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MASTER ACADEMY


目 錄 目 錄

前言

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活動議程

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講座資訊

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NO T E

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前 言 Forum on Education for Life and Work:Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century

面對未來生活的教育高等教育中能力與智慧轉向問題 一項由美國政府研究委員會所支持有關學習與轉化的研究, 提出人會如何利用與建構學習經驗面對新環境的原則,因此,在 面對前所未有的經濟、環境與社會挑戰時,投資公共教育變顯得 格外重要。 公共教育長久以來被視為可以促進社會共同利益、富足國家 、且增強社群向心力的角色,加上科技日積月累的發展,新興的 技術除了增加機會的發展外,亦可增強學習的方式。據此,一個 國家教育系統的建構與組織,對於理解人類如何學習發展,並在 達成問題、批判思維、溝通合作及自我管理上,具有重要意義。 因此,本次大師講座特邀四位傑出的國內外國家院士,共同討 論在變遷快速的臺灣社會中,如何發展足以面對21世紀挑戰的教 育體系,及人才的培育。

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講座資訊 面對未來生活的教育高等教育中能力與智慧轉向問題 美國國家科學院 由美國國家工程院、美國國家醫學研究所和美國國家研究理事會 組成的「美國國家科學院」,是當國家與世界面對當前急迫挑戰時提 供專家意見的私人非營利機構。美國國家研究理事會作為美國國家醫 學研究與美國國家科學院的實際行政單位,關心的焦點研究和討論主 要集中在以下五大面向:行為、社會科學和教育、地球生命研究、工 程與物理科學研究、政策與國際事務以及交通運輸研究。 國家研究理事會贊助無數會議、研討會、專題討論、圓桌會議、 常設委員會以及其他大大小小會議吸引來自學術界、政府和民間優秀 人才共同與會。每年超過6,000位的專家志願投入無數的研究委員會 回答特定的問題。這些提供討論與辯論、解決問題的科學過程是必要 的。除此之外,由這些學術機構針對上述活動出版眾多論文集和摘要 提供各級學生多樣的終身學習,在推動跨領域研究的同時讓公眾參與 並對科學有更深入的了解。 一項近期出版的研究「面對未來生活的教育: 在21世紀發展可移 轉的知識與技能 」文章中描述一系列發展大學與職前訓練、以學生 為中心的學習與高階思維的重要技能。這些技能包含認知與非認知技 巧,包括批判思維、解決問題、團隊合作、有效的溝通、學習動機、 持續性以及在學習中學習。創意、創新和倫理同時也是成功的重要要 素,可在正式與非正式的學習環境中發展出來。以下是本研究的主要研 究重點: 競爭力的場域 該報告提出三個主要競爭力領域: (1)認知領域:牽涉推理與記憶。包含競爭力的三大區塊: 認知過程 和策略、知識與創造力。批判性思維、訊息的認識、推理和論證 以及創新都是屬於這個場域的一部份。

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(2)內省領域:牽涉個人行為和情感的管理以求達到目標(包含學習目 標)的能力。該領域包含三類競爭力: 智識的開放性、工作熱情及 自覺、與正向自我核心評價。這群競爭能力亦包括靈活性、主動性、 對多樣性的讚賞和鉅觀認知(對自我學習的反思並作出相對調整的能力)。 (3)人際關係領域:牽涉觀念的表達以及對他人訊息的詮釋和回應。 該領域包含二類競爭力: 團體合作以及領導能力。其中包含溝通、 合作、責任與化解衝突的競爭力。 比起內省領域和人際關係領域,認知競爭力有更廣泛的研究。這 些競爭力與理想教育、職業和健康結果之間具有正向關係。早期的學 術競爭能力與這些結果也呈正向關係。 在人際關係及個人競爭力當中,勤勉正值性與理想教育、工作和 健康狀態之間具有高度相關。勤勉正值性被定義為具有組織能力、負 責任的與努力工作的傾向。反社會行為同時存在於個人與人群面向內 ,同時與上述三種傾向之間具有負相關的關係。 雖然尚無統一的定義和質性測量對此研究提出挑戰,新的證據顯 示認知能力、內省能力和人際交往能力可以經由教導與學習轉向的方 式習得。 「深度學習」與轉換 「深度學習」是指一個人有能力將所學轉換並應用到新脈絡的過程。 這樣運用所學的能力被稱為「轉向」。深度學習經常與他人的共同學 習與團體互動有關。經由這樣的過程,個體可讓對特定知識領域發展 成專業知識。深度學習的產出是知識轉換,包含內容和知識以及知道 如何、為什麼及何時運用專業知識回答與解決問題。我們將這樣同時 把知識與技能稱為「二十一世紀的競爭力」。競爭力建構在與基本原 則相關的領域和彼此之間的關係。雖然其他的學習方式或許能讓個體 回想事實、概念或者是學習過程,但深度學習提供個體將所學的知識 轉換用以解決新問題的能力。

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「深度學習」的方法 深度學習方法的設計者和發展者將可轉化的二十一世紀競爭力鎖 定為深度學習和發展、評估學生在這些領域進步的有意義指標為主要 目標。這些學習方法應該自低年級的開始並持續到K-12的職業生活。 方法如下: (1)鼓勵學生闡述、質疑與解釋。例如:當學生閱讀一段歷史資料的 同時促使學生思考作者的用意並解釋特定的資訊和爭論點。 (2)邀請學習者參與具有挑戰性的任務,支持他們同時給與指導、回 饋並鼓勵反思自身的學習過程和理解狀況。 (3)利用成功的例子和個案,像是如同建立範本般地指導學生步驟式 地解決問題。 (4)連結學生個人生活與興趣來培養學生的學習動機,將學生納入集 體解決問題、讓學生專注在正在發展中的知識與技能勝過於分數 和成績。 評量 我們可以使用評量來: (1)讓學生對學習目標更加清楚 (2)定期監測、提供回饋與回應學生的學習過程 (3)讓學生一同參與自己和同儕的評量 課程的設計者和發展者解決問題的指導和評量與鉅觀認知上,應 該採用強調思考流程的學習模式和回饋機制,而不是著重在思考 後的結果。學習者應該在特定領域中習得解決問題和鉅觀認知競 爭力,而不是在單一個課程中。 結論 我們必須投資時間與資源發展一套細緻的系統以發展深度學習的 方法。對於可轉換的二十一世紀競爭力而言,這是一個必要的過程。 基金會、國家和聯邦單位應該支持研究去定義與發展二十一世紀競爭 力的評量,特別是針對人際與個人競爭力之間制定有效、可靠而且公平的評 量。

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Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century The National Academies Known collectively as the National Academies, the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council are private, nonprofit institutions that provide expert advice on some of the most pressing challenges facing the nation and the world. The National Research Council, the operating arm of the NAS and NAE, performs its studies and workshops through five major divisions; Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, Earth and Life Studies, Engineering and Physical Sciences, Policy and Global Affairs, and the Transportation Research Board. At any given year, the National Research Council sponsors hundreds of conferences, workshops, symposia, roundtables, standing committees, and other gatherings that attract the finest minds in academia and the public and private sectors. Each year, more than 6,000 of these experts volunteer to serve on hundreds of study committees that are convened to answer specific sets of questions. These venues for discussion and debate are essential for allowing the scientific process to unfold. In addition, the Academies publish dozens of proceedings and summaries on these activities and offers a variety of opportunities from grade school to grad school and beyond that are designed to ensure lifelong learning, promote research across disciplines, and engage the public in a deeper understanding of science.

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A recent publication, “Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century,” describes an important set of skills that develops college and career readiness, student-centered learning, and higher order thinking. These labels include both cognitive and non-cognitive skills, including critical thinking, problem solving, collaboration, effective communication, motivation, persistence, and learning to learn. Creativity, innovation, and ethics are also qualities crucial to success and may be developed in formal or informal learning environments. Here we summarize the key conclusions of this study. Domains of Competence The report identifies three broad domains of competence: cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal. (1) Cognitive domain. This involves reasoning and memory. This contains three clusters of competencies: cognitive processes and strategies; knowledge; and creativity. Critical thinking, information literacy, reasoning and argumentation, and innovation are part of this domain. (2) Intrapersonal Domain. This involves the capacity to manage one’s behavior and emotions to achieve one’s goals (including learning goals). This domain includes three clusters of competencies: intellectual openness; work ethic and conscientiousness; and positive core self-evaluation. These clusters include competencies such as flexibility, initiative, appreciation for diversity, and metacognition (the ability to reflect on one’s own learning and make adjustments accordingly).

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(3) Interpersonal Domain. This involves expressing ideas, and interpreting and responding to messages from others.It includes two clusters of competencies: teamwork and collaboration; and leadership.These clusters include competencies such as communication, collaboration, responsibility, and conflict resolution. Cognitive competencies have been more extensively studied than interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies.These competencies have consistently positive correlations of modest size with desirable educational, career, and health outcomes. Early academic competencies are also positively correlated with these outcomes. Among interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies, conscientiousness is most highly correlated with desirable educational, career, and health outcomes. Conscientiousness is defined as a tendency to be organized, responsible, and hardworking. Anti-social behavior, which has both intrapersonal and interpersonal dimensions, is negatively correlated with these outcomes. Although the absence of common definitions and quality measures poses a challenge to research, emerging evidence indicates that cognitive, intrapersonal, and interpersonal competencies can be taught and learned in ways that promote transfer.


“Deeper Learning” and Transfer “Deeper learning” is the process through which an individual becomes capable of taking what was learned in one situation and applying it to new situations.This capacity to apply learning is called transfer. Deeper learning often involves shared learning and interactions with others in a community. Through this process, the individual develops expertise in a particular domain of knowledge. The product of deeper learning is transferable knowledge, including content knowledge in a domain and knowledge of how, why, and when to apply this knowledge to answer questions and solve problems. We refer to this blend of both knowledge and skills as “21st century competencies.” The competencies are structured around fundamental principles of the content area and their relationships. While other types of learning may allow an individual to recall facts, concepts, or procedures, deeper learning allows the individual to transfer what was learned to solve new problems.


Methods for Deeper Learning Designers and developers of instruction have targeted deeper learning and development of transferable 21st century competencies—and meaningful assessment to measure student progress in these areas—as a primary goal. Such instruction should begin with the earliest grades and be sustained throughout students’ K-12 careers. The following methods can be used: (1) Encourage elaboration, questioning, and explanation from students. For example, they can prompt students who are reading a history text to think about the author’s intent and explain specific information and arguments as they read. (2) Engage learners in challenging tasks, while also supporting them with guidance, feedback, and encouragement to reflect on their own learning processes and the status of their understanding.


(3) D r a w f r o m e x a m p l e s a n d c a s e s , s u c h a s m o d e l i n g step-by-step how students can carry out a procedure to solve a problem and using sets of worked examples. (4) Foster student motivation by connecting topics to students’ personal lives and interests, engaging students in collaborative problem solving, and drawing attention to the knowledge and skills that students are developing, rather than focusing on grades or scores. Assessment Instruction can use assessment to: (1) make learning goals clear to students; (2) regularly monitor, provide feedback, and respond to students’ learning progress; and (3) i n v o l v e s t u d e n t s i n s e l f - a n d p e e r - a s s e s s m e n t . Designers and developers of curriculum, instruction and assessment in problem-solving and metacognition should use modeling and feedback techniques that highlight the processes of thinking rather than focusing exclusively on the products of thinking. Problem-solving and metacognitive competencies should be taught and assessed within a specific discipline or topic area, rather than as a stand-alone course. Conclusion We must devote time and resources to develop a sophisticated system that fosters the process of deeper learning. This process is essential to the development of transferable 21st century competencies. Foundations, state and federal agencies should support research to define and develop assessments of 21st century competencies. In particular, they should develop valid, reliable, and fair assessments of intrapersonal and interpersonal competencies.


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講座時間:2013年5月2日下午1:30報到 講座地點:國立東華大學 管理學院第一講堂

主講人 Malcolm Beasley 教授 史丹福大學應用物理系榮譽教授 美國物理協會主席 美國國家科學院院士

Prof.Malcolm Beasley Professor Emeritus, Applied Physics, Stanford University; President Elect, American Physical Society; Member of the US National Academy of Sciences

Professional Experience: 1962–67, Research Assistant, Cornell University; 1967–68, Research Fellow, Div. of Engineering and Applied Physics, Harvard University. 1968–72, Assistant Professor of Applied Physics, Harvard University. 1973–74, Associate Professor of Applied Physics, Harvard University. 1974–80, Associate Professor of Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering, Stanford University. 1980-2010, Professor of Applied Physics Stanford University. 2010 to present, Professor of Applied Physics Emeritus

Honors and Awards: 1962, Tau Beta Pi 1983, School of Humanities & Sciences Dean’s Award for Superior Teaching. 1985, Fellow, American Physical Society. 1988, Morris Loeb Lecturer, Harvard University. 1990, Clerk Maxwell Lecturer, IEE, London, U.K. 1990, appointed Theodore and Sydney Rosenberg Professor of Applied Physics Stanford University. 1991, Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 1991, Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1993, elected to National Academy of Sciences

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Laura Greene 教授 伊利諾伊大學香檳分校物理系Swanlund講座教授 美國國家科學院院士

Prof.Laura Greene Swanlund Professor of Physics and Center for Advanced Study Professor of Physics Associate co-Director, Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center Physics Dept., Frederick Seitz Materials Research Lab, Center for Nanoscale Science & Technology.

Expertise: My research is in experimental condensed matter physics, investigating strongly correlated electronsystems with focus in two areas: revealing the mechanisms of unconventional superconductivity byplanar tunneling and point-contact-Andreev-reflection electron spectroscopies; and the search forinnovative avenues to developing new families of superconducting materials. Other areas ofinvestigation include: superconductor semiconductor proximity effects, properties of the pure anddoped high-temperature superconductors, the discovery of broken time-reversal symmetry in hightemperaturesuperconductors, and spectroscopic studies of electronic structure in heavy-fermions.

Honors and Awards: •John S.Guggenheim Foundation Fellowship, 2009-10. •Visiting Fellow Commoner, Trinity College, Cambridge University, UK,Lent Term 2010. •Visiting Professor,University of California at Irvine, Fall 2009. •Center for Advanced Study Professor of Physics, University of Illinois,elected 2009. •Fellow,Institute of Physics, “FInsP”,UK,elected 2007. •Center for Advanced Study Research Associate,University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 2006-07. •Member,National Academy of Science, elected 2006. •Fellow, Phi-Kappa-Phi honor society, elected 2001. •Center for Advanced Study Resident Associate, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, 2000-01. •Swanlund Endowed Chair, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, named 2000.

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講座時間:2 0 1 3 年 5 月 4 日 下 午 1 : 3 0 報 到 講座地點:國立臺灣大學 原子與分子科學研究所浦大邦講堂

與談人

朱經武 院士 「臺灣綜合大學」 總校長 美國休士頓大學T.L.L Temple講座教授 美國國家科學院院士

Prof.Ching-Wu Chu Chancellor, Taiwan Comprehensive University System and Temple Chair of Science,University of Houston; Member of the US National Academy of Sciences B.S., National Cheng-Kung University (1962) M.S., Fordham University (1965) Ph.D., University of California, San Diego (1968)

學歷:

經歷:

Bell Labs: Member of Technical Staff (1968-1970) Cleveland State University: Asst. Prof. (1970-1973) Assoc. Prof. (1973-1975), Professor (1975-1979) University of Houston: Professor (1979-), M.D. Anderson Chair of Physics (1987-1989) Director, NASA Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center (1986-1988), Director, Texas Center for Superconductivity (1987-2001) Director, NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center on Advanced Oxides and Related Materials (1996-1997) President, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (2001-2009)

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張忠謀 博士 臺灣積體電路製造股份有限公司 董事長暨執行長 美國國家工程院院士

Dr.Morris Chang Chairman of the Board,Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company; Member of the US National Academy of Engineering 學歷: 美國史丹福大學電機工程博士 經歷: 臺灣積體電路製造股份有限公司總執行長、 工業技術研究院董事長、美國通用器材公司總裁及營運長

Dr. Morris Chang is the founding Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company Ltd.(TSMC), which was established in 1987.TSMC pioneered the dedicated silicon foundry business model and has served as a powerful force in building both the foundry industry and the fabless semiconductor industry. Prior to his career in Taiwan, Dr. Chang's career was in the United States. He was the President and Chief Operating Officer of General Instrument Corporation from 1984-1985, and prior to that, he served at Texas Instruments for 25 years (1958-1983), where he was Group Vice President responsible for worldwide semiconductor business for six years. Dr. Chang received his B.S. and M.S. degrees in Mechanical Engineering from M.I.T. in 1952 and 1953, and his Ph.D.in Electrical Engineering from Stanford in 1964.He has received honorary doctorates from seven universities. Dr.Chang was named Businessman of the Year by Forbes Asia magazine and made a Laureate of the Industrial Technology Research Institute in 2012. He received the IEEE Medal of Honor, the R.O.C. Order of the Brilliant Star, and the SEMI Akira Inoue award for green management in 2011;the EE Times Lifetime Achievement Award in 2009; and the highest honor of the Semiconductor Industry Association(U.S.),its Robert N. Noyce Award, in 2008. He also received the Nikkei Asia Prize in 2005;the IEEE Robert N. Noyce Medal for Exceptional Contributions to Microelectronics Industry in 2000; and the "Exemplary Leadership Award" of the Global Semiconductor Alliance (GSA) in 1999.

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Malcolm Beasley 教授 史丹福大學應用物理系榮譽教授 美國物理協會主席 美國國家科學院院士

Prof.Malcolm Beasley Professor Emeritus, Applied Physics, Stanford University; President Elect, American Physical Society; Member of the US National Academy of Sciences

Laura Greene 教授 伊利諾伊大學香檳分校物理系Swanlund講座教授 美國國家科學院院士

Prof.Laura Greene Swanlund Professor of Physics and Center for Advanced Study Professor of Physics Associate co-Director, Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center Physics Dept., Frederick Seitz Materials Research Lab, Center for Nanoscale Science & Technology.

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筆記頁

發 行 單 位 | 教育部科學人文跨科際人才培育計畫-達人學苑 發 行 日 期 | 2013年5月 計畫主持人| 吳茂昆 協同主持人| 鄭嘉良 編 輯 團 隊 | 黃美順、鄭如荃、盧悅文(依姓氏筆畫排序) 地 址| 974花蓮縣壽豐鄉志學村大學路二段一號 電 話| (03)863-2655 網 址| http://www.masteracademy.ndhu.edu.tw/bin/home.php E - m a i l | shs.masteracademy@gmail.com 美 術 設 計 | 傑登廣告有限公司 網 址| http://www.jaden.com.tw/

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2013達人學苑-大師講座手冊  

2013達人學苑大師講座【面對未來生活的教育-高等教育中能力與智慧轉向問題】

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