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Tornadoes, Blizzards, Monsoons, and Hurricanes


Dear Readers, In this magazine you will find out lots of interesting facts about hurricanes, tornadoes, monsoons, blizzards, and Indiana weather. Each issue of our magazine is based off a different state and how all different types of weather occur in different places. Each of these different weather not only have and effect on us but in nature too. Some may be bad and some may be good. All of us have found out so much information. More than we could even put in are magazine. We have learn how we get seasons to why we have weather. Also learning further into are topic we chose. Enjoy our magazine and we hope you find out many of effect about weather! ~Maddie Griggs, Wyatt Fields, Kole Karras,and Lucas Fontanez~


TORNADOES “It was almost as if the sky was turning green. The green leaves turned even greener. The rain started to pour out of the sky, like somebody was just dumping out the continents of a glass of water. Thunder and lightning surged through the sky. The clouds started turning and swirling in terrifying vortex of damage. It touched down about a mile away from us. Tearing straight threw a farm house. I felt a rush of adrenaline as our convoy approached the horrifying twister.” This the description the 29 year old storm chaser Aaron Harrington explained a tornado he chased in the previous year. Aaron says that tornadoes are capable of relocating homes and throwing heavy farm equipment. Yeah, just imagine a giant combine flying at your home, that’s what these things do, and that’s not the worst. The most destructive tornado in human history was in Daulatpur-Saturia, Bangladesh on April 26, 1989. This twister killed around 1,300 people, 12,000 were injured and traveled a total of 50 miles. That’s a long distance compared to the common tornado that doesn’t even stay on the ground for more than 30 seconds. Aaron told us that the largest tornado outbreak ever in 2011 consisted of an estimated 190 touchdowns. 339 people were killed in this outbreak that affected Kansas,

Missouri, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Georgia, and 9 other states in the tornado alley region. Tornado New U.S. alley is an area of Technology Helps the U.S. ending in Lower The Death southern indiana Count that most frequently gets hit by tornadoes. look a very vibrant green Tornadoes also most color, and it will look frequently occur during completely out of place. The spring at 4-9 pm. So just how air feels very heavy and humid, are these dangerous storms and then the temperature will scored? The F-scale is the drop and become decently answer. The F-scale is what chilly.” says Aaron. “That’s they use to determine how bad when you need to find shelter. a tornado is. The “F” stands Basements, crawl spaces, and for Fujita. After the tornado storm shelters. Places with no lifts up off the ground, windows like a bathroom specialists examine the would be good. Bathrooms are damage. An F1 tornado would especially good because of the have little damage, cars that piping that goes very far into were driving may of been the ground that will keep pushed off of the road, and objects like toilets and sinks in roof shingles may of been place. Although, if you are peeled off. An F5 would move outside with no buildings strong foundation houses a around, the best place to hide considerable range and is a ditch, mainly because if a automobiles can be launched car is thrown the ditch can through the air causing major provide protection because the secondary damage. So just car will land above you making how do these things form? a sort of bridge.” So, with all “During a supercell storm cold air and warm air combine in a this knowledge, try to take this set pattern: the cold air drops advice to stay safe from a real tornado expert. as the warm air rises. The warm air eventually twists into a spiral and forms the funnel cloud that we all associate Kole Karras with a tornado.” Aaron tells us. “While all this formation is going on, you’ll probably see the sky will turn a greenish color. Forests and leaves will


MONSOONS Monsoons are most often associated with the Indian Ocean. But the North American monsoon is an important feature of the atmospheric circulation over the continent, with a research literature that dates back almost 100 years.

As the water poured

the summer heat, the

through the cracks in the thunderstorms that come with floor, it was like ice to my feet. the Monsoon bring their own I could hear the huge waves of rain hitting the metal roof, I

hazards. In fact, this is the most dangerous time of year

was trying to pick up valuable things so they wouldn’t wash

weather-wise in the Southwest. The sky was black

away. It sounded like the wind and swallowed what used to would rip the house apart with be blue sky, It happened in piercing drops of rain. Although the Monsoon brings

seconds with little warning.

welcome rains and relief from


the rain can make it nearly impossible to see


Monsoon safety: •

Watching current weather forecasts on TV or the internet

Listening to weather reports on the radio or a NOAA weather radio

Subscribing to lightning and severe weather notification services

Scanning the skies 360 degrees around and overhead before leaving a safe location

The months of May and June tend to be very dry and warm months over Arizona. By the end of June, however, afternoon clouds can be seen building over the higher terrain of northern Arizona, and by the beginning of July, the skies typically begin to release its store of moisture. The monsoon represents the second rainy season for Arizona, with the first rainy season occurring during the cooler months of November through April. Wyatt Fields


HURRICANE Do you know what a hurricane is? Do you know what to do in a hurricane? Hurricanes can be life threatening. Hurricanes are a type of tropical storm, a storm with a violent wind in particular tropical cyclone in the caribbean. As the air rises, it cools and the moisture condenses to cloud and raindrops. Heat energy is released in the condensation process. Tropical storms usually occur late summer and fall when the oceans in the northern hemisphere are at their warmest. When a hurricane hits land it loses the tropical moisture, which is the fuel that feeds the storm. Hurricanes weaken rapidly over land, due to quick loss of water. Hurricanes occur on the coast line, near the ocean, they can not occur in places where oceans are not present. But after effects may occur


Category 1 have winds 74-95 mph. They are very dangerous and HURRICANES! winds will produce some damage. Damages that may occur consists of well constructed frame homes could have damage to the roof, shingles, vinyl siding, and gutters. Large branches of trees will snap and shallowly rooted trees may be toppled. Power outages may last for days. Category 2 has winds from 96-110 mph. The conditions are extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage. Well constructed frame homes could In the United States sustain major roof and siding the hurricane season damage. Shallowly rooted trees will starts on May 15 thrube snapped and block roads. Near November 30th. The two Oceans in the to total power loss can occur for united states are the several day and or weeks. Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. The Hurricane are Measured by a category 1-5.


Category 3 (major) winds from 111-129. Devastating damage will occur. Well built framed homes may incur major damage or removal of roof decking and gable ends. Trees will be snapped or uprooted blocking numerous roads. Electricity and water will be unavailable for several days to weeks after the storm passes. Category 4 (major) 130-156 wind speeds. The conditions are catastrophic damage will occur. Well built homes can sustain severe damage with loss of most of the roof structure and/or some exterior walls. Most trees will be snapped and uprooted, and power lines will be down. This could isolate areas. Power and the isolated areas may be unavailable for weeks possibly months. Category 5 (major) wind are 157 or higher. The Conditions are catastrophic. A high percentage of framed homes will be destroyed, with total roof failure and wall collapse. fallen trees and power poles will isolate residential areas. Power outages could last for weeks possibly months. Most areas will not be live able for weeks possibly months.


Hurricanes 40 percent of hurricanes in the united states occur in Florida.


90 percent of the deaths in a hurricane are from cyclone related deaths a result from the storm surge. A wall of water that accompanies hurricane. Most surges are 6 to 10 feet above sea level. In hurricane Katrina which 1,500 people were killed by a storm surge . Hurricanes are named so meteorologist, researchers emergency response workers, no which one it is and can keep track of it. The names of hurricanes are named alphabetically at the beginning of each year. After about 6 years the names can be repeated.



Tornadoes and Hurricanes have little in common. As a hurricane hits land the conditions are likely for tornado formation. A hurricane lifetime is measured in days, while tornadoes typically last for minutes. Heavy rain is associated with hurricanes. This is what can affect areas hundreds of miles away from the hurricanes. During the landfall of the hurricane it is not uncommon to get 5 to 10 inches of rain. If the storm is large and moving slowly rainfall can be more excessive. Intense flooding will also occur with this amount of rain.

Maddie Griggs


BLIZZARDS “It was a gray, gloomy Wednesday my house my mom told me calmly morning when all of a sudden it to help her bring some candles out started to snow and the winds in case of a power outage. I started to pick up! The winds were brought the candles and I brought at least coming up to the 40 mph some blankets to keep us warm. mark and the wind seemed to be As time passed we seemed to calm hollering and moaning. I stepped down and realize that everything outside to see how bad the storm will be ok. We got curious and was. The roads were very slippery looked outside, the storm was and the visibility was so bad that I fading and started to calm down. couldn’t see my next door Debris was everywhere and the neighbor’s house! As the wind and sky was still as gloomy as it was sleet picked up even more I ran when the blizzard started. Once the inside to get away from the debris storm stopped we cleaned up our that was starting to swirl yards and returned back to our 11] normal, daily lives”. It wasn’t easy, dangerously everywhere in the streets and yards. As I went into but we survived the storm!

The Dangers Of A Blizzard! As you can see Blizzards are very interesting storms and can be a very dangerous thing to deal with, especially with no power! A blizzard is severe snowstorm with high winds, cold temperatures, and low visibility. Which usually form in cold, damp, and fairly breezy climates. A blizzard forms when very cold, dry air clashes with very warm, moist air. The warm air is lifted over the cold air, and develops a front. You can freeze in a blizzard in the first 30 minutes you are outside and exposed

to a blizzard! Cumulonimbus and nimbostratus are the two most present clouds during a blizzard storm. The best way to survive a blizzard when you are outside is to find shelter, try to get dry, and to make sure you are hydrated well. If there is a blizzard and you are inside make sure you get candles, have a safety kit, and stay warm. The dangers of being caught in a blizzard can cause hypothermia, frostbite, and in serious cases death. Hypothermia is


when you have an abnormally low body temperature. Frostbite is when there is Injury to the body tissues caused by exposure to extreme cold. Some the most notable blizzards happened in 1888, 1978, 1993, and 1996. Rochester, NY averages around 94 inches of snow each year and has been named the snowiest large city in the US. Lucas Fontanez


Average Temperatures in Indiana JANUARY

























What type of climate does indiana have? they have a humid continental. Which means that there are 4 different seasons. Summer, spring, winter and fall. Most of the weather comes from the west. In Indiana you have many different types of weather that may occur. Hurricanes are out of the question because indiana is know where near an ocean. Snow and blizzards are likely in winter months. Lots of rain, storms and tornados are likely in summer and spring months.


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In indiana blizzard storms with lots of snow or rain fall may cause flooding. [14]


Basically there are a couple of main ingredients that you need to produce lake effect snow. The first is a relatively warm body of water (aka Great Lake).  The second ingredient is a source of cold air.  In the Great Lakes ] Region, that source comes from the high latitudes of North America where arctic airmasses often "spill southward" over those warm bodies of water.  Heat and moisture from the warm lakes rises into the "modified" arctic air where it then cools and condenses into snow clouds.  The prevailing wind direction through the depth of the snow clouds (third ingredient!!) determines where the snow will occur. Lake Effect Snows describe mesoscale convective snow events that occur in the Great Lakes Region.  However, common sense would suggest that these types of snowstorms should occur wherever you get cold air "channeling" across a warm body of water. We have indicated some of the other locations on Earth where these snows occur, including such diverse places as the Great Salt Lake in the U.S., parts of Japan, Korea and Scandinavia to name a few, just click the above maps and see! [15]

Warm, moist air rising in sufficiently large volume with a high enough velocity results in a thunderstorm. The fuel for these storms is warm, moist air present near the surface of the earth. If the atmosphere around the cloud is unstable, that is the temperature of the air falls faster than that of the rising parcel air within the storm, then the updraft becomes ever more warmer than the air outside, and therefore more buoyant. The release of latent heat when water vapor turns to liquid and then the liquid to ice further warms the rising parcel, stoking the “fires� of the updraft. A trigger is often necessary to get the warm bubble of air rising in the first place. Sometimes it can be a warm air thermal rising from a large, heated field or a sunlit mountain top, or the upward motion produced by fronts pushing air together so it has no place to go but up.


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In spring months temperatures range anywhere from 40’s to 70’s. Most of your rain occurs during this time. But everyone knows the saying april showers bring may flowers. Summer Months are usually anywhere from 70’s to 90’s. Sometimes you will even get the 100. Winter months are anywhere from 40’s to 0. Sometimes it will even get down to the negatives. Fall temperatures usually range from 40’s to 20’s. Seasons are caused because of the Earth's changing relationship to the sun. The Earth travels around the sun, called an orbit, once a year or every 365 days. As the Earth orbits the sun the amount of sunlight each place on the planet gets every day changes slightly. This change causes the seasons.


Kole Karras, Lucas Fontanez, Maddie Griggs, and Wyatt Fields


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