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ICD-9-CM_95.22 MeSH_D004585

LEOG REOG

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ICD-9-CM_89.52 MeSH_D004562

SAO2

ICD-9-CM_93.08 MeSH_D004576 NAF THO ABD

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THOUGHTS ON CYCLUS PRINT FROM THE THINK ON PAPER SERIES OF PROMOTIONS FROM NEW LEAF PAPER.

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP

The Cycle Of Rest And Renewal


COPYRIGHT Š 2012. NEW LEAF PAPER. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted in any form by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without permission of copy right holder.


THOUGHTS ON CYCLUS PRINT FROM THE THINK ON PAPER SERIES OF PROMOTIONS FROM NEW LEAF PAPER.

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP The Cycle Of Rest And Renewal


PREFACE CYCLUS PRINT PAPERLINE & THE HUMAN SLEEP CYCLE New Leaf Paper is pleased to present The Lost Art of Sleep, the first volume in The Modern Life Cycle Series, inspired by the Coated Fine Printing Paper, Cyclus Print. Human beings, like all of life, function on a sleep-wake cycle, or circadian rhythm (or biological clock). Due to the circumstances of today’s culture and pace, we no longer achieve quality sleep or adhere to our natural sleep cycle. Over decades of human evolution and technological advances, our patterns nosed health problems. Sleep is vital to life, yet little has been studied and understood about it. increases every second.

of greenhouse gases. The count

trees and 208,631,216+ pounds

has saved 2,370,139+ fully grown

As of May 2012, New Leaf Paper

have changed, leading to many sleep fallacies and misdiag-

What remains true today and more than ever before is that, in order to perform to the best of our abilities, we need to find a sleep-wake pattern that works for us in order to maintain a healthy and comfortable lifestyle. As a 100% Recycled Paper, Cyclus Print embodies the high quality that can be produced through the cycle of renewal.


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THE ELUSIVE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

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RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

6

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2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2

2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2

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1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1

2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2

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2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1

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1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R

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1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1

2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2

2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2

1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2

2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2

2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R

2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1

2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1

R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R

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R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

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1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R

R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R

R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R

R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1

R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1

R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2

1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R

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2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R

1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1

2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1

2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2

2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2

2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1

R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2

1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2

1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2

R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2

R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R

R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1

1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1

R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R

R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R

R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R

R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1

R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R

1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R

1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R

2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R

2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R

1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1

2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1

2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2

2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2

2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1

R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2

1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2

1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 2

R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2

R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R

7 THE ELUSIVE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 2 R R 2 R R 2 R R 2 1 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 1


WHY WE SLEEP: Circadian Rhythm & Stages

{PG. 30}

2

3

{PG. 18} Cycle Chart

RAMIFICATIONS: Side Effects to Sleep Deprivation

{PG. 20}

SLEEP PATTERNS TODAY: The State of Things

{PG. 10}

1

{PG. 54} Sleep Tips


CONSIDERATIONS: Improving Quality of Sleep

5

6

{PG. 56} Product Information {PG. 50}

WHAT WE HAVE LOST: Cultural Side Effects

{PG. 38}

{PG. 46}

NAVIGATING THE NIGHT

SEGMENTED SLEEP: Accounts of the Pre-Industrial Era

Table of Contents

4

{PG. 58} Production List


CHAPTER

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

10

½½½ ½½

SL EE P PAT T E RNS TOD AY

The State of Things


11

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL


ECG/EKG }}}

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

ICD-9-CM_89.52 MeSH_D004562

SAO2

ICD-9-CM_93.08 MeSH_D004576 NAF THO ABD

½½

12


“The mists of sleep a re vast things

which dominate our existence a nd yet we ha rdly ever

think about them.”

~Martin Hesp

CASE STUDY Learning about the history of sleep can create the feeling of a

and to a realm beyond clockdriven, electrified industrial life,

An every day occurrence, the mystery of sleep, is an experi-

whose endless demands are

ence that dominates our existence and yet we rarely think

more punishing than ever. Much

about it. Clouds larger than Everest regularly march across the

as Werner Herzog’s documen-

landscape, and yet we don’t pay them much heed unless they

tary Cave of Forgotten Dreams

threaten some kind of precipitation. It’s the same with sleep—

pulls the viewer into the lives of

it wafts in and out of our lives all the time, although we don’t

ancient cave dwellers in southern

take much notice of the fact that we spend a third of our lives

France who painted the walls

being rendered unconscious, unless we experience some kind

with marvelous images, reading about how our ancestors filled their nights with dream reflection, lovemaking and 10-to-12 hour stretches of down-time produced a strange sense of intimacy and wonder.

of problem doing it.

13

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

connection to ancient humans

THERE are some things in life that are so huge and mysterious we tend to ignore the fact that they loom large in our lives.


millions of

MOONLIGHTERS Humans are not nocturnal animals; we don’t have good night vision and are not especially effective in darkness. Yet in an instant, Thomas Edison’s invention of the light bulb shifted our time-and-light environment in the nocturnal direction. Evening has become the primary time of employment for a growing segment of the Western workforce. Darkness represents the largest remaining frontier for commercial expansion. Thomas Edison’s dictum “Put an undeveloped human being into an environment where there is artificial light and he will improve” has carried the night as well as the day. No shortage of metropolitan areas in Europe and North America currently bill themselves as 24-hour cities.

At the snap of a switch, a whole range of nighttime activity opened up and today we live in a world that is always available for work or play. Television and telephones never shut down; the Internet allows you to shop, gamble, work, or f lirt at 3 a.m.; businesses stay open everlonger hours; tens of millions of travelers cross multiple time zones each year, worldwide; and with the growth of global commerce and communication, Wall Street traders may need to rise early or stay up late to keep abreast of developments. Consequently, most of us now sleep less than people did a century ago, or even 50 years ago.

SLEEP PATTERN TODAY_THE STATE OF THINGS

14

Proponents of the rising industrial culture continue pushed the emphasis of work over rest, and the sense of sleep as lazy indulgence. The National Sleep Foundation’s 2005 poll showed adult Americans averaging 6.8 hours of sleep on weeknights—more than an hour less than they need. Not only how much sleep, but when people sleep has changed. In the United States, six to eight million shift workers toil regularly at night, disrupting sleep patterns in ways that are not necessarily amenable to adaptation. Many people get only five hours per night during the week and then try to catch up by logging nine hours nightly on weekends. The United States military, seeking a battlefield advantage, has begun investigating ways to keep soldiers awake for periods of up to seven days.


RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

16


Because sleeping patterns have fallen into an unnatural cycle,

17

people are driven towards caffeine and pharmaceutical drugs to induced oblivion, which, it turns out, doesn’t even work. The average time spent sleeping increases by only a few minutes with the use of prescription sleep aids. And—surprise!—doctors have linked sleeping pills to cancer. We have memory foam mattresses, sleep clinics, hotel pillow concierges, and countless others strategies to put us to bed. And yet we complain about sleep more than ever before. We have been told over and over that the eight-hour sleep is ideal. But in many cases, our bodies have been telling us something else. Since our collective memory has been erased, anxiety about nighttime wakefulness has kept us up even longer, and our eighthour sleep mandate may be making us more prone to stress. A recent discovery, not from a drug company laboratory or a university research program but from a historian, suggests that there may be another, very different, way to relieve sleep problems.

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

control sleep. The pharmaceutical industry recommends drug-


The Stages of Sleep DUSK TO DAWN

6{pm}

7{pm}

REM

8{pm}

9{pm}

1

10{pm}

11{pm}

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

18

12{pm}

2

1{am}

2{am}

3

3{am}

4{am}

5{am}

6{am}

4

Stage 1 is a drowsy, relaxed state between being awake and sleeping—breathing slows, muscles relax, heart rate drops.

SECOND CYCLE

CYCLE CHART

{ awake }

WHEN

FIRST CYCLE

W H AT


THIRD CYCLE

FIFTH CYCLE

DREAMING {REM}

FOURTH CYCLE

DEEP SLEEP {SWS)

After Deep Sleep, we go back to Stage 2 for a few minutes, and then enter Dream Sleep—also called REM (Rapid Eye Movement).

IN A FULL SLEEP CYCLE, A PERSON GOES THROUGH ALL THE STAGES OF Stage 2 is slightly deeper sleep—you may feel awake and this means that you may be asleep and not realize it.

SLEEP FROM ONE TO FOUR, THEN BACK DOWN THROUGH STAGES THREE AND TWO, BEFORE ENTERING

Stage 3 & Stage 4 are considered Deep Sleep and is hard to wake up from because this is when there is the lowest amount of activity—breathing slows, muscles relax, heart rate drops.

EVERY 60-100 MINUTES WE GO THROUGH A CYCLE OF FOUR STAGES OF SLEEP.

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

DREAM SLEEP.

19


CHAPTER

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

20

½½½ ½½

WH Y WE SL E E P

Circadian Rhythm And Stages


21

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL


CASE STUDY To a large extent, the morning mist and sunset colors, noon’s bleaching glare and the cool of evening are exactly what clue us—and other animals and plants—in to the time of day. It’s only in the absence of these factors that circadian rhythms reveal themselves clearly. The steady heartbeat in the background takes total charge when nothing else is making much sense. One of the first observations of circadian rhythms was focused on a mimosa plant kept in a dark cupboard in 18th Century France. Mimosa leaves open at dawn to catch sunlight for photosynthesis, then fold and lower at night, opening pores called stomata

WHY WE SLEEP_CIRCADIAN RHYTHM AND STAGES

22

SLEEP has long eluded historical attention. “Our entire history,” lamented the 18th Century scholar Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, “is only the history of waking men.” Sleep in preindustrial communities remains largely unstudied, for only the subject of dreams has drawn sustained scrutiny. Historical indifference has stemmed partly from the seeming shortage of sources, in particular our misguided notion that contemporaries rarely ref lected upon the state of existence that was hidden from the waking world. In truth, however, buried with such disparate evidence as diaries, medical books, imaginative literature, and legal depositions are regular references to sleep, often lamentably terse but nonetheless revealing. Far from being ignored, the subject frequently absorbed people’s thoughts. Yet, lacking the drama and intensity of life’s waking hours, the history of sleep has suffered from its association with indolence and inactivity. Whereas our daily lives are animated, volatile, and highly differentiated, sleep seems, by contrast, passive, monotonous, and uneventful—qualities scarcely designed to spark the interest of historians dedicated to charting change across time. The faster-paced the better.


to respire while the air is cool enough to minimize water loss. Physician, geologist, botanist and mathematician Jean-Jacque d’Ortous de Mairan had a Renaissance man’s fascination with

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1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2

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1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2

2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R

2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1

2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1

2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R

R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R

1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R

1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1

R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R

R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R

R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R

1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R

R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R

R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1

R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1

R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2

R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2

1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1

1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2

2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2

2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2

1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2

2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R

2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1 1

2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R 1

2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R R

R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R R

1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1 R

1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R 1

R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R R

R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R R

R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R R

1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R R

R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 R

R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1

R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 1

R R R R 1 R R R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 1 2 2

chugged along on its business even in the darkness.

23

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL


R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2

1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

Today, there are so many things that seem more interesting or important than getting a few more hours of sleep. But just as exercise and nutrition are essential for optimal health and happiness, so is sleep. The quality of your sleep directly affects the quality of your waking life. It is not merely “down time” between episodes of being alive. Within an evolutionary framework, the simple fact that we spend so much of our lives asleep suggests that it’s more than a necessary evil. Much transpires while we are asleep, and the question is no longer whether sleep does something, but exactly what it does. While you rest, your brain stays busy, overseeing a wide variety of biological maintenance tasks that keep you running in top condition and prepare you for the day ahead. Without enough hours of restorative sleep, you’re like a car in need of an oil change. You won’t be able to work, learn, create, and communicate at a level even close to your true potential. Regularly skimp on “service” and you’re headed for a major mental and physical breakdown. It’s not just the number of hours in bed that is important— it’s the quality of those hours of sleep. If you’re giving yourself still

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WHY WE SLEEP_CIRCADIAN RHYTHM AND STAGES

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that

researchers far

more

complex picture of what happens while we snooze.


1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 R

1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R

2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R R

2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1

1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R

2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R

2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R

2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R 2 R

2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R R R

R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 1 1

1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R 1 1

1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R 2


10{pm}

4-5 PERIODS/NIGHT

9{pm}

Rapid Eye Movement {REM}

8{pm}

DREAM SLEEP

7{pm}

W H AT

6{pm}

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

26

WHEN

TONIC RE M SLE EP

LOW MUSCLE TONE

ICD-9-CM_89.17

MeSH_D017286

OPS-301

ICD-9-CM_95.22 MeSH_D004585

L

ECG/EKG }}}

ICD-9-CM_89.52 MeSH_D00456

ICD-9-CM_93.08 MeSH_D004576 N

EOG/E.O.G }}

ICD-9-CM_89.14 MeSH_D004569 OPS-301 code

PSG }}}


27

6{am}

5{am}

4{am}

3{am}

MEMORY

2{am}

BRAIN ACTIVITY

1{am}

LOWツュ窶天OLTAGE EEG

12{pm}

C R E AT I V I T Y

11{pm}

PA R A D O X I C A L S L E E P

THE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST RENEWAL THELOST ELUSIVE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OFAND REST & RENEWAL

PHASIC REM SLEEP


ICD-9-CM_89.17

MeSH_D017286

OPS-301 code_1-790

ICD-9-CM_95.22 MeSH_D004585

LEOG REOG

ECG/EKG }}}

ICD-9-CM_89.52 MeSH_D004562

SAO2

ICD-9-CM_93.08 MeSH_D004576 NAF THO

EOG/E.O.G }}

EM

ICD-9-CM_89.14 MeSH_D004569 OPS-301 code_1-207 C3

PSG }}}

½½


“…In night a ll creatures sleep;

Only the ma lcontent that 'ga inst his fate

Repines a nd qua rrels…”

~John Marston, ca . 1600

the sleep

WAKE CYCLE Your internal 24-hour sleep-wake cycle, otherwise known as

29

biological clock or circadian rhythm, is regulated by processes the changes between light and dark. Not only do these internal periodic rhythms control sleep and wakefulness, they also affect body temperature, hormone levels and digestion. At night, your body responds to the loss of daylight by producing melatonin, a hormone that makes you sleepy. During the day, sunlight triggers the brain to inhibit melatonin production so you feel awake and alert. This sleep-wake cycle can be disrupted by factors such as nightshift work, traveling across time zones, or irregular sleeping patterns, leaving you feeling groggy, disoriented, and sleepy at inconvenient times. The production of melatonin can also be thrown off when you’re deprived of sunlight during the day or exposed to too much artificial light at night, disrupting the cycle and preventing you from getting the sleep you need.

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

in the brain that respond to how long you’ve been awake and


CHAPTER

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

30

½½½ ½½

R AM I FI CA TION S

Side Effects to Sleep Deprivation


31

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL


R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 2

R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2

R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 R

1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 1

R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 1

SLEEP DEPRIVATION is a commonplace occurrence in modern culture. Every day there seems to be twice as much work and half as much time to complete it in. Beyond leaving people blearyeyed, clutching a coffee cup and dozing off at an afternoon meeting, failing to get enough sleep impairs performance on a wide variety of tasks. Although there’s a fairly large individual variation in susceptibility to the cognitive effects of sleep deprivation, a single all-nighter can triple reaction time and vastly increase lapses of attention. There is also a heightened risk for a variety of health problems, including the loss of physical vitality, mental sharpness, emotional balance and the susceptibility to major illnesses.


CASE STUDY Students often wonder whether to pull an all-nighter before an exam. Will the extra studying time outweigh the exhaustion? Robert Stickgold, who has studied sleep’s role in cognition for the past 10 years, reports that it depends on the exam. “If you are just trying to remember simple facts—listing all the kings of England, say— cramming all night works, ” he explains. “That’s because it’s a different memory system, the declarative memory system. But if you expect to be hit with a question like ‘Relate the French Revolution to the Industrial Revolution,’ where you have to synthesize connections between facts, then missing that night of sleep can be disastrous. Your ability to do critical thinking takes a massive hit—just as with alcohol, you’re knocking out the frontal-cortex functions.“It’s a version of ‘sleeping on a prob-

you don’t say, ‘Let me sleep on it.’ But if you can’t decide whether to take a better-paying job located halfway across the country—where you have all the information and just have to weigh it—you say, ‘Let me sleep on it.’ You don’t say, ‘Give me 24 hours.’ We realize that it’s not just time; we understand at a gut level that the brain is doing this integration of information as we sleep, all by itself.”

THETHE ELUSIVE ART ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLECYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL ELUSIVE OF SLEEP_THE OF REST & RENEWAL

lem,’” Stickgold continues. “If you can’t recall a phone number,

1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 33 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R

1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R

2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1

2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R

1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R

2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R


2R11RRR1RR RR1RRRRR11 RRR1122122 2212222R11 22R11RRR1R RRR1RRRRR1 RRRR112212 RR1122122 212222R11 2R11RRR1R RR1RRRRR1 RRR112212 2212222R1 22R11RRR1 RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

34


RRRR1122122 12212222R11 222R11RRR1R RRR1RRRRR1 RRRRR112212 112212222R1 2222R11RRR1 R11RRR1RR R1RRRRR11 RR1122122 212222R11 2R11RRR1R RR1RRRRR1 RRR112212 cognitive

EFFECTS

While some people may like to believe that they can train their

35

bodies to not require as much sleep as they once did, this belief of the body, especially the brain, so that it may continue to

6{pm}

function optimally. After periods of extended wakefulness or reduced sleep, neurons may begin to malfunction, visibly affecting a person’s behavior and memory. Insufficient rest can

even cause hallucinations and contribute to anxiety disorders

7{pm}

and other psychiatric problems, including depression. Some

organs, such as muscles, are able to regenerate even when a person is not sleeping so long as they are resting. This could

involve lying awake but relaxed within a quite environment.

8{pm}

Even though cognitive functions might not seem necessary in this scenario the brain, especially the cerebral cortex, is not able to rest but rather remains semi-alert in a state of “quiet

readiness.” Certain stages of sleep are needed for the regenera-

tion of neurons within the cerebral cortex while other stages

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of sleep seem to be used for forming new memories and generating new synaptic connections. The effects of sleep deprivation on behavior have been tested in relation to the presence of activity in different sections of the cerebral cortex.

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THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

is simply not true. Sleep is needed to regenerate certain parts


OBESITY A large, new study provides the latest in a flurry of evidence suggesting that the nation’s obesity epidemic is being driven, at least in part, by a corresponding decrease in the average number of hours that Americans are sleeping, possibly by disrupting hormones that regulate appetite. The analysis of a nationally representative sample of nearly 10,000 adults found that those between the ages of 32 and 49 who sleep less than seven hours a night are significantly more likely to be obese. In addition, studies show sleep-deprived people tend to develop problems regulating their blood sugar, which may put them at increased risk for diabetes.

major

ILLNESSES Physiologic studies suggest that a sleep deficit may put the body into a state of high alert, increasing the production of stress hormones and driving up blood pressure, a major risk factor for heart attacks and strokes. Moreover, people who are sleep-deprived have elevated levels of substances in the blood that indicate a heightened state of inflammation in the body, which has also recently emerged as a major risk factor not only for diabetes, heart disease and strokes, but cancer,

1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R

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as well. Reports from the Harvard-run Nurses’ Health Study and research groups scattered around the country have found clues that might explain the associations, indications that sleep disruption affects crucial hormones and proteins that play roles in these diseases.


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1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2

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R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2


CHAPTER

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

38

½½½ ½½

SEGM ENT ED S LEE P

Accounts of the Pre-Industrial Era


39

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL


CASE STUDY Psychiatrist, Thomas Wehr was curious as to what might happen if he put busy Americans into an environment with 14 hours of darkness. How would they sleep? He organized a study to find out. He and his colleagues at the National Institute of Mental Health recruited 15 young, healthy adult volunteers. They went about their normal business during the day, then reported to a sleep lab in the early evening. “We had our subjects go into the dark at 6 p.m., lie down and rest,” Wehr says. The lights didn’t come back on until 8 the next morning; it was a simulated winter day. The sleep study found that the long night led to two bouts of concentrated sleep—with a wakeful

A. ROGER EKIRCH, a professor in the Department of History at Virginia Tech found a wealth of evidence to suggest that people living before the presence artificial illumination slept in a segmented or bi-phasic pattern. This is unlike the consolidated form of sleep we aspire to today, but do not always succeed in achieving. More than 500 references to a segmented sleeping pattern have been unearthed in diaries, court records, medical books and literature, and from Homer’s Odyssey to an anthropological account of modern tribes in Nigeria. These references describe a first sleep which began about two hours after dusk, followed by waking period of one

or

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Wehr says. “But it wasn’t at all.”

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few hours. The study was published in the American Journal of

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the at labor sleep,”

enjoyment” better.”


41

THE ELUSIVE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL


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42


“For the wa k ing there is only one

common world only; but when asleep, each ma n turns to his

own private world.”

~Heraclitus, ca . 500 B.C .

the night's

RENEWAL A natural hiatus, rather than the backdrop to daily existence,

43

nighttime in the early modern age instead embodied a disa mark of its special nature, darkness in Britain and America was frequently known as the “night season.” Night and day, of course, shared qualities in common, and many differences were a matter of degree and intensity. But along with alterations in diet and health, dress, travel and communication, significant changes arose in social encounters, work rhythms, and popular mores, including attitudes toward magic, sexuality, law, and hierarchical authority. Darkness, for the greater part of humankind, afforded a sanctuary from ordinary existence, the chance, as shadows lengthened, for men and women to express inner impulses and realize repressed desires both in their waking hours and in their dreams, however innocent or sinister in nature. A time, fundamentally, of liberation and renewal, night gave free rein to the goodhearted as well as the wicked, forces both salutary and malignant in ordinary existence. Despite widespread dangers, multitudes drew fresh strength from the setting sun.

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

tinct culture, with many of its own customs and rituals. As


44 RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

Ekirch found that references to the first and second sleep started to disappear during the late 17th Century. This started among the urban upper classes in northern Europe and over the course of the next 200 years filtered down to the rest of Western society. By the 1920s the idea of a first and second sleep had receded entirely from our social consciousness. The initial shift is attributed to improvements in street lighting, domestic lighting and a surge in coffee houses—which were sometimes open all night. As the night became a place for legitimate activity and as that activity increased, the length of time people could dedicate to rest dwindled. Today, most people seem to have adapted quite well to the 8-hour sleep, but many sleeping problems may have roots in the human body’s natural preference for segmented sleep, as well as the ubiquity of artificial light. This could be the root of a condition called sleep maintenance insomnia, where people wake during the night and have trouble getting back to sleep. The condition first appears in literature at the end of the 19th Century, at the same time as


accounts of segmented sleep disappear. For most of evolution

45

we slept a certain way,” says sleep psychologist Gregg Jacobs. ogy. The idea that we must sleep in a consolidated block could

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be damaging if it makes people who wake up at night anxious, as this anxiety can itself prohibit sleep and is likely to seep into waking life, too. When having trouble drifting back to sleep in the middle of the night, it might help to take a leaf out of the

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pages of history and engage in some low-stimulus activity for an hour or two, rather than sit there worrying about it. Russell Foster, a professor of circadian neuroscience at Oxford, shares this point of view. “Many people wake up at night and panic,”

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he says. “I tell them that what they are experiencing is a throwback to the bi-modal sleep pattern.” By forcing oneself into an unnatural sleep pattern and viewing quiet personal time as “wasteful,” there is a dramatic increase in anxiety, stress, depression, alcoholism and drug use.

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THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

“Waking up during the night is part of normal human physiol-


CHAPTER

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

46

½½½ ½½

W HA T W E HAV E LOS T

Cultural Side Effects


47

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL


2R11RRR1RRR RR1RRRRR112 RRR11221222 2212222R11R 22R11RRR1RR RRR1RRRRR11 RRRR1122122 RRR112212 2212222R1 22R11RRR1 RRR1RRRRR RRRR11221 12212222R 222R11RRR IN THE COMEDY Amphitryon, by John Dryden (1960), the ancient deity Mercury demands of Night, “What art though good for…but only for love and fornication?” In view of our present trajectory of technological change, we

might well pose the same question today. Increasingly, rather

than render nighttime more accessible, we are instead risking its gradual elimination. Already, the heavens, our age-old

source of awe and wonder, have been obscured by the glare of

outdoor lighting. Only in remote spots can one still glimpse

the grandeur of the Milky Way. Entire constellations have dis-

appeared from sight, preplaced by a blank sky. Conversely, the

fanciful world of our dreams has grown more distant with the

loss of segmented sleep and, with it, a better understanding

of our inner selves. Certainly, it is not difficult to imagine a time when night, for all practical purposes, will have become

day—truly a 24/7 society in which traditional phases of time,

from morning to midnight, have lost their original identi-

ties. The Russian government has even attempted to launch

an experimental “space mirror” designed to transform night

into twilight in selected locations with the aid of reflected light from the sun.

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

48

The residual beauty of the night sky, alternating cycles of darkness and light, and regular respites from the daily round of

sights and sounds—all will be impaired by enhanced illumi-

nation. Ecological systems, with their own patterns of noctur-

nal life, will suffer immeasurably. With darkness diminished,

opportunities for privacy, intimacy, and self-reflection will grow more scarce. Should that luminous day arrive, we stand to lose a vital element of our humanity—one as precious as

it is timeless. That, in the depths of a dark night, should be a bracing prospect for any spent soul to contemplate.


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CON SID ER A TIO N S

Improving Quality of Sleep


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MeSH_D017286

OPS-301 code_1-7

ICD-9-CM_95.22 MeSH_D004585

ECG/EKG }}}

ICD-9-CM_89.52 MeSH_D004562

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PSG }}}

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52


The important thing is to get a good handle on the dose of sleep YOU need. Set your pattern—and stick with it each night. Instead of heading to bed with anxiety, try to dive in like a voluptuary, pushing away guilt about the list of things you could be doing and letting yourself become beautifully suspended between worlds. Dim the lights a couple of hours after dusk and looking at the nighttime not as a time to pursue endless work, but to daydream, drift, putter about, and enter an almost meditative state. As we learn more, we may realize that giving sleep and rest the center stage in our lives may be as fundamental to our wellbeing as the way we eat and the medicines that cure us. And if we come to treasure this time of splendid relaxation, we may have much more to offer in the daytime hours.

53

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

SLEEP REQUIREMENTS can vary from person to person and six to nine hours is the normal range.


7 Steps to Better Sleep W H AT

WHEN

SLEEP TIPS

D A I LY R O U T I N E

THINK about all the factors that interfere with a good night's sleep—from pressure at work and family responsibilities to unexpected challenges, such as layoffs, relationship issues or illnesses. It's no wonder that quality sleep is sometimes elusive. Although you might not be able to control all of the factors that interfere with your sleep, you can adopt habits that encourage better sleep. Start with these simple sleep tips. STICK TO A SLEEP SCHEDULE

NO. 1

Go to bed and get up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off. Being consistent reinforces your body's sleep-wake cycle and helps promote better sleep at night. There's a caveat, though. If you don't fall asleep within about 15 minutes, get up and do something relaxing. Go back to bed when you're tired. If you agonize over falling asleep, you might find it even tougher to nod off.

PAY ATTENTION TO WHAT YOU EAT AND DRINK

NO. 2

Don't go to bed either hungry or stuffed. Your discomfort might keep you up. Also limit how much you drink before bed, to prevent disruptive middle-of-the-night trips to the toilet. Nicotine, caffeine and alcohol deserve caution, too. The stimulating effects of nicotine and caffeine—which take hours to wear off—can wreak havoc with quality sleep. And even though alcohol might make you feel sleepy at first, it can disrupt sleep later in the night.

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

54

CREATE A BEDTIME RITUAL

NO. 3

Do the same things each night to tell your body it's time to wind down. This might include taking a warm bath or shower, reading a book, or listening to soothing music — preferably with the lights dimmed. Relaxing activities can promote better sleep by easing the transition between wakefulness and drowsiness.

GET COMFORTABLE

NO. 4

Be wary of using the TV or other electronic devices as part of your bedtime ritual. Some research suggests that screen time or other media use before bedtime interferes with sleep. Create a room that's ideal for sleeping. Often, this means cool, dark and quiet. Consider using room-darkening shades, earplugs, a fan or other devices to create an environment that suits your needs. Your mattress and pillow can contribute to better sleep, too. Since the features of good bedding are subjective, choose what feels most comfortable to you. If you share your bed, make sure there's enough room for two. If you have children or pets, set limits on how often they sleep with you — or insist on separate sleeping quarters.


LIMIT DAYTIME NAPS

NO. 5

Long daytime naps can interfere with nighttime sleep—especially if you're struggling with insomnia or poor sleep quality at night. If you choose to nap during the day, limit yourself to about 10 to 30 minutes and make it during the mid afternoon. If you work nights, you'll need to make an exception to the rules about daytime sleeping. In this case, keep your window coverings closed so that sunlight doesn't interrupt your daytime sleep—which adjusts your internal clock .

INCLUDE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN YOUR DAILY ROUTINE

NO. 7

Regular physical activity can promote better sleep, helping you to fall asleep faster and to enjoy deeper sleep. Timing is important, though. If you exercise too close to bedtime, you might be too energized to fall asleep. If this seems to be an issue for you, exercise earlier in the day. When you have too much to do — and too much to think about — your sleep is likely to suffer. To help restore peace to your life, consider healthy ways to manage stress. Start with the basics, such as getting organized, setting priorities and delegating tasks. Give yourself permission to take a break when you need one. Share a good laugh with an old friend. Before bed, jot down what's on your mind and then set it aside for tomorrow.

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THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

MANAGE STRESS

NO. 6


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THE ELUSIVE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

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CONSIDERATIONS: Improving Quality of Sleep

6

10

CHAPTER

{PG. 46}

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SEGMENTED SLEEP: Accounts of the Pre-Industrial Era

NAVIGATING THE NIGHT

4 {PG. 38}

{PG. 30}

Table of Contents

WHY WE SLEEP: Circadian Rhythm & Stages

3

{PG. 10}

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RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

What remains true today and more than ever before is that, in order to perform to the best of our abilities, we need to find

1

WHAT WE HAVE LOST: Cultural Side Effects

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RAMIFICATIONS: Side Effects to Sleep Deprivation

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ity sleep or adhere to our natural sleep cycle. Over decades of human evolution and technological advances, our patterns have changed, leading to many sleep fallacies and misdiagnosed health problems. Sleep is vital to life, yet little has been

SL EE P PAT T E RNS TOD AY

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THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

NAF

LEOG REOG

THE ELUSIVE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

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Human beings, like all of life, function on a sleep-wake cycle, or circadian rhythm (or biological clock). Due to the circumstances of today’s culture and pace, we no longer achieve qual-

SLEEP PATTERNS TODAY: The State of Things 5

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CYCLUS PRINT PAPERLINE & THE HUMAN SLEEP CYCLE

{PG. 20}

PREFACE

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MeSH_D017286

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THE LOST ART OF SLEEP

NEW LEAF PAPER 116 New Montgomery St. Suite 830 San Francisco, CA 94105 7{pm}

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The State of Things

through the cycle of renewal. 3{am}

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{PG. 56} Product Information

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The Stages of Sleep

DEEP SLEEP {SWS)

{ awake }

DREAMING {REM}

WHEN

1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

After Deep Sleep, we go back to Stage 2 for a few minutes, and then enter Dream Sleep—also called REM (Rapid Eye Movement). 8{pm}

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1

Stage 1 is a drowsy, relaxed state between being awake and sleeping—breathing slows, muscles relax, heart rate drops.

IN A FULL SLEEP CYCLE, A PERSON GOES THROUGH ALL THE STAGES OF

16

Stage 2 is slightly deeper sleep—you may feel awake and this means that you may be asleep and not realize it.

SLEEP FROM ONE TO FOUR, THEN

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

2

1{am}

2{am}

3

3{am}

5{am}

6{am}

4

THREE AND TWO, BEFORE ENTERING DREAM SLEEP.

Stage 3 & Stage 4 are considered Deep Sleep and is hard to wake up from because this is when there is the lowest amount of activity—breathing slows, muscles relax, heart rate drops.

WH Y WE SL E E P

EVERY 60-100 MINUTES WE GO

THROUGH A CYCLE OF FOUR STAGES

19

21

OF SLEEP.

Circadian Rhythm And Stages

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THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

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RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

hour sleep mandate may be making us more prone to stress. A nighttime wakefulness has kept us up even longer, and our eightelse. Since our collective memory has been erased, anxiety about But in many cases, our bodies have been telling us something We have been told over and over that the eight-hour sleep is ideal. ever before. gies to put us to bed. And yet we complain about sleep more than sleep clinics, hotel pillow concierges, and countless others stratelinked sleeping pills to cancer. We have memory foam mattresses, the use of prescription sleep aids. And—surprise!—doctors have average time spent sleeping increases by only a few minutes with induced oblivion, which, it turns out, doesn’t even work. The control sleep. The pharmaceutical industry recommends drugpeople are driven towards caffeine and pharmaceutical drugs to Because sleeping patterns have fallen into an unnatural cycle,

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18

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1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 2

2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R 2

2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R

2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R 2 1

2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R R 1

R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 1 R

1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R 1 R

1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R

R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R 1

R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R R

R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 R

1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 R R

R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 R R

R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 R R

R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 R 1

R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 R 1

R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2

1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2

Today, there are so many things that seem more interesting or important than getting a few more hours of sleep. But just as exercise and nutrition are essential for optimal health and happiness, so is sleep. The quality of your sleep directly affects the quality of your waking life. It is not merely “down time” between episodes of being alive. Within an evolutionary framework, the simple fact that we spend so much of our lives asleep suggests that it’s more than a necessary evil. Much transpires while we are asleep, and the question is no longer whether sleep does something, but exactly what it does. While you rest, your brain stays busy, overseeing a wide variety of biological maintenance tasks that keep you running in top condition and prepare you for the day ahead. Without enough hours of restorative sleep, you’re like a car in need of an oil change. You won’t be able to work, learn, create, and communicate at a level even close to your true potential. Regularly skimp on “service” and you’re headed for a major mental and physical breakdown. It’s not just the number of hours in bed that is important— it’s the quality of those hours of sleep. If you’re giving yourself still

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FIFTH CYCLE

sity research program but from a historian, suggests that there may RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

7{pm}

FOURTH CYCLE

FIRST CYCLE

be another, very different, way to relieve sleep problems. 6{pm}

PAGES 18–19 67# Cover UV four-color process Spot dry varnish

PAGES 12–17 54# Text Conventional Printing Four-Color Process

DUSK TO DAWN

THIRD CYCLE

W H AT

CYCLE CHART

PAGES 10–11 74# Cover UV four-color process Spot gloss varnish on title

SECOND CYCLE

COVER PAGE 78# Cover UV four-color process Spot gloss varnish on title

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

{PG. 54} Sleep Tips

5{am}

CHAPTER

ABD

EEG }}

C3A2 C4A1 O1A2 02A1

EMG }}}

{PG. 18} Cycle Chart 4{am}

that

researchers far

more

complex picture of what happens while we snooze.

PAGES 26–27 47# Text Four-Color Process Underprint 2 passes opaque

1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 R

1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R

2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R R

2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1

1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R

2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R

2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R

2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R 2 R

2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R R R

R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 1 1

1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R 1 1

1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R 2

R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R 2

R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1

R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 2

1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 R 2

R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 R 2

R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R 1 R R R R R 1 1 2 R 2

R R R 1 R R 1 1 R 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R R 1 R R R R R R 1 R R 1 R R 1 R R 1 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 1 R R 1 1 R 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 1 1 R 1 1 R 1 1 R R 1 R R R R R R 1 R R 1 R R 1 R R 1 R R R R R R R R R R R R R R 1 R R 1 1 R 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 RR 1 1 1 R 1 1

17


ABD

the sleep

WAKE CYCLE Your internal 24-hour sleep-wake cycle, otherwise known as biological clock or circadian rhythm, is regulated by processes in the brain that respond to how long you’ve been awake and the changes between light and dark. Not only do these internal periodic rhythms control sleep and wakefulness, they also affect body temperature, hormone levels and digestion. At night, your body responds to the loss of daylight by producing melatonin, a hormone that makes you sleepy. During the day, sunlight triggers the brain to inhibit melatonin production so you feel awake and alert. This sleep-wake cycle can be disrupted by factors such as nightshift work, traveling across time zones, or irregular sleeping patterns, leaving you feeling groggy, disoriented, and sleepy at inconvenient times. The production of melatonin can also be thrown off when you’re deprived of sunlight during the day or exposed to too much artificial light at night, disrupting the cycle and preventing you from getting the sleep you need.

1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R

1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R

2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1

2 1 2 R 1 1 R R R R R R 2 R 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 R R R R R 1 R 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 R R R R 1 R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 2 1 R R 1 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 2 1 2 R 1 1 R R R R R R 2 R 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 R R R R R 1 R 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 R R R R 1 R 1 29 1 R 2 2 2 2 2 1 R R 1 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 2 1 2 R 1 1 R R R R R R 2 R 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 R R R R R 1 R 1 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 R R R R 1 R 1 1 R 2 2 2 2 2 1 R R 1 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 2 1 2 R 1 1 R R R

2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R

2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R

2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1

R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1

1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2

1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2

R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 2

R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2

R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 R

1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 1

SLEEP DEPRIVATION is a commonplace occurrence in modern culture.

R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 1

Students often wonder

1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 33 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R

whether to pull an all-nighter

before an exam. Will the extra

Every day there seems to be twice as much work and half as

studying time outweigh the

much time to complete it in. Beyond leaving people bleary-

exhaustion? Robert Stickgold,

eyed, clutching a coffee cup and dozing off at an afternoon

who has studied sleep’s role in

meeting, failing to get enough sleep impairs performance on

cognition for the past 10 years,

a wide variety of tasks. Although there’s a fairly large individ-

reports that it depends on the

ual variation in susceptibility to the cognitive effects of sleep

exam. “If you are just trying to

deprivation, a single all-nighter can triple reaction time and

remember simple facts—listing

vastly increase lapses of attention. There is also a heightened

all the kings of England, say—

risk for a variety of health problems, including the loss of

cramming all night works, ” he

physical vitality, mental sharpness, emotional balance and the

explains. “That’s because it’s a

susceptibility to major illnesses.

different memory system, the

declarative memory system. But if you expect to be hit with a

question like ‘Relate the French

Revolution to the Industrial

Revolution,’ where you have to

synthesize connections between

facts, then missing that night of

sleep can be disastrous. Your ability to do critical thinking

takes a massive hit—just as with

34

alcohol, you’re knocking out the frontal-cortex functions.“It’s a

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

EEG }}

C3A2 C4A1 O1A2 02A1

THO SAO2

LEOG REOG

NAF

OPS-301 code_1-790

MeSH_D004562

OPS-301 code_1-207

MeSH_D004585

MeSH_D004576

MeSH_D017286

ICD-9-CM_89.52

ICD-9-CM_95.22

MeSH_D004569

ICD-9-CM_89.17 PSG }}}

6{am}

5{am}

4{am}

3{am}

2{am}

1{am}

12{pm}

11{pm}

10{pm}

9{pm}

8{pm}

7{pm}

6{pm}

ICD-9-CM_93.08

27

ECG/EKG }}}

MEMORY

ICD-9-CM_89.14

C R E AT I V I T Y

BRAIN ACTIVITY

EOG/E.O.G }}

PA R A D O X I C A L S L E E P

LOW–VOLTAGE EEG

~John Marston, ca . 1600

version of ‘sleeping on a problem,’” Stickgold continues. “If

you can’t recall a phone number, you don’t say, ‘Let me sleep

on it.’ But if you can’t decide

whether to take a better-paying job located halfway across the

country—where you have all the

information and just have to

weigh it—you say, ‘Let me sleep

on it.’ You don’t say, ‘Give me 24 hours.’ We realize that it’s not just time; we understand at a

gut level that the brain is doing

this integration of information

as we sleep, all by itself.”

1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R

2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1

2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R

1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R

2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R

2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R

2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R

2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1

R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1

1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2

1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2

R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 2

R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2

R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 R

1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 1

R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 2 1 1 R R R 2 1 R R 1 2 2 R 1 1 2 2 R R R 1

EFFECTS

cognitive

While some people may like to believe that they can train their

35

bodies to not require as much sleep as they once did, this belief is simply not true. Sleep is needed to regenerate certain parts

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

PHASIC REM SLEEP

CASE STUDY

Repines a nd qua rrels…”

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

TONIC RE M SLE EP

LOW MUSCLE TONE

WHEN

4-5 PERIODS/NIGHT

112212222R11RRR1RRRRR11221 2222R11RRR1RRRRR112212222R 11RRR1RRRRR112212222R11RRR 1RRRRR112212222R11RRR1RRRR R112212222R11RRR1RRRRR1122 12222R11RRR1RRRRR112212222 R11RRR1RRRRR112212222R11RR R1RRRRR112212222R11RRR1RRR RR112212222R11RRR1RRRRR112 1 R R R R36–37 R11221222 PAGES 32–35 2 1 2 2 2 2 R 1 1 R R R PAGES THETHE ELUSIVE ART ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLECYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL ELUSIVE OF SLEEP_THE OF REST & RENEWAL

W H AT

EMG }}}

ABD

EEG }}

C3A2 C4A1 O1A2 02A1

EMG }}}

THO SAO2 NAF

LEOG REOG

OPS-301 code_1-790

MeSH_D004562

OPS-301 code_1-207

MeSH_D004585

MeSH_D004576

MeSH_D017286

ICD-9-CM_89.52

MeSH_D004569

ICD-9-CM_95.22

ICD-9-CM_89.17

ICD-9-CM_93.08

ECG/EKG }}}

ICD-9-CM_89.14

EOG/E.O.G }}

PSG }}}

Rapid Eye Movement {REM}

DREAM SLEEP

THE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST RENEWAL THELOST ELUSIVE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OFAND REST & RENEWAL

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

26

that 'ga inst his fate

112212222R11RRR1RRRRR11221 2222R11RRR1RRRRR112212222R 11RRR1RRRRR112212222R11RRR 1RRRRR112212222R11RRR1RRRR R112212222R11RRR1RRRRR1122 12222R11RRR1RRRRR112212222 R11RRR1RRRRR112212222R11RR R1RRRRR112212222R11RRR1RRR RR112212222R11RRR1RRRRR112 212222R11RRR1RRRRR11221222

½½½

“…In night a ll creatures sleep;

Only the ma lcontent

6{pm}

of the body, especially the brain, so that it may continue to

function optimally. After periods of extended wakefulness or reduced sleep, neurons may begin to malfunction, visibly affecting a person’s behavior and memory. Insufficient rest can

even cause hallucinations and contribute to anxiety disorders

7{pm}

and other psychiatric problems, including depression. Some

organs, such as muscles, are able to regenerate even when a person is not sleeping so long as they are resting. This could

involve lying awake but relaxed within a quite environment.

8{pm}

Even though cognitive functions might not seem necessary in

this scenario the brain, especially the cerebral cortex, is not able to rest but rather remains semi-alert in a state of “quiet

readiness.” Certain stages of sleep are needed for the regenera-

9{pm}

tion of neurons within the cerebral cortex while other stages of sleep seem to be used for forming new memories and generating new synaptic connections. The effects of sleep deprivation on behavior have been tested in relation to the presence of

10{pm}

activity in different sections of the cerebral cortex.

11{pm}

12{pm}

PAGES 28–29 101# C P C P

PAGES 30–31 74# C UV p Sp g

g

88# C

61# P C

OBESITY

was curious as to what might

at least in part, by a corresponding decrease in the average

happen if he put busy Americans

number of hours that Americans are sleeping, possibly by

into an environment with 14

disrupting hormones that regulate appetite. The analysis of a

hours of darkness. How would they sleep? He organized a

that those between the ages of 32 and 49 who sleep less than

study to find out. He and his

seven hours a night are significantly more likely to be obese. In

colleagues at the National Insti-

addition, studies show sleep-deprived people tend to develop

but do not always succeed in achieving. More than 500 refer-

15 young, healthy adult volun-

increased risk for diabetes.

ences to a segmented sleeping pattern have been unearthed in

teers. They went about their

diaries, court records, medical books and literature, and from

normal business during the day,

Homer’s Odyssey to an anthropological account of modern

then reported to a sleep lab in

ILLNESSES

2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1

2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R

2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R

R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R

1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R

1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R

R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1

R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1

½½½ ½½ 38

as well. Reports from the Harvard-run Nurses’ Health Study

R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2

1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R

and research groups scattered around the country have found clues that might explain the associations, indications that sleep disruption affects crucial hormones and proteins that play roles in these diseases.

1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1

2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1

2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R

1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R

2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R

2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1

2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R

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R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2

CHAPTER

2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

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PAGES 40–41 54# C P C P

two

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Wehr says. “But it wasn’t at all.” The people in the sleep study

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Accounts of the Pre-Industrial Era

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lished in the American Journal of 39

chance

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period in the middle, lasting a few hours. The study was pub-

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1{am}

might well pose the same question today. Increasingly, rather

than render nighttime more accessible, we are instead risking its gradual elimination. Already, the heavens, our age-old

source of awe and wonder, have been obscured by the glare of

outdoor lighting. Only in remote spots can one still glimpse

the grandeur of the Milky Way. Entire constellations have dis-

appeared from sight, preplaced by a blank sky. Conversely, the

46

body’s natural preference for segmented sleep, as well as the ubiquity of artificial light. This could be the root of a condition called sleep maintenance insomnia, where people wake during the night and have trouble getting back to sleep. The condition first appears in literature at the end of the 19th Century, at the same time as

7{pm}

pages of history and engage in some low-stimulus activity for an hour or two, rather than sit there worrying about it. Russell Foster, a professor of circadian neuroscience at Oxford, shares this point of view. “Many people wake up at night and panic,”

8{pm}

he says. “I tell them that what they are experiencing is a throwback to the bi-modal sleep pattern.” By forcing oneself into an unnatural sleep pattern and viewing quiet personal time as “wasteful,” there is a dramatic increase in anxiety, stress, depression, alcoholism and drug use.

9{pm}

CHAPTER

waking life, too. When having trouble drifting back to sleep in the middle of the night, it might help to take a leaf out of the

became a place for legitimate activity and as that activity increased, the length of time people could dedicate to rest dwindled. Today, most people seem to have adapted quite well to the 8-hour

W HA T W E HAV E LOS T Cultural Side Effects

nation. Ecological systems, with their own patterns of noctur-

grow more scarce. Should that luminous day arrive, we stand to lose a vital element of our humanity—one as precious as

it is timeless. That, in the depths of a dark night, should be a bracing prospect for any spent soul to contemplate.

74# C UV O p

b

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W H AT

WHEN

D A I LY R O U T I N E

STICK TO A SLEEP SCHEDULE

NO. 1

Go to bed and get up at the same time every day, even on weekends, holidays and days off. Being consistent reinforces your body's sleep-wake cycle and helps promote better sleep at night. There's a caveat, though. If you don't fall asleep within about 15 minutes, get up and do something relaxing. Go back to bed when you're tired. If you agonize over falling asleep, you might find it even tougher to nod off.

PAY ATTENTION TO WHAT YOU EAT AND DRINK

NO. 2

Don't go to bed either hungry or stuffed. Your discomfort might keep you up. Also limit how much you drink before bed, to prevent disruptive middle-of-the-night trips to the toilet.

The important thing is to get a good handle on the dose of sleep YOU need. Set your pattern—and stick with it each night. Instead of heading to bed with anxiety, try to dive in like a voluptuary, pushing away guilt about the list of things you could be doing and letting yourself become beautifully suspended between worlds. Dim the lights a couple of hours after dusk and looking at the nighttime not as a time to pursue endless work, but to daydream, drift, putter about, and enter an almost meditative state. As we learn more, we may realize that giving sleep and rest the center stage in our lives may be as fundamental to our wellbeing as the way we eat and the medicines that cure us. And if we come to treasure this time of splendid relaxation, we may have much more to offer in the daytime hours.

53

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

SLEEP REQUIREMENTS can vary from person to person and six to nine hours is the normal range.

CREATE A BEDTIME RITUAL

NO. 3

Do the same things each night to tell your body it's time to wind down. This might include taking a warm bath or shower, reading a book, or listening to soothing music — preferably with the lights dimmed. Relaxing activities can promote better sleep by easing the transition between wakefulness and drowsiness.

GET COMFORTABLE

NO. 4

Be wary of using the TV or other electronic devices as part of your bedtime ritual. Some research suggests that screen time or other media use before bedtime interferes with sleep.

LIMIT DAYTIME NAPS

NO. 5

INCLUDE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN YOUR DAILY ROUTINE

NO. 6

Regular physical activity can promote better sleep, helping you to fall asleep faster and to enjoy deeper sleep. Timing is important, though. If you exercise too close to bedtime, you might be too energized to fall asleep. If this seems to be an issue for you, exercise earlier in the day.

MANAGE STRESS

NO. 7

When you have too much to do — and too much to think about — your sleep is likely to suffer. To help restore peace to your life, consider healthy ways to manage stress. Start with the basics, such as getting organized, setting priorities and delegating tasks. Give yourself permission to take a break when you need one. Share a good laugh with an old friend. Before bed, jot down what's on your mind and then set it aside for tomorrow.

Long daytime naps can interfere with nighttime sleep—especially if you're struggling with insomnia or poor sleep quality at night. If you choose to nap during the day, limit yourself to about 10 to 30 minutes and make it during the mid afternoon. If you work nights, you'll need to make an exception to the rules about daytime sleeping. In this case, keep your window coverings closed so that sunlight doesn't interrupt your daytime sleep—which adjusts your internal clock .

Create a room that's ideal for sleeping. Often, this means cool, dark and quiet. Consider using room-darkening shades, earplugs, a fan or other devices to create an environment that suits your needs.

NEW LEAF 55

COATED Primavera Cyclus Print

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

Nicotine, caffeine and alcohol deserve caution, too. The stimulating effects of nicotine and caffeine—which take hours to wear off—can wreak havoc with quality sleep. And even though alcohol might make you feel sleepy at first, it can disrupt sleep later in the night.

54

COLOPHON

THINK about all the factors that interfere with a good night's sleep—from pressure at work and family responsibilities to unexpected challenges, such as layoffs, relationship issues or illnesses. It's no wonder that quality sleep is sometimes elusive. Although you might not be able to control all of the factors that interfere with your sleep, you can adopt habits that encourage better sleep. Start with these simple sleep tips.

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

NAF

MeSH_D004562

MeSH_D004576

7 Steps to Better Sleep SLEEP TIPS

ICD-9-CM_89.52

LEOG REOG

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49

sights and sounds—all will be impaired by enhanced illumi-

nal life, will suffer immeasurably. With darkness diminished,

opportunities for privacy, intimacy, and self-reflection will

THO

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PAGES 48–49 61# C P C P

ness and light, and regular respites from the daily round of

47

12{pm}

MeSH_D004585

6{am}

from the sun.

The residual beauty of the night sky, alternating cycles of dark-

48

11{pm}

52

5{am}

into twilight in selected locations with the aid of reflected light

10{pm}

PAGES 46–47 67# C UV p Sp g

4{am}

ties. The Russian government has even attempted to launch

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

be damaging if it makes people who wake up at night anxious, as this anxiety can itself prohibit sleep and is likely to seep into

to improvements in street lighting, domestic lighting and a surge in coffee houses—which were sometimes open all night. As the night

sleep, but many sleeping problems may have roots in the human

6{pm}

from morning to midnight, have lost their original identi-

3{am}

an experimental “space mirror” designed to transform night

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

ety. By the 1920s the idea of a first and second sleep had receded

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

“Waking up during the night is part of normal human physiology. The idea that we must sleep in a consolidated block could

entirely from our social consciousness. The initial shift is attributed

45

we slept a certain way,” says sleep psychologist Gregg Jacobs.

the urban upper classes in northern Europe and over the course of the next 200 years filtered down to the rest of Western soci-

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

Ekirch found that references to the first and second sleep started to disappear during the late 17th Century. This started among

accounts of segmented sleep disappear. For most of evolution

time when night, for all practical purposes, will have become

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

44

loss of segmented sleep and, with it, a better understanding

of our inner selves. Certainly, it is not difficult to imagine a

day—truly a 24/7 society in which traditional phases of time,

2{am}

½½½ ½½

½½½ ½½

fanciful world of our dreams has grown more distant with the

CHAPTER

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

In view of our present trajectory of technological change, we

RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

IN THE COMEDY Amphitryon, by John Dryden (1960), the ancient deity Mercury demands of Night, “What art though good for…but only for love and fornication?”

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RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

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EEG }}

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OPS-301 code_1-790

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OPS-301 code_1-207

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MeSH_D017286

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MeSH_D004569

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ICD-9-CM_89.17

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RAMIFICATIONS_SIDE EFFECTS TO SLEEP DEPRIVATION

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51

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Ekirch a

50

2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R

they refer to it, as if it was common knowledge,” that

night led to two bouts of con-

Improving Quality of Sleep

2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 R

one

“It’s not just the number of references, it is the way

sleep study found that the long

THE ELUSIVE ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1 R 2 R R 2 1 1

on until 8 the next morning; it was a simulated winter day. The

centrated sleep—with a wakeful

THE LOST ART OF SLEEP_THE CYCLE OF REST AND RENEWAL

2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R 2 2 R 1 2 R R

two hours after dusk, followed by waking period of

p.m., lie down and rest,” Wehr says. The lights didn’t come back

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These references describe a first sleep which began about

subjects go into the dark at 6

body into a state of high alert, increasing the production of stress hormones and driving up blood pressure, a major risk factor for heart attacks and strokes. Moreover, people who are sleep-deprived have elevated levels of substances in the

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tribes in Nigeria.

the early evening. “We had our

Physiologic studies suggest that a sleep deficit may put the

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This is unlike the consolidated form of sleep we aspire to today,

tute of Mental Health recruited

problems regulating their blood sugar, which may put them at

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A. ROGER EKIRCH, a professor in the Department of History at Virginia Tech found a wealth of evidence to suggest that people living before the presence artificial illumination slept in a segmented or bi-phasic pattern.

Psychiatrist, Thomas Wehr

suggesting that the nation’s obesity epidemic is being driven,

nationally representative sample of nearly 10,000 adults found

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P

CASE STUDY

A large, new study provides the latest in a flurry of evidence

major

g

Symphony Sakura New Leaf EcoMatte Legacy Connection Bright Revival Bright Future Connection Reincarnation Rolland Enviro 100

DESIGN Nicole Ryan PHOTOGRAPHY Nicole Ryan + a selection of found imagery. TYPEFACES Adobe Garamond Pro, Akzidenz Grotesk, RBNo2 Light TITLE The Lost Art of Sleep: The Cycle of Rest and Renewal

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R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2

R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2

R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2

R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R

R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1

1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1

1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R

2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R

2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R

1 R R 2 1 2 2 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1

2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R

2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R

2 1 2 1 R 2 2 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R

2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R

R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R

1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 R R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1

1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1

R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 1 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2

R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2

R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1

1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2

R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2

R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2

R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2

R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R

R 2 1 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1

1 2 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1

1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R

2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R

2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R

1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1

2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 2 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R

2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R

2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R

2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 2 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R

R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R

1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1

1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 R R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1

R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2

R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 1 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2

R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1

1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2

R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2

R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2

R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2

R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R

R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1

1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1

1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R

2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R

2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R

1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1

2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R

2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 2 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R

2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R

2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R

R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 2 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R

PAPER Supreme Brilliant Matte COLOR CMKY Process SOFTWARE Adobe InDesign CS5, Adobe Illustrator CS5, Adobe Photoshop CS5, Adobe Lightroom 3 PRINTER Epson R1800

UNCOATED New Leaf Opaque Everest Imagination New Leaf Encore/Opaque

Academy of Art University INSTRUCTOR Ariel Grey Typography 3 May 2012

Pioneer Good News

Your mattress and pillow can contribute to better sleep, too. Since the features of good bedding are subjective, choose what feels most comfortable to you. If you share your bed, make sure there's enough room for two. If you have children or pets, set limits on how often they sleep with you — or insist on separate sleeping quarters.

PAGES 54–55 78# C D pO p C P

PAGES 56–57 47# C P C P

g

PAGES 58–59 74# C UV p C mp

END PAGES 101# C P C P

g

1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1

1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1

R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 R R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2

R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2

R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 1 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1

1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2

R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2

R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2

R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2

R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R

R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1

1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1

1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R

2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R

2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R

1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1

2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R

2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R

2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 2 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R

2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R

R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R

1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 2 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1

1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1

R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2

R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 R R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2

R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1

1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 1 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R

R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R

R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R

R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1

R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1

R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2

1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2

1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1

2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2

2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2

1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2

2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2

2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R

2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1

2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 2 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1

R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R

1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R

1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 2 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R

R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1

R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R

R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 R R 1 R R

1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R

R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 1 R 2 1 R

R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R

R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1

R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1

R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2

1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2

1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1

2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2

2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2

1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2

2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2

2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R

2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1

2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1

R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 2 R R 1 R

1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R

1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R

R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 2 R R 2 1

R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R

R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R

1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 R R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R

R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 1 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R

R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R 1 R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 1 R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R

R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1

R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R 1 R 2 R 1

R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R R R 2 1 2

1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2

1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R R 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1

2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 R 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2

2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2

1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R R 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R R 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 1 1 R R 2

2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R R 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 1 2 R 1 2

2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 R 2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R

2 1 2 1 R 2 1 R R 2 1 2 1 R R 1 R R 2 2 R 1 R R 1 2 1 R 2 R 1 1 2 R 2 1 R 2 2 R 1 2 R 2 2 1 R 2 R 1 2 2 1 2 1


COLOPHON NEW LEAF COATED Primavera Cyclus Print Symphony Sakura New Leaf EcoMatte Legacy Connection Bright Revival Bright Future Connection Reincarnation Rolland Enviro 100

DESIGN Nicole Ryan PHOTOGRAPHY Nicole Ryan + a selection of found imagery. TYPEFACES Adobe Garamond Pro, Akzidenz Grotesk, RBNo2 Light TITLE The Lost Art of Sleep: The Cycle of Rest and Renewal PAPER Supreme Brilliant Matte COLOR CMKY Process SOFTWARE Adobe InDesign CS5, Adobe Illustrator CS5, Adobe Photoshop CS5, Adobe Lightroom 3 PRINTER Epson R1800

UNCOATED New Leaf Opaque Everest Imagination New Leaf Encore/Opaque Pioneer Good News

Academy of Art University INSTRUCTOR Ariel Grey Typography 3 May 2012


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The Lost Art of Sleep