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Retzel 3 Kerygma: The third chapter of Retzel is about the tradition behind the letters of Paul. The kerygma is a part of this chapter because it explains the specific way Paul wrote the letters, and the key elements that can be found in the letters. Without an understanding of the Kerygma, their is no way to understand what Paul wrote. It has the smallest part of the third chapter of Retzel, but it is the most important part of Paul’s letters. The kerygma is the basic outline of the doctrine taught by the primitive Christians. Paul’s emphasis of his preachings were different from his predecessors. Even though they were different, Jerusalem apostles did still approve of his gospel. They approved it because it coincided with their own on essential matters. The primitive gospel defined by C.H. Dodd had six main parts in it. The arrival of the messianic age as foretold by the prophets. Inauguration of Jesus’ ministry death and resurrection. The exaltation of Jesus. Presence of the Holy Spirit in the church as a sign of Christ’s “power and glory.” The imminent return of Jesus’ ministry, death, and resurrection. The exaltation of Jesus. Presence of the Holy Spirit in the church as a sign of Christ’s “power and glory.” The imminent return of Jesus as the consummation of the messianic age. Finally, the call to repentance with an offer of forgiveness. None of these elements can be found anywhere in the same place. Although, almost all of them surface somewhere in Paul’s letters as they go on. It is directly related to the words that go into Paul’s letters are all based on an element from the Kerygma. The words that go into Paul’s letters are all based on an element from the Kerygma to appeal to Paul’s audience. Paul was the apostle to the Gentiles. He would be put in prison very often because the crowd did not like what he told them. Gentiles had different Gods that were mighty and powerful, not someone who preached the word of the lord to persuade them to join him. Eucharistic & Baptist Formulas + The Language of Prayer: In this reading, specifically the Eucharistic and Baptist Formulas, Paul speaks often about the traditions of those he is writing to. This is shown by his allusions to baptism throughout the Gospel. Also, Paul directly quotes the Eucharistic liturgy. I also read a section called The Language of Prayer, Paul often alludes to prayer, some traditional, some not. It is also possible to recognize fragments. These are most likely included by Paul because in section 3 of this writing, because it is made clear that tradition opens up insight that we have not had before. This is shown by Eucharistic and Baptist Formulas section when it is shown that Paul refers to his readers traditions very often. I believe the reason Paul does this is because it helps the reader relate a little bit more to what he is writing about. This is also shown in The Language of Prayer. In this section, Paul often alludes to prayer, a lot of them traditional.

Hymns are songs in praise or honor of God, a deity, or a nation. They have been used since before Jesus was even born. Early hymns of the church were from Psalms, but newer songs were crafted just for Christianity. Looking back at a hymn from Psalms 1, written before Christ, and then Eph. 5:14, written after Christ, there are similarities between the two odes to God. They both spread His word, obviously. However, there are also differences between the two, such as where they come from. One comes from the Old Testament, while the other comes from the New Testament. Also, the one from the New Testament mentions Christ, while the other cannot since he was not born yet. This section of the chapter was added because the author is obviously studying the New Testament writings, mainly Paul’s. The author was showing how Christianity and Judaism are expressed. Knowing this is essential when it comes to studying religions. It helps the reader learn even more about the faith. Paul tries to get the reader to appreciate more fully the heights and depths of the human spirit. Paul draws on Church tradition, and argues that the gospel comes from man because everything in the gospel was composed by man. In this chapter it is learned that Paul’s Galatian enemies charged that his reliance on the apostles did not allow him to be an apostle of Christ. Paul says in Galatians 1:11-12 that he is not denying that he uses man-made formulas in his preaching, but he is saying that his motive for doing this preaching was that he was given authority directly from Christ. One section in this chapter is the Words of the Lord. This section describes many situations where Paul is preaching that he personally knew Jesus. One example is in 2 Corinthians 5:16 when Paul says, “though we once regarded Christ from a human point of view, we regard him thus no longer." Many scholars see this quote as evidence that Paul did actually know Jesus during his life. Other scholars are skeptical about this because if Paul did know Jesus during hs ministry, then it is very strange that he would barely mention the words and deeds of Jesus. Instead of mentioning these words and deeds many times, Paul focuses mainly on the content of his own preaching. Paul lays heavy stress on three historical facts: the cross, resurrection, and imminent return of Jesus. Paul talks much about Jesus' resurrection an how he is the Messiah. Paul uses some quotations from Jesus as emphasis on his point, such as in 1 Corinthians 7:10-11, "To the married I give charge, not I but the Lord, that she should not seperate from her husband...

and that the husband should not divorce his wife." In the Letters of Pau, we see how Paul is preaching about the coming of Jesus in Luke 12:39-40, "If the householder had known at what hour the theif was coming, he would have been awake... You also must be ready; for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect." We can see through the words of Paul that he is more focused on his own preaching, however he focuses a lot on the resurrection and coming of Jesus. It is through Paul's words and that we understand the importance of Jesus coming back from the dead. Paul only uses Jesus' words and deeds to add important weight to his ethical teaching. Paul's words relate to the traditions behind the letters because it is through these words that we are able to see what paul sees as important: the cross, resurrection, and imminent return of Jesus. Even though many people at this time did not agree with Paul's teaching, he still believed that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah who was here to save the world. The Paraenetic Tradition: Tradition opens up a level of insight or being that we had not known before. Paul was personally aquainted with Jesus and proved he was right when he was preaching by simply stating, “Because I said so.” Martin Dibelius noticed the traditional nature of Paul’s ethic instruction. It is said that the main beliefs of Pauls content does not come from himself, however, properties of early Christianity. The paraenisis was created with no solution in mind, but a general guide to everyday affairs. The paraenetic tradition is split up into four different types. The different types of paraenetic tradition include: Wisdom sayings, Vice and Virtues list, imperative cluster, and Developed Exhortation (a type of topical moral essay). Paul’s paraenetic tradition is shaped by his moral concern with identity, and the fundamental principles of love. Paul’s main point was the need for perseverance in these acts of piety. There is an emphasis on the persistence of faith that is stressed throughout the letters. Faith is constantly being questioned for the people during this time. The Wisdom Sayings provide us with an insight that shows how much of an emphasis there is on morals in Paul. The Vice and Virtues list is filled with all manner of wickedness, evil, covetnouss, and malice. The Imperative Cluster says that everything you do for the new Christian religion, do it passionately.

Roetzel 3