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I’m not a Racist, but...

Report on Cultural Respect, Racial Discrimination, Lateral Violence & related Policy at Australia’s Universities published by NATIONAL INDIGENOUS UNIT OF the National Tertiary Education Union www.nteu.org.au/indigenous NOVEMBER 2011


Contents Introduction

1

Methodology

2

Introduction 5

2

Detailed Findings

NTEU Branch Survey

Branch Surveys: Detailed Findings

5 5

Sample 2

Member Surveys: Detailed Findings 11

Indicators 2

Introduction 11

NTEU Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander member Survey

Detailed Findings 2

Sample 2 Indicators 2

Executive Summary Branch Survey

3 3

University Policies: Anti-Racism, AntiDiscrimination and Equal Employment Opportunity 3

11

Section 1 - Racism and Discrimination in Australia 12 Section 2 - Cultural Respect in the Workplace

14

Section 3 - Racial Discrimination in the Workplace

16

Section 4 - Lateral Violence in the Workplace

18

Policy review mechanisms

4

Recommendations from the Surveys

Equal Employment Opportunity Officers

4

Acknowledgements 21

4

References

21

Member Survey

20

Racial Discrimination in Australian society 4 Cultural Respect in the Workplace

4

Attachment 1: Responses to Question 1.4

22

Racial Discrimination in the Workplace

4

Attachment 2: Responses to Question 2.3

27

Lateral Violence in the Workplace

4

Attachment 3: Responses to Question 3.3

31

4

Attachment 4: Responses to Question 4.3

33

Summary of Recommendations

I’m Not A Racist, But... is published by the National Tertiary Education Union, Melbourne. Š NTEU 2011. All rights reserved. ISBN 978-0-9806500-5-1 PO Box 1323, South Melbourne VIC 3205 Australia Ph +61 3 9254 1910 Email national@nteu.org.au Available online as a PDF and e-book at www.nteu.org.au/indigenous/publications


Introduction In early 2009, the National Tertiary Education Union (NTEU) Indigenous Policy Committee (IPC) met to discuss anecdotal reports received from the Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander members, on their experiences of racial discrimination and a general lack of cultural awareness and respect in the Australian university workplace.

and professional/general staff members; who may have direct cultural and kinship links in the work environment. The Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander staff who may be perpetrating lateral violence, in some cases, also have management responsibility over those effected Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander academic and professional/general staff.

Those reports at that time indicated that Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander academic and professional/general staff members were experiencing overt and/or implied racist comments and remarks whilst in the workplace, and this was at best, impeding their ability to perform their duties in the areas of research, teaching, management and administration.

Following the numerous anecdotal reports and informal discussions with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members, the 2010 NTEU National Council determined that research be undertaken to ascertain the level of cultural respect, racial discrimination and lateral violence within the higher education sector, particularly how these issues impacts upon Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander academic and professional/general staff members.

Although it is agreed that in the majority, non-Indigenous academic and professional/general staff and Students are not racist; nor do they hold fervent racial, cultural or in general, personal animosity and/or prejudice toward Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities or people; based on the anecdotal reports received, it would appear that some non-Indigenous academic and professional/general staff and students, do hold unsettling and worrying views of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander university staff. During the course of initial discussions with our Indigenous membership on cultural respect and racial discrimination in the university sector, the issue of lateral violence was also raised. Lateral violence has been defined in research papers emanating from the United States as ‘the harmful and undermining practices that members of oppressed groups can engage in against each other as a result of marginalisation’. While a proven link has not been established that clearly relates racial discrimination and lateral violence; the cause of lateral violence, from its definition, states that its foundations lie in marginalisation - this marginalisation manifests itself, in part, from the results of racial discrimination. This is yet another issue that causes great concern amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander academic and professional/general staff. Lateral violence is generated by and from, other Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander academic

In developing a research strategy, the IPC discussed the relationship between the anecdotal member reports and current university policy, procedures and their ability to have impact upon eliminating racial discrimination from Australian universities. Whilst all Australian universities have strident policy positions on racial discrimination, harassment, equal opportunity and affirmative action – translating these policy positions through procedure and into the staff cohort to achieve change varies significantly from institution to institution. This report details the findings from two separate, yet related surveys, distributed by the NTEU National Indigenous Unit. The first survey sought information from NTEU Branches (located at the university) on the existence, procedural detail and effectiveness of current university policies including; antiracism, anti-discrimination, bullying/harassment and equal opportunity/affirmative action. The second survey was distributed to all NTEU Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander members electronically and sought their opinions and experiences of racial discrimination, cultural respect/awareness and lateral violence, both in the university sector and in Australian society more broadly. Indigenous Policy Committee

1


Methodology NTEU Branch Survey Sample All NTEU Branches were sent a survey that was to be completed by local Branch Elected Officials and/or Union staff. The survey was distributed via email, to be completed and returned in hard copy fax or PDF to the NTEU National Indigenous Unit. The period in which the survey was distributed covered September 2009 to March 2011. Indicators Branches were requested to provide detailed information on three particular university policies (Anti-Racism, Anti-Discrimination and Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action). Information requested on these policies included: ●● The existence of those above-mentioned policies (or so named policies).

NTEU Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander member Survey Sample An attitudinal survey was distributed to all NTEU Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander members working at public universities. The survey was created on the Survey Monkey website and distributed via group email to all members. The survey was distributed on 31 March 2011 and closed on 31 August 2011. Indicators All Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander members were requested to provide their feedback on a range of questions that cover the related topics of: racial discrimination in Australia, cultural respect, racial discrimination and lateral violence in the workplace.

●● When the policies were implemented and when they were last reviewed.

Questions were developed to gauge the respondent’s views and experiences of the above-mentioned topics both in the workplace and Australian society more broadly.

●● Procedures for administering and, if required, enforcing the policy.

●● If the university has a committee that reviews and/or oversees the implementation of policies. ●● If a committee exists, whether an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander staff member sits on that committee. ●● If a committee does not exist, whether the university will seek to implement a committee, and ●● If the university has an Equal Opportunity Officer (or so named) and the level of awareness/understanding amongst university staff of the Equal Opportunity Officers role and location. Questions were developed to ascertain and gauge the Universities policy stance, procedure and measures to combat racial discrimination and strategies/policies to ensure equal employment opportunity and affirmative action at their institution.

2

I’m not a racist, but...


Executive Summary Previous research projects have indicated that racial discrimination exists in various forms within Australian society. Racial discrimination is defined under Article 1 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, to which Australia is a party: ‘The term “racial discrimination” shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life’. The levels and frequency to which racial discrimination is experienced by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples has been outlined in many reports produced by academia, Government and non-Government agencies; including the Australian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC). Notably, in February 2011 researchers from the University of Western Sydney (UWS) released the findings from a long-term survey on racism and discrimination in Australian society. The findings from the Anti-Racism Research Project showed an undercurrent of prejudice directed towards people from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. Although racist and prejudiced views were found through the UWS survey to be in the minority; racism and discrimination should be challenged in all manifestations and wherever it exists. The UWS Anti-Racism Research project found: ●● Most Australians recognise that racism is a problem in society. ●● Too many Australians (41%) have a narrow view of who belongs in Australia. ●● About one-in-ten Australians have very problematic views on diversity and on ethnic difference. They believe that some races are naturally inferior or superior, and they believe in the need to keep groups separated. These separatists and supremacists are a destructive minority. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people working in the university sector in Australia experience varying levels of racial discrimination. This includes comments based on pure ignorance regarding culture and cultural obligations, remarks made about skin colour, comments pertaining to the ‘real’ reason why they have academic and professional/general staff positions in the higher education sector (e.g. filling Indigenous employment quotas); through to individual and personal racial slurs, jokes and stereotypic observations about the culture and lifestyle of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people historically and in the current day context. Australian universities are recognised as the bastion of higher teaching, learning and research, although racial discrimination can and does infiltrate the higher education sector. The flow on effects of racial slurs and comments can result in driving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people away from the university sector, to the potential worst case scenario of causing long-term trauma and mental health conditions. Whilst all Australian universities have very clear and unambiguous policy, along with public statements in which they commit to eliminate all forms of racial discrimination within their jurisdiction, it would appear that transferring public statements and policy, to action on the ground, requires in the immediate term, more staff education and effective procedural/enforcement arrangements to ensure this occurs. Procedural and enforcement arrangements are but one part of a wider process that will need to be undertaken if racial discrimination is to be truly eliminated in the university workplace. Education and the need to identify and challenge racism on the ground will require greater efforts from not only the institution itself, but from the individuals working in the university sector. published by nTEU

To truly achieve this goal, universities will also need to extend this challenge from the staff cohort to the student cohort. While generational change will assist in achieving this goal, a clear message needs to be continually delivered in the lecture theatres and tutorials in Australian universities that racial discrimination is not acceptable in Australian society. The issue of lateral violence is a somewhat new term, but one that has existed (while not officially defined) for many years in a range of oppressed and minority groups. Lateral violence has been described as: ‘the harmful and undermining practices that members of oppressed groups can engage in against each other as a result of marginalisation’. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander groups have not been immune to the occurrence of lateral violence within our workplaces and communities. Lateral violence, its effects and how it should be addressed was detailed recently in an article discussing its incidence in the Indigenous arts sector by Sam Cook, Program Director for the Dreaming Festival, in the newspaper The Tracker. Cook details the following on identifying and combating lateral violence: ‘Firstly, I think as arts practitioners and managers we need to identify lateral violence as it occurs and has historically occurred within the sector. We need to individually be strong enough to label it as such and ultimately find a collective voice that is measured in the same level of strength to be able to speak out against it. Silence clearly doesn’t work, it just keeps lateral violence hidden and firmly embedded, constantly attacking our arts practise, creativity and expression while personally inflicting trauma on individuals and organisations.’ Aggregated and specific findings from the members’ survey indicate that lateral violence is an issue within Australia’s university sector. Additionally, to ensure that universities and institutions have the appropriate knowledge and ability in order to combat and tackle issues of lateral violence, a clear definition will need to be developed to ensure policies and strategies can be implemented. Findings from the Branch and Member surveys are summarised below.

Branch Survey university Policies: Anti-Racism, AntiDiscrimination and Equal Employment Opportunity ●● All Australian universities have developed and implemented AntiRacism, Anti-Discrimination and Equal Employment Opportunity/Affirmative Action policies. ●● Of this, 40.0% of Australian universities had implemented stand alone Anti-Racism policies. ●● 73.3% of Australian universities had implemented stand alone Anti-Discrimination policies. ●● 80.0% of Australian universities had implemented stand alone Equal Employment Opportunity/Affirmative Action policies. ●● Most Australian universities have reviewed their Anti-Racism, Anti-Discrimination and Equal Employment Opportunity/Affirmative Action policies in the last 6 years. ●● 20.0% of all Australian universities have a specific Anti-Racism, Anti-Discrimination and Harassment dispute resolution clause in their university Collective Agreement, and ●● In 23.3% of cases that the NTEU Branch was aware of, university policy was identified as being useful in resolving grievances at the institution. 3


Policy review mechanisms ●● 56.7% of all Australian universities have specific committees that oversee the review of the identified university policies. ●● 35.3% of those committees have met in the previous 6 month period. ●● Of those universities that currently do not have a specific review committee, 15.4% stated that they would be interested in developing a review committee (or similar); & ●● 64.7% of those universities that do have a committee, currently have an Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander representative as part of the committee membership.

Equal Employment Opportunity Officers ●● 76.7% of all Australian universities have a specific Equal Opportunity Officer employed at their institution. ●● 78.6% of all universities have positioned their Equal Opportunity Officer in both the Human Resources and/or a specific Equity and Diversity Unit, and ●● 71.4% of NTEU Branches state that university staff members are aware of the existence, location and role of the Equal Opportunity Officer.

Member Survey Racial Discrimination in Australian society ●● 98.2% of survey respondents agree that racial discrimination exists in Australian society. ●● 95.3% of survey respondents agree that racial discrimination is widespread in Australian society. ●● 93.1% of survey respondents and their families have experienced racial discrimination in their daily lives, and

●● Of this, 18.6% of survey respondents stated that their employer took positive action to address racial discrimination in the workplace, and ●● 12.8% of survey respondents stated that the action of their employer was successful in addressing issues of racial discrimination in the workplace.

lateral violence in the Workplace ●● 60.6% of survey respondents stated that they had, at times, experienced lateral violence in the workplace. ●● 57.9% of survey respondents state that colleagues were the main perpetrators of lateral violence in the workplace. ●● 8.6% of respondents stated that attempts were made by their employer to address issues of lateral violence in the workplace. ●● Of this, 5.7% stated that their employer took positive actions to address lateral violence, and ●● 10.0% of respondents stated that the actions of their employers were somewhat successful in addressing lateral violence in the workplace.

Summary of Recommendations 1. At the national level, undertake a subsequent detailed research project, possibly involving Universities Australia, the ARC and other partner Universities, to officially define lateral violence and develop strategies to tackle lateral violence in the workplace. 2. Lobby the Commonwealth and State/Territory Governments to examine detailed strategies and institute a public campaign to tackle racial discrimination in Australian society. 3. Lobby all universities to undertake a review of the effectiveness of current policies, in particular, procedural arrangements to tackle racial discrimination in the workplace.

Cultural Respect in the Workplace

4. Lobby university management to institute effective and appropriate reporting mechanisms for grievances involving racial discrimination that provide greater confidence for academic and professional/general staff members.

●● 79.5% of survey respondents stated they have been treated less respectfully in the workplace as a results of others perceptions of their culture and/or cultural obligations.

5. Undertake an information campaign on the issue of lateral violence and its relationship to successful staff recruitment and retention.

●● 67.9% of survey respondents have been treated less respectfully by their colleagues in the workplace as a result of perceptions of culture and/or cultural obligations.

6. Encourage NTEU Branches to undertake a survey of their membership on perspectives of the effectiveness of current university policies and procedures.

●● 17.3% of survey respondents stated that action was taken by their employer to address issues of cultural respect in the workplace.

7. Where possible, ensure NTEU representation on university policy development and review committees.

●● Of this, 21.8% of respondents stated that their employer took positive action to address issues of cultural respect and cultural obligations, and

8. At those universities where a policy development, review and implementation committee does not exist, lobby university management to implement a policy committee as soon as practicable.

●● 25.4% of respondents stated that the actions of their employers were successful in addressing issues of cultural respect and cultural obligations.

9. Lobby university management to ensure a diverse membership on policy development, implementation and review committees.

●● 93.0% of survey respondents agree that racial discrimination is a problem that should be addressed by the Australian Government.

Racial Discrimination in the Workplace ●● 71.5% of survey respondents have experienced direct racial discrimination and racist attitudes in the workplace. ●● 55.3% of survey respondents have experienced racial discrimination and racist attitudes at the hands of their colleagues in the workplace. ●● 15.3% of survey respondents stated that attempts were made by their employer to address issues of racial discrimination and racist attitudes in the workplace. 4

10. Encourage all universities to provide detailed training for all staff, both inductive and retrospective, to ensure staff members are aware of university policies on racial discrimination and the relationship to current legislative requirements. 11. Encourage university management to develop strategies to empower university staff to challenge racial discrimination in the workplace.  

I’m not a racist, but...


Branch Surveys: Detailed Findings Introduction A survey of NTEU Branches on university policies, procedures and their effectiveness was sent to all 38 public universities in the period September 2009 to March 2011. A total of 30 (78.9%) NTEU Branches gave responses to the survey document.

21.1%

Total Branches Responding 78 9% 78.9%

Total Branches No Response

Eight NTEU Branches (21.1%) did not respond to the request for information. Those Branches were: ●● Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education ●● James Cook University

●● Southern Cross University

●● University of New South Wales

●● University of Ballarat

●● University of Technology, Sydney

●● University of Melbourne

●● Victoria University.

While the time period given for responses to the Branch survey maybe seen as excessive, there are a number of factors that influenced the response rate; in particular industrial action and round five bargaining for university Collective Agreements. The NTEU Indigenous Unit reviewed Branch responses submitted at the initial request for information to ensure accuracy of data.

Detailed Findings QUESTION 1: Does your institution have one of the following policies or a similar policy under a different name? (1) Anti-Racism (2) Anti-Discrimination (3) Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action

Anti Racism Policy Stand Alone

80.0% 70.0%

Anti Racism Policy Incorporated

60.0% Anti Discrimination Policy Stand  Alone

50.0% 40.0%

Anti Discrimination Policy  Incorporated

30.0% 30 0% 20.0%

Equal Opportunity Policy Stand  Alone

10.0% 0.0% Racism           Discrimination         EEO

published by nTEU

Equal Opportunity Policy  Incorporated

5


QUESTION 2: (1) When were the policies implemented? (2) When was the last review of the policy undertaken?

21 Implementation date

40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0%

Anti Racism (Stand Alone &/or  Incorporated)

20.0%

Anti Discrimination (Stand Alone  &/or Incorporated)

15.0% 10.0% 10 0%

Equal Opportunity (Stand Alone  &/or Incorporated)

5.0% 0.0%

2.2 Last policy review

60.0% Anti Racism (Stand  Alone &/or  Incorporated)

50.0% 40.0%

Anti Discrimination  (Stand Alone &/or  Incorporated)

30.0% 20.0%

Equal Opportunity  (Stand Alone &/or  Incorporated)

10.0% 0.0% 2000 to 2004 2005 to 2009 2010 to date

6

Unknown

Online Only

I’m not a racist, but...


QUESTION 3: (1) How is the policy enforced? (Procedure?) (2) To your knowledge, has the policy been enforced in the last 12 months? (3) If enforced, was the policy useful in resolving the situation?

3.1 Procedure (Enforcement)

80.0%

Specific Clause in  UCA & Associated  Policy

80.0% 70.0%

Policy/Proceedures  Only 

60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0%

Unknown

20.0%

20.0% 0.0%

10.0% 0.0%

Procedure for Enforcement 3.2 Policy enforced in the last 12 months (to best knowledge)

50.0%

50.0%

46.7%

40.0%

Yes

30.0%

No

20.0%

Unknown 3.3%

10.0% 0.0%

Was the Policy enforced in the last 12 Months 3.3 Usefulness of policy (to best knowledge)

56.7% 60.0% 50.0% Yes

40.0% 30.0%

23.3%

20.0%

20.0%

No Unknown

10.0% 0.0% Was the policy useful in resolving the situation published by nTEU

7


QUESTION 4: (1) Does your institution have a committee that oversees the implementation/review & monitoring of the policy? (2) If yes, when did the committee meet last? (3) If no, has the implementation of a committee been touted?

4.1 Committee to oversee implementation/review of policies

56.7% 60.0% 50.0%

33.3%

40.0%

Yes No

30.0% 10.0%

20.0%

Unknown

10.0% 0.0% Committee to Oversee Policy 4.2 If yes, when did the committee last meet?

Last Month ‐ One  Month Ago

35.3%

40.0% 35.0%

29.4%

30.0% 25.0%

17.6%

20.0%

17.6%

Last 12 Months ‐ 7 to  12 Months Ago Over 12 Months Over 12 Months

15.0% 10.0% 5.0%

Last Six Months ‐ 2 to 6  Months Ago

Unknown

0.0%

0.0% If yes, when did the committee last meet 4.3 If no, has the implementation of a committee been touted?

61.5%

70.0% 60.0%

Yes

50.0% 40.0% 30.0%

23.1% 15.4%

No Unknown

20.0% 10.0% 0.0% If no, will a committee be implemented

8

I’m not a racist, but...


QUESTION 5: Should a committee exist, is there an Indigenous representative as part of the committee membership?

5.1 Indigenous representative on committee

64.7% 70.0% 60.0% 35.3%

50.0%

Yes

40.0%

No

30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Indigenous Representative on Committee QUESTION 6: (1) Does your institution have an Equal Opportunity Officer (or similar)? (2) What is the location of the Officer (e.g. Human Resources)? (3) To your knowledge, are staff members aware of the existence of the Officer, their role and location?

6.1 Equal opportunity officer

80.0%

Yes

76.7%

No

70.0% 60.0%

Online EO Course  Only

50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0%

6.7%

10.0%

3.3%

6.7%

6.7%

Equity and Diversity  Equity and Diversity Unit Only (or so  named) Unknown

0.0% Equal Opportunity Officer 6.2 Location of the equal opportunity officer

39.3%

39.3%

Human Resources

40.0% 35.0% 30.0%

Specific Equity and  Diversity Unit 

25.0%

Other

20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0%

Online Course Only

10.7% 7.1% 3.6%

Unknown

0.0% published by nTEU

Location of Officer

9


6.3 Are staff members aware of the location and role of the officer (to best knowledge)

Yes 80.0%

71.4% No 

70.0% 60.0%

Unknown/Not  Sure

50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0%

Online Course  Online Course Only

17.9% 7.1%

3.6%

0.0% Are staff aware of Officer/Unit existance, role and location?

10

I’m not a racist, but...


Member Surveys: Detailed Findings Introduction

search only) staff and professional/general staff and across all States and Territories.

An online survey on Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander NTEU members’ perspectives and experiences of racial discrimination, cultural respect/awareness and lateral violence was sent to all Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander members on 31 March 2011. The survey was made available on the Survey Monkey website and was open for respondent’s feedback until 31 August 2011.

A total of 35.5% of respondents indicated they were Academic members of staff, this represents 34.7% of all NTEU Aboriginal and/ or Torres Strait Islander academic union members and 17.9% of all Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Academic staff working in the sector (as at 2010). 28.5% of respondents indicated they were professional/general members of staff. This represents 30.4% of all NTEU Aboriginal and/ or Torres Strait Islander professional/general union members and 7.2% of all Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander professional/ general staff working in the sector (as at 2010). A total of 36.0% of respondents to the survey did not indicate if they were academic or professional/general staff members.

A total of 172 members gave feedback to the survey; this represents 51.0% of all NTEU Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander members (as at September 2011) and 16.8% of all Aboriginal and/ or Torres Strait Islander staff employed in the university sector as at 2010 . Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander respondents to the survey included academic (research only, teaching only and teaching and re-

Detailed Findings The graph below indicates the number of respondents by State and Territory:

30.0%

25.5%

23.6%

25.0%

NSW NT

17.3%

20.0%

QLD

15.0% 10.0%

ACT

10.0% 5.5%

10.0%

SA TAS

5.5%

2.7%

5.0%

VIC WA

0.0% State and Territory The graph below indicates the highest level qualification obtained by survey respondents:

Doctorate

32.7%

35.0%

Masters

30.0% 25.0% 20.0%

Graduate Diploma

20.9%

Graduate Certificate

15.5%

14.5%

Degree

15.0% 10.0% 5.0%

7.3% 2.7%

1.8%

0.0% Highest Qualification Obtained published by nTEU

4.5%

Advanced Diploma/Diploma Certificate Secondary School up to Year 12

11


SECTION 1 - RACISM AND DISCRIMINATION IN AUSTRALIA 1.1 Racial discrimination exists in Australia

90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

83.7% Strongly Agree Agree Unsure Disagree

14.5%

Strongly Disagree 0.6%

0.0%

1.2%

Racial Discrimination Exists in Australia 1.2 Racial discrimination is widespread in Australia

70.0%

67.4%

60.0%

Strongly Agree

50.0%

Agree

40.0%

27.9%

Unsure

30.0% 30 0%

Disagree

20.0% 2.9%

10.0%

Strongly Disagree 0.6%

1.2%

0.0% Racial Discrimination is Widespread in Australia 1.3 Have you or members of your family experienced overt or implied racial discrimination?

45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0%

40.7%

38.4% Yes, Very Often Yes, Often Sometimes

14.0%

Hardly Ever 2.9%

4.1%

No, Never

Have You or Your Family Experienced Racial Discrimination

12

I’m not a racist, but...


1.4 If you or members of your family have experienced overt or implied racial discrimination; please provide an example of your individual or family experiences: See Attachment 1 – Responses to Question 1.4

70.3%

80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Comment

29.7%

No Comment

Total Comments ‐ Question 1.4 1.5 Racial discrimination is a social problem that should be addressed by Government

80.0%

70.3%

70.0% 60.0%

Strongly Agree

50.0%

Agree

40.0% 30.0% 30 0% 20.0% 10.0%

Unsure

22.7%

Disagree 4.1%

2.9%

0.0%

Strongly Disagree

0.0% Racial Discrimination is a Problem that should be  addressed by Government

published by nTEU

13


SECTION 2 - CULTURAL RESPECT IN THE WORKPLACE 2.1 In the workplace, do you feel that you have been treated less respectfully as a result of other’s perceptions of your culture and/or your cultural obligations?

45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0%

42.3% Yes, Very Often Yes, Often

23.1%

Sometimes

14.1%

12.8% 12 8%

Hardly Ever

7.7%

No, Never

Cultural Respect in the Workplace 2.1 2.2 If you have been treated less respectfully in your workplace as a result of your culture and/or your cultural obligations, was this directed to you by?

67.9% 70.0% 60.0%

50.6% 51.9%

Senior Management

50.0%

35.3%

40.0%

Middle Management Colleagues

30.8% 23.1%

30.0%

Students

20.0%

Members of the Public

10.0%

Other

0.0% Cultural Respect in the Workplace 2.2 2.3 If you believe that you have been treated less respectfully in the workplace as a result of perceptions of your culture and/or cultural obligations, please detail your experience/s: See attachment 2 – responses to question 2.3

79.1% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

Comment 20.9% 20 9%

No Comment

Cultural Respect in the Workplace 2.3 14

I’m not a racist, but...


2.4 In your view, were attempts made by your employer to remedy instances where you were treated less respectfully as a result of your culture and/or cultural obligations?

56.4% 60.0%

43.6%

50.0% 40.0%

Comment

30.0%

No Comment

20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Cultural Respect in the Workplace 2.3 2.5 If so, what action was instituted to address the situation/s?

49.1% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0%

29.1%

Positive Action

21.8%

Little Action No Action

20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Cultural Respect in the Workplace 2.5 2.6 In your view, was this action successful in addressing the situation?

50.8%

60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0%

Yes 25.4%

23.7%

Unsure No

20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Cultural Respect in the Workplace 2.6

published by nTEU

15


SECTION 3 - RACIAL DISCRIMINATION IN THE WORKPLACE 3.1 Do you believe that you have encountered direct racial discrimination and/or racist attitudes in the workplace?

50.0% 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 20 0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0%

45.8% Yes, Very Often Yes, Often 19.4%

19.4%

Sometimes Hardly Ever

9.0%

6.3%

No, Never

Racial Discrimination in the Workplace 3.1 3.2 If you have encountered direct racial discrimination and/or racist attitudes in the workplace, was this directed to you by:

53.5% 55.3%

60.0% 50.0%

44.7%

43.9%

40.0%

Senior Management Middle Management

31.6%

30.0%

Colleagues 17 5% 17.5%

20.0%

Students Members of the Public Other

10.0% 0.0% Racial Discrimination in the Workplace 3.2

3.3 If you have encountered direct racial discrimination and/or racist attitudes in the workplace, please detail your experience/s: See attachment 3 – responses to question 3.3

64.5% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0%

35.5%

40.0%

Comment No Comment

30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Racial Discrimination in the Workplace 3.3 16

I’m not a racist, but...


3.4 In your view, were attempts made by your employer to remedy instances where you encountered direct racial discrimination and/or racist attitudes?

44.4% 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 20 0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0%

40.3%

Yes No 

15.3%

Unsure/Not Sure

Racial Discrimination in the Workplace 3.4 3.5 If so, what action was instituted to address the situation/s?

46.5%

50.0% 34.9%

40.0% 30.0%

Positive Action Little Action

18.6%

No Action

20.0% 10.0% 0.0% Racial Discrimination in the Workplace 3.5 3.6 In your view, was this action successful in addressing the situation?

53.8%

60.0% 50.0% 33.3%

40.0%

Unsure

30.0% 20.0%

Yes

12.8%

No

10.0% 0.0% Racial Discrimination in the Workplace 3.6

published by nTEU

17


SECTION 4 - LATERAL VIOLENCE IN THE WORKPLACE 4.1 In the workplace, do you believe that you have been subjected to lateral violence?

29.9% 30.0%

24.1%

25.0%

Yes, Very Often

19.0%

20.0% 15.0%

15.3% 11.7%

Yes, Often Sometimes Hardly Ever

10.0%

No, Never

5.0% 0.0% Lateral Violence in the Workplace 4.1 4.2 If you have encountered lateral violence, was this directed to you by:

57.9% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0%

36.4%

38.3%

Senior Management 29.0%

30.0%

Middle Management Colleagues

20.0%

Other

10.0% 0.0% Lateral Violence in the Workplace 4.2 4.3 If you have encountered lateral violence in the workplace, please detail your experience/s: See attachment 4 – responses to question 4.3

90.0% 80.0% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0%

82.0%

Comment No Comment 18.0%

Lateral Violence in the Workplace 4.3 18

I’m not a racist, but...


4.4 In your view, were attempts made by your employer to remedy instances where you encountered lateral violence?

59.0% 60.0% 50.0% 32.4%

40.0%

No 

30.0% 20.0%

Yes Unsure/Not Sure

8.6%

10.0% 0.0% Lateral Violence in the Workplace 4.4 4.5 If so, what action was instituted to address the situation/s?

60.0% 60.0% 50.0% 34.3%

40.0%

Positive Action Little Action

30.0% 20.0% 10.0%

No Action 5.7%

0.0% Lateral Violence in the Workplace 4.5 4.6 In your view, was this action successful in addressing the situation?

66.7% 70.0% 60.0% 50.0%

Yes

40.0%

23.3%

30.0% 20.0%

Unsure No

10.0%

10.0% 0.0% Lateral Violence in the Workplace 4.6

published by nTEU

19


Recommendations from the Surveys 1. At the National level, undertake a subsequent detailed research project, possibly involving Universities Australia, the ARC and other partner Universities, to officially define lateral violence and develop strategies to tackle lateral violence in the workplace. Currently, lateral violence is not officially defined and therefore can be potentially open to interpretation. The need to define lateral violence in the Australian context is paramount. Without an official definition, the ability to educate and train all people on the issues associated with lateral violence will be all the more difficult. Also, the ability to develop effective policy and strategies in the university sector to combat lateral violence will not be able to be undertaken.

6. Encourage NTEU Branches to undertake a survey of their membership on perspectives of the effectiveness of current university policies and procedures. To add weight to the findings from the Branch and Member survey’s all NTEU Branches should be encouraged to undertake a survey of their wider membership, to establish all members’ thoughts and opinions on current university policies and procedures and to give guidance and feedback on localised strategies that should be undertaken to strengthen university policy and associated procedure.

7. Where possible, ensure NTEU representation on university policy development and review committees. To ensure member perspectives and opinions on university policies and procedures is strongly advocated, Branches, Divisions and the National Office should devise mechanisms to guarantee members are represented at all stages of policy development and review.

2. Lobby the Commonwealth and State/Territory Governments to examine detailed strategies and institute a public campaign to tackle racial discrimination in Australian society. As identified by survey respondents and other research projects including the university of Western Sydney Anti-Racism Research Project, racial discrimination remains a prevalent issue in Australian society. To effectively combat racial discrimination, a public campaign and appropriate strategies should be undertaken and implemented to raise awareness and challenge community thoughts on racial discrimination.

3. Lobby all Universities to undertake a review of the effectiveness of current policies, in particular, procedural arrangements to tackle racial discrimination in the workplace. While the results of the Branch survey indicate that, in the majority, Australian universities have undertaken to review their policy in the previous six year period; results from the Indigenous members’ survey indicate that university policy was only successful in resolving grievances around racial discrimination in 12.8% of all cases. To ensure university policy is appropriate and effective, a review of policy and procedures should be undertaken as a high priority.

4. Lobby university management to institute effective and appropriate reporting mechanisms for grievances involving racial discrimination that provide greater confidence for academic and professional/general staff. Member survey responses indicate that in many cases, issues pertaining to racial discrimination, cultural respect and lateral violence were not dealt with in a manner that provides confidence for an appropriate outcome for Indigenous academic and professional/general staff. Strengthened reporting mechanisms, coupled with detailed procedural strategies will go some way to addressing this issue.

5. Undertake an information campaign on the issue of lateral violence and its relationship to successful staff recruitment and retention. Once the outcomes of a subsequent and further detailed research project is finalised, an information campaign targeted at senior university management, particularly Human Resources, should be undertaken as a high priority to ensure management has the ability to understand the relationship between lateral violence and the university efforts to recruit and retain Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander staff. Prior to the finalisation of the outcomes from the research project, an information paper on lateral violence should be developed by the NTEU Indigenous Policy Committee and National Indigenous Unit to provide guidance to Branches and Divisions. 20

8. At those Universities where a policy development, review and implementation committee does not exist, lobby university management to implement a policy committee as soon as practicable. At those institutions where policy development and review committees do not currently exist; to ensure appropriate governance and accountability channels are maintained, a committee should be implemented as a high priority.

9. Lobby university management to ensure a diverse membership on policy development, implementation and review committees. To ensure a diversity of perspectives and input to the development and review of university policies is received, a diverse membership of policy implementation and review committees is paramount. This would include Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander staff representative on all policy committees.

10. Encourage all universities to provide detailed training for all staff, both inductive and retrospective, to ensure staff members are aware of university policies on racial discrimination and the relationship to current legislative requirements. To ensure all university staff members are aware of their rights and responsibilities under current university policies, should it not already exist, appropriate detailed training and education should be provided to all staff, including but not limited to, racial discrimination and equal employment opportunity.

11. Encourage university management to develop strategies to empower university staff to challenge racial discrimination in the workplace. As highlighted in the Member survey findings, racial discrimination in Universities occurs in the day-to-day work environment, with some work colleagues being the main instigators (55.3%), staff members should have the ability to receive appropriate training to empower those staff members to safely challenge racial discrimination in the workplace. As an instrument of change, staff members who openly challenge issues of racial discrimination can achieve a greater level of success in potentially changing the mind set of those who perpetrate discrimination in the workplace.  

I’m not a racist, but...


Acknowledgements The National Indigenous Unit would like to thank, first and foremost, all the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander members who participated in the member survey. We appreciate that this exercise in itself may have caused those members to relive and re-experience issues that have caused them great harm. The NTEU Indigenous Policy Committee and National Indigenous Unit thanks all of you for assisting in the fight to create better working conditions for current and future Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander university staff. We also thank and acknowledge the staff and Elected Officers from the NTEU Branches and Divisions who responded to our request for information. We appreciate that you have heavy workloads and another survey from the National Office was potentially the last thing you needed – thank you. The National Indigenous Unit would like to particularly thank the following current and former Elected Indigenous and non-Indigenous Officials who have been instrumental in putting this research project together and seeing it to its conclusion: ●● Marilyn Strother from the University of Western Australia – who originally suggested the survey idea. ●● Jillian Miller from the University of South Australia. ●● Terry Mason from the University of Western Sydney. ●● Dr Bronwyn Fredericks from the Queensland University of Technology. ●● John Graham from Griffith University. ●● Dr Maree Gruppetta from the University of Western Sydney. ●● Alma Mir, formerly of Batchelor Institute of Indigenous Tertiary Education. ●● Frances Wyld from the University of South Australia. ●● Craig Somerville, formerly of Curtin University. ●● Deb Brown, formerly of the University of Tasmania. ●● Peter Pinnington, formerly of the Australian National University. ●● Maree Graham, formerly of the University of Western Sydney; & ●● Celeste Liddle, formerly of the University of Melbourne, now the NTEU National Indigenous Organiser. A special note of thanks and appreciation goes to the current and immediate past National Presidents of the National Tertiary Education Union, Jeannie Rea and Dr Carolyn Allport, along with the current General Secretary, Grahame McCulloch and the current and immediate past National Assistant Secretaries, Matt McGowan and Ted Murphy. The final note of thanks goes to the past and current members of the NTEU National Executive for their support and guidance in relation to Indigenous issues across the NTEU. Thank you to you all.

References 1. Wingard B. (2010) A Conversation with lateral violence, International Journal of Narrative Therapy & Community Work, Vol. 2010, No. 1, 2010: 13-17. 2. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Article 1 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/cerd.htm 3. Challenging Racism: The Anti-Racism Research Project. http://www.uws.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/173635/NationalLevelFindingsV1.pdf 4. Cook, S. (2011) Artfully Hiding lateral violence, The Tracker, Vol. 1, Issue 5, August 2011, p. 48. 5. Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations (2011) Higher Education Statistics, Staff 2010: Selected Higher Education Statistics, Indigenous, http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Publications/HEStatistics/Publications/Pages/Staff.aspx published by nTEU

21


Attachment 1: Responses to Question 1.4 Question 1.4: If you or members of your family have experienced overt or implied racial discrimination; please provide an example of your individual or family experiences below. Please note that comments have been edited for privacy reasons. Respondent Comment Number X

Called black so & so.

Number X

NTER Act 2007

Number X

Being referred to as an Abo in the workplace.

Number X

Not being served.

Number X

Applying for accommodation constantly watched when in particular shops e.g. chemists . Shop assistants ignoring or avoid assisting me whilst shopping in particular retail stores.

Number X

Assumptions made about a person’s ability. Non-Indigenous people in charge of Indigenous affairs, when there are qualified and capable people available. Children being called racist names.

Number X

There are too many incidences to recite here, so I will only choose two relating to accommodation. Some racism is overt and other, experienced daily is subtle. It’s in the grimace of someone’s face, the way a person pushes in front of you, doesn’t serve you when it’s your turn or the gaze that looks right through you like you’re not even there. The two overt examples of racism are as follows: My niece being denied housing on the basis of the colour of our skin. The landlord asked a referee: ‘What nationality is she?’ and ‘How dark is the colour of her skin?’ - As if skin colour was some precursor to a being a good tenant. Also when I was looking for rental housing in my home town the landlord said, ‘I know who your family are and I don’t want you bringing any of your dark friends around here.’ I had recently given birth to my six week old son and was holding him at the time. Naturally, after the birth I was still carrying a little weight around my stomach. The same landlord pointed to my stomach and said ‘I see you’re pregnant again already’ - he had in his mind that the stereotype that all Aboriginal women breed like rabbits. I was very direct with him and told him in no uncertain terms how inappropriate his comments were.

Number X

Being ignored in a shop while others get served first. Having remarks said in regards to ‘all of you are the same’ Aboriginals don’t work and all get free stuff !

Number X

Expectations of poor quality work in the work environment. Patronising treatment by other staff members. Racial stereotyping and negative comments about Aboriginal people.

Number X

Still exist in shopping centres; when an Aboriginal person enters the store they are followed around the store by racist security guards. The suspension/exclusion of Aboriginal students in the school system. Treatment of Aboriginal people in the workplace, pubs and clubs and restaurants.

Number X

Assuming a person is unable or incapable of doing or knowing something purely because he/she is Indigenous.

Number X

Real Estates Agents - Institutional Racism Stereotypes

Number X

My mother was never invited into her mother-in-law’s house. My mother carried an exemption certificate and was asked to leave a in the long after the dog licence was suspended. My mother was asked about cleanliness when renting accommodation.

Number X

Probably the most significant is the low expectations that are expressed when people realize that we are Aboriginal - and there has been outright prejudice from some.

Number X

The usual covert racism that is expected to be accepted as part of the norm or a ‘joke’? Institutional racism that permeates government departments and universities.

Number X

Mainly through comments on other Indigenous people where I happened to be present. As I am fair skinned my understanding was that they believed I wasn’t Aboriginal so had the right to say whatever they wanted. My recently experienced racism at work where an individual said ‘that’s why I want to go back to where they have rounded up and shot em out’.

Number X

You People, Abos’, you don’t look Aboriginal, What part of you is Aboriginal?

Number X

Being told I am not Aboriginal because I have light skin. Being told I got a ‘hand up’ into my position due to my race.

Number X

Refused service at a regional caravan park. Almost refused service in a urban Shopping Centre. Racist comments on university grounds, implied racial comments from university staff.

Number X

Having to wait in line while other people have been served; Comments in my hearing about Aboriginal people; Attitude of staff and students to Indigenous issues and people.

Number X

Assumptions of poor uneducated black people trying to take away their land and complaining.

Number X

My husband was questioned by security guards at a shopping mall as to why he was ‘carrying a white child’ his daughter

Number X

I was asked by my young child’s teacher what I did for a living and what my husband does for a living. Once I told her she then proceeded to say she just wanted to make sure my child’s learning problems were not genetic and that she felt he needed to be assimilated into the classroom. This happened about 5 years ago.

Number X

Comments such as, our success has come from favouritism and political correctness. Open hostility of some colleagues.

Number X

My son was vilified by a fellow student on the basis of his Aboriginality. It was further compounded when the teacher intervened and dismissed it as a difference of opinion between my son and the student. My son protested and was sent to the Principals office for aggressive behaviour.

Number X

Serious breach of human rights which unable to disclose.

Number X

Lateral violence.

22

I’m not a racist, but...


Respondent Comment Number X

Derogatory comments made by a non-Aboriginal staff member to me and about Aboriginal people. Was not supported for promotion because other non-Aboriginal people would find it difficult to deal with an Aboriginal person in a leadership position. Ignored and isolated by and other professional and academic staff because I spoke out against racism.

Number X

Growing up in a predominantly white community, we experienced a lot of racism through fellow student’s name-calling and picking fights etc. Teachers were also overtly negative as they expected trouble from us because we were ‘black’ therefore falsely presumed that we must be ‘bad’ or ‘trouble’.

Number X

Once identified as Aboriginal children were called names at school

Number X

Often in relation to employment, employment conditions and career opportunity

Number X

In my workplace I was bullied by someone because although I am Aboriginal, I have fair skin and I’m not ‘black enough’.

Number X

When my daughters have a sleep over in our home, none of their daughters are allowed to attend and my daughters become very upset and yet when there is a sleep at their school friends place everybody attends. To me that is racism??

Number X

My work colleagues were discussing the dissatisfaction of another Indigenous work member very openly in the office, at this point my supervisor asked me to stand up and announce that I in fact identify as Indigenous so the conversation was stopped.

Number X

Not getting rental properties because of skin appearance. Snide/racist remarks in supermarkets and other stores. Being followed by security as soon as you walk into a store. Just the sheer ignorance of people and their general lack of knowledge of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People.

Number X

In a meeting with a senior university professor the comment was made that I was not very Aboriginal and the professor then proceeded to ask me what percentage of Aboriginal blood I had. (recent)

Number X

Seeing my colour and not my credentials - being excluded from teaching in levels below my current level of

Number X

Lots of comments that I must be lucky that I don’t ‘look Indigenous’. Racial comments regarding Aboriginals said in my presence

Number X

Racial slurs

Number X

Application for housing in the mainstream sector, employment opportunities and service in shops where white people are served first even though they have not be waiting long to be served.

Number X

Blackfellas can’t have a job like that...

Number X

Being a fair skinned Indigenous person, I have been accused of pretending I am Aboriginal and that I am different from other Aboriginal people. Biological racism.

Number X

Racism because we are fair but we identify. Comments said around us about Aboriginal people but with riders such as ‘no offence’ and ‘you’d know all about that wouldn’t you’.

Number X

You only got the job because the university is trying to raise the Indigenous employment profile.

Number X

We have problems with being Indigenous (racism) or not being Indigenous enough (reverse racism).

Number X

In education especially in the idea that Indigenous students are not expected to be good students.

Number X

We were stopped from entering a market in the

Number X

At school, sport, work, while out with friends and family by ignorant people. Even from other Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people who don’t realise that I am a , that is the most disappointing form of racism that I find.

Number X

My 16yr old son given a $400 bike for Xmas. Two ladies made him go with them to the police station because they said he stole their bike. He didn’t, I had to take a phone call from the police to confirm details of the bike. As a student at my research report about Aboriginality was downplayed and requests for follow-up advice was ignored and my results of my assignments took so long I was unable to enrol in the next semester, to which I sent a letter of appeal to the Head of faculty. Support from the HOD was forthcoming but not the head of research that I had the initial and continuing problem with. I felt Aboriginal issues in education are diverted as not relevant or categorised as ‘cultural studies’.

Number X

I working as , at a university and have done so for the past three months. I have three mainstream degrees and the assumption it seems is that I cannot be an intelligent Aboriginal person and have these qualifications. In my short time here I have endured constant issues around the management of myself from my supervisor who has stated to other staff in my presence that I will have numerous managers by these staff who have little or no qualifications and who are not by the way employed at the university I work at. I have had to go the union to sort out what is clearly stated on my job description . I feel that this is not only implied racial discrimination but vilification, harassment and bullying wrapped up and fed on ignorance and ethnocentric ideology.

Number X

One of my family members has been persistently denied a promotion on the basis of being Aboriginal and therefore seen as most appropriately working only in the Aboriginal area. has applied to move elsewhere to gain more experience but has been knocked back repeatedly because is ‘needed’ in the Indigenous area.

Number X

Non-Indigenous researchers referring to themselves as experts in Indigenous issues. My sons are regularly stopped by police for no reason. No expectation that brown-skin kids will attend university.

Number X

Waiting in line to order food over the counter, obviously not being properly served before other customers and clearly being showed racism. This is only a ‘small’ example. My experiences have been in a variety of forms since childhood and this is very disappointing as an Indigenous Australian and I can only imagine what my fellow Aboriginal people go through : (.

published by nTEU

studies and given a workload suiting 2

by a group of One Nation supporters.

23


Respondent Comment Number X

Followed and questioned by police. Individuals questioning your Identity particularly in the workplace. Individuals assuming and outwardly voicing that your achievements a basis on equity grounds implying that you do not work for nor deserve employment or promotions.

Number X

In my course, I was a sessional staff member and a student. We were given the opportunity to identify as Indigenous. So I did, thinking it was about an acknowledgement of Country or another protocol. I was asked in front of the whole lecture theatre to look after my own learning disability which is ‘my problem’. It was a recorded session, but the university did nothing about it. Note: Racism is not Aboriginality. But both were hit hard then.

Number X

I get discrimination from being light skinned and questioned on my identity as an Aboriginal man. Separately, as I am light skinned, people do not screen there racist comments and say inappropriate things to be about ‘Aboriginals’. This makes it very clear to me that racism is currently rife.

Number X

I don’t tend to notice it much myself, aside from experiencing institutional racism at my workplace and for my who is in school. For example my child being singled out as the trouble maker and the one who gets into trouble. Without the antagoniser also getting into trouble. The expectation is that my should be the bigger person. However is just a who can only take so much. I am generally strong enough for my own self to fight against and racism I feel is being levelled at me.

Number X

‘You’re not like the others’

Number X

Too many to list, but essentially daily in relation to non-Indigenous peoples’ perceptions about who is Aboriginal (in their view) and having to deal with erroneous commentary regarding Aboriginal issues.

Number X

Non-Aboriginal Manager who manages a culturally sensitive Aboriginal program who does not see the importance of Aboriginal safety in the workplace.

Number X

There is not enough space here. Some examples include my father who was born in a tent on the grounds of the as Aboriginal people were not allowed in the hospital, segregation practices not allowing him in public places e.g. etc. This is just the tip of the iceberg. I have suffered racism in workplaces many, many times (e.g. working in State Government) as an , on my first day a workmate said ‘Are YOU Aboriginal? You don’t look Aboriginal etc’. I have also suffered it working in a university. Many examples here - not sure if you ask this question in relation to universities further down the survey so not sure how much detail to go into here....one example was when I submitted a journal article to be published. The blind peer reviewers included the comments: ‘You are trying to make it in a white journal’ and ‘you are writing about a shitty little place’. (My paper was about segregation practices in the 60s in ). This racism was so overt and hurtful I lost all confidence in myself as an Academic and it prevented me from writing for 2 years. Only now I have started writing again. Lots more stories about examples from working at my current university.

Number X

We get it from non-Indigenous who say we’re not real Aboriginals. If I’m late then comments are made about I’m away sick then they say I’ve gone walkabout.

Number X

1. Driving a university car and getting petrol and called everything under the sun by a younger driver. 2. Being only Aboriginal on an interview panel and being expected to ‘bag’ (they called it substantiate) why someone was incapable of doing a particular job.

Number X

Telephone check of credit card - I thought this was out of date by 10 years. I was recently refused a lease on rental property because my references were insufficient: how Dean and is not sufficient is beyond me.

Number X

Being told to go back to our ‘own country’ by Anglo-Australians, implying that we were ‘immigrants’ because we are brown skinned. We said we were Aboriginal people and we were in our own Country! Being served last in a shop, having police follow my kids in the street, having shop keepers watch my kids, being asked questions about every issue in Aboriginal affairs in my workplace but not asked about my discipline, my work, my field of work. People saying racist things and then them realising and saying sorry - like sorry I wasn’t supposed to be there, or sorry I heard... would they have still said it if I wasn’t there? I shouldn’t have to be the moderator for their racism.

Number X

I think for all groups who don’t fit the ‘norm’, we are always experiencing low-level racial discrimination. This extends to nondirect communications (e.g. reading comments to blogs dealing with ‘Indigenous issues’ - and sometimes even when they don’t; throw-away comments in social and professional contexts, which includes what is experienced in teaching non-Indigenous students; few sustainable policies in universities that contribute to changes in patterns of racial thinking etc). The extent of harmful ignorance is just mind-blowing. Of course there are specific, more tangible events that have occurred, too numerous to recount here. However daily, seemingly mundane situations, serve as a constant reminder of the effect of the lack of real education for non-Indigenous peoples to address their limited understandings - which in turn drive discriminatory actions. It’s insidious.

Number X

Too many to fit is this space

Number X

Called names...

Number X

Excluded from events and functions. Name calling ... coon, boong etc.

Number X

Education, public.

Number X

Denial of the existence of eyed’ Aborigines.

Number X

Being spoken to very nicely on the phone but when meeting face to face getting a definite cold shoulder which can only be because of your appearance.

24

time. If

Aboriginal people. Attacks on assumed Aboriginal ‘privileges’. Jokes about ‘white, blue

I’m not a racist, but...


Respondent Comment Number X

Identity questioned. Cultural assumptions.

Number X

Not being served / being overlooked in a line, most of the time other people also waiting will say ‘they were here before me’

Number X

When sitting with non-Indigenous people strangers have come over to say ‘ why don’t you stick with your own kind. Also racist jokes still abound in social circles.

Number X

In the school setting in public forums etc.

Number X

Growing up was called boong, coon, flat nose. Now it’s more about an overtly unwillingness to hear the other side of the story. We weren’t there so it’s not our fault get over yourselves and move on.

Number X

Called derogatory names. Racist comments made .

Number X

Name calling, Known as Indigenous lecturer rather than senior academic

Number X

Being detained by police for no apparent reason.

Number X

Hurtful name calling, marginalisation on account of programs or services offered to ‘Indigenous only’ students

Number X

I am a fair skin Aboriginal and often hear racial remarks by people until the find out I am Indigenous then they ignore me.

Number X

Being questioned about my skin colour, and how much Aboriginal blood I have. Watching an older relative, who is clearly Aboriginal by skin colour and facial features, be ignored in a store while we are both waiting to be served. Bering treated differently when I am with my own people, as opposed to when I am with white people.

Number X

Being denied entry into drinking establishments; Being challenged about their Aboriginality because they aren’t ‘black enough’; Targeted by police & security personnel when out socialising; Subjected to hurtful commentary in the workplace, such as ‘you could get away with being white you know’, ‘you’re not a real Abo are you, you’re not black enough’, Students being subjected to exclusionary practices on the basis of their Aboriginal status.

Number X

I was bullied and discriminated against on the basis of race in the workplace by my supervisor, who was from the ongoing. It was personal and offensive.

Number X

Stereotypical responses, cultural superiority of other races, non-inclusive practice, identification of Aboriginality base on skin colour, ridicule re ‘political correctness’.

Number X

There is bigotry amongst our own that is not addressed as much as there is amongst others.

Number X

Racist comments about Aboriginal people. Threats of violence because of Aboriginality. Accusations of theft based on Aboriginality. Health problems not taken seriously, despite being serious problems as they were attributed to being Aboriginal and Aboriginal people not looking after themselves properly.

Number X

Being sworn in shopping centres, kids at school being called Abo’s....too many to name here. Racism is experienced every day.

Number X

Overt - customer service situations, dealing with Centrelink, discriminated for ‘light skin’ (i.e. you are not Aboriginal/you should not claim Aboriginal entitlements). Implied - systemic racism.

Number X

When standing in line to be served always have to wait that extra time.

Number X

You’re not Aboriginal’, ‘You could pass for white’ Situations where organisations have operated in culturally unsafe manner for staff and students, bullying by Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people around identity, non-compliance of organisations to cultural protocols

Number X

Just get looked at strangely and treated differently when people learn that your Aboriginal

Number X

Told that landlords did not want ‘coons’ in their rental property. Told that a Professor only wanted Aboriginal willing to work as he had engaged Aboriginal in the past and they had been lazy and wanted the work done for them. More appallingly was my manager’s response to this which was to say that the Professor didn’t mean anything by it. Assumptions made about what area of the university I work in i.e. it must be the Indigenous unit. Primary schooler told (by a fellow student) that can’t be Aboriginal because all Aboriginal people live in the gutter. Didn’t get a higher level position (mainstream) but was told during feedback that a higher level specified position was coming up and that I should apply for that.

Number X

I am an Aboriginal person with distinctly European looks. I am often included in racist conversations and jokes as people think I hold the same values towards people of different cultures as they do.

Number X

Being ignored at serving counters within shopping centres.

Number X

Subject to being ‘dumbed down’ and identity/work devalued by whites

Number X

Sometimes from other Aboriginal people who question your identity, especially trying to obtain a Confirmation of Aboriginality which I have never needed prior to this year and all because of government bureaucracy

Number X

Feeling like your families concerns are not important to warrant concern

Number X

Personal experience: I have had a man look deep into my eyes and express clearly his hatred for ‘Abo’s’ and that the ‘only other people that he hated more were the white people that f#$%ed the Abo’s to breed with them and make the half castes’ This was an early experience of mine, I was perhaps 22 and I am now and still see that same attitude in people and practices today.

Number X

In classes the racism/reverse racism and resistance to policy/ content and strategies in teacher education programs.

Number X

Just one example, information about employment was not sent to my daughter as a result discrimination. A similar incident has recently affected my niece.

Number X

Often experienced in the workplace

Number X

Every day. Especially in my last employment at . While having equal qualifications was not included in strategic design regarding Indigenous promotion and recruitment. They did a marketing research and left myself out of this action. Also one member of academia implied my qual was not fully earned.

published by nTEU

. It was

25


Respondent Comment Number X

Jokes and inappropriate terms in conversations. Use of the words Abo, darkies. Mostly attitudes to Aboriginal people as inferior/drunks, etc.

Number X

Being told you are not Aboriginal because you are fair skinned.

Number X

Alternatively told too black for some activities/services or told not black enough. Often thought to be stupid or of low intelligence due to Aboriginality. Thought to have somehow cheated on gaining certificates or degrees because Aboriginal

Number X

Being asked to justify who I am, explain how much ‘Aboriginal blood’ do I have in me. Being called a black cxxx. Being called a white cxxx. Being treated as less that another person in the workplace, while having higher qualifications than that person. e.g. the question was asked, ‘how can ‘they’ get this degree up. What skills would they have to run it’.

Number X

Daughter at school - issues regarding colour of her skin.

Number X

Rental and Housing, Service in Shops and employment promotions.

Number X

My mother while eating at a RSL club in was exposed to comments along the lines of ‘I didn’t think they allowed your type in here’. I have been called racist names while surfing at .

Number X

E.g. the police always watch my husband (even though his is a school teacher) when we are out; I get sent into shops first, cause we always send the fairest in first; my previous position, the other Aboriginal lecturer said I should go back to my own country ( ) and not be on her country- how long have you got!!!

Number X

Whilst trying to rent houses; booking into motels; being served second even if I presented first

Number X

Made to feel inferior and not as capable as others

Number X

Excluded from workplace decision making

Number X

Probably more so institutional racism. It is the hardest form of racism to detect and to prove.

Number X

I drive a (a gift from my non-Aboriginal husband) when I went to renew its registration I was asked, ‘Is this your own car?’ I advised that it was and was asked, ‘Are you sure this is your own car?’

Number X

I have been asked to tell what % Indigenous I am.

Number X

Invisibility when waiting to purchase in shops, being followed around in a store, comments such as Abo and gone walkabout, constant negative comments and portrayal of my race by the media, profiled by police, to name a few.

26

I’m not a racist, but...


Attachment 2: Responses to Question 2.3 Question 2.3 If you believe that you have been treated less respectfully in the workplace as a result of perceptions of your culture and/ or your cultural obligations, please detail your experience/s.

Respondent Comment Number X

Many Non-Indigenous people don’t recognise or respect Indigenous Knowledge’s, culture, protocols or people. This occurs on a continuing basis at work. It may be overt or covert institutional systemic racism that permeates in different forms or methods.

Number X

Being isolated by other staff in the work place

Number X

University pays lips service to discrimination issues

Number X

Non-Indigenous people in charge of Indigenous affairs Lack of respect for Indigenous protocols Promotion criteria does not take into consideration Indigenous staff ’s workloads - community engagement, recruitment and retention, dealing with racism, supporting Indigenous staff and students, cultural broker and mentor

Number X

With Colleagues, sometimes it’s hard to name because people know they can’t be racist in a work setting, so it’s more subtle, like comments that could be taken two ways or laughing coming from people in the distance who have overheard your discussion etc. With my experiences with management again it is subtle because it’s around the way they use the power or authority they have to keep Aboriginal people ‘in their place’. They use their position, power, policies and procedures to maintain and keep in control, often demonising the Aboriginal worker and their performance. This inevitably means Aboriginal staff having low work morale and self esteem and some leaving their work positions when they’ve had enough, often with little documented evidence to challenge the Managers who hold all control and who have documented everything from their perspectives.

Number X

Colleagues type casting when late for work

Number X

No matter what I do or how well I perform even if I exceed the performance targets of my colleagues there is a perception of laziness and not fitting the corporate image of the organisation or that of an employee fit for promotion. A number of colleagues who I have trained and mentored even receiving promotion before me.

Number X

Lack of engagement with Aboriginal staff - dismissive attitude. Patronising treatment.

Number X

Non-Aboriginal people being promoted into the Acting while the riginal workers in some organisation feel they aren’t smart enough to act in that role.

Number X

Asked about my after-work life by a colleague (‘do you mix with Aborigines on the weekend?’ - Who I presume wanted to know how much of a real Aborigine I was.

Number X

Inability to understand why ‘WE’ attend so many funerals.

Number X

I perceive a lack of respect for family obligations

Number X

See Indigenous issues as irrelevant ...need to be stated at the highest level that it is part of core curriculum for the university degree.

Number X

Many times I have heard community members who work for other organisations refer in a derogatory way to people in the community. ‘never get them doing anything’, lazy, etc

Number X

I had spoken to managers regarding treatment of my former students by other staff members and was basically just brushed off ( or swept under the carpet) as if it wasn’t an issue or more directly, they played down the seriousness of the allegation as if it wasn’t racially vilified, which as an Indigenous man, I felt it was.

Number X

Not being involved in issues relating to Indigenous matters

Number X

When I had a member of the community come to visit me at work my colleagues came to the door to stare at them and make comments like ‘a real Aboriginal’.

Number X

Being subjected comments about Indigenous students Although I am a of staff I sometimes am not valued or considered qualified for the role. Not being consulted on Indigenous issues. One of our Indigenous staff was investigated for The university would not listen to our concerns about impact on our staff and our communities if this person was not brought to justice. They did not provide support to staff and were more concerned about keeping us quiet.

Number X

Always boxed onto Aboriginal jobs only, overlooked for other involvement or positions. Assumption made that I did not get my position on merit, but because of my Aboriginality. Always harder to work in Schools and get student and teacher participation with anything Aboriginal

Number X

I was told at work that it was good to see an Aboriginal person turn up for work regularly

Number X

Less expectations placed upon me, greater monitoring of attendance and punctuality, other professional and academic staff question my qualifications and experience and make assumptions based upon their bias and stereotypes about Aboriginal people

Number X

Bullied and harassed in terms of email correspondence (implications of not doing my job properly or in timely fashion) while using my leave to work part time whilst applying formally to reduce employment fraction to cope with family responsibilities and was not supported by senior colleague... was then expected to complete full-time duties in part time fraction and task assignment by senior colleague. My heritage is not so not from here so had to take a step back... not given same level of respect from those people who are from local area. When I sought help from the union and HR I was placed in another role for a year.

Number X

Even when Cultural Awareness programs are in place, the variance between theory and practice is quite noticeable.

Number X

Have been bullied by a person who should have known better

Number X

I am treated by some academics as an Aboriginal with a would be better respected.

Number X

Not quite capable of fulfilling tasks.

published by nTEU

degree not a person with a

is away. Making our Abo-

degree. If I was white I

27


Respondent Comment Number X

A general lack of inclusion in conversation around the office. Maybe because they think I won’t get the conversation or I wouldn’t be interested. I’m not sure I’ve never really experienced this before so I find myself questioning ‘is it me’, ‘is it just this work environment’???????

Number X

In a promotion committee interview I was asked how I conveyed a full understanding of Aboriginal culture to students. My reply was that this was not possible or appropriate the key being teaching students to respect that they cannot know ‘everything’ and that it is not possible to fully explain. I believe that this was seen as resistance by the committee because in rejecting my application the comment ‘must better address student needs and concerns in teaching’ was highlighted. I wrote a number of course outlines as standalone subjects. In my absence these courses were designated as a ‘specialisation’ within . My objection to this was ignored and my refusal to teach Indigenous culture as an subject was seen as a breach of duties. I was removed from leadership in this area had my budget docked to fund replacement teacher and suffered abusive emails and phone calls from involved in making this decision.

Number X

Seeing my colour and not my credentials.

Number X

Cultural events not recognised. preferring not to be treated by an Indigenous person. Told I don’t look or act like an Indigenous person - very stereotypical.

Number X

Negative student feedback, disregard of academic work by middle management.

Number X

Attacks on identity Racial stereotypes.

Number X

They have no understanding of Indigenous culture.

Number X

Applications to act in higher positions and my management experience I possess.

Number X

Questioned on attending a funeral even though our university has ‘cultural Leave’ There is often questions which I believe would not be asked if they were all non-Indigenous. These are usually perceptions of laziness!!! Even though on all our KPIs and uni statistics we show improvement.

Number X

Attending funerals and being greeted with ‘but you’re not black’ to infer that blackness equates to Indigenousness and thus my culture.

Number X

Colleagues not recognising cultural knowledge’s. Students asking personal questions tied to myths about Our mob e.g. “Did you get free etc. because all Aborigines get heaps of free stuff you know”.

Number X

Manager not allowing cultural leave.

Number X

Staff and students always the need to have Indigenous perspectives incorporated into they don’t see the need for it, seen as a distraction or an overburden to their study/workloads.

Number X

I haven’t really taken in further

Number X

I am not respected as an Aboriginal because I have fair skin and excluded from planning around Indigenous programs by non-Indigenous staff who say that I don’t need to be involved in everything Indigenous.

Number X

People just don’t understand which is why Cultural Awareness training is so important.

Number X

When a particular staff member speaks about individual Aboriginal clients in a negative way, after the statement there is always an ‘I’m sorry’ to me as if I am attached to the group and labelled as a group member rather than collectively individual and diverse as the mainstream population is viewed.

Number X

I am employed as a to assist in the development of culturally appropriate research methodology and have been blocked and dismissed at every point thus far in doing this.

Number X

Yes, it has been assumed in some forums that I cannot have anything significant to contribute unless it is Aboriginal or cultural. My standing as an academic and numerous non-Indigenous scholarly output is continually ignored, I am assumed to have no expertise except Indigenous ‘cultural’ and then I am assumed to know everything.

Number X

Lateral violence is very prevalent in the workplace and senior management refuses to deal with it stating ‘Indigenous issues are very sensitive and they are not sure of how to handle those issues’.

Number X

When applying for an ARC Grant I was told by the grant manager in the school that I was not Aboriginal enough to get the grant. My PhD supervisors did not want to and, in retrospect; I think they found it difficult to deal with my Aboriginality. The story of my employment is a case in point. I applied for two academic jobs at my current university and in both cases did not get an interview. At the time I was completing my (which I won through an ARC and had a letter of commendation from the ARC for my application) and decide to submit another ARC application with other external colleagues which we won. I then had to approach our and tell them I had to take the grant to another university because I do not have a job. Only then did the university offer me a position. Note that the university has an Indigenous employment strategy (?). Once employed by the school a colleague said quite matter-of-factly that I heard you got a position simply because I was an Indigenous person . I am in a position where I see our mob overworked and undervalued and eventually people leave.

Number X

In general conversation, my culture is often stereotyped. If what I am saying doesn’t fit the idea they have of it... then I am often told that I am not.

Number X

I think it shows a lack of respect to be seen as a ‘token’ voice (wheeled out when needed, not included otherwise), and also the expectation that I am speaking for all Aboriginal Australians

Number X

Having to constantly justify my position and my world view. As an Aboriginal person, I do experience the world differently than my non-Aboriginal colleagues. I have to be more careful in my delivery , in my feedback to students etc as I could be seen as being aggressive or having a chip on my shoulder.

Number X

Lack of respect for qualifications . Lack of respect for position as a member of the senior executive. Lack of respect for Indigenous staff capabilities, knowledge

28

manager selecting a

person who clearly lacks the

education practices;

I’m not a racist, but...


Respondent Comment Number X

Deliberately isolated from meetings and committees. Publicly accused of being difficult when raising matters of non-Indigenous staff breaking Aboriginal protocols. Non-Indigenous staff wanting Aboriginal cultural resources ASAP and being rude when they are asked to wait etc Comments about not looking Aboriginal enough and the special treatment ‘you Aborigines’ get

Number X

It happens on two levels: firstly because we are blackfellas and have been treated this way forever we have learnt to take it on the chin - stuff that ordinary members of society wouldn’t accept or put up with. Secondly, whitefellas don’t know that they are being disrespectful, hurtful, and racist because they are also socialised into treating us in a particular way and that they actually have a right to be able to do this.

Number X

Other people are asked to be on projects - teaching projects or research projects based on their skills, experiences, field / discipline background, but I often get asked if they want an Aboriginal irrespective of the area. I don’t get seen for the skills, abilities I bring in the first instance - that is, I feel my skills and experiences and abilities are masked by my Aboriginality by other people. I am put in the black box even though my degree is not in black/Aboriginal affairs.

Number X

Not enough space

Number X

I was used as a token black. The gained a government grant to employ me and teach me skills that I would use in my undergraduate degree. All I was allowed to do was equipment for months and would not allow me to work the days that was stated in my contract

Number X

If you lodge a complaint about racism, you become a bigger victim. Nothing happens according to policy and/or law. One staff member eventually lost his job because he took his complaint outside the university.

Number X

Financial support for cultural activities, speakers.

Number X

Other staff members talking down to me. Yelling at me.

Number X

Aboriginal community involvement is discouraged and responding to requests for information and assistance is treated as dereliction of duties.

Number X

A change in line management was enforced because of family relationships in the workplace, only after complaints/questions were asked by disgruntled staff looking to stir up trouble.

Number X

Opinions dismissed. Personal attacks in class room.

Number X

Not going into specific details of Sorry Business or Men’s Business.

Number X

Lack of understanding of cultural responsibilities

Number X

Some colleagues think culture is an excuse to have time off work.

Number X

No

Number X

Colleagues happy to tell Indigenous colleagues what to do but reluctant to support Indigenous leadership

Number X

My skin isn’t dark enough to be an Aboriginal person.

Number X

I want to make a separation between what I consider to be culture, and what I perceive to be the prejudice that some people in the academy have about intellect (which is different to culture). I have had experiences of middle management academics that appear to believe that Aboriginal people could not perform intellectually as the same level as non-Aboriginal academics. There is a cultural component in this; however, it is also about this other dimension of the academy. In spite of the fact I hold a ; there is still the insinuation that Aboriginal people just cannot cut it academically. In one instance, I had developed and taken a degree through academic board. Just before it was to go to University Council for final approval, I received an email questioning our ability to run such a course of study because it would be beyond our ability! The person/people making this statement were people who had under-grad degrees, whereas I had a in the subject matter. It was pure racism and elitism

Number X

People generally not understanding ‘Sorry Business’, ‘Women’s Issues’ and ‘Men’s Issues’; Patronising Indigenous staff and students about us having our own cultural space on campus. Having our Centre paint bombed and stickered with White Australia propaganda and our trashed and defiled. I wrote straight to the VC about the racist attacks and was reprimanded for not following correct protocol (I should have written to my direct manager first...).

Number X

Because I am a fair skinned Aboriginal person, I get told I am not a real Aboriginal and therefore not entitled to cultural leave

Number X

By a senior member of management who happens to be black - sometimes they forget where they come from.

Number X

Challenges made to my own understanding of Indigenous issues in the workplace.

Number X

During a time of family crisis I was forced to include the family details (traumatic) in order to have my leave approved. My leave application was returned to me as it did not provide enough information. I did not want to share the details but had no choice otherwise the leave was not to be approved. The university system does not reflect cultural leave through . Workloads do not allow for the continual efforts that Indigenous people put in the pm hours.

Number X

Sometimes but mostly supported by the staff who actually matter.

Number X

I am a senior manager. I was recently reminded to ‘make sure I convey my apologies if I would be missing a meeting’ as if I wouldn’t have thought of that myself !! I have been talked over by a senior staff member within a meeting so that after the meeting several people came up to say they had noticed the disrespect.

Number X

Lack of inclusion in

Number X

Indigenous issues not taken seriously or not included in core areas. Seen as only an add-on. Some non-Indigenous people seen as more skilled in Indigenous areas due to their time spent with Indigenous people

Number X

Bullying by non-Indigenous academics, information withheld regularly - because ‘we’ don’t need to know details or it is considered too difficult for us to understand. Very racist comments about activities such as having the building smoked - it was dismissed as superstitious nonsense.

Number X

Less pay

published by nTEU

resulted in lack of opportunities.

29


Respondent Comment Number X

Never directly and never intentionally - I think most of it has been about lack of understanding. It’s also about typecasting because I am in an ‘Indigenous’ position and a lack of career path.

Number X

My experiences span of working in a tertiary institute and constitute overt and institutionalised forms of racism. On at least one occasion I made formal complaint which wasn’t dealt with sufficiently but that is how it goes. Whilst setting up and running an Indigenous within the university I had to put up with constant snide remarks about the rationale for the establishment as well as resistance to suggested course development aimed at raising awareness. I have never received any support to deal with what has happened within our institution, a result of which is a lot of latent anger for which there is no vent. The most recent event was reported second hand to me about comments made by the most senior manager within which I am located having referred to one of our elders as a ‘coconut’. It makes me angry that such comments may have been made but also there is a lack of clarification on whether this has happened and what has been done about it.

Number X

They make jokes about being Aboriginal and I am expected to laugh; they say things like ‘Oh, maybe I am Aboriginal too, because I am fair’. They call my a black label , etc.

Number X

Non-Indigenous people do not understand/respect our cultural need to attend events and meetings for Indigenous occasions; they also do not understand our kinship/family ties and/or relationships.

Number X

Sometimes.

Number X

Only allowed to work in Indigenous themes.

Number X

For me it is where my Cultural advice is sought but not acted upon with any great sincerity. Sometimes other Aboriginal people are sought for advice and asked to sit on panels without discussion with Aboriginal people at this university. This causes shame and ridicule and anxiety amongst Aboriginal staff and other external Aboriginal that the university has engaged with.

Number X

There have been times when I have been discriminated against because I am articulate, educated, vocal and I ‘do not look’ Aboriginal. So when I address an ‘Aboriginal’ issue I often get questioned as to why I voice my view.

Number X

Manager embarrassed me by telling everyone we met our Indigenous employment because of me and others in my workplace that don’t identify themselves.

Number X

Not overt racism more that of perception in that there have been instances of no or little consultation on issues that impact our programme. General sense of invisibility (don’t know what to do with us or where we belong).

Number X

Not being involved in decisions.

30

I’m not a racist, but...


Attachment 3: Responses to Question 3.3 Question 3.3 If you have encountered direct racial discrimination and/or racist attitudes in the workplace please detail your experience/s: Respondent Comment Number X

Lack of support in academic role.

Number X

Being referred to as an Abo

Number X

Minimal to remember

Number X

Being overlooked for people with lesser experience

Number X

Student attitudes to my teaching reflected in feedback

Number X

Only when working with outside organisations and it has never been directed directly at me but I did feel the need to speak up and let them know where I am from and who I am.

Number X

The comments come through via other colleagues.

Number X

I was questioned as to why I was allowed to go to NAIDOC and not supported by senior management who said I had to be professional about these sorts of comments...

Number X

Comments, attitudes, lack of consultation and respect, use of inappropriate language, inappropriate curriculum

Number X

Only verbally like not ‘black enough’ or labelled as trouble and there is never debate or open discussion once you identify a racist comment, just attitude and avoidance.

Number X

I have outlined some of these previously in this survey, however I do believe it is important that the racism that includes the not feeling culturally respected or safe is prevalent, the not being able to have world views understood or respected on an academic level is stressful and damaging.

Number X

Denial of career advancement (no secondments/higher duties); Disparaging or belittling remarks from non-Aboriginal supervisors.

Number X

There are times when can read racism on a person face without them even saying anything. You feel sick when that happens. People patronise you all the time.

Number X

Most of what has been said to me comes from ignorance of my culture, for example, ‘You’re so white, why would you say you’re Aboriginal when you can get away with being White Australian?’ or ‘Why do Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander people need a special day of (NAIDOC) and/or why do you get cultural leave’. (They say this with a lot of resentment).

Number X

Students deliberately interrupting Aboriginal lectures with politically motivated questions. Colleagues disparaging content and intent of research with Aboriginal communities ... being questioned formally by regarding where my allegiances lie ... do I work for the university or the community? Being told that Aboriginal lecturers do not make the grade working in faculties. Having my revelations of the trauma and needs in Aboriginal community research ridiculed as an attempt to gain a personal advantage in research funding argument.

Number X

Not acknowledging academic qualifications, belittling work.

Number X

Verbal attack.

Number X

My applications for higher positions has in my view not been on the basis of merit for I have applied times for higher positions, I have demonstrated experience, qualifications and have been over looked or not considered suitable over a non-Indigenous person without any management or higher duties experience.

Number X

General assumption that Indigenous people are not capable of higher levels of abstract thinking. Employment of under educated Indigenous people to high academic positions continues to confirm and convince dominant non-Indigenous academic staff that Indigenous people are not expected to be competent and will be more inclined to be influenced and controlled by the powers of the hierarchy.

Number X

Racist remarks, isolation, bullying.

Number X

Non-compliance with the Indigenous employment policy and strategy, de-Indigenisation of identified positions etc disrespecting Indigenous history, knowledge by students and the public.

Number X

Phone calls when something happens in the Indigenous community. If you send emails to the majority of a large workplace you will have those who want to be removed from the email list even though they’ve been sent the info as a staff member.

Number X

Too upsetting to repeat.

Number X

Having to justify my work decisions in a verbose manner to get a simple message across. The communication gap just seemed greater if my intent was positive rather than engaging in older practices which are now considered outdated and require multicultural approaches to understanding differences in clients.

Number X

See previous statements.

Number X

Racist comments made by students on a subject discussion board. A non-Indigenous colleague accepting the role of being a tool/conduit for a senior/manager Aboriginal colleague to perpetrate lateral violence.

Number X

Students are the worst offenders. We get called name, our teaching is challenged, we get labelled as having chips on our shoulders and we are often called racists because we challenge students about their racist views. This is - of course- not punishable because the university would no doubt lose money.

published by nTEU

31


Respondent Comment Number X

I have seen white/ Anglo-Australian people be offered opportunities when their skills, abilities and experiences are less than mine and when I asked about it, was told but it is not about Aboriginal people.. Like this is not the basis of my qualifications, skills, and experiences. White/Anglo-Australian measures are seen as preferential in measuring productivity, outputs, teaching, research and community service. I see colleagues being rewarded for some service and I don’t see Aboriginal people in my workplace being awarded for similar service or greater service.

Number X

Generally manifests as a form of unconscious elitism.

Number X

Use language, stereotypes – I often hear more than I’d like to being fair skinned...

Number X

People speaking differently to you when you meet face to face and using condescending attitudes towards you.

Number X

Name calling.

Number X

Same as before.. putting in place my own strategies and using theme etc.

Number X

Appointment of person into my position whilst I was on

Number X

During the move of our entire office area to another section of the Uni, many cutting, snide remarks were made towards us.

Number X

I believe racism exists at many levels, and while I know there will be questions about lateral violence, I believe some of what I have experienced is racism, by senior management and colleagues. For example when I had an experience of inappropriate behaviour by a work colleague ( and verbal abuse at me when I spoke to him about it - I was his immediate supervisor and my position meant I was responsible for talking to about it), a senior manager intervened, saying it was ok ‘boys will be boys and Indigenous boys are not the same as other male academics’, did not speak to him about this issues ( ), as giving him a message he could do what he liked, yet when he turned on at a later stage, worked to get rid of him . It was and is a complicated situation, and I believe elements of racism were involved in how this staff member behaved.

Number X

Credibility being dismissed. Statements being made that my promotion was just because I was Aboriginal. Having to achieve at a higher level than anyone else. Workload many times higher than other non-Aboriginal academics. Getting dump with extra work all the time. Having responsibility to take on extra task that relate to Aboriginal issues that other academics are not expected to do. If making a mistake or something not completed, it is attributed to my Aboriginality. Assumptions made that I should avoid alcohol as I am an Aboriginal person and you know we all have problems with alcohol.

Number X

Get told we don’t look black so how can we claim to be Aboriginal.... or get told you just got that job cause you’re black.

Number X

Listening to my voice in terms of Indigenous issues.

Number X

Not sought to provide input into resource usage decisions. Have been directed that I am not allowed to engage in university committees. Have had my support bullying against me. Have had my make false allegations that were supported by senior management. Have been accused of many things that have been allowed to be implemented against me in a performance management process without appropriate investigation and proof of alleged behaviour. I was abused by an inexperienced colleague during a meeting in front of many witnesses and the abuser was given the remainder of the week off due to fearing for safety. I knew this as my had informed me that this is why gave the week off. OMG the list really goes on, and I am very experienced at dealing with this sort of stuff and believe in the role that I do so I tolerate it (within reason).

Number X

Head of in a meeting suggest we should place a particular policy agenda in the round file, in front of an audience... I took to task in front of our staff. Eventually was removed but there were a number of other contributing issues to pressure the staff member before was removed from such a position of power.

Number X

Manager directed that they would be looking for profiled Indigenous students from limited areas. Was told the Indigenous student strategy was for motivated skilled Indigenous students. Did not want to engage anyone outside of this profile. Also interpreted this group as low socio-economic who would cover their low SOE targets.

Number X

Uneducated ignorant students.

Number X

Not recognised equally with educational qualifications.

Number X

There is lateral violence occurring between the Indigenous staff members. This is not being addressed by management as it is seen as ‘Indigenous culture’ and they are afraid of being accused of racism if they intervene. I have raised the issue with them that they have an obligation as an employer to intervene.

Number X

Early in my career at this institution during a meeting to discuss the establishment of an Aboriginal vented from voting on the course even though I had a vote, because it was said that I was biased.

Number X

For example, I was at the , and one of the visitors spoke to everyone except me, because I am fair; I get called ‘our Aboriginal lecturer’, even though I have said I don’t like to be owned, I get to do all the morning teas, cause I am ‘better at that sort of thing’. I lost my last position, because someone complained about me seeing Aboriginal people in my office.

Number X

Not been allowed to attend events such as NAIDOC.

Number X

Been ignored when Aboriginal affairs are discussed. Issues relating to Aboriginal affairs are deliberately left off meeting agendas.

Number X

Making comments.

Number X

I was called a white cxxx, I identify as an Indigenous Australian.

32

leave.

course I was pre-

I’m not a racist, but...


Attachment 4: Responses to Question 4.3 Question 4.3 If you have encountered lateral violence in the workplace please detail your experience/s: Respondent

Comment

Number X

is a senior Indigenous

and a dominating senior academic who is a senior Indigenous

from

language group. Number X

An Head of School who dis-empowers others by consulting with and giving privileges to non-Indigenous staff, ignoring Indigenous staff especially those who is threatened by (same or higher qualifications);

Number X

Colleagues stereotyping me for being late to work or being sick because I drink alcohol.

Number X

Lack of support, withholding valuable information which may help advance career. Have had ideas taken and used by executive and presented as if they were their own without recognition. Lack of access to wider university ‘power brokers’ - preventing and suppressing alternative views that are in contrast to executive staff and the status quo.

Number X

Being constantly undermined by a Colleague who I had the responsibility to supervise on a day to day basis

Number X

The who had no higher degree qualifications and no teaching or research experience would never defend research staff from external criticism and would bully them into excessive teaching loads.

Number X

As a light skinned Indigenous person I am often subjected to lateral violence, particularly by other Aboriginal people. This has included leaving me out of functions and defaming me behind my back.

Number X

I have suspected that my involvement on certain projects/activities was questioned but hidden within the ‘experience’ and or ‘does have the relevant qualifications’ angle.

Number X

Isolation and feelings of unease towards myself.

Number X

It becomes very competitive with your own mob at times and they don’t support you if you are getting bullied or anything because they don’t want the trouble to come to them

Number X

Stand over tactics and left with no exit past person until they finished running down another Aboriginal colleague. Also put in position where I had to choose between a work program and my Aboriginal community. I choose my Aboriginal community and resigned

Number X

No

Number X

Unable to disclose

Number X

I have missed out on promotion and experienced gossip, assumptions and isolation as a result of who my family is and because of the colour of my skin and the group I am from and as a result of not fitting their stereotype and maybe because of jealously and fear of me

Number X

Bullied and harassed...viewed as a resource to be managed. Not from here so not given same respect as those that are.

Number X

When you walk past this person office they always slam the door. Is it because they do not like you or that they are racist. In this case they are racist

Number X

I’m fair skinned. I occasionally get the ‘you’re not black enough’ or ‘Johnny come lately’ statement thrown at me. Which if they knew me at all they would know that neither of those statements are true.

Number X

Leadership bullying workers who were more qualified academically. Blood quantum and community engagement levels openly used to denigrate staff.

Number X

Other lectures unprofessional behaviour in denigrating my work and my experiences

Number X

Bullying, gossip and telling stories about me to others, making decisions about me without me, telling management I was incompetent, and I wasn’t - they did it to hide their own incompetence.

Number X

Verbal attack

Number X

As indicated previously I applied for a position within the university, my Manager and other senior managers are Indigenous as I am. However they have appointed an non-Indigenous person without considering the merits of selection and the experience and skills of the person selected. This in my view is lateral violence in action.

Number X

My supervisor attempted to bully me, undermine my reputation through Performance Management processes and told other staff not to associate with me. also refused to sign off on proposals and told people I would never lead another project whilst was in charge.

Number X

Made to feel useless and that my thoughts and opinions were useless.

Number X

Undermining my dignity and integrity via email to my peers. Sabotaging my credibility and professionalism through innuendo, gossip and over loading my work load to the extent that it is impossible to achieve.

Number X

Bullying by Aboriginal manager. Identity questioned after raising bullying complaints.

Number X

Undermining your professionalism by workplace gossip about your aptitude to do the job by management. Overloading you with meaningless, busy work that has no relevance to your duty statement-just to try to piss you off and make you angry so that you react volatile. Not according you the same status or respect as they do to other staff etc.

Number X

Too hard to explain but management would employ certain people to undermine others etc.

Number X

Not being spoken in meetings because of the assumption on my part as a new staff member who needs to follow particular influential individuals. I chose not to as one of the was unethical in my view & allowing covert racist practices to idle along without improving or changing failing work practices, that is willing to let things slide along as they always have without helping Indigenous community members.

published by nTEU

teaching and

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Respondent

Comment

Number X

I have been undermined as a from day one coming into this position an example of this is that I have had my name put on a report made up from my colleagues and given to me and told that this is what I will be working on in the next six months. This was done without my consent, knowledge of or any explanation prior to being handed the report. Again I think that there is also an element of bullying taking place here as I was in my second week of work when this happened. Ironically, the lateral violence that was directed at me came from the very same people that have been instrumental in highlighting and researching lateral violence in the community setting for some time, the so called experts in this area...

Number X

My delegations as have been removed and bestowed on a junior non-Indigenous colleague who is used as a tool/ conduit to perpetrate lateral violence, this person subject’s staff to rude, disrespectful, nasty and controlling emails.

Number X

Being called coconut for advancing in the system particularly when you are using your position to make changes in the system.

Number X

I have had people I deal with directly, who are also involved in Indigenous affairs within their work role, pressured to side with the upper levels of management and treat me with silence when speaking of my experience and marginalisation. This was the most cruel and most subtle impact on my experience.

Number X

Some comments that can be taken as ‘I am more Aboriginal than you’ because of more community links etc.

Number X

Having issues with management and being bullying into doing work that did not allow me to provide evidence of my effectiveness to work as a lecturer.

Number X

Junior Indigenous staff being unaccepting of my organisational authority in the workplace

Number X

Recently was asked to attend a meeting as a university person - but also knowing that I’m a local who would defend or speak from a point of view if pushed - the university created the scene for lateral violence to occur and sat back and waited for the dust to settle.

Number X

There is the threat that if you don’t perform you will lose your job. Recently, I did a re-structure and the matter of the business case was not even started by the people. The outcome: all my work was taken away from me! The where I work is overrun with bullies from the down.

Number X

Marginal groups from elsewhere, immigrants/refugees pitted against Aboriginal needs for recognition. Aboriginal issues pitted against multicultural issues and needs. International students pitted against needs of Aboriginal people/students/staff. We are the Indigenous people of Australia, we should not need to compete for our needs to be met. Immigrants/refugees from African countries and South-East Asia seen as exotic cultures, exotic people, having culture.... I have seen some white/Anglo-Australians romanticise, and be infatuated with cultures of Africa/South-East Asia and downplay/put down Aboriginal people by saying we ‘have lost ours’, ‘don’t have old buildings’. I have been deeply offended by comparisons made within my workplace.

Number X

Undermining. Aggressive words in front of Aboriginal students. Unprofessional attitude towards my work.

Number X

A pervasive culture of undermining co-workers and negative, sometimes aggressive behaviour. Not only against Aboriginal employees but non-Indigenous employees also.

Number X

Mostly around my appointment and my work program, my can do attitude in a very conservative environment! Hence my change in line management and people no longer working here...

Number X

Emotional eruption, screaming.

Number X

Employing non-Indigenous people to do Indigenous roles.

Number X

Staff undermining and discussing you with others.

Number X

Being told that I am ‘impersonating an Aborigine’ and that I am not providing services to Aboriginal student, that I am paid to do. Indigenous colleagues questioning my Aboriginality and stating that it is not appropriate that I am a representative on a certain committee because I am not an Indigenous person from .

Number X

This all revolves around the defining of ‘Aboriginality’ and a very limited less inclusive definition which prevents Indigenous people from identifying even if they were part of the stolen generation.

Number X

Being undermined professionally, but being challenged in public forums from another Indigenous colleague.

Number X

Isolation by colleagues, colleagues creating alliances against me with other Aboriginal colleagues

Number X

Been called an upper class black for making a better life for myself...

Number X

The most serious was the transferring of resources that my budget had paid for. While the actual dollar amount was small, the behaviour was disrespectful, undermining and offensive. Non-Indigenous management did not see this as an issue but clearly it was an assertion of power.

Number X

It’s the not listening to my voice that defines how I have encountered lateral violence

Number X

Too many to detail, but I was unaware of lateral violence until coming to work in my current workplace. I have since seen the indicators of lateral violence and feel that this is exactly what I am and have been experiencing.

Number X

Put downs - questioning Aboriginality

Number X

In trying to balance the needs of Indigenous workers within my and those of the institutions around for example the issue of workloads I was bullied and threatened by co-workers. This also involved series of planned stress leave applications aimed at disrupting the teaching that occurred within my , ultimately seeking to undermine me with management. management failed to act even when the local community supported my actions. They were subsequently sidelined and disempowered. The upshot was a total lack of support for me by management I guess with the hope that I would move on and not be a problem. In the end I was given a position in another academic where unreal expectations were heaped on me. I have never been happy with the resolution of this issue. I might add my treatment by NTEU at the time was abysmal and led to me letting my membership lapse for a period.

Number X

I am always asked last for an opinion, because I am fair, even though I have the most experience; in my last job other worker told me I shouldn’t be working on land, and that I wasn’t even a real blackfella.

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the

I’m not a racist, but...


Respondent

Comment

Number X

Where another Aboriginal staff member ridiculed me in an email and trivialised my work practice to the point that it lead me to think that by doing business with us could only ever be over a beer or a coffee.

Number X

Once I was bullied into providing a service for which I did not have the necessary education or qualifications.

Number X

Implication through association.

published by nTEU

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I'm Not A Racist, But...