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URBANISMO III Class 3

URBAN TISSUE- MORPHOLOGY - & STRUCTURE


Factors Influencing Urban Morphology •

Functional factors (layout and location of socioeconomical groups) = Urban Models • According to the urban plan (urban form and shape) • Historical and cultural factors • Site factors (Location) • According to the details of the urban structure • Government influence • Social values • Economic forces ~ economic circulation ~economic accessibility / urban land rents


URBAN STRUCTURE I-According to historical and urban development II-According to urban patterns of streets, blocks and plots


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development

Division of the city into areas with similar morphology and functional characteristic . In Spanish cities, it tends to be complex and divided into distinct zones. a. Historic Center “Casco Antiguo”: pre-industrial b. Urban expansions “Ensanche”: industrial era c. Current periphery


Traditional Patterns of Urban Structure – – – – – – – – – – –

Historic Cores Narrow, Complex Streets Built Before Auto Era Plazas and Squares Scars of War Symbolism Compact in Form Low Skylines Lively Downtowns Neighborhood Stability Municipal Socialism


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development

a. Historic Centers: Pre_Post_industrial In its evolution it presents/displays diverse stages: Common characteristics: i- Almost all the cities were surrounded by walls


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development A- Historic Centers

ii- The plane is the most common irregular flat although there are examples of RadioCentre,linear or grid.


Shibam Yemen


Tarragona: Grid Plan from Roman Origin

C贸rdoba: Organic plan from Islamic era origin

Vitoria: radiocentric plan from Chrisitian medieval origin


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development A-Histoci Centers

- Coexistence of different social groups (often withdrew to ethnic and religious minorities)


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development

vi- Different land uses (multifunctional) with some expertise on streets or neighborhoods.


Damascus-Syria old town plan Where the commercial and residential activities take place


La Gran VĂ­a de Madrid cutting through the historic center urban tissue composing new element that marks the new developmnets post indutrial era


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development

b. Urban expansions “Ensanche�: industrial era With industrialization cities spread outside the walls that in many cases were demolished and its place occupied by ring roads or boulevards that connect the old with the new city. Three new districts started to formulate on the basis of encome , built for the bourgeoisie, and workers neighbourhoods around factories and garden neighbourhoods. Openning spaces resullted in the destrcution of city wall, Pamplona (Paseo de Sarasate y Avda. Navas de Tolosa)


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development b. Urban expansion “Ensanche�

1. The elites or bourgeois neighbourhood inforces the bourgeois ideas of order, health and economic benefit When you create a plane takes regular, pattern of low density and primarily residentialland use. Example Madrid (De Castro) b) Over time the plot thickens, it verticalizes outsource the building and land use. c) modernization and beautification.


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development b. Urban expansion “Ensanche�

2. Working-class neighborhoods and industrial suburbs On the periphery industrial facilities along the access roads, railways and ports are established. Workers installed in poor quqlity neighbourhhods around the extensions.


Workers –obreros-

Historic center Ensanche burguĂŠs 1970-2000 expansion XX

Urban Structure

Revatalized workers neighbourhoods


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development b. Urban expansion “Ensanche�

3-The garden neighbourhood Emerging neighborhoods of single-family house and garden in principle for the working class but soon shifted to the middle class. One example is the linear city Arturo Soria, Madrid


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development b. Urban expansion “Ensanche�

linear city Arturo Soria, Madrid


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development b. Urban expansion “Ensanche�

Colonia Argaray, in Pamplona


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development b. Urban expansion “Ensanche”

Plan Cerdá. Squares”manzanas” densification


key needs: chiefly, the need for sunlight, natural lighting and ventilation in home “Sanitarian movement�


Ensanche de Barcelona. Plan Cerdรก 1859


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development

c. Prepheries Since the 1960's cities experienced significant growth due to several factors: -Natural population growth -rural exodus -Development of services (tourism) This created vast peripheries of cities along transport routes. These urban areas came together with neighboring municipalities forming urban agglomerations.


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development c.Periphery

1. Residential neighborhoods on the periphery that take differnt typologies a) Slum or shanty towns. Reached its peak in the 50's with the massive rural . Currently a resurgence of the problem related to immigration or marginalized groups. b) Districts of public housing. Development from 1940-1960. c) Housing Estates private development. d) gated negihbouthoods.


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development c.Periphery

Chabolismo in Ca単ada Real, Madrid


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development c.Periphery

Zaramaga, Vitoria. Social housing 50s-60s


PolĂ­gonos de viviendas de planeamiento abierto en forma De torres y bloques (1970). PolĂ­gono de la Paz, Badajoz.


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development c.Periphery

2. The industrial areas and peripheral equipment Industrial areas. Industrial parks , new commercial spaces or science parks.

Tecnological Park


Urban strucutre I-According to histrocial and Urban development c.Periphery

2. The industrial areas and peripheral equipment b) Areas of equipment. Result of decentralization. Are service areas such as commercial areas, schools, health, etc.. Also located along the access roads to the city.

comercial center La Morea. School Sarriguren


URBAN STRUCTURE I-According to histrocial and Urban development II-According to urban patterns of streets, blocks and plots


Urban physical and spatial stucture elements a.Street system and network b.Blocks system and typology c Parcelarization system d.Open spaces & infratructure system


Urban Sturcture elements B. Blocks and builidng network, typology and alignment


Typical resedintial building typology in islamic city


Block typology in Mideaval tissue


Vairiation of block typology accroding to function and location in connection to the center and street alignment


Disposition of Blocks in relation to the street

CLOSED

OPEN


Disposition of Blocks in relation to composition

COLECTIVE

INDIVIDUAL


Manzanas, bloques y casas: formas construídas y formas del suelo en la ciudad contemporánea

Javier Pérez Igualada

Square blocks and compositions with open space


“Long blocks and virtually empty sidewalks”


La Ramblas is the main north-south promenade


Copenhqgen, City features a car-free zone called the Stroget�


NEW YORK: “Midtown Manhattan south of Central Park


PARIS: “Streets were designed by Georges-Eugne Haussmann”


ROME: “East of the Tiber River bend that points to the Vatican”


urban morphology  

analysis if urban morphology and structure

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