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Edition 9 | March 2013 | Retail price â‚Ź 5,50

The Hidden Field of

Energy Efficiency

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How can we take the current energy system to a more sustainable stage?

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his edition of NRG Magazine is all about being smart about energy. The wide range of topics covered in this magazine emphasises the complexity of the energy system and the great challenge we have in making it sustainable. This calls for smart measures and instruments of which some good examples are being presented in this edition. Smart is also what comes to mind when asked to define the Top Sector Energy approach, in which sustainable development and economic growth go hand in hand, albeit in a slightly different way. The mnemonic SMART, which is used to specify criteria for management objectives, can also be applied to explain this new approach that combines sustainable development and economic growth in the energy sector.

Michiel Boersma is the Chairman of the Board of the Top Sector Energy in the Netherlands.

This year NRG Magazine is honored to have all its editions introduced by representatives of the government of the Netherlands.

The approach is “specific” in the sense that it focuses on the two objectives mentioned above. The projects and programmes that are selected have to provide results and are monitored on a regular basis. Since the approach is set up around the principles of portfolio management, activities will be occasionally evaluated, so, by definition, the approach is “measurable”. We cannot overstress the importance of social acceptance for innovations. In the past, innovation initiatives failed because they were not compatible with society (yet). Innovations in this approach have to meet the demands of society as well as of those from the market, so that the box “acceptable” can be ticked. Programmes and projects are valued on their business case. They have to provide a “realistic” picture on how this will unfold, for example, how solar panels are made more efficient. Last but not least, the approach is fitted in “time”. The objectives for the Top Sector approach as a whole are based on sustainable development objectives for the year 2020 or 2050. On a smaller scale, programmes are evaluated every year so that progress is time bound. A smart energy system requires a smart approach. That’s what the Top Sector Energy aims to achieve.

Michiel Boersma

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 3


Magazine Circulation 7.500 per edition Circulation distribution Partners of Energy Academy Europe Partners of Energy Valley Partners of the International NRG Battle Partners of Kivi Niria University of Groningen Hanze University of Applied Sciences TU Delft TU Eindhoven TU Twente Companies in the energy sector Municipalities in the north of the Netherlands Province of Groningen

Dear Reader, NRG Magazine is pleased to be perused by you in 2013 as well. Our first edition of the year introduces our new layout created by our Graphic Designer, Giscard van Uytrecht for your visual enjoyment. Also, if you’re looking for more interactivity in print media, NRG Magazine has that too. This edition can be read as well as experienced through the Layar App, which you can download for free and use on your smartphone. We know the energy system is driven by the wish to change and the threat of climate change. We are not only transitioning to a more sustainable energy system, we are also trying to reach more sustainable economic and social global systems. For this wide angle transition, several things need to be considered. Implementation of new technologies, investment in renewables, new policies for greenhouse gases minimization and data security are some of the most important. But, even more important, although not as obvious, is the hidden potential in each and every one of these elements: the potential for energy efficiency. Our cover story gathers six energy experts to discuss The Hidden Field of Energy Efficiency: Laura Cozzi from the International Energy Agency, Tjeerd Jongsma, Teun Bokhoven and Frits Verheij from the Dutch Top Sector Energy, Mees Hartvelt from the Dutch Top Sector Chemistry and piezoelectrics specialist Prof.Dr. Beatriz Noheda (University of Groningen). After the cover story, TTA World’s Geertje Dam discusses smart recruitment and the global shortage of talent.

NRG Magazine is published 5 times a year. Publisher TTA Publishers P.O. Box 1746 9701 BS Groningen The Netherlands

Also in this edition, the well-known Rational Middle section (pages 29-31) inspects the future of nuclear energy together with Prof.Dr.Ir. Tim van der Hagen (TU Delft) and Prof.Dr. Wim Sinke (ECN). Paul Gilding, former global CEO of Greenpeace and current writer and advisor on sustainability joins us in the “Back to the future…” section (pages 36-37). Moreover, this edition brings two new sections. One is “NRG Facts or Fiction” (pages 33-35), filled with scientific facts behind nanocrystals usage in photovoltaics and the potential of hydrogen fuel cells to change the car market. Since we like to write with and about experts, the other new section is simply “Expert Section” (pages 44-45). In it, Paul Timmers, Director Sustainable & Secure Society, DG CONNECT at the European Commission talks about the role of ICT in the energy transition. Additionally, we have articles dedicated to topics like smart grids, smart cyber security and the smart event Nederland Innoveert. Summing up, NRG Magazine starts the year with more than 25 experts discussing the many sides of being Smart about Energy.

Kwinkenplein 8-4 9712 GZ Groningen Tel.: +31 50 317 14 75 Fax.: +31 50 317 14 72 editor@nrgmagazine.nl www.nrgmagazine.nl www.twitter.com/thenrgbattle www.facebook.com/nrgbattle Editor-in-Chief Luminita Stoica Design Giscard van Uytrecht

Enjoy your reading.

Design Assistant Carmen Steenbergen

Luminita Stoica

Sales Rob Hogenelst, Director Sales Marius Nugteren, Sales Tel: +31 50 317 14 70 sales@nrgmagazine.nl Printer Poligrafia Janusz Nowak

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‘This [photo] file is in the public domain because it was solely created by NASA. NASA copyright policy states that “NASA material is not protected by copyright unless noted”.‘ Source of photo: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:North_ America_from_low_orbiting_satellite_Suomi_NPP.jpg

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For subscriptions to NRG Magazine or ideas for future editions of the magazine, please contact: editor@nrgmagazine.nl No part of this publication may be copied or reproduced without written permission of the publisher. The publisher and authors do not accept liability for damages of any nature whatsoever, resulting from actions and decisions based on the information in this magazine. This issue is produced with the utmost care.

Photo: Carmen Steenbergen

Photography Giscard van Uytrecht

Luminita Stoica and Giscard van Uytrecht planning the March edition


In this magazine

Use your smart phone to access the interactive content in NRG Magazine. Look for the Layar logo on the pages. Do not forget to download the free app.

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INDEX 10. Cover story: World Energy Outlook 2012 with Laura Cozzi

28. Smart Finance:

The Green Investment Corporation Financing Sustainability is a column by Holland Financial Centre

30. Rational Middle

story: 8. Cover The Hidden Field of Energy Efficiency

Is it smart to stop nuclear power generation?

34. NRG Facts or Fiction Science precedes game changing developments

38. Smart Grids with CGI:

Connecting to the Sustainable Future

40. Sustainability as Mindset: APPM is getting things done through process management

22.

42. Nederland Innoveert:

The Smart Way of Showcasing Innovation

44. Expert Section

Sustainability Enabler, Energy Consumer and CO2 Emitter with Paul TImmers

48. The Energy Academy Europe is making good progress

36.


Last year more than ts 350 par ticipan

Your Chairman: Boyd Cohen Author of the book Climate Capitalism (2011) and publisher of the Smart City international list Carolien Gehrels Councillor, Amsterdam

Norela Constantinescu European Commission

Paul Bevan Secretary General, Eurocities

Learn about: l

European policy and funding opportunities

l

Successfully implemented business models

l

Challenges for public and private partnerships

l

Innovative solutions to increase citizen participation

Bart Somers Mayor, Mechelen

Huib Morelisse CEO, NUON/Vattenfall

The experiences of other Smart cities: Amsterdam, Ghent, Barcelona, Dublin, Manchester, Nantes, Copenhagen, and Birmingham

Peter Molengraaf CEO, Liander

Hannu Penttil채 Mayor, Helsinki

Official host:

In cooperation with:

HET BEGINT BIJ GLASVEZEL


Smart about Energy

Smart about energy

Photo courtesy of the European Commission Directorate General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology, Directorate H: Sustainable & Secure Society

8 | NRG Magazine Edition 9


Smart about energy

The Hidden Field of

Energy Efficiency The story of energy is one of interconnectivity of people, sectors, processes and disciplines. It is a story of continuous renewal, reiterating mistakes and challenges. This edition’s cover story is dedicated to the complexity of our global energy system and the path that lies ahead. The focus is on the emerging field of interest in the energy sector: energy efficiency. As in every industry and in every household there is the potential for a more efficient usage of resources, energy efficiency is “the hidden field”. The NRG Magazine team talked about energy efficiency, about energy savings, about policies and projects and about related research with six experts. Each has an energy efficiency story to tell.

A

s physicist James B. Glattfelder revealed at TEDxZurich in 2012: “A high degree of interconnectivity in a system can be bad for stability, because then distress can spread through the system like an epidemic.” The energy system is connected to the global economy, which is connected to our social systems and to the planet’s ecosystems. This leaves us with a large potential for problems in any system to ripple across all systems. For example, if CO2 emissions are responsible for climate change and were in turn made through increasingly burning fossil fuels since the invention of the internal combustion engine, then the way to reverse that is to reduce and eventually eliminate carbon dioxide emissions from the energy system. Also, try to save energy through more efficient processes, in order to prevent additional greenhouse gases getting into the atmosphere. Now, before we go down that to-do list, let’s have a quick look to the past. For thousands of years people have been adjusting the environment to meet their needs and desires. Things have accelerated when the Industrial Revolution emerged and have been accelerating even more in the 20th and 21st centuries: growing economies and populations, more mobility, more needs to be met, more food to be grown, more resources to be used, more, more, more... It has come to the point where adjusting the environment is not easy or possible anymore. It has come to the point where people have to adapt their behaviour in many sectors in order to have a more sustainable global economy, a more sustainable energy system and a more sustainable way of life. And organizations such as the International Energy Agency, entities such as the Dutch Top Sectors, scientists, activists,

entrepreneurs and governments across the globe have seriously started with changing economic and energy behaviour. There is a term that all these behaviour changing discussions and actions focus on, and that is Sustainability. To some, an overused term, to others, just a word that can be found abundantly in financial and economic newspapers. Sustainability is not a word, it is the goal. In this cover story we, the NRG Magazine team, want to reaffirm the importance of sustainability and its connection to the climate and to economic and energy activities. For decades, scientists and environmentalists alike have been informing people about climate change and about its implications for life on Earth. Even though climate change advocates differ regarding their proposed solutions, for instance using nuclear energy to tackle the greenhouse gas emissions problem (e.g., Dr. Kerry Emanuel from M.I.T. in “What We Know About Climate Change”) or stopping with nuclear power generation and fossil fuels and focusing completely on renewables (e.g., former global CEO of Greenpeace, Paul Gilding in “The Great Disruption”), the message for change is pervasive. We have to account for climate change, change our behaviour and work actively towards sustainability. Our behaviour includes energy and water usage, it includes what we recycle or not, it includes our industries, it includes our households and it includes our mobility. A change for the better would be to use fewer or no resources that are damaging the planet, and inherently us, and more clean resources that are sustainable by nature and available freely in the environment (e.g., wind, solar, waves,

geothermal). Another change for the better is to use less energy, to be more efficient in our processes and reduce consumption, as the International Energy Agency (IEA) advises as well. In this sense, right from the IEA Laura Cozzi (pages 10 – 11) brings forth how energy efficiency will impact the global energy system. Nevertheless, it is not easy to reduce to zero what are the largest CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere in the last 160,000 years (P.M. Vitousek in “Ecology” Vol. 75, No. 7, Oct., 1994). It is also quite challenging to make companies and households across the globe reduce their energy consumption from one year to the other. In line with this, Tjeerd Jongsma (page 12), Teun Bokhoven (page 13) and Frits Verheij (page 14) from the Top Sector Energy reveal specific ways in which energy savings and efficiency can be approached in process technology, the built environment and with the help of smart grids. The global economy and energy system have become extremely complex, and along with them, the interconnectivity of processes has reached a point of extreme intricateness. Mees Hartvelt (page 15) from Top Sector Chemistry brings up potential energy solutions from the BioBased Economy. And, from a more scientific point of view, Prof. Dr. Beatriz Noheda (pages 16 - 17) informs us about energy applications based on piezoelectric materials and how they will impact future energy efficiency. With multidisciplinary views from six experts, this cover story zooms in on the complexity of the global energy system with energy efficiency as the main point of reference.

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 9


Smart about energy

World Energy Outlook 2012 with Laura Cozzi

Photo: © 2013 OECD/IEA

T

Laura Cozzi is Principal Analyst and Deputy Head of the Directorate for Global Energy Economics at the International Energy Agency. She is heading the energy modelling unit within the directorate that produces the World Energy Outlook. For the World Energy Outlook 2012 Ms. Cozzi was specifically in charge of the energy efficiency analysis.

In the World Energy Outlook we are making a very compelling case for energy efficiency; we prove, in a quantitative way and for the first time ever, to our knowledge, that policies that are intended for a better energy usage have multiple benefits for other fields

he International Energy Agency (IEA) stands guard at the energy policy making doors. Since 1974 the IEA has been has been supporting sustainable energy policies, economic growth and environmental protection, has been emphasizing global cooperation, and has been continuously working on finding solutions for the challenges in the energy system and on improving transparency for international markets. The World Energy Outlook is the yearly report released by the IEA and presents comprehensive analysis, predictions and implications related to the developments in the global energy market. The 2012 World Energy Outlook, the latest and most interesting report to date, provides new scenarios for the global energy market, while focusing on the pursuit of energy efficiency and the efforts to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. The emergence of unconventional oil and gas production in the USA, the increase in energy demand for developing economies like China and India, the energy and clean water availability forecasts for impoverished populations (i.e., 1.3 billion without access to electricity and 2.6 billion people without clean cooking facilities in 2030) together with climate change scenarios an goals, make the report a valuable tool in the hands of governments and companies alike. Moreover, the report’s main sustainability aims are centred on energy efficiency. “In the World Energy Outlook we are making a very compelling case for energy efficiency; we prove, in a quantitative way and for the first time ever, to our knowledge, that policies that are intended for a better energy usage have multiple benefits for other fields: economic growth, lowering pollution, greenhouse gases,” says Laura Cozzi, who is charge for the report. Ms. Cozzi pinpoints very well the idea of inherent link between the energy sector and other fields. She also hints at the global interconnectivity that comes with the field of energy which we can see very well in markets, for example. Unconventional Production | Fossil fuel markets are linked in an obvious way and they react fast to each other. An example is the unconventional gas market in the USA influencing the coal market in Europe. The Outlook reports increasing production of unconventional oil and gas in the USA. As a result, US utilities are shifting from coal to gas, which in turn makes more coal available on the global

10 | NRG Magazine Edition 9

market. Additionally, China has been using less coal than expected, which also boosted the amount of coal available on the market. Consequentially, coal prices are decreasing and European coal consumption is increasing. This does not qualify as an effort to reduce CO2 in the region, but in the long-term, we should not be too concerned about this. Ms. Cozzi explains why: “It is certainly not good news that we have an increase in coal usage in Europe. This will not impact the 2020 energy efficiency goals in Europe (i.e, 20% decrease in primary energy demand compared to a baseline) because it is related to the usage side. This will have an impact on CO2 emissions goals, which are related to the energy generation side. However, the extremely low gas prices seen last year in the US are not there to stay for a very long time. They are not sustainable for the gas industry.” Hence, the IEA posits that the coal usage increase in Europe is a short-term trend, even if it is difficult to say “how short-term the short term will be,” explains Ms. Cozzi. So, we leave coal aside for the moment and see what can be done to increase efficiency in other sectors. Efficiency in the built environment | As we mentioned before, energy efficiency enables us to reduce consumption, thus release less CO2 in the air. The reduction or savings part has many sides. One of them is stemmed in the built environment. The Outlook notes that the most promising perspectives regarding energy efficiency are held by this very environment. In helping countries improve energy savings and efficiency for the building sector, the IEA makes a strong economic case for energy savings, showcases best practices and gathers data and information about policies around the world. The agency has constructed a prize-winning database that shows the global quality of measures in the building sector. The IEA uses the same approach to tackle the built environment for countries that are part of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as well as for non-OECD countries. Hence, the agency’s policy advising reach stretches globally. What is however different regarding the two groups of countries is that “the building sector is easier to tackle in non-OECD countries compared to OECD countries. This is because most new building construction occurs in nonOECD countries, while in OECD countries the building stock is already there and the focus needs to be on refurbishment,”


Smart about energy

Renewables have a lot of positive things, but, they shouldn’t be creating an extra cost to society.

Data Source: World Energy Outlook 2012, International Energy Agency

says Ms. Cozzi. This tells us that it is easier for Non-OECD countries to start with a clean slate energy efficiency-wise and CO2 emissions-wise. But, there is a catch, they also have to eliminate their subsidies for fossil fuels and put their building codes into place, as Ms. Cozzi pinpoints. Renewables schemes and burden on bills | When talking about energy savings and efficiency in the built environment, renewables are already on our minds. The World Energy Outlook goals go hand in hand with the importance of investing in renewables development. And, by 2020, worldwide, around 5 trillion dollars will be invested in renewables. Ms. Cozzi elaborates on whether or not this is a smart direction: “Investments in renewables per se are a good thing. However, the way the investments are made, meaning the subsidies and the support schemes have to be done in a smart way. Over the past few years, especially in Europe, some countries have opted for subsidy schemes that overpaid. For the next twenty years, consumers are required to pay a certain fixed amount of money for every terawatt-hour that is generated from renewables. This is done while European consumers are struggling with the economic crisis. Hence, there is an extra burden from the energy bills. Renewables have a lot of positive things, but, they shouldn’t be creating an extra cost to society.” This investment is also an incentivized one. Renewables, especially photovoltaics have advanced quite nicely in the past years; they are now more

widely used and more affordable, and they fit excellently in the built environment remembering that interconnectedness. Thus, support schemes have to be continuously evaluated as “many forms of renewables are already competitive and would not need support anymore,” Ms. Cozzi explains. Looking to the future | Either forecasting renewables investments or showcasing best practices in the building sector, the IEA is here to aid in the transition period. Through the World Energy Outlook the agency has provided a powerful instrument in the hands of policy makers, especially in the current economic situation, coupled with the strong environmental and climate pressure. Ms. Cozzi emphasizes: “Policy makers should take energy efficiency seriously, because it can give multiple gains. The

International Energy Agency is not saying energy efficiency is an easy business, but we are showing how to do it. It is really time to take action and put our act together. We believe that Europe has done a great job for the 2020 targets, but Europe has to move that forward to the future and provide leadership for elsewhere on the planet. We hope to see energy efficiency as the next game changer, after unconventional gas.”

Data Source: World Energy Outlook 2012, International Energy Agency

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 11


Smart about energy

Efficiency in Processes with Tjeerd Jongsma

Top of the game | When it comes to technological developments, the Netherlands is a very good place to be in. “But then you have the technology and you have to implement it, and that also means we need a little mind-set change within the companies. Most big companies are risk averse, which is a logical and healthy approach,” says Mr. Jongsma. Security and safety are on the top of the list for companies in the chemical industry. Making sure products come out of the production line with no faults or pollutants is much more important than investing in new technologies. Mr. Jongsma: “When you use new technologies you always introduce new risks. We should take steps in making companies capable of handling those risks. The government should also get involved in the process by providing instruments to help mitigate risks.” Multidisciplinary approach | Having covered what needs to be done and which are the hurdles, it is time to celebrate TKI Process Technology success stories, which are rooted in multidisciplinary cooperation. “Our major energy savings project to date is in the sugar industry and

Photo: Rogier Bos

Implementation humps | The energy savings potential provided by implementing new technologies is large. “Nevertheless, things are going very slowly. Most factories and plants are 20-30 years old. Before somebody invests in new, energy saving and efficient technologies, they first have to rebuild the factory, and that has an average delay time of 20 years. This is also why implementation of new technologies in the processing industry takes quite a long time,” explains the TKI director. Additionally, there is also the “if it ain’t broken don’t fix it” mentality: as long as the factory is running, it is much cheaper to keep it running instead of investing in new technologies. “Thus, the implementation of new technologies is always lagging behind the development of new technologies,” continues Mr. Jongsma.

focuses on better water handling (i.e., the “Mild Dewatering Systems” project). Here we implemented new technologies which are capable of reducing the total energy consumption in sugar factories with about 50%. This means we can save approximately the total energy consumption of 26,000 families, which is around 400TJ (terajoules),” Mr. Jongsma informs us. The new technologies necessary for this project were developed under the TKI umbrella as cooperation between the Institute for Sustainable Process Technology, Friesland Foods, Royal Cosun (Suikerunie) and the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). Another noteworthy multidisciplinary project is the Plant One facility in the Port of Rotterdam - the result of cooperation between the TKI and Huntsman in the field of polyurethanes. Mr. Jongsma explains: “At Plant One we are implementing a new process for the reduction of polyurethanes, through which we can save 130TJ. We are running a pilot over there and the implementation phase is not far away. I think Plant One is one of the really nice examples of good projects in energy savings.”

Tjeer Jongsma is Director of the Institute for Sustainable Process Technology (ISPT) and Director of the Top Consortium for Knowledge and Innovation (TKI) in Process Technology, which is part of the Top Sector Energy in the Netherlands. He studied polymer chemistry and has done “quite a lot of polymer research in the field of renewable materials and afterwards in the food and food processing industry.”

Education into play | When we think about multidisciplinary cooperation, the idea of education also comes to mind. And, education in the energy sector is receiving increasing attention in the Netherlands. The Energy Academy Europe and the ECN are two examples. Soon, the Innovation Academy may join the list of organizations focused on this type of education, but taking things to the next level, by bridging education and business. “In the Innovation Academy we try to approach people directly after university and make them interested in starting up new technologies and innovation projects. We are also working on creating a startups friendly environment by collaborating with universities and companies. Our aim is to guide new entrepreneurs and new innovators in the field. We are also trying to interest more people in pursuing Béta and technological studies,” says Mr. Jongsma. With new technologies, pilot projects, already impressive achievements and a keen and active interest in supporting future energy innovators, this Top Consortium is clearly making its contribution to making sustainability a reality.

Photo: Rogier Bos

The energy efficiency discussion is multifaceted. Tjeerd Jongsma joined in with projects and success stories from the Dutch Top Consortium in Process Technology. “It is always best to save energy instead of making new energy in a different way, and there is huge potential for that in process technology,” says Mr. Jongsma. He is convinced that the first thing that should be done towards the 2050 energy goals is to save energy as much as possible.

Royal Cosun (Suikerunie): The TKI in Process Technology project that achieved a 50% reduction in energy consumption in sugar factories.

12 | NRG Magazine Edition 9


Smart about energy

The Savings Potential of the Building Sector with Teun Bokhoven

The mission of the TKI is to reach this energy balance in the building sector by 2050. But, things move slowly in the built environment. Mr. Bokhoven explains: “I look at the transition needed in the built environment in a very practical and pragmatic way. It takes enormous effort and investment to reach energy neutrality in this sector. The key is to anticipate what we call “natural moments”, when people redo or retrofit or upgrade their commercial buildings or their homes. That is the moment when you can incorporate the energy saving and energy efficiency measures.” Making buildings green | Changes in the built environment are not only subject to financial or technical issues, the social aspect is also very important. “It’s unrealistic to expect that we tear down the entire built environment and we replace it by 2050 with new buildings. People live there and you will not see the situation where people will massively leave their homes and work places in order to go live and carry on their activities in new establishments,” says Mr. Bokhoven.

Coming back to the energy neutrality goal, Mr. Bokhoven informs us that the TKI aims at making roughly 50% of the existing buildings energy neutral by 2035. “The other 50% may need far more technical advanced solutions to reach that level. We’re hoping to have that kind of development prepared by then, so that, for the remaining 15 years up until our 2050 goals, we can make the other half of the existing buildings energy neutral as well.” Focus Areas | With limited budgets and time intensive transformations to be pursued, TKI EnerGO has split its activities in four target areas. The first one is based on fluctuations in building temperature during the year (e.g., overload of heat in the summer and lack of heat in the winter). This area is called compact storage and implies using stored heat from the warm seasons to heat buildings in the cold seasons. The second area is centred on the use of very small-scale heat pumps for room level instead complicated installations for an entire building. This entails localising heating through advanced heat pump technologies. The third area of focus is dedicated to the integration of functionalities in existing buildings. “You can integrate PV or solar-thermal in façades and roofs and make an industrial product. Basically you create a new envelop around the building with all the functionalities required, and still keep the comfort levels inside for the occupants,” notes the TKI chairman. The fourth area looks at the district level and pursues utilising renewable energy production and storage in a more integrated way. Mr. Bokhoven elaborates: “We particularly look at the underground which can be used quite well for energy storage and energy production as well as cooling and heating.” In order to meet goals in these four areas, cooperation is a must. TKI EnerGO works together with the TKI Solar and has strong interactions with TKI Switch2SmartGrids, in order to balance energy surplus in the buildings. For the underground storage goals, the TKI collaborates with the Top Sector Water. PV and geothermal | Photovoltaics and geothermal applications are the renewables for the built environment. While wind energy has its potential, “it also has a NIMBY (not in my back yard) problem. Solar has a PIMBY (please in my backyard)

Photo: Rob Niemantsverdriet

The building sector offers huge possibility for energy savings and efficiency. TKI EnerGO is here to transform those possibilities into real achievements. One of the manners to approach this is expanding the concept of energy neutrality. “We consider a building energy neutral if it produces as much energy on an annual basis as it consumes,” says Teun Bokhoven.

Teun Bokhoven is Director ConSolair and Chairman of TKI Energy Savings in the Built Environment (EnerGO) from the Dutch Top Sector Energy. His background is in industry, and he has considerable experience with construction companies and companies from the supply side of renewable energy for buildings. effect. A lot of people like to have solar on their roofs,” says Mr. Bokhoven. In his view, solar panels also benefit from wide public acceptance. Moreover, the positive manner in which photovoltaics are viewed “will help to increase the awareness of energy conservation overall.” There is also a “fashionable” factor in place for solar panels. Mr. Bokhoven: “You would expect people to place them on their roofs for economic reasons. But, apparently, the visual of doing something about energy gives a better feeling. Insulation in your walls you don’t see. Double glazing you hardly see. There’s a low awareness level for insulation and double glazing. Solar panels are more visible. When you make something visible, it makes more sense to the public.” In the end, having all these technologies and possibilities is not going to make the building sector energy neutral, unless the right plans are made. “We should make a time path, where in ten years from now we expect buildings to have a certain energy performance level. It’s quite important to see this kind of development unravel. This will also increase public awareness about what needs to be done in the built environment,” concludes Mr. Bokhoven.

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 13


Smart about energy

Smart Grids on the Rise with Frits Verheij

Nevertheless, smart grids might not be completely grasped by the general public. If we want consumers to be conscious about their energy consumption, they should know more about smart grids. As with insulation and double glazed windows in the built environment, smart grids also suffer from low visibility to the public. Mr. Verheij pinpoints the power of example as a major factor in educating the public about smart grids and in increasing their usage: “When more and more people use smart grids and see their benefit, word-ofmouth will enable public awareness and acceptance.” Outlook | It took around twelve years for smart grids to reach the small-scale pilot phases, but larger-scale pilots are just around the corner, in two years time estimates Mr. Verheij. And five years from now we might even see the beginning of full, large-scale implementation of smart grids. This is for the Netherlands, which, according to the Chairman of the TKI Switch2SmartGrids, is heading the smart grids revolution. There are several other countries involved in smart grids implementation and they differ in their approach: “Germany is playing an interesting role. Denmark, South Korea and Japan are also implementing smart grids. England is now starting to come up with some demonstration projects,” says Mr. Verheij. Dutch Successes | Coming back to the Netherlands, there are more than fifteen smart grids projects running throughout the country. PowerMatching City, coordinated by DNV KEMA, and Muziekwijk Zwolle, coordinated by Enexis, are two of the most promising pilots. Besides these, Smart Energy Collective, an industrial consortium of 26 companies, is developing five largescale demonstration projects. Thus, there is no shortage of smart grids projects. However, TKI Switch2SmartGrids chooses to focus on the research and development part rather than the demonstration projects. 14 | NRG Magazine Edition 9

After all, research is the basis for any innovation. And there are many innovations to come for smart grids implementation. The activity of TKI Smitch2SmartGrids has been financed by the Dutch government with 10.5 million euro in 2012. Money well spent, we would say, since the TKI sponsored 17 consortia for their projects, in which the industrial partners invested over 14 million euro. Hot topics | Smart grids imply data, and data need data management and security. Furthermore, cyber security is important when more and more information is shared. “When you start the designing part of a smart grid, it is really important to include cyber security elements. If you look at the TKI program and our budget, we have several subthemes: virtual infrastructure, products and services and institutional and social innovation. Cyber security is one of our hot topics in the virtual infrastructure,” says Mr. Verheij. Supported by the TKI Switch2SmartGrids, KPN, Alliander, DNV KEMA, TNO, University Twente and SecurityMatters are building The European Network for Cyber Security in the Netherlands. Thus, the TKI is involved in at least one project directly related to cyber security. And this fits with the increased need for better cyber security as the industry is moving to large scale implementations. Uniform architecture | In order for consumers everywhere to tap the 10% energy savings potential, smart grids need to be implemented on a larger scale. But, different network operators have different criteria for smart grids implementation, which may not be obvious problems now, but which might hinder implementation in the future. The Chairman of the TKI Switch2SmartGirds elaborates: “Uniform criteria will help to make smart grids scalable. So when you develop something in Germany it would be easy to copy it in Denmark or Spain and vice versa. It is also important for all sorts of industries to know if something that is produced will fit into any smart grid. In this sense, a set of agreements related to the smart grids architecture are necessary.” Moreover, Mr. Verheij informs us that the first set of smart grids agreements should be available later this year. Regarding the evolution of smart grids, the TKI chairman predicts enormous growth for companies entering the smart grids market. He also forecasts a big related change in the energy system: “Smart grids represent one of the most important elements in the energy transition.”

Photo: © 2013 DNV KEMA

When we talk about measuring and monitoring production and consumption of energy, we have to bring smart grids into the discussion. But, smart grids are not so much directly responsible for energy savings and efficiency as they are enabling them. Frits Verheij explains: “Energy savings due to smart grids is limited or it works indirectly. Through smart grids people have information about their energy use. And, we know from previous studies that knowing your consumption behaviour creates an additional 10% energy savings and in some cases even more.”

Frits Verheij is Director Smart Energy at DNV KEMA Energy & Sustainability and Chairman of the TKI Switch2SmartGrids from the Top Sector Energy in the Netherlands. His background is in applied physics and in the first part of his career he was active in renewable energy. Around six year ago he got involved in smart grids.

Through smart grids people have information about their energy use. And, we know from previous studies that knowing your consumption behaviour creates an additional 10% energy savings and in some cases even more.


Smart about energy

BioBased Contribution with Mees Hartvelt

The concept of BioBased Economy entails the clever use of biomass from the agricultural sector (including the forest industry) for applications in the chemical and energy sectors. Catalyses, enzymes and fermentation are the three basic techniques used in the BBE to develop end products from raw materials. TKI BBE does not contribute to energy savings and efficiency goals directly. However, the Top Consortium is engaged in the study of the concept of biorefinery, which will eventually improve energy efficiency in the process industry. Related to this the TKI BBE is in close cooperation with TKI Process Technology from the Top Sector Energy. Biorefineries | The concept of biorefinery is an intriguing one. The bioindustry in the USA is already focusing its plans on integrated biorefineries, which are capable of converting various biomass feedstocks into commercially viable bioproducts, including biofuels. One such example is in Pontotoc, Mississippi. When completed, the Heterogeneous Feed Biorefinery Project in Pontotoc will produce 38 million litres of ethanol per year for commercial sale (source: U.S. Department of Energy – Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,

www.eere.energy.gov). In the Netherlands, biorefineries are in their inception, but the interest for them is growing. Woodspirit is an example in this direction. The biorefinery, located in the north-east of Groningen, is the cooperation between BioMCN, Siemens Netherlands, Linde and Visser & Smit Hanab. Woodspirit will process sustainable biomass into biomethanol. “It is important to encourage the business concept of biorefinery. Biorefineries can extract proteins and fibres for other applications in a cascading way. Moreover, chemical building blocks are increasingly produced from biomass,” says Mr. Hartvelt. Biorefineries can separate biomass into valuable components: protein for animal feed, lignin (most commonly derived from wood), fibre for paper etc. The rest can be fermented or burnt. “The TKI BBE invests in the biorefining of wood and algae. The coproduction of chemicals and biofuels is underway as well, but first we have to upscale the biorefinery concept,” explains Mr. Hartvelt. BioBased Players | Like in every field, the biobased one also has its frontrunners. Royal DSM is one of them. The global science company is active, among others, in the pharmaceutical and biobased materials markets. Royal DSM is also active in the recycling of composite materials. One of its latest innovations manages to reduce the carbon footprint of cement clinker manufacturing by 16%. Avantium is another example. The company has its production based in Geleen in the Netherlands and makes polyester polyethylene-furanoate (PEF) packaging for soft drinks, fruit juices and food and non-food products. Avantium’s YXY technology allows the company to produce PEF from plant-based sugars. The PEF innovators together with The Coca-Cola Company will further develop and commercialize bottles made from the next-generation polyester. “This is a good example of a project upscale in the biobased industry. If Coca-Cola takes it on, Avantium will have a huge production volume that is demand driven instead of supply driven,” comments Mr. Hartvelt. CSM Purac is yet another example of a successful company in the BioBased Economy. The Dutch company is active in food preservation, biobased chemicals and produces polymers from lactic acid.

Photo: Harry Meijer

When we began our cover story we emphasized the need and importance of sustainability. The BioBased Economy (BBE) has its inception linked to the paper industry and is all about sustainability. The Top Consortium dedicated to BBE will play an increasingly important role in the transition period through its research activities. Mees Hartvelt: “Sustainability research is an integral part of the TKI BBE and it includes a broad societal related discussion, in which NGOs take part as well.”

Mees Hartvelt is PresidentDirector of the general employers’ association AWVN and member of the Supervisory Board of the Top Consortium for Knowledge and Innovation BioBased Economy (TKI BBE) from the Dutch Top Sector Chemistry. The TKI BBE is a cross sector Top Consortium. In 2011 Mr. Hartvelt was requested to draft the agenda for the innovation contract for the TKI BBE. Challenges | Being a cross sector Top Consortium comes with its challenges. “The biggest challenge for TKI BBE is to get things rolling,” says Mr. Hartvelt. The fact that the TKI BBE’s plans are more or less dependent on the other Top Sectors slows things down. Limited funds are another obstacle. Other challenges are triggered by the discrepancy in the targets set by the European Commission for 2020. “These targets are more or less competing. For instance, subsidizing raw materials turns the tables on plans to have a cascading structure for biobased processes. This will also hinder the added value of, for example, pharma products based on biomaterials,” clarifies Mr. Hartvel. Internally, the most challenging projects that the TKI BBE is handling are related to existing waste streams which create chemical building blocks (e.g., bioplastics). On a related note, start-ups in the BioBased Economy are very expensive due to insufficient demand-driven projects. As the potential for innovation of the BioBased Economy positively impacts the energy sector, the government needs to put more effort in encouraging the biobased revolution.

Closed bioreactor used in cellulosic ethanol research. Cellulosic ethanol is a biofuel that can be produced from agricultural waste, trees, forest residues and perennial grasses (source: U.S. Department of Energy).

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 15


Smart about energy

The World of Piezoelectrics Moving from the industry to the lab, our cover story explores piezoelectric materials and their potential contribution to energy savings. Prof. Dr. Beatriz Noheda from the University of Groningen gives a crash introduction to the world of piezoelectrics and tells us a few things about her research. Facts | Ever since the 1960s, piezoelectrics have been used for a wide variety of applications, from the stone in a gas lighter to inkjet printers, from airbags in cars to to hospital equipment like echography scanners. For the ecography scanners for instance, the piezoelectric material is excited with a voltage and creates an ultrasound wave that travels through the womb and reflects in the objects that are in the way. The ultrasound that is reflected back into the scanner is transformed into electrical signal by the same piezoelectric. This is how the image of the fetus is obtained. “A piezoelectric material can transform mechanical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. This is the only type of material than can do this,” explains prof. Noheda. According to the professor, energy harvesting is a rather recent application for these materials. The most efficient piezomaterials are called relaxor-based single crystals. Single crystals are composed of highly ordered atoms and are grown in the laboratory in very controlled conditions. They typically contain lead, which is toxic to humans when it appears as small loose particles (e.g., lead contamination is associated with numerous diseases – source: M. Monachese, J.P. Burton and G. Reid in “Applied and Environmental Microbiology”, September 2012 vol. 78 no. 18). Relaxors have a piezoelectric coefficient of 2000pm/V (picometres per volt). This means that when we displace a surface of 2000pm (2 x 10-12 m), by stepping on it or making vibrations, we get 1V as response from the material. Prof. Noheda: “In probably 95% of the piezoelectric applications that were mentioned, the material used is not one of these relaxor-based single crystals, which are too expensive to be grown. Lead Zirconate Titanate or PZT is the cheap version of the relaxors. PZT is a ceramic many tiny single crystals bunched together,” says prof. Noheda. The efficiency of the two types of materials also differs. “PZT has a response of 200-400pm/V. This may look small compared to relaxors but it is still very big,” comments prof. Noheda. Energy Efficiency Potential | Some railway stations in Japan have been using PZT under

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their floors for the past five or ten years. The energy created by people stepping on the floors is stored in batteries and may be used for the lighting in the train stations. Another example of PZT usage is on a street in Toulouse, France. Here, pedestrians can see how their stepping produces electricity to power street lights. Moreover, in the UK, Pavegen Systems commercialized piezoelectric tiles made out of PZT. These tiles were placed on bridges in London, and people could see how much energy they were generating just by walking. “The energy generated from such applications is about five watts - second (W x s which is a joule (J)) per step for an average weight person. So, you would need to walk for around one and a half hours to charge your mobile phone. But, if you jog, you can generate the same amount of electricity in twenty minutes,” notes prof. Noheda. Even without going that far, just like smart grids, piezoelectrics can increase public awareness about energy production and consumption. “They can make people aware of how much energy could be collected just from walking,” remarks prof. Noheda. Piezoelectrics can be used for harvesting otherwise wasted energy, from vibrations under heavy machinery in factories to the vibrations of washing machines in individual households. But this is done on a small scale. For more than that, prof. Noheda has her doubts: “Surely piezoelectrics are not going to solve all energy demand problems, because piezoelectric can provide relatively low power. The reason they are becoming more popular compared to a few years ago, is because more and more electronic applications are using low power (e.g., milliwatts).” With that in mind, there is room for piezoelectrics in future applications, for instance in remote places. Sensors for checking the integrity of buildings, bridges or underground pipelines could be powered by piezoelectric harvesters. These would provide enough electricity for the sensors to continue their activity without regular human maintenance checks or battery replacement. “Furthermore, piezoelectric sensors can be used to monitor the status of occupancy for buildings. Maybe, for energy savings, you want to know which rooms are empty and you would like to switch off the lights and the heating there,” says prof. Noheda. From Lab to Market | In order to enable piezoelectrics to have a broader, longer term usage (e.g., street pavements), the materials in these energy harvesters

Photo courtesy of Beatriz Noheda

with Beatriz Noheda

Prof. Dr. Beatriz Noheda is Associate Professor at the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of the University of Groningen. She is active in the field of Physical Nanoscience and Nanothechnology. And, she is an expert in ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials.

Piezoelectric sensors can be used to monitor the status of occupancy for buildings. Maybe, for energy savings, you want to know which rooms are empty and you would like to switch off the lights and the heating there.


Smart about energy

need to be non-harmful. “In our research we discovered a new way of generating piezoelectricity that is less dependent on the chemistry of the materials. Hence, we have more freedom to investigate materials that do not contain lead,” says prof. Noheda. Another problem of piezoelectric harvesters is cost. Unfortunately, for now, there are only a few companies that commercialize piezoelectric tiles. Energy Floors in the Netherlands, Pavegen in UK, POWERleap in the US and Innowattech in Israel are four of the main players. But, prof. Noheda’s research brings hope in this direction as well. The nanocrystal she produced in her research is less harmful and better for the environment, because it uses less material for the same energy efficiency as larger materials. All piezoelectric harvesters can have a 50% efficiency, which is much bigger compared to other types of energy harvesting (e.g., through solar cells). “However, in order to get the maximum power for vibration energy harvesting, you have to work in resonance frequency. This frequency is determined by the size and shape of the piezoelectric,” explains prof. Noheda. Developing a piezoelectric energy harvester requires the collaboration between a materials researcher and an engineer.

Silva Helios rope burner / lighter with piezoelectric ignition - one of the common applications of piezoelectrics.

To work in resonance, the engineer has to go in the field and measure the main frequency produced by the vibrations. In the lab, the researcher can create a piezoelectric material that can absorb the maximum of energy at that particular frequency, thus maximizing efficiency.

Prof. Noheda: “The realm for piezoelectrics is increasing as our products have lower energy consumption. At the University of Groningen we are very good in materials. Now we are working on making the connection between the materials and the companies.”

Concluding Remarks: Beyond Efficiency Having policies in place and research to support changes in the energy sector is not enough. We also need public education regarding the need for energy savings and efficiency and the possibilities of individual contributions to sustainability. The transition to a more sustainable energy system is not easy to do, and we have reached a point where we are forced to tackle carbon emissions, efficiency of processes, house insulation and any other possibilities that will enable us to limit our fossil fuels consumption. But even with the imminent danger of global temperature rise and related consequences for our planet, we have to stay positive, think of solutions and maybe even remember some ancient wise words: “There is in the worst of fortune the best of chances for a happy change.” (Euripides, 484 – 406 B.C.) Now the question is: What must be done exactly? On the one hand, governments

and companies have to work together, accepting responsibility for better policies regarding CO2 minimization, prioritising investments in renewables (especially solar), more effort for repurposing, renovation or shutting down highly polluting energy plants, larger funds for research and development focused on renewable energy storage, more efforts on educating companies and households about individual responsibility for energy and water savings and recycling (e.g., rewarding good “sustainable” behaviour with tax deductions). The interconnectivity of the global energy sector enables disruptions to spread rapidly. But it also enables innovations and solutions to spread across countries and systems, even though they spread slower than disruptions. The International Energy Agency is one agent for information dissemination. Governments can take it further, from scenarios to facts. It takes

work, it takes effort, but it is worth transforming our energy sector, it is worth making things more sustainable, because, in the end, humanity will benefit the most. One last thing | In the 1990s HannaBarbera Productions released a cartoon that encouraged children to have an environmentally friendly behaviour. The animation was called Captain Planet and it provided useful advice on how children can help protect the Earth. On this note, of course we need policies for energy efficiency and CO2 emissions minimization, sustainability workshops for managers and more energy related public education. But, wouldn’t it be great if there were also TV shows / apps / video games that would encourage environmentally responsible behaviour from today’s youngsters, the future leaders of the energy sector?

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 17


Smart about recruitment

Smart Recruitment

Performance - Based Selection and Predictive Online Analysis When we talk about global talent shortage, we talk about having problems with finding people who are intellectually and emotionally suited and have the right background to successfully carry on the tasks in a certain job. But what is “talent”? Talent (from the Latin: talentum, meaning “scale” or “balance”) was once a unit of measurement. In ancient Greek and Hebrew times it referred to the mass of water in the volume of an amphora, which was a one foot cube (source: E. Michaels, H. Handfield-Jones and B. Axelrod, “The War for Talent”, 2001). Why then is it that throughout the years, and under the influence of culture, talent has stopped being measurable?

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TA World recognises that the key asset base of any company, its human capital needs to be carefully identified and selected. The company specializes in talent recruitment and uses predictive analytics to identify top talents. For TTA World talent selection and management is a data driven process, hence talent is measurable. TTA World has created a Global Talent Pool based on objective indicators to weigh and rank global top talents. The indicators include educational and professional backgrounds indices (e.g., Academic Raking of World Universities (ARWU)), globally accepted standardized test scores (e.g., SAT, GMAT, GRE), soft skills and competences, personality and talents test scores (i.e., the Big Five personality test), professional experience, multilingualism and global mobility. In TTA World’s unique intelligent database, talents are ranked on a Global Scale using specialized algorithms that are updated on a daily basis. Thus, companies

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who have access to TTA World’s Global Talent Pool are ensured that they can work with the best of the best in the world. The TTA World vision and instruments for talent selection and recruitment are incorporated in the NRG Battle competition. This energy dedicated contest allows companies to select individuals from the Global Talent Pool and work on real business cases. The competition is only an example of performance – based selection; it is also the most objective performancebased selection opportunity you will find on the market. Based on the most recent figures, globalisation entails entering the labour market with a shortage of talent (34% worldwide – source: ManpowerGroup, 2012). In this case it becomes increasingly important to select the best of the world on a global scale. Focusing on the energy sector, although this is valid for other fields as well, two important questions

drive companies’ quest for the best STEM (Science, Technique, Engineering and Mathematics) talents: How to engage and attract them? and How to compare them? “We know from our experience with top talents that they want challenges to overcome and they really want to make a difference and participate. By showcasing the (R&D) challenges put forth by companies in the NRG Battle, talents feel that the companies take them seriously, what is also reflected in a positive and innovative image of the company,” says Geertje Dam, New Business Director at TTA World. In line with the global scale selection of talent, the NRG Battle is also conceptualised as a global competition. Rob Hogenelst, Commercial Director at TTA World: “We reach out to top talents all over the world. We have contact with the top 100 universities, 95 NRG ambassadors, 53 NRG bloggers and 90 NRG clubs. Many companies have


Smart about recruitment

specific wishes regarding which studies or nationalities they want for their business; we work in close cooperation with the recruiters of the companies.” TTA World made it possible to apply predictive analytics to compare (technical) talents worldwide. “It started out as a joke; our colleagues challenged us to predict the winning teams in the NRG Battle based on data analysis. In every preliminary round in 2011 and 2012, we predicted 4 out of the 5 winning teams correctly. Not only can we predict the chance of having a winning team in the Battle, we also advise companies on what team members they need to reach the strategic goals of their project or business unit,” explains Ms. Dam. TTA World has a two – engine process for talent selection: “Online we have a

predictive database for talent. Offline we support the companies with performance - based selection during the NRG Battles. Everybody in the selection world knows that the more relevant information you have, the better the predictive value. An internationally well – known beer company confronts their applicants with unexpected situations, like the recruiter fainting. Besides having a high marketing and media factor, you can wonder if you really measure what you need to know through this kind of approach. In the end you just want to know if a person will bring added value to your team or business unit. Some job descriptions really hinder recruiters to select the talents the company needs,” remarks Ms. Dam. “Many companies still ask talents to send just Curriculum Vitae. TTA offers the next step in recruitment. We provide the

companies an online profile where CV is just one part of all the data. With just a couple of mouse clicks you can find the perfect candidate for a Battle, internship, job or project, wherever you are in the world,” continues Marcelo Malanda, Operations Director at TTA World. The NRG Battle facilitates real testing of the learning abilities and qualities of technical talent by putting them into an actual job situation, working together with the experts of the company. Recruitment, R&D and management join forces in the Battles, which is a unique and valuable recruitment opportunity. NRG Battle is more than a competition, it is a talent exhibition, and in each edition there are some talents that are even better than the best of the best. Nick Hwang and Filipe Mota Silva are two NRG Battle talent revelations and Global Top Talents.

Nick Hwang | has been working in the Oil & Gas industry for over six years. He

is currently working on Project Cost Estimation in an engineering company in France, and this upcoming summer he will be graduating from the MBA program at HEC Paris. Mr. Hwang has a very interesting multicultural background that no doubt helped in developing his excellent communications skills. “I am Korean by birth but grew up in Argentina, and later lived in the US before eventually coming to France (which explains how come I speak four languages).” He is driven by a “triple-combo of some well-known clichés” as he puts it: “Just do it. This too shall pass. No regrets.” Moreover, he identifies his ability to recognize opportunities and his ambition as his biggest assets. We would say this is modest, considering the fact that Mr. Hwang is a Global Talent. Not only is he efficient, innovative, result and team driver, but he exhibits a remarkable number of talents, seven to be more exact. Mr. Hwang is an Inspiring, Management and an Entrepreneurial Talent. He is also a Facilitating Talent which means that he is connected to the people in the organization, but also to the facts and numbers, making sure things work smoothly. Mr. Hwang is a Leadership Talent and he also possesses the rare Strategic Talent, which means that he is able to take calculated risks and to pursue controlled innovation. His first contact with the energy sector was an internship he did at Southern California Gas Company during his junior year in college. The Global Talent remarks that the energy sector’s biggest challenges are stemmed in decision making and inter – webbing of interests. For tackling these issues he suggests that companies should value soft skills just as highly as technical or analytical skills. Mr. Hwang’s curiosity drove him to participate in the NRG Battle. He took part in several Battles after that, including the World Edition in Kuala Lumpur in 2012, which he describes as “the highlight of the year”.

Filipe Mota da Silva | is passionate about people, learning, energy and

chemistry. He is an efficient and result driven Global Talent and a horse lover. It is always interesting and intriguing how top talents manage their time so well, that they can be high achievers in their professional life and still have time for a wide variety of activities in their personal time. Mr. Da Silva studied Chemical Engineering at the Technical University of Lisbon and followed the Executive Programme of International Political Economy at Harvard University. His study was also his first contact with the energy sector. Being team and innovation driven, with Leadership Talent to boost, it is no wonder that Mr. Da Silva has becoming CEO or leader in a large company as long-term ambition. He is also an Entrepreneurial Talent which means that he can always see possibilities in the market and act on them quickly. With a firm grasp of the big picture, Mr. Da Silva indentifies the nexus of energy, water and food at the basis of a sustainable planet and as the main challenge of the energy sector, and pinpoints that potential solutions lie in regulations and policies. Before taking part in the NRG Battle, Mr. Da Silva was Ambassador of the Battle: “I was already reaching out to everyone in Boston and around the USA about the opportunity to be selected for NRG Battle.” The actual NRG Battle experience was extremely interesting for Mr. Da Silva. He was on the winning team of NRG Battle – World Edition in 2012 and that experience has left a positive mark. “I am a forever Ambassador of NRG Battle,” says the Global Top Talent.

Photo on left page TTA World Board: Marcelo Malanda, Rob Hogenelst, Geertje Dam Photo courtesy of Peter Wassing

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 19


NRG Battle - Europe Edition

Smart about Blue Energy Winning team FUJIFILM: Willem van Baak, Erik Gathier, Ilja Kamphuis, Gabriël Oral, Rianne Elizen and Martin Grebhahn

Tension is rising on November20th 2012 at the Energy Convention, the finals of the NRG Battle – Europe Edition will start in just a minute. The future of energy is in the hands of young minds, eager to learn, communicate and solve problems. They are guided by experienced, top professionals, willing to share their expertise and knowledge. Again the Battle proves that multidisciplinary cooperation is the key to innovation!

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arious companies such as GasTerra, Siemens, Alliander, ROSEN Europe, E.ON and FUJIFILM encouraged young talents and put forth real life projects and issues to be solved in the student energy competition of the year, NRG Battle. In 2012 thousands of talents signed up, only 300 were selected. A multidisciplinary blend of talented students from 30 nationalities formed 60 teams in the three rounds of the NRG Battle and were challenged with finding solutions to current pressing energy problems. Fourteen of the teams made it to the NRG Battle Finals, where they had only 5 minutes to pitch their improved idea and convince the experts in the Jury that they deserved to have a documentary on National Geographic and the accolades of the energy community. “We, Jury Members, were quite impressed with the students’ performance. They followed an arduous road, from 60 teams with 300 participants to 14 teams with 70 participants. We have seen many teams responding to our request to improve the pitches, to look more into the economics, the social acceptance and the environmental context. In some teams we noticed a very steep and appreciable learning curve,” remarks Prof. Dr. Anton J.M. Schoot Uiterkamp. Three of the solutions were selected as the best, most novel, useful and non-obvious of character. “The teams that ended up on top really made considerable improvements to their pitches,” says the professor. Team Gasunie & DNV KEMA presented a grandiose plan to repurpose North Sea platforms together with the existing infrastructure in the Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium and UK for gas and Carbon Capture Storage (CCS). Team Siemens created a viable solution for recharging electric cars by using a mobile charging unit. Siemens is already considering this solution for implementation. Nevertheless, one team managed to top even these two runner – up pitches. There can be only one winner, Team FUJIFILM was unanimously chosen by the judges as the winners of the NRG Battle – Europe Edition 2012!

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Team Siemens – Mobile Charging unit

The Talents developed a mobile charging unit for about five vehicles at event sites. An amazingly innovative, out of the box and daring approach that blew away the jury.

Team Gasunie & DNV KEMA – Zero Emission Energy Planting

The Talents were challenged with designing a zero emission energy plant in the North Sea, in which Power to Gas plays an essential role. The team repurposed the infrastructure that impressed all the members of the jury.


NRG Battle - Europe Edition

NRG Battle - Europe Edition Winners 2012: Team FUJIFILM Photo courtesy of Green Dreams Productions

The closed - loop system has captured the attention and admiration of the NRG Battle Jury and the public and was first broadcasted on National Geographic on January 1st 2013. Bernard Fortuyn (CEO Sector Energy, Siemens and Jury Member): “It sounds like a fantastic new world. Team FUJIFILM came up with a solution, which is, to a certain extent mobile. They also recognized the problem of dirty membranes when you use water from nature and they found a solution. The closed - loop system is a really highly appreciated invention. Well done!” Martin Grebhahn liked winning the NRG battle and having a documentary as prize: “The National Geographic Documentary is a very good reward for students. Any amount of money wouldn’t bring the same experience and appreciation of performance. Personally, I really enjoyed the prize and would not like to swap it!” Team FUJIFILM making the documentary about their blue energy innovation

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eam FUJIFILM constructed a unique, self-sustaining, closed-loop system that uses waste heat and a technique called Reverse Electro Dialysis (RED) to create blue energy. Willem van Baak, R&D project leader “water purification and energy generating” membranes at FUJIFILM: “The team did a magnificent job, combining existing technologies with new out of the box ideas. FUJIFILM is incredibly proud of the team and what they’ve achieved in such a sort lead - time. We will certainly continue with their ideas.” This solution is so innovative because, so far, no one has thought of producing blue energy in a closed-loop system. Blue energy has always been created by using natural forces (e.g., river and sea water). The NRG Battle winning invention makes blue energy mobile. Membrane experiments at University of Twente have shown that you can generate up to five times more energy by using a more saline solution in combination with fresh water. The closed - loop system that Team FUJIFILM presented uses this and added waste heat. “We have calculated that, in our system, up to a quarter of the heat is turned into extra energy. It’s great that we can explain our concept to a wide audience,” says Rianne Elizen (member of the winning team and student at the University of Twente).

“I was really glad that the subject blue energy could gain some positive attention in the media again, in a different perspective than the last few years. I started doing research into the RED technology since September 2011, now I concluded my both masters on this subject and, in the end, the best and most innovative idea was broadcasted on TV!” says Rianne Elizen, member of the winning team. “What I liked about the NRG Battle is that different companies show concepts and ideas they are working on themselves and let students be a part of this, in this way; the participating students can get some ideas of the topics the other companies are working on,” continues Rianne. According to Gabriël Oral (team FUJIFILM), the NRG Battle actually has been a launching platform for his career in energy. His team mate, Martin agrees: “It certainly is! Students can show their potential in real – time, and attending companies may get a first impression of the performance. Since I am attending the Battles, I have the impression that the interaction with future employers rose dramatically. It helps to explore job possibilities and to get a clear picture in which direction someone may go after the studies.”

Photo: Pepijn van den Broeke

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TA World’s mission is to ensure human capital to work for a sustainable and healthy future. TTA World created and organises the NRG Battle, a competition where bright talents work on innovative ideas for real day-to-day challenges in the energy field. In this year’s edition the expert jury consisted of: Anton Broenink (COO GasTerra), Bernard Fortuyn (CEO Sector Energy, Siemens), Prof. Dr. Anton J.M. Schoot Uiterkamp (University of Groningen), Jeroen Rijnhart (Director Water & Energy, Grontmij), Pierre Bartholomeus (Global Director & Sr. VP Gas Consulting Services, DNV KEMA), Erik Cornelissen (Executive General Manager/VP ROSEN Europe), Prof.Dr.Ir. Hester Bijl (Director Delft Energy Initiative), Pieter Romer (Executive Director Operations, Alliander) and Henk Bak (Manager Corporate Development, E.ON).

FUJIFILM created a closed - loop system for blue energy that uses the Reverse Electro Dialysis (RED) technique. The RED solution can be seen in the diagram in the photo above.

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Talents in the Spotlight

Talents in the Spotlight 22 | NRG Magazine Edition 9

Only once in a blue moon do we meet top talents. Not only are they high achievers in their studies, but they also have unique personalities and bring added value to any company. From the NRG Battle 2012 Finals we chose four gifted individuals with an uncommon mixture of talents. For instance, the Strategic Talent, an interesting combination of efficiency and creativity, a unique blend of attributes, so rare and worth encountering in one person. You cannot see this in their rĂŠsumĂŠ or in their appearance. This is why we use the Big Five personality test to identify these high-potential individuals. We think Edmond, Yea Chyn, Malvina and Durgesh are real top talents. You can read their stories in the following pages. For more information about the way we test talent, please contact Geertje Dam at editor@nrmagazine.nl


Talents in the Spotlight

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Talents in the Spotlight

Believing in oneself and trusting God is the key to greater heights “My mission is to improve upon the energy situation in Ghana, thus Africa and that of the world.”

Edmond Doumon Team : ROSEN Europe Study : Master in Theoretical Physics, Zernike Institute of Advanced Materials (ZIAM) University of Groningen Talent : Leadership Talent

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dmond was selected by ROSEN to think of an autarkic sensor network that protects vital infrastructures. As a physicist and nanoscientist, especially in the field of renewable energy and understanding nanomaterials used in the energy sector, he is pushed by the desire to learn new things for the future betterment of his home continent, Africa. Edmond has a unique talent, he is a real team player and at the same time result driven. He showed off his potential to lead the team in the NRG Battle in a very natural way. He can also easily switch from being facilitating to a group to leading the group to results at the right time. Besides his leadership potential, he also is a Management Talent, getting results in a very efficient and structured way. Edmond’s interest lies in making a difference, following political news around the world and having a positive impact in the world by solving real life problems. Presently, for the second consecutive year, Edmond is the president of the African Students Community (ASC), which is an umbrella that groups all African students both at the University of Groningen and the Hanze University of Applied Sciences. The Talent desires to become a scientist and his field of interest is solar energy. This desire has driven him to pursue his education in four different countries, three in Africa (Togo, Ghana, Nigeria) and the Netherlands. Regarding long – term career goals, Edmond would like to become part – time lecturer and researcher and part – time inspirational speaker. Additionally, he states: “My mission is to improve upon the energy situation in Ghana, thus Africa and that of the world.” With this in mind, the Talent touches upon the need of “educating all members of society irrespective of their status and educational background.” Regarding his encounter with the energy sector, Edmond notes that his first “real” contact with this field was in 2007 when he was involved in a discussion about Ghana deciding to go “nuclear”. As solutions for the problems the energy sector is facing, he suggests more attention to renewables, especially to applications of organic solar cells and their potential for being cheap energy sources. His thesis on bulk heterojunction solar cells and his collaboration in the new research project on bio-organic photovoltaic cells using photosystem I, at ZIAM, are ways in which he is already contributing to the energy system. About his experience at the NRG Battle, Edmond states: “I can say it was 100% a wonderful one. What was intriguing for the solar cell aficionado was “the passion, the talent, the brilliant ideas and the dedication of all candidates. It’s inspiring to know that people from all educational backgrounds are getting involved in energy issues.”

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Talents in the Spotlight

“NRG Battle is a great opportunity to see many representative facets of the energy industry and to come into contact with related companies.”

To get the finest out of life and proceed even after you have succeeded Yea Chyn Ooi Team : Gasunie & DNV KEMA Study : Master in Business Administration, specialization in Organizational and Management Control University of Groningen Talent : Strategic Talent

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ea Chyn was selected for the NRG Battle – Europe Edition 2012 and made it to the Finals with team Gasunie & DNV KEMA. Her financial and accounting expertise and innovative mind make her a talented lady. She has a unique combination of an innovative personality. She can connect the dots in future developments and at the same time be a very efficient and analytical mind, making her into a Strategic Talent. She can foresee future developments in finance and is focused on risk management. In a team Yea Chyn is in control of the analytics and will come up with new ideas at the same time. Only a talented person can handle these competing values. At the moment, Yea Chyn is pursuing her Master degree and is also a student assistant at the Career Office of the Economics and Business faculty at the University of Groningen. Her biggest career dream and is to inspire next generations. “For many generations people have been wasting their talents and in some way I want to stimulate these people to make use of their gifts for the better good of society and future generations,” says the ambitious talent. Yea Chyn’s first contact with the energy sector was the internship she did at N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie in 2009. After the Gasunie experience, she “stayed in touch with the industry by visiting energy related conventions, participating in various events like the NRG Battle or cracking cases for the Energy Delta Institute”. Yea Chyn’s interest was sparked by the dynamic energy sector, which, according to her, has to overcome many challenges. Speaking of challenges, the NRG Battle participant identifies “security of supply of energy, finding new sustainable sources of energy and the transition process of current energy companies to be able to operate in this ‘new market’” as the main issues of the energy sector. Yea Chyn is convinced that making investments, rather than cutting back is going to help the energy sector tackle these problems. She participated in the NRG Battle through the same means she got in touch with the energy sector, her internship at Gasunie. Yea Chyn also has an interest in working alongside “other bright students with different backgrounds and perspectives”. Furthermore, she had a great experience at the Battle, met a lot of interesting people and learnt a lot from them. For Yea Chyn, the NRG Battle “is a great opportunity to see many representative facets of the energy industry and to come into contact with related companies.” In the Finals of the NRG Battle – Europe Edition 2012, her role in the team was, not surprisingly, mediator and strategic thinker.

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Talents in the Spotlight

Always stay positive, act with integrity and pursue good habits for a great life “I took up German, French, Italian, Chinese and Spanish alongside my business courses.”

Malvina Skendo Team : City of Groningen Study : Master of Business Administration (MBA) University of Notre Dame Talent : Multi Talent

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alvina is interested in many challenging things. Being raised in, educated in and travelling through different countries, her open mind and appreciation of different cultures comes natural. Her ambition is to become a future leader in finance and pave the way for other women promoting and supporting talented women in finance. She was selected by the municipality of Groningen to come up with ideas for creating small – scale wind turbines. Malvina is identified by TTA World as a Multi Talent; depending on the situation she adapts and acts accordingly. Multi Talents are hard to find and unique. Being a high – potential individual, Malvina combines the drive for results with innovation, with efficiency and with team spirit. Does the situation call for quick and decisive action? She will push for results. Is the team having trouble generating new ideas? She will bring new and exciting ideas to the table. Because of her ability to shift effectively from strategic to creative thinking, she brings the best out of others as well. People having this talent are sometimes referred to as “master managers” (Quinn) - they have great potential and are situational leaders. The Multi Talent was born in Albania, grew up in the UK and has a passion for languages: “I took up German, French, Italian, Chinese and Spanish alongside my business courses.” As a true Strategic Talent, Malvina has short – term plans and long run objectives for her career. If currently and in the recent future she is focused on gaining extensive knowledge about various industries and pursuing a career in general management, her long – term career plans are more specific. Malvina would like to have a career in Strategy Consulting, Banking or Wealth Management at a large multinational firm. Her first contact with the energy world was the NRG Battle. Within the energy sector, Malvina remarks that the growing demand for energy and resources due to population growth is the biggest challenge our planet is facing. She proposes that out of the box thinking coupled with innovations in the renewables realm could help solve the energy demand – population growth problem. Malvina’s wish to develop herself and “build a more comprehensive knowledge base” drove her to participate in the Battle. She sees the NRG Battle as a great and fun experience and the chance to develop herself personally and professionally. Her team’s case focused on constructing small – scale wind turbines that included solar cells and could be placed above houses in urban areas. Fitting with her Multi Talent status, Malvina’s role in the team “was a combination of idea generator, strategic thinker, leader and team player”.

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Talents in the Spotlight

“To be honest, I never expected that the ideas developed during the NRG Battle stand a chance to get implemented. But now after participating in two battles (NRG Europe and World Edition) I can only feel naive about my opinion.”

It is purely scientific curiosity! Durgesh Kawale Team : Gasunie & DNV KEMA Study : Master in Chemical Engineering Delft University of Technology Talent : Efficiency Driven

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s chemical engineer Durgesh was selected by Gasunie & DNV KEMA in the World Edition in Kuala Lumpur in 2012 to work on their challenge Power to Gas. In 2011 he already won the Huntsman design challenge with an innovative idea on how to save 2 million euro per year in producing polyurethanes. Durgesh is identified as a great team player; he handles the stress of world competitions very well. In a very efficient and analytical way he helped his NRG Battle team mates to structure their ideas. He loves to analyse and to experiment with improving systems with the right data. His ambition is to rationally explain intriguing observations and use them for developing advanced solutions. Currently, Durgesh is pursuing his PhD by researching the fundamentals of polymer flows through porous, which has an application in enhanced oil recovery. Durgesh is passionate about his research and is thinking about a career as a scientist in academia or industry. His first connection to the energy sector was after his Bachelor, at his first “real job” at Kongsberg Oil and Gas Technologies (KOGT). For the energy sector, the chemical engineer identifies two major challenges: “How do we bridge the gap between the fossil fuel economy and the renewable fuel economy?” and How to prevent large developing economies (BRIC countries) from wasting energy and raise their energy efficiency at a global standard? For solutions to the twofold problem Durgesh proposes to, first, continue with funding for prolonging the production of fossil fuels, and second, demonstrate long-term benefits of energy efficiency, together with sharing knowledge and technology on a global level to enable efficient use of energy in developing countries. As personal contribution to the energy sector, the PhD candidate feels that his current research is how he can best serve the field. The Indian born chemical engineer says he was driven to take part in the NRG Battle by “the possibility to network and obtain a holistic picture of the energy sector”. Durgesh’s experience with the Battle was quite surprising. “To be honest, I never expected that the ideas developed during the NRG Battle stand a chance to get implemented. But now after participating in two battles (NRG Europe and World Edition) I can only feel naive about my opinion.” The two –– time NRG Battle participant saw that companies are “enthusiastic about using young talents to solve energy security challenges”. In the latest NRG Battle contest, the European Edition Finals, Durgesh was idea generator for his team. He also took charge of the technical details of the case. His team did a very good job in finding a solution for repurposing old plants in the North Sea and won third place in NRG Battle – Europe Edition 2012 Finals.

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 27


Financing Sustainability is a column by Holland Financial Centre

Smart Finance: The Green Investment Corporation

“S

mart about Energy” not only means applying smart technologies and developing new smart services, it also means using Smart Finance. To illustrate this, take the case of putting a solar panel on the roof of your own house. The electricity produced by your panel will simply be netted with the electricity you take from the public grid. However, if you live in an apartment building in the Netherlands, this feed-in feature is not there, and you will need the public grid to get electricity to you and your neighbours. Taking into account that using only the smallest part of the grid means applicable (energy) taxes, your business case will disappear and banks will back off from financing. The whole energy system of electricity and gas is based on central production. The codes and taxes related to delivery and transport are developed around this presumption. Smart decentralized production with many small producers is not included in this system. Another example is the so-called “split incentive” which could emerge with energy efficiency investments for housing and offices. Investment in energy efficiency should result in lower energy bills. But when the investments are for the owner and the lower bills for the tenant, the incentive is split and it may never actually take place. Vice versa: if an office is rented out with an allinclusive rent, there is no incentive for the tenant to be more energy efficient. Smart Finance does not necessarily mean out of the box, completely new financial structures. But it does mean standardised solutions for financing decentralised generation and energy efficiency investments. Standardisation will not only lower the costs of financing, it will also make it possible to bundle smaller investments. Bundling is essential for attracting institutional investors like pension funds. And institutional investors are absolutely necessary to finance the transition to smart energy. Holland Financial Centre has been proposing the Green Investment Corporation (GIC) as a structure to accelerate the financing of the energy transition. Smart Finance is the first task of GIC; this means forming a special task force, including the ministries, in order to overcome the above mentioned hurdles. Gerard van Baar Holland Financial Centre Managing Director Centre for Finance & Sustainability

The Holland Financial Centre foundation is a joint public/private venture launched by a number of parties in the financial industry and the government, who have joined together to form a broad-based interest group. The objective of HFC is to develop initiatives aimed at preserving a strong, open, internationally competitive financial industry in the Netherlands, and to retain existing jobs in the industry and create new ones. One of the focal points of HFC is Finance & Sustainability. The Centre for Finance & Sustainability started the discussions around the Green Investment Corporation (Groene InvesteringsMaatschappij), initiated the webportal www.FSinsight.org, a platform for discussions on Finance & Sustainability between academia and business. The Centre also commissioned the book Financing Sustainability which can be downloaded at the website of Holland Financial Centre: www.hollandfinancialcentre.com.

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Rational Middle Is it smart to stop nuclear power generation? Nuclear energy is generated through splitting atoms and generates splitted attitudes in return. Experts and the general public alike have divided opinions when it comes to nuclear power generation. At the moment the world has over 430 commercial nuclear reactors in 31 countries. These reactors are responsible for generating almost 14 % of the planet’s electricity (source: http://world-nuclear.org/). The International Energy Agency advises having the pursuit of energy efficiency and lowering CO2 emissions as main global priorities in the World Energy Outlook 2012. While low CO2 emissions during generation and large potential for electricity production, fitting to emerging economies with increasing energy consumption (e.g., China), make a valid case for nuclear plants, concerns for radioactive waste, terrorism and the halo effect of the Fukushima accident in 2011 and the well-known Chernobyl disaster in 1986 are still on the table. NRG Magazine decided to put a magnifying glass over the position of nuclear power generation in the whole climate-change, sustainability-pursuit and energy efficiency situation. Therefore, we asked two of the Netherlands’ leading experts in nuclear energy (Prof. Dr. Ir. Tim van der Hagen) and solar energy (Prof. Dr. Wim Sinke) to present their views on the future of nuclear power generation.

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 29


Rational Middle: Is it smart to stop nuclear power generation?

Not smart to stop W

ith the enormous growth in population and in energy consumption per capita, the challenge we are facing to reduce greenhouse gasses emissions while ensuring that people have access to affordable energy, in the right form, at the right moment, is immense. According to the World Energy Outlook 2012 of the International Energy Agency, 1.3 billion people still lack access to electricity. By 2035, the global energy demand will have increased by 35% and the need for electricity by 70%. At least for many decades to come we will need a mix of energy conversion options, gradually shifting from conventional resources to renewables. Diversification is also needed to limit our vulnerability to political instabilities, technical disappointments and terroristic threats. As Churchill stated in 1913 about diversification of supply: “On no one quality, on no one process, on no one country, on no one route and on no one field must we be dependent.” Renewables as well as energy conservation and higher energy efficiency must play increasing roles. Equipping power plants running on the abundant fossil resources (shale) gas or coal with means to capture the CO2 and storing or using it, is a technical, political and societal complex and costly issue, and the technologies involved are still in their infancy. The physical amount of carbon waste that would have to be managed and injected into geologic layers is enormous compared with

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Prof. Dr. Ir. Tim van der Hagen is dean of the faculty of Applied Sciences at the Delft University of Technology. He is full professor of Reactor Physics. From 2005 until 2012 he was director of the Reactor Institute Delft, the Netherlands. Photo: Guus Schoonewille the volumes of nuclear waste. All the nuclear waste generated by the entire civilian nuclear program as yet would fill no more than a single football field to a height of eight meters.

“With nuclear power we buy time,time to give other options a chance.” Nuclear power can be applied on a large scale, is economically competitive and with negligible emissions of CO2. Moreover, its longterm costs are predictable, because the commodity price fluctuations have no significant impact on the kWh price. Uranium can be extracted economically for centuries in politically stable countries. This period is increased to 10,000 years when the so-called fourth generation nuclear power plants, currently in preparation, come into play. In such plants, the uranium ore is being used up to a hundred times better and less waste is produced, that remains radioactive for a shorter time. The nuclear industry is, first and foremost, characterized by a strong

commitment to cooperation and safety. The dramatic accident at Fukushima has reinforced the need for the nuclear sector to further prepare for the unexpected. Furthermore, the nuclear industry has developed the necessary technology for processing radioactive waste and the technology has been largely adopted (e.g., disposal of highly radioactive waste in the geological subsurface). Additionally, the cost of processing and disposal of radioactive waste and the eventual decommissioning of the nuclear power plants is already included in the kWh price. We should aim for a smart transition to sustainable energy from sun and wind. Producing 50% of the global electricity with renewables in 2050 would mean an enormous success, but even then, 50% remains to be generated by other means. Society will have to rely on fossil fuels and nuclear power for quite some time, if only to be able to develop optimal energy sources. With nuclear power we buy time, time to give other options a chance.


Rational Middle: Is it smart to stop nuclear power generation?

Yes, it is smart to stop T

o use nuclear power or not is a societal choice; there is no necessity that can be proven or even be convincingly motivated. Classical arguments like “we need to buy time” or “otherwise lowcarbon electricity generation will become unaffordable” are based on assumptions that are highly debatable if not proven false. The rate at which the contribution of renewable energy technologies can grow has been shown to be very high. Moreover, electricity generated by renewables can most likely compete with that from nuclear power plants if one accounts for all internal and external cost components, even though there is no consensus on how to quantify the latter exactly.

Prof. Dr. Wim Sinke is Manager Program Development Solar Energy at the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN). In 2011 he received the prestigious “Becquerel Prize” at the 26th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition in Hamburg, Germany. This prize honoured his life’s work in the field of photovoltaics. Photo: Wim Raaijen

“I see no pressing reason why we should want to continue to use nuclear power on the longer term”

renewables. For instance, flexibility and intelligence in all parts of the system are essential in highrenewables scenarios and require substantial changes compared to today’s situation. Germany already explores frontiers in this respect. The investments needed to adapt electricity grids to a new future technology mix, however, will only be done if it is at least partially clear which direction the transition will take. For this reason it will be difficult to keep both options open.

Independent of well-known points of discussion like nuclear waste, proliferation and availability of fuel, an important problem with scenarios for expansion or extension of nuclear power is that they frustrate ambitions in the field of renewables. In the political reality, nuclear power is usually a reason to slow down the deployment of renewables. Another issue is that an electricity system based on large, central units requires an infrastructure quite different from the one needed to facilitate a growing share of

I see no pressing reason why we should want to continue to use nuclear power on the longer term when there are scenarios based on renewables with for instance natural gas as a transition fuel. The never ending, often emotional debate obviously results from the lack of consensus on how realistic such scenarios are in terms of the availability of the required building blocks, the timing, the costs, etc. Realizing such scenarios (or rather, any scenario that involves major changes) is clearly a huge challenge.

However, “we ain’t seen nothing yet” in renewables in general and in solar energy in particular. If the world would really try hard (which it certainly doesn’t right now) we would soon have 40% efficient photovoltaic solar modules, dispatchable concentrating solar power plants that also desalinate sea water, clean solar fuels that are produced with 10% efficiency and solar energy systems for heating and cooling in all forms and sizes one can imagine. Not just renewable, but fully sustainable. Moreover, this will help building the new, green economy that we are so desperately striving for. These are offers we cannot afford to refuse.

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Smart about Energy

Smart energy: Dutch engineers take the challenge Worldwide, engineers are working on creating a more sustainable society. The Royal Institute of Engineers in the Netherlands, KIVI NIRIA, is the place where engineers come together to share their knowledge, expertise and experience on several technical topics including sustainable energy. The Planet’s Energy Mix

K

IVI NIRIA is the Dutch institute for engineers and engineering students combining all engineering disciplines. The institute’s objectives are to promote the importance of technology in our society, provide professional services to its members and create a platform for engineers to exchange knowledge and experience. Within KIVI NIRIA there is vast knowledge about energy, which triggers discussions regarding shale gas, nuclear energy and wind energy. Other discussions involve questions like: What is the smartest mix of energy resources for the future? What are the possibilities for energy savings in the built environment and in other sectors? What is the potential of the circular economy? These are important discussions in which engineers are in the lead; however, other

disciplines are also important. To increase the public dialogue, last year, KIVI NIRIA introduced and organized the Technical Parliament, where engineers, policy makers and members of civil society organizations came together to discuss complex areas and possible solutions. Our publication, ‘The Smart Energy Mix’ presents a continuously updated vision of the Dutch energy mix for the coming decades. To reach a significant amount of CO2 reduction, our energy system will have to be changed. Furthermore, a booklet, which gives insight in our daily personal energy use and is suitable for a broad oriented audience, is in the making. This way the reader can understand the complex matters related to energy consumption and get smarter in using energy.

In 2013, the annual congress of KIVI NIRIA is all about sustainable mobility, and smart mobility is an important focus within this theme. How can we wisely combine different modes of transportation? How will autonomous transport be developed and how do we make our city planning? This theme will be approached from different points of view and by people from different disciplines. The world is looking for ways to get smart about energy. Engineers are needed and are willing to take the challenge. So come together, discuss, learn and meet your fellow engineers at a KIVI NIRIA conference, activity or online.

www.kiviniria.nl Follow us on Twitter: twitter.com/kiviniria

Upcoming KIVI NIRIA activities on sustainable energy: Symposium Symposium Excursion Annual Conference

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Forgotten Top Sector: Water and Food Sustainable electricity in 2050, part 1 Reststoffenenergiecentrale Sustainable Mobility

22 March 16 April 31 May 6 November

10.00 - 15.30 16:00 - 19:30 14:00 - 17:00 08.30 - 18.00

The Hague Utrecht Harlingen Eindhoven


NRG Facts or Fiction

Science precedes game changing developments R

enewables are on the rise. Between 1973 and 2010 the global share of electricity generation through alternative sources (including solar and biofuels) rose from 0.6% to 3.7% (source: “Key World Energy Statistics”, International Energy Agency (IEA), 2012). Still, fossil fuels lead the electricity production game.

are already being used to boost solar cells performance (e.g., ternary compound nanocrystals - source: Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, USA, www.lbl.gov). Furthermore, in December 2005, the IEA announced that by 2050 around 30% of the world’s vehicle stock will be powered by hydrogen fuel cells.

Photovoltaics (PV) and smart mobility (i.e., vehicles running on electricity, biofuels or hydrogen) might help change the game. The IEA “Technology Roadmap” predicts that solar cells will be responsible for 11% of the global electricity production by 2050. In line with this, different types of nanomaterials

With nanomaterials and hydrogen in mind, NRG Magazine wanted to know what experts today think about tomorrow’s solutions. The call for answers was picked up by Prof. Dr. Maria Antonietta Loi and Honorary Professor Anton J.M. Schoot Uiterkamp from the University of Groningen. NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 33


NRG Facts or Fiction

Nanomaterials and Photovoltaics Background | Colloidal semiconducting nanocrystals (NCs) are nanometersize semiconductor crystals that are synthesized by colloidal chemistry. Colloidal chemistry is a low technology method, which has the power to create nanomaterials with designed properties, compositions and shapes, which are hardly obtainable by any other means. The quality of these materials can be outstanding in respect to crystallinity, purity, size homogeneity, photoluminescence quantum yield etc.

Prof. Dr. Maria Antonietta Loi is Professor of Photophysics and Optoelectronics at the University of Groningen. Her expertise includes organic semiconductors and nanomaterials. Photo: Jeroen van Kooten

Facts | Colloidal nanocrystals have a high potential for a wide field of applications, including energy production and storage, catalysis, optoelectronics, spintronics and biological markers. In the last few years they have emerged strongly in the photovoltaic field as one of the most interesting low cost materials. This is because of: i) their solution processability; ii) the narrow bandwidth; iii) the tunability of the absorption and emission because of quantum confinement; iv) their remarkably broad absorption spectrum; v) their high dielectric constant; and iv) their high stability under ambient conditions.

Potential | In less than 3 years laboratory scale solar cells based on colloidal nanocrystals, mostly PbS, have reached power conversion efficiency of 7%, showing one of the fastest learning slopes in the photovoltaic field. Further efforts in understanding the physics of colloidal based devices and the improvement of the material quality can surely take colloidal nanocrystals to further improvement in the power conversion efficiency with perspectives

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“The potential of colloidal semiconductors is there, we just need to harness and transform it in energy.� to reach values above 10%. Semiconducting NCs are expected to display carrier multiplication via impact ionization (also called multiple exciton generation) when excited with photons of energy at least two times larger than their band gap. This effect, though hotly debated in the literature, has the potential to be used to overcome the theoretical efficiency limit for a single band gap solar cell (the Shockley–Queisser limit).

Future | While the application of colloidal nanocrystals in photovoltaic devices at the research level is already a reality, there are more opportunities to apply these materials for production of renewable energy. One of the most interesting, but still in its infancy, is photocatalytic water splitting (hydrogen production), where NCs can play an important role because of their high surface to volume ratio and their electronic structure. The potential of colloidal semiconductors is there, we just need to harness and transform it in energy.


NRG Facts or Fiction

Hydrogen Fuel Cells versus Oil History | Electric cars, more precisely rechargeable (lead-acid) battery electric vehicles or BEVs, were leading the passenger car market before being overtaken around 1900 by mass-produced affordable and reliable internal combustion engine (ICE) cars, starting with the Ford Model T. ICE cars have been dominant ever since. Their popularity mainly resulted from the abundant and secure supply of oil, an inexpensive and energy-dense carbon-based fossil fuel. But the massive usage of oil also led to rising prices, depletion of easily accessible stocks and emissions of air pollutants like nitrogen oxides and ultrafine particles. Moreover, exhausts of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide resulted in rapidly rising atmospheric concentrations of potentially climate changing compounds.

Prof. Dr. Anton J.M. Schoot Uiterkamp is an Emeritus Professor of the University of Groningen. His expertise is in Environmental Sciences and he is still active at the Centre for Energy and Environmental Sciences IVEM, University of Groningen.

“Car markets are conservative and strongly reflect fuel demand and supply.�

Market | The introduction around the year 2000 of the hybrid Toyota Prius, a combination of a BEV and an ICE car, was the first significant change in the car market for over a century. In 2008 the Honda Clarity appeared. This was the first pre-commercial fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). A fuel cell is essentially a battery producing electricity from the reaction between stored hydrogen and atmospheric oxygen. The introduction of rechargeable Li- ion batteries, around 1990, led to the large scale reappearance of BEVs such as the Mitsubishi i-MiEV and the Nissan Leaf. Did the entry of cars with innovative technology mark the beginning of the end of the ICE car era? It is unlikely. Without the universal introduction and enforcement of policy measures aimed at climate change (e.g., a carbon tax) phasing out of the ICE car on a global scale is expected to be a slow process for a variety of reasons. Most importantly, car markets are conservative and strongly reflect fuel demand and supply. Fossil oil and gas are both energy sources and flexible energy carriers and, especially since the arrival of shale oil and gas, their supply is secured for many decades to come. Replacing fossil fuels in ICEs by biofuels is expected to remain limited to local markets. Both electricity and hydrogen are just energy carriers which have to be generated from primary sources. Currently most electricity is derived from coal and gas and most hydrogen is produced from gas. However electricity can be generated sustainably from renewable sources

like wind and solar energy and, in turn, that electricity can also produce hydrogen by hydrolysing water. Battery and fuel cell systems remain expensive compared to the fully matured ICEs.

Facts | Both electricity in batteries and hydrogen stored in tanks still have a much lower energy density than gasoline. That means either driving smaller distances or heavy and voluminous batteries or hydrogen tanks in relatively small cars where space is at a premium. Electricity has the advantage of being widely available from public grids. Car batteries can also buffer grid electricity fluctuations, but charging batteries is still slow and the existing power grids were not designed for large scale use of BEVs. Hydrogen tanks can be refilled quickly but there is as yet no sufficiently large scale safe and secure system of generating and supplying hydrogen.

Future | In conclusion, although hybrid cars have already entered the market in substantial numbers, ICE cars are likely to remain the dominant passenger cars for many years to come. The near future market share of BEVs is expected to remain larger than that of FCEVs mainly because generating electricity is more efficient than producing hydrogen using electricity. Significant improvements in hydrogen systems technology over that of battery electric systems may ultimately favour FCEVs over BEVs.

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Back to the future with Paul Gilding

Back

to the future with Paul Gilding

Did you ever wonder what defines a great career, what people we look up to have to say about global issues and which advice they can provide for young talents, just starting their career? Paul Gilding, former global CEO of Greenpeace and current independent writer, advisor and advocate on sustainability, connects his experience as activist with his work in business consulting to give us an interesting take on how the future of the global energy system will unravel.

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Photo: Joey Johannsen, Rotterdam


Back to the future with Paul Gilding

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aving the “luxury of being able to think about the big picture”, Paul Gilding is able to offer his audience a well-informed view on the state of the global economy, energy system, environment and social systems. He is also able to offer simple solutions and an optimistic vision on the future of civilization. The problem is, applying these solutions is not up to him, otherwise we could just sit back as a species and watch sustainability as it takes us by surprise, and what a pleasant surprise that would be. Throughout the 35 years he has dedicated to bettering the world, Mr. Gilding has had his share of proud moments and his disappointments, together with the opportunity to see things changing. From his Greenpeace years he is “not necessarily proud of a moment, but of a target activity”. The former global CEO of Greenpeace remarks the ability of such organizations of exposing hidden activities. “Drawing public attention to polluting activities, especially in isolated places, is very powerful and it changes the environmental debate in a very profound way. Being involved in that process was a great thing.” After Greenpeace, Mr. Gilding continued his environmental protection quest, but in a more market integrated manner. “One of the most exciting things I did after Greenpeace was Easy Being Green.” The company was active in the environmental services industry and made quite an impact through its activities. Mr. Gilding explains: “We distributed energy efficiency equipment to homes. By doing this we managed to cut over 4 million tonnes of CO2 emissions. Doing something this practical was quite rewarding on a personal level”. Shifting to disappointments, Mr. Gilding talks about companies’ lack of ability to change their core business. “The opportunity for gigantic oil companies to become gigantic energy companies is so clear, and in the long-term, so logical for their shareholders and for society, that the unwillingness of the leadership of those companies to do so is a historically lost opportunity for the world. This unwillingness also costs us in the climate change battle.”

[Bio] A more diverse and interesting career path as Paul Gilding’s is rather difficult to find. The job that is probably most related to the field of energy is Mr. Gilding’s current one, as advisor and advocate on sustainability. Nevertheless, he also worked in a cake factory and served in the Australian army. He was the global CEO of Greenpeace (1992 - 1994) and has been teaching at Cambridge University since 2002. He founded and led Ecos Corporation (1995 - 2008) and he wrote and published (2011) a book dedicated to the implications of irresponsible human behaviour on the planet’s systems and future, “The Great Disruption.” From chaining himself to the gates of the South African embassy at seventeen, to speaking openly about how human kind is on the verge of systematic crisis, Paul Gilding has been dedicating his life to helping the world become sustainable.

“I am excited about what is happening in renewables, where prices are dropping rapidly, and the roll out is happing so quickly” However, positive changes in the energy system do exist. Mr. Gilding: “I am excited about what is happening in renewables, where prices are dropping rapidly, and the roll out is happing so quickly that in some places they do not need government subsidies anymore.” This progress has been enabled mostly by new companies. “We see that new technologies and new ways of doing business come from new players, and not from old players changing.” There are also negative changes in the energy sector, as is the rise in unconventional fossil fuel production. In line with the International Energy Agency predictions, Mr. Gilding sees this rise as “a temporary issue, which will be counteracted through the necessity to lower CO2 emissions and through the lowering of renewables prices.” Moving from changes to the crisis, in “The Great Disruption” Mr. Gilding foresees that humanity is in for a bumpy ride. To avoid the crisis, “impossible things” have to be demanded from companies, governments and individuals. One of them is to effectively eliminate the fossil fuel industry within 20 years in order to avoid going past a 2 degrees increase in global temperature. “Dramatically increasing employment to reduce the political and social instability that comes from unemployment” is another thing. Additionally, “We have to move away from the idea that endless growth is effective in improving quality of life,” emphasizes Mr. Gilding. Besides the things that we need to change, there are also things that are going to change on their own, sometimes in unpredictable ways. “One of the most interesting changes at the moment is in renewables. Renewables which are shown to be expensive are actually taking down the whole grid costs by smoothing peak demand moments (e.g., solar panels on rooftops in Germany). Another game changer is smart grids. Mr. Gilding concludes: “When people produce their own power and can sell what they don’t use to the grid, it changes their consumer attitude on such a profound level.”

[Tip for Talent] For young people starting their career in the field of energy or in a related field, Paul Gilding’s main advice is to “follow your passion”. In a world that is unpredictable and complex, “allowing yourself to love your work, to feel that what you’re doing is important and to be driven by the excitement of opportunity are very powerful things”. Mr. Gilding remarks that most of the companies that are around today will not be around in the future. Therefore, “the chance for young people to build a new world of business, a new world of technology, a new world of consumer attitudes and a new world of regulation and governmental roles is unparalleled in history”.

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Smart about Energy

Smart Grids with CGI: Photo: Rita van de Poel

Connecting to the Sustainable Future Jos Siemons is Managing Consultant Smart Energy at CGI. Mr. Siemons has a background in informatics and has been working in the utility sector in the Netherlands for the past decade. Around four years ago he started to work on new topics in energy, like electric vehicle (EV) charging and smart grids. Mr. Siemons also practices what he preaches as a Managing Consultant. He drives and EV, he has a smart meter at home and, starting with January 2013, he is co-owner of a windmill in the Netherlands.

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s the energy system is ready to change for the better, CGI is preparing the landing strip for smarter energy networks. The the company’s vision on individual consumers of energy is also shifting. Consumers are no longer only users of energy. Through the emergence of renewable energy generation (e.g., solar, wind) and the implementation of smart grids, consumers are also producers of energy. Thus, the future of energy is the future of “prosumers”, and CGI is here to help them with smart, sustainable solutions. The world-class IT solutions provider is involved in smart grids projects in various parts of the world. In Portugal, the company is a key partner in developing the EDP Distribuição InovGrid which, among other things, reduces operating costs, promotes energy efficiency and increases renewables penetration in the market. In the UK, CGI is part of the Low Carbon London programme. Moreover, the company is not only in line with the International Energy Agency (IEA) objectives for 2035 regarding energy efficiency and CO2 emissions minimization, it is also taking an active role in the deployment of

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CGI designs solutions for the future. With over 71,000 professionals in 40 countries, CGI is a world-class provider of end-to-end IT and business process services. Since August 2012, Logica is part of CGI, and this gives the company an even broader expertise and coverage. CGI offers its services to clients in the Americas, Europe, Asia Pacific, the Middle East and Africa, in various economic sectors such as Financial Services, Health, Telecom and Utilities. With global High-end Consulting, System Integration and IT and Business Process Outsourcing services, CGI serves over 10,000 commercial and government organizations worldwide and it is the world’s 5th largest IT and BPS firm.

smart grids and smart solutions. In 2012, in the Dutch city of Zwolle, the company launched a smart grids pilot with more than 100 households. But before we delve into the specifics of CGI’s services and way of thinking, we need to approach the concept of smart grids in more detail. The European Technology Platform for Smart Grids defines the smart grid as an electricity network that can integrate the actions of energy generators, consumers and those that do both (i.e., prosumers) “in order to efficiently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies”. CGI takes this definition to a more comprehensible and practical stage. For the company, within smart grids, the distribution infrastructures for gas, electricity and heat is combined with ICT solutions that can measure and control the energy. Smart grids are a clear sign of progress in the energy system. And progress is driven by the right innovations, but also the right reasons. In CGI’s view, the reason behind smart grids is twofold. First, consumers have access to energy generated by renewables like

solar and wind. Secondly, there are new energy consumers, which are emerging rapidly (e.g., electric vehicles (EVs)). These use a lot of energy, and they use it around peak times during the day (e.g., at 06:00pm, when people return from their jobs to their homes). On top of this, electricity is a form of energy that is not easy to store, hence optimal matching of supply and demand within households is necessary. Therefore, “the challenge for smart grids is to bring together the generation side and the new users of energy, while avoiding peak demand moments and supporting the same level of comfort consumers are used to,” explains Jos Siemons, Managing Consultant Smart Energy at CGI. The focus of smart grids is the prosumer. End user perception influences the success of smart grids implementation. “Without seeing the end user as a very important stakeholder in the smart grids transition, it’s not possible to take smart grids into the future,” remarks Mr. Siemons. CGI has been taking part in a pilot for smart grids in Muziekwijk, in Zwolle. The project, “Your Energy Moment”, is based on demand-


Smart about energy

response situations with solar energy generation, smart washing machines and in-home displays. In the project, innovative ICT solutions are implemented to enable the end user to choose sustainable or cheap moments to use energy. In this respect, the Central Energy Management System (CEMS) is a focus point of the smart grids Zwolle project. The CEMS users receive continuous information about their energy consumption and production. Moreover, the CEMS is connected to smart devices that “pick” the right moment for beginning to function (e.g., smart washing machines). CGI also handled concerns about data management and security. The company cooperated with Enexis in order to zoom in on potential security issues related to smart grids deployment. Additionally, CGI made smart grids user friendly outside homes. “We developed some additional apps for the end users in Zwolle, so that they can also follow their energy usage not just in their homes through the energy display but also for example at their work through their mobile phones.” Nevertheless, in order to ensure security of data, the steering of the smart devices is only available in homes. The Zwolle pilot is quite successful in optimizing energy generation and usage. Consequentially, the number of

houses in the project will increase to 250 in 2013. Another similar project was launched in Breda in March 2013. From success stories, our discussion shifts to how the company approaches global energy goals. The World Energy Outlook 2012 presents scenarios for how the world of energy will evolve in the next decades. The IEA report makes a strong case for the necessity of using energy efficiency and policies for carbon dioxide minimization in order to reach sustainability. CGI is well aware of these points and tackles them accordingly. The company already has successful ongoing projects related to CO2 emissions reduction. CGI is working as part of the UK Power Networks team to help London realise its low carbon vision. The programme covers from strategic network planning through operation to new commercial arrangements and its completion is expected by June 2014. Furthermore, carbon emissions reduction is a given in all smart grids the company handles projects due to their focus on renewable energy. Additionally, CGI is working with customers and partners in order to find innovative solutions to reduce the carbon footprint of all its activities. The energy efficiency part has a different approach. The potential

Smart home as part of smart grids implementation, schematic representation - Image courtesy of Enexis

for energy efficiency is already there. Using smarter, lower consumption machines together with smart metering and smart grids, the industry, the built environment and the transport sector are able to increase their energy efficiency in a significant way. CGI is able to make another critical link to energy efficiency: smart grids enable consumers to have a better grasp regarding their energy intake, thus they are more aware of their cost of consumption. This, of course, works on lowering individual consumption of energy, which in turn contributes to energy efficiency. Hence, what we see is a positive, indirect relationship between smart grids and energy efficiency. Finally, public acceptance of smart grids is discussed. Mr. Siemons informs us that there is not so much a problem with the acceptance of smart grids, as it is with having the right knowledge about what smart grids are. “If you mention the term smart grids to the end users, they don’t know what you’re talking about. But if you explain it using other elements, like a smart washing machine or energy display, that will help them in making their energy use more sustainable and cheaper, that’s a clear message,” explains Mr. Siemons. Therefore, in order to broaden public acceptance of smart grids and increase smart grids usage, the communication needs the right formulation. Mr. Siemons concludes: “If you talk to consumers you always have to explain why something new is good and safe for them together with the added value of the new device. Hence, if you solve security issues and you bring forth the right message, implementation of smart grids will always be a success.”

For more information please visit: www.logica.nl and www.cgi.com

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Smart about Energy

Sustainability as Mindset:

APPM is getting things done through process management

“We bring companies together. Sometimes, when it comes to their goals, businesses are not able to look beyond their backyard. This is where we come in.” All about Planning | For APPM sustainability has a twofold time frame, it has to work on the long-term but also on the short run. “When we talk about the built environment, if you’re planning a new development, keep in mind that in 30 or 50 years things can really change. So you need to be flexible. Buildings need to be multifunctional, a mix of living and working areas and recreational spaces,” pinpoints Mr. Van de Velde. Extending this to an urban perspective, Mr. Van Kerkhof continues: “In planning urban areas, you have to develop something that is sustainable for a long period, but that is also suitable for living in the next ten years. You have to do both, and that’s a challenge.” Moreover, when conceptualizing such areas, APPM advises

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Photo: © APPM

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dvising on sustainability in area (re)development, mobility, infrastructure and water is a challenging role to have, but APPM has been doing it remarkably well for the past 17 years. In APPM’s view, sustainability is a mindset. The management consultancy company advises on a balance between the technical side of sustainability and alignment between the parties involved. Putting only the technical side central to the sustainability pursuit will not help us accomplish our goals. “When it comes to sustainability, the focus has to go beyond your own main activities as business. For example, in the building sector, a hospital can cooperate with the buildings in its surroundings and give part of its residual heating to the neighbours with a demand for heating, instead of losing it,” explains Bart van de Velde, Project Manager at APPM. Cooperation makes things move further. “We bring companies together. Sometimes, when it comes to their goals, businesses are not able to look beyond their backyard. This is where we come in. We are process managers and we put organisations together in one room, define the goals and the way companies can work together. Then one and one is three, not two,” says Mark van Kerkhof, Business Unit Manager of the Energy and Climate Unit at APPM.

Mark van Kerkhof (left) is Managing Consultant and Business Unit Manager of the Energy and Climate Unit at APPM, kerkhof@appm.nl Bart van de Velde (right) is Project Manager at APPM, velde@appm.nl

to incorporate the energy side and the economical side of things. Also, really listening to what the customer wants is essential in any project. Mindset | “In all our projects, we have a mindset for sustainability. Moreover, a lot of projects are somehow related to sustainability, either they are about public infrastructures or e-mobility. When there is not a clear relationship with sustainability, for instance in civil engineering projects, we always try to incorporate a landscape architect or another expert that will be able to position those projects in a better manner in a certain area,” explains Mr. Van Kerkhof. “Our clients often view sustainability as a project, but we see it as a cultural movement. Our work is not about doing a project with a start and an end; we see it as a process.” Success stories | Having such a healthy attitude towards how the transition to a more sustainable socio-economic environment should occur, it is not surprising that APPM has had its fair share of success stories. One of them focuses on e-mobility in the city of Amsterdam. APPM handled the project management, including placing charging units on the streets of Amsterdam. And, “nowadays we’re one of the leading companies advising in e-mobility in the Netherlands,” remarks Mr. Van de Velde. Another success story is linked to the Energy Board NoordHolland Noord, a cooperation between governments, knowledge institutes and businesses to stimulate the local economy through sustainability. “You can compare

the Energy Board to Energy Valley, they work together as well. Here, we managed to bring together top companies, the government and knowledge institutions to cooperate and to set up different projects in this part of the Netherlands,” says Mr. Van de Velde. Goals | APPM’s aims are threefold. First, APPM’s focus is on making the Netherlands sustainable and more beautiful. Hence, projects are approached in a practical and multidisciplinary manner (e.g., incorporating a landscape architect in a project for highways). Secondly, “we are more active in taking our own initiative. Our main ambition is that in five years we will have started the largest share of our projects ourselves,” says Mr. Van Kerkhof. A good example is the Urbanisator: a concept that focuses on the redevelopment of outdated business areas by bringing together the property owners. “We do not wait for a party to contact us to help them, instead we call them ourselves, because we believe they can do a better job,” continues Mr. Van Kerkhof. Thirdly, the way to accomplish a more sustainable and beautiful country is through process management. By using its tools and advising services, the company is also supporting its long-term ambition of making the world a better place for next generations, and bringing this ambition in a practical way, to the here and now.

APPM is a process management company that is helping (local) governments, project developers and other businesses to implement their sustainability strategies. www.appm.nl


Nederland Innoveert

Nederland Innoveert: The Smart Way of Showcasing Innovation Innovation is crucial to the development of the energy sector and the advancement of our economy and our society. The national event dedicated to technical innovations, Nederland Innoveert is a great opportunity for experts to showcase their latest projects and for Béta and Technical students to get inspired to pursue their own ideas in a more concrete manner. This year the event took place on February 1st and 2nd 2013 in the Eindhoven Evoluon. What better location for innovation show-casing for a better future, than the spaceshipshaped Evoluon? The Dutch event is organized by the leading communications consultancy Winkelman Van Hessen (WvH) in partnership with Trius. WvH specializes in providing strategic and creative advice for corporate communications, public affairs, crisis communications and special events. The agency’s founder, Ralph van Hessen is confident about the future of the event, but is a firm believer in taking things step by step. NRG Magazine discussed the role of the event for advancing the state of the energy sector in the Netherlands. Mr. Van Hessen informed us that in the next years the event will have several focus areas (e.g., for sustainability in the energy sector and in mobility). There will also be cooperation with the Dutch Top Sector Water. “Now the event is more about sharing nice innovation than having clear focus areas. We centre the event on getting acquainted with technical and science people, who are going to be part of a, let’s say, national platform for innovation,” says Mr. Van Hessen. The event founder also notes the reason behind the Nederland Innoveert initiative: “I have had many functions in the ICT, innovation and technology sectors, and what I like to do now is to show that things work.” He suggests that seeing innovation in a concrete way works well in making young aspiring innovators to believe in their ideas and take charge to accomplish them.

Ralph van Hessen (left), founder of Winkelman Van Hessen, the communications consultancy agency that organizes Nederland Innoveert

Naturally, such an event had a fare share of brain power and personalities in attendance. Former astronaut and sustainability advocate Wubbo Ockels was ambassador of Nederland Innoveert. He is also the initiator with the Superbus project currently based at the Delft University of Technology. We talked to the former astronaut about the event and about plans for a more sustainable future for the Netherlands. “I do like the initiative of Winkelman van Hessen to create the interaction between young people as watchers and young people as innovators. A meeting like this should develop the character of a fair where you trade something, which is not money, but excitement, inspiration and knowledge,” remarks Mr. Ockels. He notes that the event brings transparency and allows the creation of a platform for beautiful innovations. Mr. Ockles also emphasized the need for more visible communication about such initiatives as the one created by WvH: “In the Netherlands, we don’t have yet enough smart and driven journalists, we don’t have yet enough organisations that have the task to make everything visible.”

Wubbo Ockels, Dutch physicist and former astronaut of the European Space Agency

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Nederland Innoveert

Going into the specifics of the event, Nederland Innoveert was also a place for groundbreaking innovation in the energy sector. Berend Jan Kleute, Co-founder of Bluerise presented the advantages of using Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. Mr. Kleute promoted the potential of using the ocean’s natural thermal gradient for generating clean energy, free of CO2 emissions in tropical regions. Bluerise has already had a successful pilot for testing OTEC at the Delft University of Technology, and is now busy with constructing a 100kW OTEC energy plant right under the Curaçao International Airport.

Berend Jan Kleute, Co-founder of Bluerise

Maasvlakte 2 was also in the spotlight on the Nederland Innoveert stage. Tiedo Vellinga, Professor Port and Waterways at Delft University of Technology and Director Environmental Monitoring at Maasvlakte 2, and Frank Tazelaar, Director APM Terminals at Maasvlakte 2, made a good case as to why the large-scale development in the Port of Rotterdam is a step ahead in the future or portal innovation. After their presentation, event founder Ralph van Hessen put forth the idea of exporting the Maasvlakte 2 concept to other countries. Thus, the event not only presented innovations that will improve the future, but was also a great environment for thinking of ideas for even further in the future. In this sense we could say Nederland Innoveert is not an innovation exhibition, but also a place to get inspired. Frank Tazelaar, Director APM Terminals at Maasvlakte 2

The event took innovation to a higher level, literally. In line with the image the Evoluon casts on Nederland Innoveert, Ben Droste from Space Expedition Corporation connected space travel innovations to achieving better fuel efficient on long-haul flights to different corners of the planet. Ben Droste, Strategic

Nederland Innoveert opened its doors for two days of innovation, but the projects presented there and the ideas they inspired will have large repercussions in time. Moreover, the event not only inspired the audience, but also the innovators on stage. Until the next innovation exhibition, we end with a few words from Frank Tazelaar: “An event like this provides inspiration and good ideas which I can connect to and bring home.”

Command of Space Expedition Corpotation

Photography: Tycho Müller

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Expert Section with Paul Timmers

Expert Section NRG Magazine celebrates experts. In this edition, Paul Timmers, Director Sustainable & Secure Society, DG CONNECT at the European Commission is discussing the role of ICT in the energy system transition. Paul Timmers is Director of Directorate H: Sustainable & Secure Society at the European Commission Directorate General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology or DG CONNECT. Mr. Timmers’s background is a mix of public policy, industry and academia. He has a PhD in theoretical physics and an MBA from Warwick Business School. Photo courtesy of the European Commission DG CONNECT, Directorate H: Sustainable & Secure Society

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Expert Section with Paul Timmers

A threefold view on ICT:

Sustainability Enabler, Energy Consumer and CO2 Emitter

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hen tackling complex problems with repercussions on society and the environment, it is wise to say that a one-sided view is insufficient. The DG CONNECT Directorate Sustainable & Secure Society is focused on using digital to approach major societal topics, like energy, climate but also the ageing of the population. Ultimately all these efforts are aimed at creating a more sustainable society. “Sustainability is in our view a Triple Bottom Line (TBL): economic, social and environmental. Invariably this is quite multidisciplinary and it is also very much multi-actor. The directorate’s work is a combination of public sector, private sector and civil society,” says Paul Timmers. Many of the activities of Directorate H are focused on energy efficiency and on security, which are connected to Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The European Commission created the Digital Agenda for Europe, which, among other things, puts forth the benefits that ICT can provide for the energy sector and society at large. These benefits include capabilities to decrease energy consumption in cities and the ability of countries to provide better public services. Nevertheless, there is a catch. ICT also comes with energy consumption of its own and with CO2 emissions. Nowadays, ICT products and services use 8 to 10% of the electricity consumed in the EU and is also responsible for 2.5 to 4% of the EU’s carbon emissions (source: Blog of Neelie Kroes, Vice-President of the European Commission, March 2nd 2012). Additionally, increased ICT usage comes with increasing volumes of data and the pressing need for smart cyber security. Furthermore, the Trust and Security unit within Directorate H is developing together with colleagues in the Commission and the External Action Service the

cyber security policy and strategy for the Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE). Coming back to the energy footprint of ICT, the discussion about the energy consumption of software is getting more prominent. ICT companies should not only be concerned with making hardware energy efficient, they should focus on energy efficient software and hardware. Mr. Timmers comments: “Now we are doing a total, endto-end footprint of ICT, hence, following ICT energy behaviour and CO2 emissions throughout the whole value chain. For this purpose we also encouraged the industry to look at its total value chain.” However, this is not that easy to achieve. The value chain stretches from the end point of consumption to where all the bits and pieces of hardware are produced (e.g., to Japan or China). Mr. Timmers also informs us that large software producers are all part of a collective effort to develop a methodology for ICT carbon footprint: “This project has been done with the support of international standardization bodies such as ITU and IEC. And, for the past half year, we have been busy with the testing and validation of the methodology.”

“We need green cities, but we also need green ICT.” Shifting the discussion to energy efficiency, the Smart Cities & Sustainability unit within the directorate has a particular focus on this area. Currently, 68% of the EU population lives in cities. These urban areas are responsible for 70% of the energy consumption and 75% of greenhouse gas emissions in the EU. To deal with these issues, European cities have put energy security and climate change on their agendas. “Cities, city mayors and citizens are

very good anchor points for pursuing a strategy related to security, energy efficiency and climate change,” says Mr. Timmers. ICT can help urban areas to diminish energy intensity, to increase energy efficiency and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. “Related projects range from hard technology that looks at how you would do energy management, to involving citizens in being more energy conscious through social media,” explains Mr. Timmers. Moreover, the Smart Cities & Sustainability unit has ICT targets that are in line with EU energy consumption and carbon emissions goals. “We need green cities, but we also need green ICT,” says Mr. Timmers. To enable this, the European Commission has created the Smart Cities and Communities European Innovation Partnership. This is a partnership that deploys resources to support demonstration of energy, transport and information and communication technologies in urban areas. Through this initiative, cities are placed at the “centre of innovation”. The partnership will be supported with 365 million euro in 2013 (source: European Commission, ec.europa.eu). Finally, ICT can enable interesting changes in the energy market. The positive impact of ICT on the energy system seems to be most prominent on smart grids and their deployment at the European, regional and municipal level. Smart grids offer a two - way digital communication between the supplier and the consumer. Mr. Timmers: “We think that if you start implementing smart grids, you also enable consumers to respond to the actual situation in the energy market and, of course, also to become producers of energy themselves.” With the increased use of smart grids, the Director envisions an increased importance for citizens within the energy system.

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Smart about energy

Deloitte Knows

Smart Cyber Security

When you need smart solutions, you need the best in the business. Deloitte is one of the leaders in the information security consulting services market. In 2012, for the second consecutive year, Deloitte Netherlands became the Global CyberLympics Champion. The competition is centred on offensive and defensive security challenges and gathers over 250 teams from around the world in its preliminary rounds. Since the energy sector is moving to more online data about energy production and consumption and since smart grids projects are increasing in size and numbers, NRG Magazine decided to have a look at smart cyber security in the energy sector. To help connect the energy system and the intricacies of cyber security, Roel van Rijsewijk, Director Deloitte Risk Services and Marko van Zwam, Partner Security & Privacy at Deloitte Risk Services have joined the discussion.

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ccording to “The Forrester Wave: Information Security Consulting Services” report for the first quarter of 2013, Deloitte is one of the more traditional consultancies. This means that the company focuses on thought leadership, organizational transformation, risk management and business value. Taking into account the changes that the energy system and energy related companies are going through in the transition, the focus of Deloitte fits very well in this process. By having such focal points, Deloitte services are especially useful for companies that are shifting to a more sustainable stage. For instance, companies in the process technology industry that adopt new technologies to be more energy efficient are not only going through reorganization, but are also introducing new risks in the company environment. When it comes to companies that are active in the renewables part of the energy sector, Deloitte’s ability to concentrate on business value and thought leadership is also needed. Looking deeper into the needs of the energy sector, Mr. Van Rijsewijk identifies the main trend: moving to a more sustainable energy

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system implies information sharing, monitoring of infrastructures and using smart grids. He sees the online as the enabler for the energy sector to become more sustainable and to become more efficient. But when things move online they become more vulnerable to cyber threats. Hence, continuous monitoring and cyber security are a need for the energy system. Furthermore, the use of online is enforced by smart things. Mr. Van Zwam remarks: “We have seen smart grids, smart manufacturing and smart drilling. Everything that is “smart” happens to be connected to the internet. Everything connected to the internet, on the one hand is more efficient and faster, and on the other hand is more vulnerable.” Therefore, the energy transition will go hand in hand with increased online usage, which also comes with “weaknesses and vulnerabilities”, as Mr. Van Zwam notes. He continues by explaining the downside of legacy systems in the energy sector. Energy generation and energy distributing usually run on “Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition” or SCADA systems, which are increasingly connected to the internet. “All those legacy systems are either

unsecure by design or are not implemented securely and with that many new risks arise,” says Mr. Van Zwam. Hence, in order to have a good energy transition we have to look backwards at legacy systems and ensure that our ICT base is secure enough to build on in the future.

“Everything that is “smart” happens to be connected to the internet. Everything connected to the internet, on the one hand is more efficient, faster and more reliable, and on the other hand is more vulnerable.” Continuing with cyber security, Mr. Van Rijsewijk emphasizes the need for professional consultancy when it comes to the detection and prevention of cyber threat. There are also connections between sectors that are more evident when taking cyber threats into account. For instance, within smart grids, the


Smart about energy

telecommunication industry and the energy sector work together, thus, also defending each other. In this case, any weakness in the telecommunication sector will have an effect on the energy sector. “Moreover, since all these cyber threats are global, everybody is depending on and connected to each other, and all the sectors should work together in detecting and preventing cyber threats,” clarifies Mr. Van Rijsewijk. In each sector there are some areas that are more susceptible to threats than others. For the energy sector, everything involving monitoring infrastructures from a distance and data sharing is vulnerable to cyber threats. Mr. Van Zwam informs us that there are also concerns regarding sensitive data (e.g., researching and development, intellectual property, investment decisions). Additionally, stock markets for fossil fuels are susceptible to threats which can have great impact on energy related investments. One other area of vulnerability is related to international cooperation in the energy field. “What you also see is that more western oil companies have to work together with national oil companies from Russia, Iraq, Nigeria, Venezuela, China, Malaysia, and cooperation means sharing systems and sharing access. With that you also give away information, which is restricted,” remarks Mr. Van Zwam. To these four areas we have to add the fact that “the major operators in the energy sector are also obviously susceptible to hacktivism from environmentalists or other parties that “fight” for their ideals,” says Mr. Van Rijsewijk. Moving from identifying problem areas to solutions, Mr. Van Zwam presents the Deloitte way of approaching cyber security in the energy sector and beyond it. “First, the CEO should take responsibility for the cyber programme in a company.” The reason behind this is related to the budget. If the CEO is not in charge of this type of decisions, the cyber programme won’t get a budget and won’t get attention. In line with this, for the

past two years, Deloitte and the World Economic Forum have been creating a partnership and have been strongly advocating for CEOs to take responsibility for cyber security. Another type of cyber solution lies in the design of new systems, in other words, Deloitte is advocating for secure design. Mr. Van Zwam: “You don’t start thinking about security when new systems go live, you include elements of security and, potentially, of privacy already in the design of the system. That’s something we stand for.” Likewise, Deloitte focuses on fixing the basics, ensuring the good “hygiene” of system elements (e.g., patching the wireless of users). Cyber threats are one side of the story. Another side is related to public acceptance of new systems. In this respect, “the government or energy companies should publish more on acceptance of new systems and inform people about things like security and privacy up front, and not too late in the process,” Mr. Van Rijsewijk remarks. Finally, the prevalent message in tackling cyber security in the energy sector is the need to be prepared. From checking legacy systems to implementing security and privacy elements in new systems, from conceptualizing new systems to planning for a good security programme in your company, from having regular system maintenance to informing the public about cyber threats and the risks that their data are exposed to, cyber security is a complex issue. This is why companies operating in the energy and telecommunications sectors need to choose their cyber security consultants right from the conceptual phase of any project.

Marko van Zwam is Partner Security & Privacy at Deloitte Risk Services. Mr. Van Zwam is leading the security team that has approximately 70 people, including Roel van Rijsewijk. His focus is on the energy industry. “I am also in charge of the entire security team, which provides services to other industries like banking, government or telecommunications.”

Roel van Rijsewijk is Director Deloitte Risk Services. This is the Deloitte unit centred on risk management. “Everything that connects us is risk management.” Mr. Van Rijsewijk is focused on reliability and protection of online data in his work.

NRG Magazine Edition 9 | 47


Ehendandent Energy Academy ra cuptatem Europe ut por

Director Noé van Hulst:

The Energy Academy Europe is making good progress

T

he Energy Academy Europe, officially launched last September, is making good progress, says its director Noé van Hulst. ‘’2013 is the year when we should really make our mark’’, he says, ‘’and the year when we will see our first research projects come off the ground.’’ The Energy Academy has lofty ambitions. It is positioning itself as an international centre of excellence in energy education, research and innovation and it’s confident it has the capability to deliver. One of the strengths of the Academy is its vast network of energy businesses and top quality education and research institutes. ‘’There is a lot of interest from

companies in linking up with us and we are always on the look-out for partners to support us in a mutually beneficial partnership.”

Energy Academy Europe

“And not just in the Netherlands; we are currently forging links with partners as far afield as Saudi-Arabia and Russia. We are especially interested in energy start-ups and are launching a project later this year to increase their number and support them. We’ve got a lot to offer to them with our partner network and infrastructure’’, says Van Hulst. Located in Groningen, the natural home of the Dutch gas and energy industry, the Academy has easy access to top level research and expertise. By forging links between businesses and knowledge institutes, the Academy is able to offer a joined-up approach: Our

unique selling point is our multidisciplinary approach. “In our smart grid project for example, we will not only look at technological requirements, but also at legal, economic and even social-psychological aspects, such as public acceptance. There are people who worry about their privacy or about health hazards from smart meters. It is important to include such issues right from the start, and not deal with them as an afterthought. We are doing just that and this integral approach is another one of our strengths.’’ 48 | NRG Magazine Edition 9

“But the core of our activities is investing in young people, our students”, says van Hulst. ‘’We provide learning activities, organise transition debates, masterclasses and arrange for students to get hands-on experience in companies. It is important that they deal with real and concrete energy problems early on in their studies. An increasing number of students at the Academy will come from abroad; we’ve got an international outlook and recognize that the need for an energy transition is global. Much of the groundwork is being done by the Energy Academy Club, our very active student network. It is the young people who hold the key to the energy future. They know best how we can attract more people to choose a career in energy.’’


The Energy Academy’s EnTranCe living lab facility is hosting part of the I-Balance project, which aims to find ways to optimise balancing decentralised energy generation and demand.

T

he main challenge for the power grid is to balance demand and supply, a task made more complex by intermittent supply from wind and solar energy. Decentralised sources of energy can help to increase grid stability and avoid expensive grid reinforcements. But to accommodate these decentralised sources the grid needs to be smarter and to make a smarter grid a deeper understanding of patterns of energy production and consumption is needed. ‘”In order to balance decentralised

‘’What we are trying to do in the end is to meet local electricity needs with locally produced electricity“, says Velthuijs. We’ve got

leader Rolf Velthuijs. ‘’Solar and wind are predictable, but not controllable. We will measure the output of solar panels and wind turbines at the EnTranCe site. The project also includes a residential area in Hooghalen of about fifty households with a lot of decentralised energy production. Smart meters will be installed to read how much energy is produced and what appliances are demanding energy.’’

The Energy Valley Foundation is the driving force behind the I-Balance project and is supported by a wide range of partners: the Hanze University of

production and consumption of energy we first have to establish energy profiles of noncontrollable sources of energy“, says project

Energy Academy Europe

I-Balance project

the energy infrastructure in a residential area and we add a layer of ICT to do the planning, with computer models predicting consumer behaviour. It is then up to the local community to decide how it wants to run all this. They can choose to try to produce and use as much renewable energy as possible. They can also opt to use this technology to react to financial incentives, as energy pricing will be fluctuating much more in the future.’’

Applied Sciences, TNO, GasTerra, GasUnie, Westland Infra, Hooghalen Duurzaam and RWE Innogy Windpower Netherlands.

For the energy profiles of controllable sources of energy the project has installed BluGen ceramic fuel cells at the EnTranCe site. ‘’The aim is to analyse how a range of fuel cells can best be modulated to achieve a higher or lower output. There is also a micro-CHP installation. The trick is then to make all these energy sources work together in an optimal fashion. That is the first axis of the project. The second axis is to balance production and consumption and the third axis is the flexible integration of these decentralised sources into the electricity and gas network.

www.i-balance.org


Ehendandent Energy Academy ra cuptatem Europe ut por

An ambitious small grid research programme:

System Integration

The Energy Academy Europe will later this year launch an ambitious research programme: ‘System Integration’, looking at what is required to make smart grids work.

P

rogramme manager Frits Bliek is tasked with drawing up the research programme, which will run for five to ten years. He explains the rationale behind the smart grid research:

‘’The changes in our energy system, with an increasing share of intermittent renewables, call for a smarter energy system.“ ”We need

Energy Academy Europe

to be able to adapt energy production to demand, but also adapt demand to the moment of production. Energy generation units like solar panels and CHP units will be more locally distributed over the grid, and they need to be interconnected to optimise the system as a whole. Within this process, the role of the consumer will change too; he will become a prosumer, consumer and producer at the same time, forcing both consumer and the system to adapt.’’ The research programme will look at and link micro-, meso- and macro level elements, just like smart grids connect households with local, national and international energy systems. Crucially, the programme has an interdisciplinary approach. Bliek: ‘’Smart grids should first of all be technically feasible. So energy technology is number one and linkage with ICT is crucial, but there is more to it. There are economic, business and legal ramifications, and social aspects too, like the consumers perspective. There are many other questions to be answered, like what do we do about the issue of privacy and security? Those are issues that we must include right from the start to get them right.’’ The combination of fundamental research with practical research is another key factor to ensure the programme delivers relevant outcomes. There are plenty demonstration projects underway, at the EAE’s EnTrance 50 | NRG Magazine Edition 9

facility for example, DNVKema’s PowerMatchingCity project and Enexis’ Easy Street project. ‘’Fundamental research and demonstration projects can reinforce each other’’, says Bliek, ‘’it is very important for

fundamental research to get inspired by how things work out in practice and gain insight into how end users act’’. The wide scope of the programme calls for a broad range of partners. Groningen University, Hanze

University of Applied Sciences, TNO, Enexis, TU Eindhoven and consultancy DNVKema are already cooperating in this programme. More partners are actively being sought.

Bliek: ‘’I expect there to be many more interested parties, both businesses and knowledge institutes, once the programme is more detailed and its potential benefits become clearer. An additional aim of the programme is to train energy professionals, not just now but in ten years’ time as well. We should make this an attractive subject to study and provide a kick-start in the career of highly qualified energy professionals.’’


We need young and motivated people to make it work. Studying Energy is a good start. Energy Academy Europe the Centre of Excellence for Energy Education, Energy Research and Energy Innovation. Training and degrees are offered across a range: higher education (applied and research universities), and vocational education in collaboration with ROCs and AOCs (regional training centres): Institution

Energy Academy Europe

Degree programme

Energy Track

Hanze

Bachelor of Applied Science: Chemical Engineering

Specialisation Sustainable Energy

Hanze

Bachelor of Engineering: Industrial Technical Management

Minor Energy & Society

Hanze

Bachelor of Engineering: Electrical Engineering and Mechanical Engineering

Specialisation International Power Generation & Distribution

Hanze

Master of Science European Master in Renewable Energy

Entire core semester is about energy

RUG

Bachelor of Science Chemistry

Sustainable Energy and Chemistry

RUG

Bachelor of Science Physics

Energy and Environment

RUG

Master of Science Energy and Environmental Sciences

Entire master is about energy

RUG

Professional Master North Sea Energy Law Programme

Entire degree is focused on energy

E-College is a collaboration between ďŹ ve ROCs and two AOCs in the Northern Netherlands. It provides technical vocational education in energy that connects with the higher energy education of the Hanze University of Applied Sciences. Apply for E-College energy education at Drenthe College Emmen, Alfa College Hoogeveen and Groningen, AOC Terra Groningen, Noorderpoort Groningen and Delfzijl, Friesland College Heerenveen and Leeuwarden, Friese Poort Drachten and Leeuwarden and AOC Friesland Leeuwarden. These programmes are just a selection. Check for more: www.energyacademy.org/students/education

www.energyacademy.org

Energy Academy Europe

Our society urgently needs a transition to a sustainable energy system.


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