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The Book on Paul

By Section 9 Edited by John Campbell and Tej Jolly


Table of Contents Chapter 1: Roetzel 1…………………………………………pg# Chapter 2: Roetzel 2…………………………………………pg# Chapter 3: Roetzel 3…………………………………………pg# Chapter 4: Ehrman……………………………………........pg#


Chapter 1: Roetzel 1

In the book The Letters of Paul, stoicism represents one of the religions of the third century B.C. The personal agony and social revolt of the third century is what essentially turned stoicism into a religion The Stoics answered questions that were being asked by assuring people that there was a “God” present in the world. However, “God” was not a divine being who dealt with the affairs of man. Stoics had a divine principle called logos, or reason, which that looked over and governed the universe. “God”, similar to man, had a soul of its own which directed its own affairs and had a fundamentally rational existence.


The Stoics believed that once a human being understood that the universe was fundamentally rational, the person could accept whatever happened to him or her with equanimity, or apatheia. Although Stoicism was pantheistic and the universe was infused with a divine soul, Stoicism was not a mystery religion. However, it did focus on the inner life, which did not make it a unique religion and disinterested people with its sameness. “The Stoic believes that it is possible to escape from his involvement in time. By detaching himself from the world he detaches himself from time. The essential part of man is the Logos, and the Logos is timeless.� This is basically a summary of Stoicism. Paul’s letters indicate signs of some Stoic influences, but his outlook on life differs greatly from that of a Stoic.

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC


Chapter 2: Roetzel 2

In the salutation what has been noticed is how the receives careful and the treatment behind it. It also outlines how his apostleship were devalued in the Gospel and how Paul is trying to seek the independence his wants for the Jerusalem circle and defend the message try being spoken in this letter. To sum up in Paul’s writing what it mostly pointed out how he directly pointed to the person it was sent to; to explain the deeper meaning so readers could understand it more thoroughly. In conclusion throughout Paul’s letters he had focused on the opening of his letters. He had really pointed out who had been writing to.

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC


The Thanksgiving section begins with Roetzel mentioning Paul Schubert’s finding on how Paul’s letters were written based on who they were going to. Roetzel talks about how the Thanksgiving he gives in his letters is symbolic of both the people he wrote to and the message he was writing. What Roetzel’s section on Thanksgivings helps point out is that what the Thanksgiving does is summarize the intent of the letter and close the letter opening. The thanksgiving is recorded in all of Paul’s letters, which helps make it an identifying point of his letters. Paul often uses his thanksgivings to allude to future events or to mention how he suffers for Jesus.


The body is one section of the Pauline letters. Although there is a range in all of the letters, there is a pattern in its format. The body complements the thanksgiving because it interprets the claims of the language of prayer presented in the thanksgiving. He ends the body with his intended travel plans. Ultimately the body connects to Paul’s theological perspectives. The body of Paul’s letters are often less predictable than the formalities presented in the other parts of the letter. The body is a significant part of the communication. Paul used his letters as his only means of communication with people far away. He ultimately used his letters to further his “apostleship” therefore it takes on a more formal tone.


This section of the reading it discusses the different types of ethical instruction found within Paul’s letters. One example of this is in Romans 12:9-13 wherein thirteen injunctions and twelve topics are mentioned. Paul uses tradition to write this material type. There are lists of vices and virtues in which Hellenism and Judaism merge together. These relationships are shown in Galatians 5:19-23 where the lists of both vice and virtue are compared side by side. There is another type of material, which is an exhortation on a specific topic. These materials are very personal and supportive (ex: 1 Cor. 4:15) “I became your father.” This tone is in a very pastoral manner and these appear in Paul’s letters very frequently. Most of 1 Corinthians is part of this and belongs to this type of material chs. 5-15. Paul deals with all of the problems that are shown to him in an oral report and a letter by the church.


The closing greeting from Paul and his co-workers and to command to greet one another signal the imminent end of the epistolary meeting. Although it is not specifically stated, it is assumed that this greeting will be conveyed by the kiss. It has often been viewed as a prelude to the celebration of the Eucharist. This stands as the usual way to greet someone, which Paul harnessed to serve his epistolary interests. Through the command “greet one another with the holy kiss” Paul is talking about the kind of relationship that is created by Jesus between himself and his spiritual family, and also between the “brethren” themselves. Paul, believing himself appointed as an apostle of the risen Christ, felt he represented Jesus to his audience for judgment and healing. Paul saw the letter as an instrument of his apostleship, it was an extension of his apostleship.


Chapter 3: Roetzel 3

The third chapter of Retzel is about the tradition behind the letters of Paul. The kerygma is a part of this chapter because it explains the specific way Paul wrote the letters, and the key elements that can be found in the letters. Without an understanding of the Kerygma, their is no way to understand what Paul wrote. It has the smallest part of the third chapter of Retzel, but it is the most important part of Paul’s letters. The kerygma is the basic outline of the doctrine taught by the primitive Christians. Paul’s emphasis of his preachings were different from his predecessors. Even though they were different, Jerusalem apostles did still approve of his gospel. They approved it because it coincided with their own on essential matters.


In this reading, specifically the Eucharistic and Baptist Formulas, Paul speaks often about the traditions of those he is writing to. This is shown by his allusions to baptism throughout the Gospel. Also, Paul directly quotes the Eucharistic liturgy. I also read a section called The Language of Prayer, Paul often alludes to prayer, some traditional, some not. It is also possible to recognize fragments. These are most likely included by Paul because in section 3 of this writing, because it is made clear that tradition opens up insight that we have not had before. This is shown by Eucharistic and Baptist Formulas section when it is shown that Paul refers to his readers traditions very often. I believe the reason Paul does this is because it helps the reader relate a little bit more to what he is writing about. This is also shown in The Language of Prayer. In this section, Paul often alludes to prayer, a lot of them traditional.


Paul tries to get the reader to appreciate more fully the heights and depths of the human spirit. Paul draws on Church tradition, and argues that the gospel comes from man because everything in the gospel was composed by man. In this chapter it is learned that Paul’s Galatian enemies charged that his reliance on the apostles did not allow him to be an apostle of Christ. Paul says in Galatians 1:11-12 that he is not denying that he uses man-made formulas in his preaching, but he is saying that his motive for doing this preaching was that he was given authority directly from Christ.


We can see through the words of Paul that he is more focused on his own preaching, however he focuses a lot on the resurrection and coming of Jesus. It is through Paul's words and that we understand the importance of Jesus coming back from the dead. Paul only uses Jesus' words and deeds to add important weight to his ethical teaching. Paul's words relate to the traditions behind the letters because it is through these words that we are able to see what paul sees as important: the cross, resurrection, and imminent return of Jesus. Even though many people at this time did not agree with Paul's teaching, he still believed that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah who was here to save the world.


Chapter 4: Ehrman 4

The Problem of Pauline Pseudepigrapha Paul was a man on the run. Locals, Romans, and even fellow Jews or people of the “Jesus movement� often drove him out. When Paul would flee, he would often write letters back to the towns he had recently preached in. Of the thirteen epistles from Paul that are included in the bible, only seven are surely written by Paul himself. Pseudepigrapha are writings that have been written under a false name. Some of the letters in the New Testament are forged. The letters are divided into three groups: the authentic Pauline epistles, the deutero-Pauline epistles, and the Pastoral Epistles. The deutero-Pauline epistles are letters from Paul that may have been written by him. The Pastoral Epistles are undeniably counterfeits. The authentic Pauline epistles are as follows: Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon. The deutero-Pauline epistles are: Ephesians, Colossians, 2 Thessalonians.


Chapter 4: Ehrman 4

The Problem of Pauline Pseudepigrapha The Pastoral Epistles are: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus. The letters instruct the pastors on how to conduct various matters in their church. Writing style, vocabulary, theology, and context are four criteria are used on all of the letters to verify their authenticity. The term “deutero-Pauline” literally means “second Paul”. Finally, the “undisputed epistles” are all very similar in writing style, vocabulary, and theology. They all concern issues within 40-50 C.E, which is when Paul was an active missionary so the context makes sense for an authentic Pauline epistle.


Chapter 4: Ehrman 4

The Problem of Acts “The Book of Acts” is not very reliable. There are many differences between the way Paul himself told his stories and the way “The Book of Acts” is told. In “The Book of Acts” Paul’s teachings differ from the way he told them in his letters. Also In “The Book of Acts” all of Paul’s sermons were addressed to Jewish Audience. “The Book of Acts” disagrees with 3 major points about Pagan belief or disbelief in The One True God “The Book of Acts” is not reliable and how it has a different author then the rest of Paul’s letters. In “The Book of Acts” there are many examples and differences between what was believed to be said by Paul, and what Paul actually told us in the rest of his letters.


How Sees

Dr. Dominic P. Scibilia’s interpretation of Paul’s Christology as Presented in Sanders


Eschatology Like Jesus, Paul was raised as a Jew under the influence of the Pharisees. The Pharisees associated with the synagogue, local places of worship and education. The leader of the synagogue was the principal teacher, the rabbi.

• For Paul, the most important parts of Jesus’ life were

During the era of the Roman rule of Judea, many rabbis shared an apocalyptic view of history. God determined all events; for example God decided that the Romans would rule Judea. Providence (God) established what occurred in the past, is occurring in the present, and will occur in the future. The Day of the Lord signals the establishment of the Kingdom of God, and on that day, God would rule the universe – anything in opposition to God’s rule would pass away.

They signaled the coming of God’s Kingdom.


What Jesus Does… Who Jesus is • •

Sacrifices were a part of all religions (Jewish and Gentile) Sacrifices = Expiation – Wiping away transgression – Animal is substitute for transgressor – Jesus is substitute for people

Two ways of looking at who Jesus is – God chooses Jesus to bring in Kingdom – God appoints Jesus to be his agent – God adopts Jesus to be God’s son who will free the world from slavery to sin


What Jesus Does… Who Jesus is •

Acquittal – People do wrong actions – People need to be acquitted – Jesus’ death acquits people of sin Deliverer – People show by wrong actions are under rule of sin – Jesus’ resurrection validates that they are free

Second Way – Jesus (not son, took form of God) existed before the world was created – Jesus took human form so that God could accomplish Providence’s Plan: Free people from the power of sin and death.

The Book on Paul  

The Book on Paul

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