es I nt er v ent i on–Vas ec t omy Cont r ol –nov as ec t omy Out c ome–T es t i c ul arc anc er Theques t i onsf orf r equenc yorr at ec onc er nt henumberofpeopl ei na popul at i onf ac i ngaheal t hpr obl em ( Fr es hwat erandGar y46) .Theques t i ons may c onc ent r at e on i s s ues ,s uc h as t he r at e ofAl z hei mer ’ s di s eas ei n i ndi v i dual sov er70y ear sorpr ev al enc eofhear i ngpr obl emsamongi nf ant s . I t bec omesaques t i onofr at ei fi ti nc l udesat i meper i od, f ori ns t anc e, t hec as es ofi nfluenz ai ns ummerv er s uswi nt er . Ex ampl e: Dor ot hyi san8week ol dbaby under goi ng herr out i ne f ol l owup.The babywasbor n pr emat ur el yat36 Asapr of es s i onal , y ouwantt oi nf or mt hepar ent saboutherl i kel i hood weeks . ofdev el opi nghear i ngpr obl ems .PI CO ques t i on:I npr emat ur el ybor ni nf ant s , c ompar edt ot hos ebor nnor mal l y ,whati st hec ons equent i alpr ev al enc eof s ens or ydeaf nes s ? Popul at i on–i nf ant s I nt er v ent i on–pr emat ur e Compar at or–f ul l t er m Out c ome–Sens or ydeaf nes s


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Di agnos i s ques t i ons r ev ol v e ar ound t he ac c ur ac y ofdi agnos t i ct es t si n di ffer entpat i entgr oupsi nc ompar i s ont oot heral t er nat i v et es t s . Theac c ur ac y oft es t si nc l udess pec i fic i t yand s ens i t i v i t y( St ur mey1 2) .Ex ampl e:J une i s hav i nghers ec ondpr egnanc y .At33,s hehadherfir s tbabyandunder went amni oc ent es i st o es t abl i s h whet hert he babyhad t he Down’ ss y ndr ome. Al t hought het es t swer enegat i v e,i twasnotagoodex per i enc ebec aus es he r ec ei v edi tat1 8weeks . Cur r ent l y , s hei sonemont hpr egnantatt heageof35. Shedes i r est ohav eat es tt hatc anpr oduc eanear l i err es ul t . Ac c or di ngt oher l oc al hos pi t al , nuc hal t r ans l uc enc yul t r as oundands er um bi oc hemi s t r yar et he av ai l abl efir s tt r i mes t ert es t sf ort hedi s eas e.Asapr of es s i onal ,y oudes i r et o es t abl i s hwhet hert heopt i onsar easr el i abl east het r adi t i onal amni oc ent es i s . PI CO ques t i on:Foraonemont hpr egnantwoman,i ss er um bi oc hemi s t r y t es t i ng pl usnuc halt r ans l uc enc yul t r as ound asac c ur at e ast he t r adi t i onal amni oc ent es i sf orDown’ ss y ndr ome? Popul at i on–pr egnantwoman I nt er v ent i on–Ser um bi oc hemi s t r ypl usnuc hal t r ans l uc enc yul t r as ound Compar at or–Conv ent i onal amni oc ent es i s Out c ome–Ac c ur at edi agnos i s Wor ksCi t ed Fr es hwat er ,Dawn,andGar yRol f e.Dec ons t r uc t i ngEv i denc eBas edPr ac t i c e.T ay l orand Fr anc i s , 201 2. oby ." Ev i denc ebas ed Pr ac t i c ei n Gener al Pr ac t i c e and Pr i mar y Car e. " L i pman, T Ev i denc ebas edPr ac t i c e, 9  Mar .   201 4, pp.   3565. Mat eo,Magdal enaA,andMar qui sD.For eman.Res ear c hf orAdv anc edPr ac t i c eNur s es : Fr om Ev i denc et oPr ac t i c e. Spr i ngerPub,   201 4. St ur mey ,Pet er ." Ev i denc eBas ed Pr ac t i c e. "Ev i denc eBas ed Pr ac t i c e and I nt el l ec t ual Di s abi l i t i es ,   201 4, pp.   1 28.

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