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MASTERS OF DESIGN LOGOS & IDENTITY

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Š 2008 by Rockport Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved . No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without written permission of the copyright owners. All images in this book have been reproduced with the knowledge and prior consent of the artists concerned, and no responsibility is accepted by producer, publisher, or printer for any infringement of copyright or otherwise, arising from the contents of this publication. Every effort has been made to ensure that credits accurately comply with information supplied. We apologize for any inaccuracies that may have occurred and will resolve inaccurate or missing information in a subsequent reprinting of the book.

First published in the United States of America by Rockport Publishers, a member of Quayside Publishing Group 100 Cummings Center Suite 406-L Beverly, Massachusetts 01915-6101 Telephone : (978) 282-9590 Fax: (978) 283-2742 www.rockpub.com

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Adams, Sean . Masters of design: logos and identity: learn from twenty designers who have changed the logo landscape / Sean Adams. p. cm . Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 1-59253-441-4 l. Logos (Symbols)--Design. 2. Industrial design coordination. I. Title.

NC1002 .L63A322008 74l.6--dc22 2008000583

ISBN-13: 978-1-59253-441-8 ISBN-lO: 1-59253-441-4

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Design: AdamsMorioka

Printed in China

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A COLLECTIVE OF THE WORLD'S MOST INSPIRING LOGO DESIGNERS

SEAN ADAMS

MASTERS OF DESIGN LOGOS & IDENTITY

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CONTENTS

6

Introduction

60

Ph.D, Michael Hodgson

8

Nomenclature

70

Mucca Design, Matteo Bologna

10

Gottschalk + Ash International, Fritz Gottschalk

80

Felix Beltran & Asociados, Felix Beltran

20

Alexander Isley Inc., Alexander Isley

90

Liska + Associates, Steven Liska

24

Sterling Brands, Debbie Millman

94

AdamsMorioka, Inc., Sean Adams

32

Estudio Mariscal, Javier Mariscal

106 Pentagram, Kit Hinrichs

44

Chase Design Group, Margo Chase

110 JohnsonBanks, Michael Johnson

56

Crosby Associates, Bart Crosby

122 Modern Dog, Robynne Raye and Michael Strassburger

Crosby Associates, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. Liska + Associates, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A.

Concrete Design Communications, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Modern Dog, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. Alexander Isley Inc., Redding, Connecticut, U.S.A .

• ••

Moria Design, San Francisco, California, U.S.A. Pentagram, San Francisco, California, U.S.A.

C&G Partners, New York, New York, U.S.A. Doyle Partners, New York, New York, U.S.A. Mucca Design, New York, New York, U.S.A.

AdamsMorioka, Inc., Beverly Hills, California, U.S.A. Chase Design Group, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Ph.D, Santa Monica, California, U.S.A.

Number S".,,,n'tAAn_ New York, New York, U.S.A. Pentagram, New U.S.A. Sterling Brands, New York, N"" "'-Vnr" U.S.A.

Felix Beltran & Asociados, Mexico City, Mexico

Willoughby Design Group, Kansas City,

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124 134 140 150 154 164 168 178

C&G Partners, Steff Geissbuhler Frost Design, Vince Frost Imadesign Corp., Erken Kagarov Doyle Partners, Stephen Doyle Moria Design, Jennifer Marla Pentagram, Paula Scher and Michael Bierut Apeloig Design, Philippe Apeloig Number Seventeen, Emily Oberman and Bonnie Siegler

180 192 202 206 218 230 232 233

Willoughby Design Group, Ann Willoughby Zeta Lab, Lucio LuZo Lazzara StudioDavidHiliman, David Hillman Concrete Design Communications, Diti Katona Logo Gallery Directory of Contributors Bibliography About the Author

JohnsonBanks, London, U.K. StudioDavidHillman, London, U.K.

Apeloig Design, Paris, France

Gottschalk + Ash Intemational, ZOrich, Switzerland

â&#x20AC;˘ Frost Design, Surry .... _,,"' .â&#x20AC;˘.. South Wales, Australia

Imadesign Corp., Moscow, Russia

ZetaLab, Milan, Italy Estudio Mariscal, Bar'cej!i?na Catalonia, Spain

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INTRODUCTION

A "master," in the context of design, is a person whose work serves as a model or idea to the profession. If we refi ne this idea in the making of logos, we look at individuals who have contributed to the form, concept, and standards of excellence in identity design. Many masters have enhanced the practice of logo design or identity systems. Among this varied group of designers and design firms, Paul Rand, Saul Bass, Chermayeff and Geismar, William Golden, Massimo Vignelli, and Pentagram have contributed to design and society with the creation of some of the world's most recognizable logos. Over the past two decades, a new group of designers has infl uenced the profession with a broad focus across many media.

6

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MASTERS OF DESIGN

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Logos & Identity

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The impulse to identify with symbols or letters has been a common thread for more than 5,000 years. The earliest marks determined ownership of an Egyptian brick. The Industrial Revolution saw an explosion of logos as mass-produced products flooded the marketplace. Today, the logo is in the middle of another major transition. The static logos and rigid visual systems no longer function in a multiplatform environment. This, coupled with the audience's enormous amount of daily visual input, has created a need for logos to evolve. The masters of logo design today address this issue in many ways. While they share common values of clear communication and excellence in craft, the approach to issues of multiplatform thinking are widely varied.

The client's needs and communication are the foundation for any identity system. Once determined, the logo may be applied to anything from a stationery system to a mobile phone screen. It may need to move, have accompanying audio cues, or change proportion . Solving these issues requires not only the ability to make a clear and memorable logo, but to also think four-dimensionally. Space and time are now criteria that are considered. The visual system is flexible and able to evolve. A flat , one-color logo, and visual system of a blue bar and one typeface may be inviting. This system, however, will fail in today's complex environment.

A common theme appeared when compiling the work of the twenty masters in this book. The logos shared a sense of effortlessness, and lightness. There were no overworked marks; no marks sinking under the weight of their own importance. Most great works of art and design appear to be the only logical choice, simple to create. When looking at a Picasso in a museum, many viewers think, "I could have done that." But, of course, they didn 't. The sense of ease and playfulness is one of the reasons for its success. Another theme was the clear concept of the designer and the public good. All of the designers expressed their desire to make the world a better place, to solve a client's problem and help the larger culture. The optimism inherent in these ideas is a defining aspect of these masters.

At the end of the day, it is our job as designers to help someone. We make a logo that will help a product or service succeed, or we design a visual system that will create inspiration. The logo is the distillation of the client's most basic communication, "This is who I am." The visual system answers the question, "This is what I believe." The combination of the two, as offered in this book, by twenty seven of the world's masters of design, creates a message that is exciting, clear, and potent.

Introduct ion

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NOMENCLATURE

A logo is not a brand, unless it's on a cow.

The verbiage used in the creation of logos is a modem Tower of Babel. Terms such as identity, symbol, matic, word matic, and identity system have different meanings, depending

on whom you talk to. Here are the terms as defined and referred to in this book.

=-------::::::DI

What Does a Logo Do? A logo can answer these questions: Ownership

Who owns this? ~;;;;;;;;;;"==C> Origin ==C::.

Where was it made? Identity Who made it?

It can: L..--..I====D' Differentiate from competition ===D Create a focus internally 1IO=======::::::;;;;ClI Provide clear identification !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!~D Enable the audience to form a personal relationship ,----". --1!!!!!!!OI Create merchandising opportunities i==~ Create credibility ----.- Bring order to chaos _ _ =",===C;:I Communicate the message

---

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MAS TE RS OF DE SIG N

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Oxygen Logo:

Word mark:

Symbol:

A distinctive symbol representing a company,

A word mark uses the company name

The symbol is the iconic portion of a logo,

object, publication, person, service, or idea.

with proprietary typography and letterforms .

such as the Chase Manhattan Bank symbol , the Cingular man, and the Time Warner Cable

Mark:

The advantage of word marks is that the

eye /ear. At times the symbol may exist without

A recognizable symbol used to indicate

enormous amount of logos in the current

the word mark, for example, the Nike swoosh,

ownership or origin of goods.

environment has made recognition of symbols

Apple's apple, and the CBS eye.

difficult. Using the entire name spelled

Trademark:

out sidesteps the problem of recognition.

A name or symbol used to show that a

The benefit of using a symbol alone follows the idea that "a picture is worth a thousand

product is made by a particular company

The disadvantage of word marks is that

words." However, if the symbol is separated

and legally registered.

if not handled skillfully, a word mark alone

from the word mark and the mark does not

may be generic and lack mnemonic value.

have equity, it may be difficult to recognize.

Monogram:

Identity:

Brand:

A design of one or more letters, usually the

The combination of the logo, visual system

The identity is not a brand. The brand is

initials of a name , used to identify a company,

(typeface, colors, imagery), and editorial

the perception formed by the audience about

publication, person, object, or idea.

tone form a unique and cohesive message

a company, person , or idea. This perception

for a company, person, object, or idea.

is the culmination of logo, visuals, identity

Signature: A distinctive mark, or combination of visual forms. A graphics standards manual may call for the "signature" to be applied to all brochures . This is simply a synonym for "logo."

The monogram solves mnemonic and

program, messages, products, and actions.

legibility issues. However, monograms are

A designer cannot " make" a brand. Only

often masquerading as logos. Generic initials

the audience can do this. The designer forms

treated in clever ways may look better on

the foundation of the message with the logo

towels or glasses than on a corporate business

and identity system.

card. Initials woven together have very little meaning. Most monogram logos depend on large-scale audience contact and repeated viewing for recognition.

Nomenclature

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The strong monochromatic palette, simple typography, and bold use of scale and space define the visual language of the Department of Architecture at ETH ZOrich on the opposite poster and for the series of banners on this page. The proprietary aspect of the identity is reinforced with consistent usage of a simple system.

Gottschalk + Ash

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CD For more than forty years, Gottschalk + Ash

Gottschalk's identity work incorporates not

Longevity

has created logos and identity systems that re-

just well crafted form, but the naming and

Gottschalk + Ash's long success can be

main timeless . This timeless quality is a result

visual expression. As technology advances,

ascribed to its revolutionary thinking, and also

of two components: a strategic imperative to

and the means of communication change,

to its commitment to craft. Every curve, let-

create clear and powerful communications and

the name becomes even more critical. There

terform, color, and shape is refined repeatedly

an adherence to the principles of modernism,

are instances where a logo will not work, such

until it is, "Harmonious, concise, containing

specifically, simplicity. When asked about

as an on-air cable guide, or mobile phone

a cognitive element, and able to withstand

his primary philosophy on logos, Gottschalk

message. Gottschalk states, "Effective names

wear and tear," says Gottschalk. The logo

responds plainly, "Keep it simple."

help to express the essence of a company

for Ciba embodies this. The challenge was

or product and differentiate it in a crowded

to create a global brand and launch it in 117

Process

marketplace ." His process to develop a

countries simultaneously. A new name was

The team at Gottschalk + Ash, partners,

proprietary name encompasses the communi-

created as well as full brand implementation,

Fritz Gottschalk, and Sascha Loetscher,

cation issues, formal components of a word,

new brand management tools, and an internal

and executive designers, Michael Kahn and

and an approach that ensures a name that

communication program. The final name and

Michel Schmid begin every identity project

resonates in many languages on a global scale.

butterfly symbol communicate the power of

with brand research. Strategic communication

transformation. The forms used, from a repeat

is at the heart of the success of h is work.

Brand architecture is an integral ingredient

of a perfect circle to harmonious letterforms,

This research explores the target audience's

of Gottschalk's process. As companies expand

work together to create a logo that has mne-

motivations and perceptions. While this is

and evolve, the logo is often the first element

monic value and visual impact. This, combined

not unusual in an identity process, Gottschalk

to lose cohesion. One department adopts

with the emotive qualities of transformation,

adds the layer of feelings. In some design

the primary logo, but changes the color, while

create equity and power.

circles, where logic and rational thinking

another adds a secondary name in a random

drive all decisions, this would be heresy. But

typeface. A merger or acquisition creates even

"Too flashy, too fashionable, and too ephem-

Gottschalk believes that emotions are a strong

more confusion. Seemingly innocuous changes

eral," are attributes that are common to logos

driver in decision making, and the success or

eventually erode all equity in a logo. Gottschalk

that fail. This echoes some of Gottschalk's

failure of a logo. The component of emotional

addresses both the visual structure internally,

sentiments on long-lived and timeless logos.

response is a minefield. The designer has left

and the logo usage, and a transition strategy

While a logo that uses the most current and

the safe waters of rational and measurable

that helps a brand, in his words, "Keep current

exciting typeface, or colors that represent

criteria and has entered a place where every

and in-line with the corporate vision."

a current attitude or style, may have initial

person will respond differently, and often

appeal, it will quickly become tied to the era

inexplicably. But this emotional connection is

of its creation. The logo is not the only element

the piece that makes the difference between

that can become, in Gottschalk's terms,

a flat and unremarkable logo, and a successful

"Too flashy." His approach also addresses

and memorable logo.

14

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MASTERS OF DESIGN

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Logos & Identity

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Top Five Logo Design Rules Logos must:

1. Be harmonious 2. Be concise 3. Contain a cognitive element

The Sponsors' Voice

4. Withstand wear and tear 5. Be timeless

Communic a tion Koeniginstr. 28 80802 Munich

89 3800 19538 89 3800 18625

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•• •••••••

THIS PAGE Ciba is a globa l leader dedicated to producing high-value effects for its customers' products . Th ese add pe rforman ce, protection, color, and stren gth to plastics, paper, automobi les, bu il dings, and home and personal care products . Th e identity uses the recognizab le symbol of a butterfl y which symbolizes transformation, beauty, and pollination. The icon can also be used as an abstract graph ic of multi-colored dots such as these banners.

• •• ••••••••

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Andreas Hofele Abweg Eine Erzahlung

A one color word mark is the logo for weissbooks.w, a new German publisher. The addition of " .w" after "weissbooks" hints at the contempora ry nature of the company, founded in the time of the internet. The letlerforms retain a f riendly, but precise qual ity. The choice of a word mark rather than an icon is based on the client's business . As pub li shers, weissbooks.w li ves in the world of the printed wo rd.

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"Have lunch with management." -Fritz Gottschalk, partner, Gottschalk + Ash International

OPPOSITE AND RIGHT

The identity system for an event celebrating 100 years of international ice hockey focuses on the joy and enthusiasm of playing the game. "Feathers" in Olympic colors are the key visual elements.

the visual components of an identity system.

This is exemplified by the system and applica-

The individual components can easily be

tions for Labatt Breweries of Canada. Initially,

corrupted, and lose their equity, by lack of

Gottschalk discovered that there were so

control. Often, the responsibility of implemen-

many variations of the Labatt brand identity

tation of an identity system will be given

in use that legally it would be difficult to

to Gottschalk + Ash. However, when other

protect the Labatt trademark. Gottschalk +

creative partners are involved, Gottschalk

Ash unified and gave new depth and resonance

creates a manual for usage .

to the fragmented identity. They repositioned the company as a global competitor. The varied

A manual can provide the rules and guidelines

applications became the vehicles for the brand

for usage, but it is useless without compli-

message. Gottschalk + Ash worked with Labatt

ance. "Besides a manual, endorsement by

to develop an online tool to guide internal staff

top management-someone who maintains

to more clearly understand the company's

continuity-is important," says Gottschalk.

brand structure, key messages, and unified

This is easier said than done. Typically upper

communications program.

management is populated by business, not creative, individuals. Understanding the value

Gottschalk states, "Good communication has

of the logo is one component. Believing that

the power to involve , inform, motivate, and

it should not be violated and instead should

sell. It translates visual emotion into images

be used consistently is essential to Gottschalk's

and creates lasting impressions. How an

philosophy on logos and visual systems.

organization is perceived by all of its audiences

" The most challenging aspect of any logo

depends greatly on the effectiveness of the

project is the involvement of management.

visual translation of the anticipated goals."

Have lunch with them," is his advice.

His work has created many of the guiding principles of logo design. As Gottschalk + Ash

The strength and stability of Gottschalk's

enters its fourth decade , Gottschalk has no

logos would indicate a preference for repeat

appearance of decreasing his commitment

and expected applications of the logo. The

to excellence. He summarizes his advice

truth is one of the attri butes that sets him

and driving conviction: "Never be satisfied."

apart as one of the world's best logo designers. "Once the identity system is designed and approved, my favorite applications are the ones we've never done before," Gottschalk says . "Anything to do with uncharted waters."

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Equity Toys A OlYI5 10N OF iOUIn' MARKETING INC.

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BELOW

The brand-visual equity research for Tropi ca na showed that the "straw in orange" was the key element in the orange juice category's sea of ubiquitous visual cues.

10 UR RA

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The identity is designed to reinforce and leverage this equity to create a unified brand icon. This allows the product to be instantly recognizable and proprietary. This also simplified the graphic architecture of multiple products.


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STERLING BRANDS

Sterling Brands, New York , New York, U.S.A.

Debbie Millman, New York, New York, U.S.A .

â&#x20AC;˘

In physics, the idea of a grand unification theory is a type of field theory that allows all of the fundamental forces between elementary particles to be written in terms of a single field. If proven, this theory would create a simple and elegant solution that provides one answer. Sterling Brands partner Debbie Millman would not agree with a grand unification theory. "There isn't a 'mass market' to target a product or a company anymore; there is no one demographic picture of the planet," she says.

Sterl ing Brands

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The evolution of a singular audience to one

The understanding of the audience's driving

based on variation is at the center of Millman 's

forces has contributed to Millman 's formal

concepts on logo design. " I have come to

thinking. "Symbols tell a better story and

believe that the term 'designing logos' ultimately

solicit an audience's projective imagination, "

undermines the job we do as consultants ,

she explain s. " Words suffer from mis-

marketers, designers , and strategists ,"

interpretation and a literal, or illiterate

she explains. Her solution is to redefine the

audience, but they are better at conveying

creation of logos and identity.

a specific message." Millman 's logos are clear and single-minded. She uses the term ,

Related Disciplines

" telegraphic " when discussing the look

Millman's identities holistically balance

of a logo. Nevertheless, many logos have

four distinct, but related, disciplines:

become iconic despite a complicated and /or

cultural anthropology, behavioral psychology,

multidimensional expression. The Starbucks

commerce, and creativity. These disciplines

logo is a good example . Millman uses the

are then expressed visually. Cultural

Starbucks logo to communicate the value

anthropology, whether it is an obsession

of consistent marketing and good product.

with social networks, or politics, or the cult

This alludes to one of the ma xims of father

of celebrity, has an impact on the audience's

of modern logo design , Paul Rand , that

interpretation of the world and its place

a good logo can never make a bad product

in it. Psychology of the audience- what

better, but a good logo can make a good

they are thinking, and why they are thinking

product spectacular.

100% I'UR..E ORANGE ,U ICE Wl11l

it, provides the tools needed to solicit the

Recognition

an understanding of the marketplace, impact

Millman expands on the value of consistent

of messages, and perception . Finally, she

marketing with the Nike swoosh as an example.

"

maintains the impact of creativity. " We

" I can't tell you how many clients have asked

include creativity because if we don 't create

Sterling to design the next swoosh. But what

an engaging identity, then consumers won 't

are they asking for really? " she asks. The Nike

even see it, " she says .

swoosh was designed twenty years ago, in twenty-four hours , by a young art student. She charged $60 , and when Nike cofounder Phil Knight saw it, he didn 't like it. He wanted the logo to incorporate more action in it, similar to the Adidas logo, which was a popular competitor at the time . Now, after millions

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BI2

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audience's imagination . Commerce gives

26

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VITAM I

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ABOVE

OPPOS ITE ABOVE

Th e Trop ica na identit y system is built on a locku p of all eleme nts. Th e overl ap of th e stra w in th e last a of th e word ma rk highlights the importa nce of t he "st raw in orange" in all com municatio ns. Simplicity is achieved by ma kin g th e "straw in orange" th e hero of the package .

A series of identities designed for Cablevision's Opti mum branded se rvices: digital cable TV, broadba nd Inte rn et, and digital home voice services . Th e logo and identity system foc us on th e co mmunication of core attri butes: speed, tec hnology, and ease of use. The identi ty system leverages contemporary iconic letterfo rms to appea l to t he broad audi ence of Cablevision's digita l services.


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Optimum

online

Optimum

voice

In riJel.w

Optimum

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RIGHT

The style gu ide for Cablevision's Optimum branded services functions as a clear set of parameters and instructions for the usage of the multiple identities created. The guide is designed to reflect the attitude of the brand, and includes a CD of elements.

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TH IS SPREAD

Th e Klee nex ide nt ity redesign works consiste nt ly on all prod uct s on a global scale. Th e ma rk t ypographicall y il lustrates th e " uplifting your sp irits" positi oning whil e mai ntai ning an evol uti onary look. Th e upd ated logo ta kes cues from t he strong existin g equ ity of previous ve rsions, but is more co ntemporary, approac hab le, and fri endly.

of advertising dollars behind it, the swoosh

to determine this: What is the dynamic

The Launch

is the world's most popular logo. Millman

for changing the logo? What is evolutionary

There are great logos sitting in a flat file

explains, " But guess what? It happens

or revolutionary change? What is visionary?

unused , and there are incredible solutions that

to be Newport cigarette's logo upside down.

How far is too far? What are the constructs

existed for a moment before being abandoned.

It is not necessarily having a type of mark

that are on the brand and how can the vision

The internal launch within an organization will

that is critical, it is the marketing and the

be redefined ? Millman uses the responses

ensure that everyone involved understands

positioning of the brand with the logo that

to determine the identity's telegraphic

the reason for change, the mechanics of the

gives it its power of recognition , and

expression of the positioning, personality,

system , and the plan for the details that others

ultimately, its success ."

and cultural values . She concludes, " The

will try to ignore or circumvent. Essentially

identity should fit the client's vision and

you want to give no one the opportunity to

Millman's personal manner is straightforward

business strategies, help characterize

say " Oh I I didn 't realize that."

and clear, with a dose of charm. She conveys

the organization, and ultimately be a

a sense of organization and structure. Her

beacon for the viewer in any environment."

conversation about successful logos follo ws

Millman 's ultimate goal for an identity is to reflect the overall culture of the brand, the

the same focused theme. Millman maintains

A visual system - colors, typography, and

product, or the company. She uses identity

two rules for success. "You must be

imagery- is a vital component of every identity

to evoke a unique combination of sensory

courageous and have a strategic focus ."

system. Millman 's approach creates these

perceptions communicated through various

Her work creates identity solutions that are

items with a strong emphasis on the final

media and applications. "The extension

intrinsically tied to a clear marketing strategy.

form of the logo's applications. She strives

of anyone of our sensory perceptions impacts

" Talk directly, passionately, and as uniquely

to keep clarity at the center of every touch

the way we think and act," she says, " and

as possible to your audience ," she says.

point the identity has with the public. This

this affects the way we perceive the brand,

It is the relentless persistence and constant

audience includes internal and external

or the product, or the company." The strength

assessment of the logo's relevance to the key

constituents, shareholders, and stakeholders.

of Millman's work lies in the understanding

constituency that is an ingredient for success.

Visual anomalies in the system are not

that when perceptions change, people change ,

tolerated. This hard-line on maintenance is

and the brand is affected. Her logos create

Millman then discusses the idea of

not extreme. As Millman states, " If there is

value and success for products due to her

single-minded clarity. "The logo must be

not one voice, one message, and one clear,

belief that the discipline of designing logos

a telegraphic expression of the company 's

understandable system, you 're doomed. "

and identity has more impact on our culture

positioning, personality, and cultural values,

Maintaining consistency is the most difficult

than any other creative medium.

as well as be a symbolic link between

aspect of an identity project. Logos in

your target consumer and the company,"

isolation, on a plain white piece of paper,

she says. This contrasts with her last

look great. A great vision in isolation is easy.

rule to understand the need for change.

A great strategy in isolation is easy. Meeting

Millman asks the client pointed questions

the extraordinary and daunting challenge , Millman 's work links all three- logo, vision, and strategy- seamlessly together.

28

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SEASONINGS

20 TEA BAGS NIT wr 1.5.0 OZ (42g)

30

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THIS SPREAD

The key challenge for Ce lestia l Seasonings led to the creation of a new identity system that creates a brand block at shelf, without taking away the persona lity so intimately associated with the nostalg brand.

Th e logo is modern, but sti ll reminiscent of the previous Ce lestial Seasonings word mark. It now creates a holding device that is proprietary, and enhances the typography and product li ne architecture.

"Talk directly, passionately, and as uniquely as possible to your audience." -Debbie Millman, Partner, Sterling Brands

Top Seven Rules for Logo Failure

1. A logo that's the front face for an organ ization that is badly marketed

2 . Global logos that do not consider global interpretations

3. Logos that need an explanation 4. Overly "trendy" logos 5. Logos that require complicated production techniques

6 . Logos that require in ¡ depth training in which to educate users

7. Logos with multiple taglines or messages that are not always in sync

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ESTUDIO MARISCAL

Javier Mariscal, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain

Estudio Mariscat.

Javier Mariscal's appr of view of creating im

comes es. His firm, Estudio

Mariscal, works in a broad range of media from print to interiors to support the messages of the identities they create. Mariscal expresses himself through a personal language that is complex in its intention and simple in its declaration. The work is often contradictory, innocent, and provocative at the same time. He maintains a commitment to innovation and taking risks with logos and ~~:~!::~ldentitYfOr

identity systems.

the brand Camper for Kids. creates a brand image that positions the product as playful. f un. spontaneous. and irreverent. Applications Include posters. packaging. and bags.

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Within the work Mariscal produces is an inherent sense of delight, which may seem

WALt\~DoNTCRY

CAMPER

~

to be a light touch in a serious corporate setting. This presence of delight, however, is the experience that makes Mariscal's identities fresh, surprising, and memorable.

Well-Tailored Logos When discussing his philosophy about logos, Mariscal jokes, "Logos are like people. Some you like and become friends with. Others you don't even want to see. The worst part of logos is that they can be very strange guys. They always have the same look, and you can't tell if things are going well or going badly." This humor and touch of wit pervades much of Mariscal's logo work. His process starts with the intent to solve the client's problem and

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give them an identity that will fit, in his words, like "a tailored suit." Mariscal has a strong visual style that he incorporates into the form of the logos. Typically, his clients come to him because they believe that style will work well with their businesses. A common question among designers is "How did they let you do that?" In the instance of Mariscal's logos, he is clear at the onset that he will solve the problem, create work that will succeed, but he will do what he does. This understanding of his own vision and ability to impart that vision to the client produces a wide range of logos.

THIS SPREAD The logo for the Camper brand is applied to multiple pieces and uses animation as the primary focus. To create the brand image, the collage technique is applied to the illustrations. The strong color palette and limited typography also create a strong and cohesive identity system.

Mariscal has a clear preference for symbols as a successful form rather than word marks. He uses the cross as the most potent example. Whether it's the Catholic cross or the cruz

34

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Camper for Hands is aimed at the Japanese market. The design is applied to the packaging, the advertising and the interior design of the camper shops in Japan. The graphics use the language of ideograms. The color range of the identity system consists of the three primitive colors of the brand: black, white, and red.

NEXT SPREAD The identity system includes irreverent bears that are, according to Mariscal, "rascals, strange, not in the least bit sweet, who have fun, are up to no good, who have their own world, close to the fantasy world of children, are the star of the graphics."


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-

-..... - -.=-

THIS SPREAD

The identity for America's Cup is applied to corporate applications, merchandising elements, exterior image, as well as applications for advertising, and for the organization itself. A series of posters use the hand-drawn logo for America's Cup with silhouetted images. These are accompanied with the identity system's bold co lor palette to communicate strength, power, and energy.

To transmit the characteristics of America's Cup, an avant-garde event, the applications, logo and posters use a free -form artistic treatment, for the typography as well as for the composition of the images and shapes. Environmental graphics for the regattas in Valencia, Malmo-Shake, and Trapani , Spain, utilize all elements of the identity system. The clear and simple color choices maintain the presence of the visuals in a cluttered environment. The logo is never treated as a signature in a corner; it is always the primary communication.

1

38

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VALENCIA L.OU'. VUITTOH

ACT 11


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Top Five Logo Design Rules

1. Choose your client wisely. 2. Listen attentive ly to your c lient.

3. If you don't like the client or don't think the job is ethical, leave them, because in this case you wi ll not be able to give them an identity that works.

4. Do something that the client will li ke but that you like, too, otherwise you wi ll regret it for the rest of your life.

5. Always create a book of normal applications, a manual, so that your work won't go to the sh its or to hell.

describe the issue as a change, perhaps not

gamada is irrelevant, the primary symbol

color as multiple colors. This type of system

communicates so directly that any variation

provides the client with choices based on

for the best, from a handmade craft and a

works. In the modern corporate world, Mariscal

the final application.

more fluid way of thinking to a process that

references the Nike swoosh. Even though

is more restrictive on the computer. Mariscal

Nike went through periods where it despised

Mariscal doesn't blame form as a common

discusses the issue from the next generation,

the swoosh, they continuously saw its value.

reason for a logo's failure. The final issue

"Before the advent of the computer in design

An example of Mariscal's own work is the

with failed logos is the inability to express

work, it was a complicated process. Now it

logo for Bancaja, a financial institution

the characteristics of the product or service

is much simpler, faster, and more efficient."

based in Spain . Since its launch, the asterisk

they are intended to represent. Nevertheless,

Whether this change in tools has affected

symbol has displaced the word mark. The

recognizing that certain logos may be beautiful

his work is unclear. He acknowledges

logo designed for Madrid's bid for the 2012

and should be successful, examining the

that everything is an influence, including

Olympics is another instance that the flame

issue sometimes leads to unclear answers.

new technology.

has become the memorable element.

"At times, it is a mystery why they don't work," While Mariscal's logos have a sense of

says Mariscal.

animation and fluidity, they succeed in

For much of the twentieth century, logos were one or two color, simple, flat forms.

Technology

the ability to maintain a clear and consistent

In certain instances this resulted in some of

In the past decade, multiple technologies

communication across many applications.

history's most beautiful and successful marks.

and media have changed the ways we talk with

This is not accidental. He maintains a strong

The CBS eye design by William Golden in

the audience. Mariscal's attitude toward this

resolve to design logos that will be coherent

1951, the ABC logo designed by Paul Rand in

ever-shifting aspect of the profession follows

in all applications. This demands many

1962, and the Bell Company's logo designed

his usual pragmatic, yet optimistic philosophy,

versions of a logo, from black and white

by Saul Bass in 1969 each exemplify the grace

"Technology has changed our lives, our daily

to color, and in multiple configurations.

and clarity in this approach. Although Mariscal

habits, our way of working, our tools," he

He suggests, "Make chromatic variations,

agrees with the direction of creating simple

explains. "New technology exists, and you

different sizes, versions that serve distinct

rather than complex logos, he also believes

can't turn your back on it. Of course, this

functions, plan for any application." His

a logo should fundamentally be expressive.

has affected the final logo work." Before

logos are a tool kit with many pieces. They

He states, "Logos should be communicative,

the digital revolution changed the design

are taken apart, recombined, set in very

transmit a series of messages about the

profession, Mariscal's work was done by

different environments, and on many diverse

product, the activity, or the person it is

hand. Today, the computer is the tool most

applications. This modularity allows the

representing. In order to get there, everything

often used to create the logos and systems.

logos to maintain a proprietary and consistent

should be allowed." His approach lends to

Response to the computer and its affect

voice. Mariscal talks about the challenges

identity systems that function as well in one

on design, and specifically logos, is almost

of certain applications with his typical

entirely divided by generations. Designers

candidness. "All of the applications are

who worked in a predigital period often

important to me," he says. "When working

40

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L L E

c

,

A

F

E

FROM TOP

Metropol Le Cafe The logo for Metropol Cafe in Gran Hote l Domine Bilbao, Spain, refers to co nstructivist and art deco letterforms. Zoo de Barcelona Barcelona Zoo's logo uses amorphous shapes to suggest a paw print, anima l shapes, and a face.

Socialdemokraterna

Swedish Socialist Party The Swed ish Soc ialist Party required a word mark and icon tha t reinforce t he ideas of the handmade, and bu il t. Marmo Bar The logo for the Marc Newson des igned bar coordinates wi t h the fo rms and design of the bar's environmen t.

~;p Shizuoka Convention & Arts Center

Granship Shizuoka Convention & Arts Cente r's logo ignored th e expected approach of cold and du ll forms to create a sense of excitement. Benicassim Echoed shapes, the wh ite crescents, curves of t he letterfo rms, and c ircle are the elements t hat provide t he Ben icassim logo wit h a cohesive quality.

BenicASsim Estud io Mariscal

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THIS SPREAD

Typically, financial institutions rely on a conservative color approach. Navy blue is a favorite, while red is sometimes not chosen for its association of being "in the red." The identity system for Bancaja relies on a vibrant multi hued palette to reinforce the ideas of the main components of communication: closeness to the client, and trust. The logo, symbol, and colors position the bank with an attitude of modernity. The Bancaja symbol is derived from an asterisk, a symbol in the banking world that represents transparent communication. The symbol also refers to the meeting of two people with common interests.

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y

THI S SPREAD

The logo, packa gi ng, and support material s for Chin ese Laundry spea k directly to the emotional, rath er than stri ctl y logical , aspirati ons of the core audien ce. Th e use of evocati ve illustrati ons and a strong co lor palette create a co nsistentl y se nsual prese ntati on fo r a brand th at de livers a produ ct th at is stylish and sexy.

The creation of a logo is part of a process

decisions based on what they feel (the real

that includes brand strategy, identity develop-

reason)." This leads to the identification

ment, packaging design , retail environments ,

of an emotional target that will be central

advertising, and licensed product development.

to the logo's communication. Every identity

While emotional connection plays a primary

system is designed to evoke the desired

role in the design process , Chase is pragmati-

response in the viewer: trust, excitement,

cally concerned with the client's needs and

fear, and so on .

specifically the business challenges that need to be addressed.

Once the logo is designed and a system is approved , Chase attacks the applications

Many of Chase's logos have an aesthetic and

with the same level of detail that is applied

formal tone that implies careful consideration ,

to the logo. "We love a great concept. What

high level of skill, and a remarkable and clear

we love even more is bringing that concept

vision . The extreme attention to detail and

to life in the world and watching it get results,"

visual forms in her logo design , however,

she says. These results are a combination of

are secondary to the considerations of a

the research , strategy, and logo applied with

strategic direction. Chase's first step in the

meticulous attention to a range of applications.

identity process is not to begin sketching,

"Every detail of a project is crucial, from

but to research , listen , and learn . "To translate

the precise curve of a letterform to the

a marketing brief into a great creative solution ,

texture of the paper that a logo is printed

we need a clear understanding of our client

on, " Chase explains .

and the business challenge at hand ," Chase explains. "We immerse ourselves in market

Logos that are derivative and lack originality

research, strategic business plans, and

often fail to create a strong identity for a

trending data to provide a strong foundation."

brand. Chase believes that the emotional

The competitive landscape informs her

connection is lost when a logo is not designed

solutions. " We find additional insight by under-

with the audience in mind. These can fail

standing how similar business challenges have

to resonate and be ignored. In addition to

been addressed in other industries," she says.

the messaging and communicative issues of poor logo design, pragmatic concerns are

How individuals respond to the world is the

a priority for Chase, and they can cause failure

core of Chase's trust in the power of emotional

in an identity system . "Very simply, logos

connection . This belief, that the responses

that don 't keep production limitations in mind

of the audience are complex, is distilled clearly

fail when they reproduce badly," she says.

by Chase. "People are certain that they make

These production limitations involve a lack

decisions based on what they think (the right

of understanding of specific mediums, or

reason) , but for the most part they make

poor execution that leads to poor reproduction.

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â&#x20AC;˘

TH IS SPREAD

Lingerie Perdu is a retai l environment in Saudi Arab ia . The brand is targeted toward the younger woman, often educated abroad. The logo turns to the Arabic tradition of erotic poetry. Th e human fo rm is not allowed to be used in the brand materials or store environment. Hand lettered phrases are built as pa rt of the identit y system. Th ese reference the concept of the "hidden," th e des ire fo r al l that is unseen.

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NEXT SPREAD

u

LIN13ERIE

The identity for Pearl Dragon restaurant use the preconceived symbols and colors we associate with "Chinese restaurant." These elements are then modified and given an extra layer of style and luxury. The red and gold elements of the logo, and materials used are distressed and layered communicating a sense of age and depth.

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Since founding Chase Design Group in 1986,

responsible for implementing the logo must

Chase has been a pioneer in new media

understand how important it is for branding

and technologies. Her logos are designed to

to be consistent. She insists that these

components vary according to the type

go beyond print and packaging to interactive

creative partners should be given clear

of business. For a Web- based business,

formats used in digital applications for

guidelines and enough latitude to be creative.

the most important component is

broadcast and on the Web. Packaging,

The logo and identity system can be both

the website. For a retailer, it might

however, remains a challenge. "The logo

creative and successful.

Critical Components of an Identity System In addition to the logo , the critical

be signage. For a product, it might be the package or the advertising.

is usually the easiest part," Chase says. "Understanding enough about the production

The straightforward and pragmatic attitude

process, materials, budget limitations,

that is incorporated in Chase's philosophy

and client expectations up front is crucial.

is misleading. This language of strategy and

Overseas production can lead to strange

business concerns would lead a reader to

miscommunications and bad implementation

believe that Chase's logos are conservative

of the final design. We often have to hand

and " safe" forms . The reality is that Chase's

the design over to in-house production

personal vision and singular sense of direction

departments so communicating intent and

produce forms unlike any other designer.

establishing clear guidelines is critical and

These logos are surprising and unexpected .

can be very time-consuming." Chase enjoys

Chase confirms her adherence to creative

these challenges and continues to consider

solutions outside the typical way of thinking.

packaging to be her favorite application.

"There are lots of great logos out there, but

" Good packaging requires an understanding

there is always room for something innovative

of the customer, the retail environment,

and beautiful ," Chase says. " Everyone gets

materials design, three-dimensional design ,

started by imitating the things they love,

as well as strong typography and image

but great designers find a way to develop

design," she says.

unique work that makes the rest of us wish

THI S SPREAD

Kama Sutra is a di verse line of erotic products. Its mission is to produ ce prod ucts that promote hea lthy, ope n sexuality. The logo, pattern s, art , color, and typography wo rk together to re inforce thi s phil osop hy. The use of trad iti onal India n pattern s, art, and co lors work to co mmun icate an exotic, and energet ic fee ling. In the mid st of thi s ri ch syste m, the logo remain s a clear constant, maintaining a proprietary positi on in the market.

we'd thought of it." The establishment of guidelines for the logo usage is typically handled with a manual. Training is also an essential part of Chase's process to make a brand successful. The creative partners, in-house and out, who are

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"

.'

-

....

..1""'1'

--

"People are certai n that they make decisions based on what they think (the right reason), but for the most part they make decisions based on what they feel (the real reason)." -Margo Chase, founder, Chase Design Group

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,

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CAPTIVE RESOURCES

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PH.D

Michael Hodgson, Santa Monica, Californ ia, U.S.A.

Ph .D, Santa Monica, California, USA

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Over the past ten years, branding has become a meaningless term. 111 has been co-opted, and its definition has been broadened to apply to anything from Coca-Cola to a description of an individual's quirks: "Betty's brand is her pink nail polish. She wears it every day." When discussing branding with Ph. D principal Michael Hodgson, the term "personality" peppers the conversation. Personality can be used in psychological terms to describe individual differences, or it can be used to construct a coherent and complete picture of a person.

OPPOSITE

Typically, an identity system consists of one logo, typeface, imagery, and co lor palette. Ciudad Restaurant has four logos. Th is choice reflects the multicu ltural menu taken

from Latin countries around the world. The color palette reflects the attitude of these countries, and the logos use this palette in a free-form way.

Ph.D

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THE SILENT YEARS ,

The idea of personality applies to a person 's

he maintains. " We stay away from simply

behavior. Transferring this concept to an

applying the logo to each item of stationery in

organization or product is a logical step for

the same way. This raises challenges for us but

Hodgson. His logos also have a nod to

always results in a much stronger personality."

humor and wit. This provides the identities with a more coherent and approachable voice.

The directness of Hodgson 's approach applies to symbols and words . While some of his

Visual Personality

logos use a symbol, they all are grounded

" I prefer to think of the work that we do as

with a straightforward treatment of the name .

creating visual personalities, rather than

" Obviously a word mark is great because it

the term branding, which has become part

immediately tells you the name of the company,"

of the general public's everyday lexicon,"

he says. " But a symbol can transcend that,

Hodgson says. He follows this attention to

taking it to the point where you immediately

the construction of a complete message in

know who or what it is , even if you're reading

the design of each logo. Given the complexity

a foreign language ." For example, the Apple

of a company 's personality, this would dictate

symbol or Nike swoosh have strong proprietary

elaborate formal solutions. Hodgson, however,

value based on their continued usage for

bypasses this approach. " In a world where

decades. "A symbol takes longer to establish,

almost everything is designed, where there

and often only happens after the symbol has

is, dare I say it, too much design , the last

spent some time being seen together with

thing left is personality, " Hodgson explains.

the word mark ," Hodgson explains.

TH IS SPREAD

The integration of a philosophy that presupposes an overdesigned environment drives

Flexibility

Hodgson to create logos that maintain clarity

Hodgson 's idea of personality constructs a

and a Shaker-like plainness.

coherent and complete picture of a product.

John Ford di rected some of t he most myt hic and memorab le fi lms of t he 20th century inclu di ng Stagecoach, How the West Was Won, and The Searchers. Ford at Fox,

t he 164 page coffee table book celebrates hi s ca ree r. Th e logo is app lied to a va ri ety of applications suc h as t he book, CDs, and posters. The form refl ects Ford's straightforwa rd and masc ulin e approach.

The entirety of that personality is communicated Once again , the idea of simplicity is an

through applications . The system's flexibility,

omnipresent term in the verbiage of a world-

therefore, is at the core of the success or

class identity designer. Hodgson's logos are

failure of a logo. "Logos fail because mindless

simple and direct, but they are the foundation

applications are produced , often based on

for flexible and layered visual systems. No

manuals that don 't allow for flexibility," says

solutions use a rigid unchanging system that

Hodgson. While each designer can cite his

allows for no derivation. Each system is built

or her favorite application to design , Hodgson

to support the logo, but allow the designer

redirects the priority. " The most important ,

to create a varied range of materials that

and for me , favorite application depend on

remain similar in tone, without being slavishly

the client. " His logo and system for Foundation

consistent. "Our systems are usually fle xible,"

Press relied on their fleet of trucks and delivery

62

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MASTERS OF DESIGN

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Logos & Ident ity

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Th e poster uses the bo ld color pa lette: red, blac k, and white, and typogra phy that echoes the forms of t he logo. The imagery is a criti ca l component of t he comm un icat ion, and t he id entity system is bui lt to inco rporate t his.


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Ph.D

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BELOW

The identity system, with an illustrative icon , and geometric word mark, is the foundation for a visual system. The system includes, not only logo, color, and typography, but specific applications, such as T-shirts, and an overall tonality. This is possible as Ph.D maintains control of the identity system and its use.

Bergamot Cafe is in Bergamot Station, Southern California's largest art gallery complex and cultural center. It's located on eight acres in the heart of Santa Monica featuring co ntemporary art galleries, The Santa Monica Museum of Art, architecture and design firms, and a frame shop. The logo focuses on the varied individuals at the cafe, as opposed to the food or environment.

vehicles as primary communicators. "These were most successful (and therefore most critical) applications and have become their most effective form of advertising," Hodgson says.

In one instance, the range of applications that Hodgson addresses has extended beyond stationery and vehicles. "I designed Appetite

BERGAMOT CAFE

for Destruction, the first Guns N' Roses album, which established a strong identity for them," he explains. "We used a cross design on it, and one of the band members loved it and had it tattooed on his arm." His system for David Fincher's company, No. 13, includes the standard stationery items, but he also

-... _ _

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designed the room numbers and the numbers

_____ _

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for the parking lot. BEAGAMOl CAFE

The simple yet playful attitude of Hodgson's

Two Heated Patios

logos would point to a specific and limited

User Friendly Ample Parking or

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palette of inspiration. Rather than citing the Shakers or Mies van der Rohe solely, aE~GAMOT

CAFE

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I

design annuals," he says. "I go to museums,

Innovative Menu

look at books on art, and architecture. I look

--

at flowers and go to the movies. As the name of Paul Smith 's book suggests, you can find inspiration anywhere."

64

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Logos &

Identity

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THIS SPREAD

Border Grill is an upscale, modern Mexican restaurant with a vibrant setting. Chefs Mary Sue Milliken and Susan Feniger present bold foods and flavors, making Border Grill the new standard for gourmet Mexican fare in Los Angeles. The original identity was designed by noted designer, Mike Fink. All illustrations and hand lettering are by Huntley/ Muir. Hodgson updated and clarified the original identity and reverted back to its origina l black and white color scheme. The system relies on the handmade in almost every instance, from the word mark to the illustrations. This communi cates a sense of spontaneity and excitement. It also represents the casual , but sophisticated atmosphere.

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ABOVE

"Never show the cl ient anyth ing you don't love."

The equity of the logo for the hotel, No.13, is built from the recognition of the mark in variable environments. The actual numeral may change, but each application

-Michael Hodgson, principal, Ph.D

reinforces the identity wi t h cons istent shapes, elements, materi als, and colors. The pu rely typographic solution is based on Didot, the first modern typeface designed by Firmin Didot in 1784.

Ph.D

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OP POS ITE

An upper east side lu xury food market si nce 19 15, Butterfi eld Market is recognized fo r supe rior quality. A maste r brand cre ates a clear visual statement , and allows the brand to expa nd into oth er businesses and regions, while mai ntai ning a strong and proprieta ry prese nce.

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SOUTH DE

Inherently, a logo has no meaning. It is only

M ucca Design for all of its design services.

when placed in the context of other messages

"I am able to maintain consistency by

that it adopts meaning. "The logo acquires

making sure that the same designer is

its meaning from the other elements and not

always monitoring the project, even after

vice versa ," he explains. " The Apple mark

it is finished ," Bologna explains. He uses

is just the drawing of an apple . This means

this metaphor to describe the alternative:

nothing by itself, but when placed within the

"If they were being serviced by different

context of the company 's philosophy, products,

designers, this would be a recipe for disaster."

and communications, it acquires value and TOP LEFT

Fun ct io ning like a wa lkin g bi ll board, t he shoppi ng bag fo r Butterfi eld Ma rket inco rporates picto ri al elements and pattern s. The uni que color pal ette and flex ible t ypography provide ease of recognition. TOP RIGHT

The id entity system fo r Balth azar Restaurant , and it s multip le businesses demo nst ra tes the strength of a holi stic app roac h. Rather th an relying on a simple and fl at ico n used re peatedly, each application of t he logo is uni que. Th e comm onality is created with eleme nts suc h as co lor, logo, and typography. The ove rall tone of the vis uals, however, provi de th e greatest amo unt of eq uity.

enormous equity." Bologna wryly states that

Mucca Typo is a division of Mucca Design ,

the best way to design a successful logo is

dedicated to the creation of fonts. The level

" to design a logo for a company that will be

of obsessive precision necessary to design

successful , and by consequence, your logo

a typeface migrates to Bologna 's logo and

will be considered as such ."

identity work. The choice between symbols and word marks is deflected by Bologna with

" Simple" is the standard answer for a

a discussion about the Coca-Cola letterforms .

world-class designer when asked whether

" The Coca-Cola logo is one of the examples

a logo should be complex or minimal. This

of how good quality in typography is not

is Bologna's answer as well. But he quickly

necessary," Bologna says. " The original word

contradicts himself. "After designing logos for

mark was a terrible script that haunted poor

more than twenty years, the simpler the better.

designers who had to redesign it every ten

But, unfortunately, we never follo w this rule ,"

to fifteen years. But everybody remembers it ,

he says. "Recently, we designed a system for

so we can consider it successful as a logo ."

a restaurant (Country) with more than thirty

Alternatively, the word mark for Nike is not

variations of the logotype ." This solution is

memorable to Bologna . In this instance,

possible when a client is remarkably focused

the swoosh is the mnemonic property. Both

visually, or if the initial creator of the logo

logos have equity and an ingrained philosophy

is the designer controlling all aspects of the

of values . These values have been married

system . In this case, Country only retains

to both the Coca-Cola word mark and the N ike swoosh by consistent control of the logo and context.

Mucca Design

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Five Logo Design Rules

1. Remember that the logo /mark will be reproduced very small. 2. Don't design for your portfolio, but for your client.

3. If the design you're doing is not portfolio worthy, don't show it to the client.

4 . Design ten logos, present on ly two or three of them, and never show the ones that you don't like (or else one of them are likely to be picked).

5. Ignore all of the above and try to have fun.

of flexibility that is more connected to

Misrepresentation Direct communication is not an issue for

industrial revolution technologies than digital

Bologna. "Identities that fail are the ones

reproduction. The logos for restaurants,

where the owner is an idiot, or where there

particularly Pastis, are designed to give the

are too many people who make decisions,"

impression of history. The logo has slightly

he says. This statement is a summation

different variations to convey the sense that

of the common problem of misrepresentation.

it has evolved over time. The multiple versions

"Most of the time, failed identities come

also respond to the medium used. These

from companies that lie to their customers,"

versions include logos that look rubber-

Bologna continues. "U nfortunately this

stamped, reproduced with old lithographic

becomes the designer's problem ." A good

techniques, or hand-made applications.

logo can never save a bad product. The designer's role is to focus and visually impart

Thematic Variations

the values and messages of a client. If the

Bologna uses historical idioms to

client misrepresents a company's product

communicate a company's character.

or values, the logo can never succeed.

This solution is often used on logos designed

The logo is a promise. If that promise is

for restaurants and hospitality clients who

not kept, the customer will feel betrayed,

are more interested in producing an overall

and the logo will lose all credibility.

gestalt, or atmosphere, than communicating a hard-core set of corporate values. The

Bologna's logos vary from simple one-color

logo operates as an identifier and as a prop

solutions, such as the Rizzoli R, to complex

for the theatrical experience of dining in

multilayered logos, such as the Adobe Design

a restaurant. The historical forms rely on

Achievement Awards logo. "Some of the old

the customer's knowledge and recognition,

rules of using no more than two colors or not

linking them to a specific time or place.

using gradients in a logo/mark are passe in

The power of these logos is derived from

a period when you can design on continuous

their narrative connection. The viewer

tones for printers or for the web," he explains.

connects the visual forms and applications

Bologna's identity systems have a quality

to his or her own internal stories. The addition of a sense of reassurance adds to the success of Bologna's logos. The applications are the vehicles for the success.

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ABOVE

OPPOSITE

Country is a Manhattan restaurant that serves contemporary and sophisticated dishes fe aturing locally grown organic ingredients. The interior design of the restaurant is a mix of eclectic details and midcentury modern. The logo, a monogram of a C, is a set of randomly mixed letterforms in multiple hues. This conveys the warm and playful tone of the restaurant's character.

The identity for Gracious Gourmet takes its cue from the product. The line of gourmet chutneys, glazes, and spreads utilizes a strong visual brand that communicates the company's commitment to high quality ingredients, exciting flavors, and ease of use. Classical botanical prints are combined with a rich color palette and modern sans serif typeface for the Gracious Gourmet. The mix of classic images, unexpected colors, and clear typographic language communicates the company's commitment to quality, and a fresh approach to cooking.


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In order to create a unified design theme for Schiller's Liquor Bar on Manhattan's lower east side, the logo is based on authentic details of the neighborhood. The letterforms were created by a specialized calligrapher. A custom typeface simulates handwriting with oddly sized, and unevenly spaced letters.

• ___ -

BOTTOM

Simplifying the wine buying experience, Schiller's wine bottles plainly display the quality. This element does not use the logo, but the attitude communicates a casual lightness contributing to the entire brand experience and concept.

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FELIX BELTRAN & ASOCIADOS

Felix Beltran, Mexico City, Hidalgo, Mexico

â&#x20AC;˘

Felix Beltran & Asociados, Mexico City, Hidalgo, Mexico

Felix Beltran was born in Havana, Cuba, trained as a designer in the United States and France, designed for the Communist Party of Cuba, and later moved to Mexico, becoming a Mexican citizen. This varied life has led to the design of some of the world's most exuberant and powerful posters. Beltran's logo work is no less powerful, but it has a remarkable clarity and rigor. Ideas such as "work hard, functional, and again, work hard" pepper Beltran's discussions on logos and identity.

OPPOSITE The logo for Estamex, a company that manufactures modular panels for office spaces, represents Beltran's minimal and c lear voice. Used as a repeat pattern, the logo maintains integrity, reinforces the product, and energizes.

Felix Beltran & Asociadas

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"Work, work, and work. " -Felix Beltran, founder, Felix Beltran & Asociados

Minimalism

is specific and proprietary, using color in

Architects Lui s Barragan, John Pawson,

the same manner as Tiffany blue. The color

and Tadao Ando have a commonality of

is given more prominence with the lack of

reductive forms in their work. Beltran uses

a complex col or palette fo r the accompanying

the same minimal approa ch to logos. " For

identity system.

me, all design should be fun ctional , where nothing is out of its role ," Beltran states.

A common theme in Beltran's logos is

"Every element should be derived from

the use of an initial letter converted into

the project 's content and needs. " Hi s logos

a geometric symbol. He designed his first

universally take the exacting approach

logo with the letter

of reducing the subject to its necessary

of the building and its balconies . "A name

elements. No superfluous forms are

is comprised of sounds, " Beltran says.

incorporated. This leads to a vision that

"These are converted into letters and then

creates memorable and sharply defined

into a symbol." This correlates with the theory

communications. Almost all designers who

that a word or symbol seen and heard at the

excel in the field of identity agree on the

same time has stronger memory associations.

need for simplicity in logo design. Beltran,

Coupled with the rigorous minimal ism, this

however, escalates this rule. His logos

philosophy creates powerful and memorable

support ideas first introduced by Russian

symbols that once recognized , become

Constructivists who proclaimed that

closely tied to the client.

v v to evoke the front

distillation of form was required to create a universal language that the masses

Tools

could understand .

At the beginning of Beltran 's career, the primary tools were T squa res, triangles,

" Simple logos are easier to perceive than

ruling pens, and Pl aka gouache paint. He has

complex logos ," Beltran says. But he adds

used evolving technology not to change his

to thi s common theme that "we may equate

vision, but to allow for more options. " For me ,

simple with something missing. On the

the computer is a tool that facilitates broad

contrary, the lack of surplus- what is not

experimentation and exploration, " Beltran

there- create s the power of a logo ." His

explains. " This was not possible previously."

approach to color in logo design follows

While the final logos may seem effortless and

similar reductive thinking. Beltran 's logos

simple, the amount of rigorous attention to

typically are monochromatic, relying on

detail and refinement are the ingredients to

the strength and association of one strong

their success. The negative shapes of the logos

color association. For example, the tone

are as refined as the positive forms. Angles are

used for the Grapus-Oisefio Grafico logo

carefully considered and echoed. Forms may

is neither yellow or orange. The ochre tone

appear to be easily drawn with the circle tool

82

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Logos & Identity

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OPPOS ITE

NEXT SPREAO

The stationery system fo r t he Estamex ide ntity rema in s true to the origina l intent. No extraneous deta il is added, the t ypography is consistent with one size and weight, and the placement rema ins consiste nt on eac h piece of the system. The logo is the pri ma ry foc us with no distracti ons.

Hospitalaria Coyoac<in is a hospital wi t h fo ur branches. The logo, a simple group of four sq uares represents thi s idea in the sim plest and most elega nt of fo rms. The back of the stationery uses th is logo in a repeat pattern . The stre ngth of thi s so lution is the clarit y of th e soluti on. Th e bac ksi de of th e letterh ead fo r Hill Print ing incorporates a pattern based on the logo. The shapes refer to the letter H and printing processes.


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Estamex Rosario 245 Col Valle Dorado Tlanepantla Edo de Mexico 03300 53789583 53789776

Estamex Rosario 245 Col Valle Dorado Tlanepantla Edo de Mexico 03300

53789583 53789776

Alberto Zuniga Director

Estamex Rosario 245 Col Valle Dorado Tlanepantla Edo de Mexico 03300 53789583 53789776

Felix Beltran & Asociadas

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Hill Villahermosa 186 Col Portales Mexico DF 03300 56889488

Jose Aguilera Director

T HI S SP READ

NEXT SPREAD

Foll ow ing Beltran's minim al aesth etic, th e business card fo r Hill Printing redu ces the ele ments of the system to th ei r most basic form s: one t ypeface an d th e H sha pe logo.

Th e Steelmex logo is a reinterpretati on of the client's prod uct , meta l pa nel systems for offi ces an d industry, and t he sha pe of the S. Th is is a co mbinat ion of a monogram and ico n. Th e logo for Grap us, a des ign offi ce takes one of design's most ele mental fo rms, a ci rcle, and alters its location to become the monogram of t he init ial , G.

in Adobe Illustrator, but they are handmade

to mishandle, and the inflexible visual

and complex in creation. This exacting

systems give less creative license to the end

attention to detail gives the logos a level

user. This maintains integrity of the logo.

of clarity and grace that would be easily mishandled without Beltran 's touch.

Many designers cite their favorite logo applications as the most unique , such as

Beltran addresses new technologies with

vehicles, uniforms , and dinnerware. Beltran ,

a minimal answer that relates to his visual

however, prefers the primary applications.

approach . "The logo and its applications

"I enjoy the most basic," he says . " These

should be appreciated in all media ," he says

are the most difficult, such as the stationery

The austerity of Beltran's logos facilitate

where the mark can use up too much space,

this appreciation across various media.

the envelope where the space is insufficient

The accompanying visual systems follow

for stamps, or the business card that has too

a reductive approach that enhances the logo .

much text." Beltran's continuous refinement

The typeface chosen on many systems is

and attention to detail solve these problems .

Univers, which was designed by Adrian

These are often the most visible applications

Frutiger in 1956, following many of the same

and give the logo a strong position to create

minimalist ideas as Beltran's work. The size

equity and value .

and weight of the type is consistent, and the color palette is often one tone of gray. This

"Everything should be functional" is

lack of additional elements places all emphasis

Beltran 's mantra. But functional is not enough,

on the logo, enhancing its prominence .

" The present time encourages rushing ," Beltran says. " Frequently we look for results

While some designers promote the importance

that are both fast and easy, and this affects

and success of identity manuals, Beltran is

the work ." The first casualty in this fast-paced

less optimistic . His experience with standards

race is the clarity of the client's objectives .

manuals is that they are often not used.

Beltran's approach demands a commitment

" I have found that the identity manual is often

and understanding of these objectives.

not instrumental," Beltran says . "This creates

"When the needs and objectives of a project

incoherence in the logo's applications."

are not clear, the logo and applications

The addition of multiple users of a logo adds

can never be clear either," he says. The suc-

to the confused results. While maintaining

cess of Beltran's logos relies on the ability

integrity of a logo is difficult with one end user,

to penetrate the content, objectives, and

the easy transmission of files and art creates

functional requirements . His adherence

a multitude of possible logo use violations.

to rigor is the quality that moves the identities

Beltran combats this loss of equity with the

past successful and into remarkable.

straightforward approach of the logo design .

"Work, work, and work, " Beltran advises .

The extremely simple forms are more difficult

86

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I"

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CHAIRMAN'S COUNCIL

PREMIER

WOMEN'S

Vol. 20. No.3

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SOCIETY

BOARD


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stay. a modern dog hotel Where dogs enjoy exceptional facilities, premium services, attentive staff and a beautiful setting on the river.

. . , . SM

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nM _ _ DIRECTOR. CINEMAl'OGRAPHER

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ADAMSMORIOKA , INC.

Sean Adams Beverly Hills, California , U.S.A.

â&#x20AC;˘

AdamsMorioka, Inc" Beverly Hi lls, Cal ifo rni a, U. S.A .

My partner, Noreen Morioka, and I have been called the new Ray and Charles Eames, the new Donny and Marie, and the Paris Hiltons of Design. Comparisons aside, we lead a team working in multiple media creating vibrant, clear, and at times, humorous identities since 1994. While the logo and identity systems created are appropriate and unique to each client, the overall theme of our logo work reflects the attitude of our location in Southern California. OPPOSITE A simple word mark and "glow" are the basic elements of the Sunda nce Insti tute ide nt ity. The glow represen t s the sun,

energy, light, and fil m. The cust om letterforms are modern, but refer to Sundance 's weste rn heritage, as in the horseshoe U.

AdamsMorioka, Inc.

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The visual elements are often bright and

trends, and focus on communication. Because

colorful, the attitude is playful, and the

shape and color are two of the most important

communication is clear and direct. The identity

ways to achieve mnemonic value, I use simple

in -house news letter when I was fifteen. My father

solutions follow a clear set of processes and

forms and clear colors to reach this goal. Our

was a program designer in San Francisco and told

rules, but the final result is often defined

logos also typically ask a question. The Oxygen

me some friends of his at a new company needed

by the system's ability to evolve and change.

logo, for example, poses the question to the

a masthead for their newsletter, which would

viewer, "Why does it read 'oh!?'" While it is

My First Logo My first logo was designed for App le computers'

be photocopied and stapled together. I hand drew a terrible apple made up of a series of horizonta l

The First Time

a simple question, it is enough to engage the

rules. This was before Saul Bass , one of the

One of our first identity projects was for the

viewer and create a more memorable response.

world 's best logo designers, designed a similar

Pacific Design Center, one of the western

logo for AT&T, so I assume Sau l copied me.

United States' largest interior design centers.

Human beings have been making symbols

The client asked for a mark that could have

to represent things, ideas, people, and places

four languages of the Pacific Rim at the same

for multiple millennia. This makes symbols

time. The final product was a logo system

extremely effective tools. Unfortunately, life

that functioned like a weaving or textile made

today is drastically more complex than life

of the multiple languages. This was our first

in the Greek classical age. We are bombarded

accidental step into a solution that inspired

by images continuously. From every corpora-

creativity, rather than constraining the process.

tion to the local plumber, the idea of a

Since then, most of the logos we've designed,

corporate symbol has been universally

or the systems that are built around the logos,

adopted. There are simply too many symbols

reflect this ethic.

in the marketplace for a symbol alone to do

THIS SPREAD

its job. Word marks make the communication Complex Thinking

clearer and stronger. This makes the

Within the color and playful attitude, one

letterforms and name even more critical .

of the most important roles of the logo is to identify the client, rather than to describe

It's easy to forget that we rarely, if ever,

its business or product. For example,

see a logo in a void. Yet logos are often

a wirehaired fox terrier drinking coffee while

presented to the client on letter-sized boards

sitting on a teacup will never be found within

on white backgrounds. This can be misleading

our work. The logo is meant to identify, like

because a logo will always be seen in the

a person's name. It doesn't tell me what you

context of other messages in the physical

do, or what you like to eat, but I know who

world. When presenting to the client, I use

you are. Simple and direct forms best achieve

the logo on typical applications such as

this. A strong proponent for simplicity, I strive

a business card and stationery system,

for longevity, transcending current styles or

sign age, or television screen to show the logo in context. Complex logos have never

98

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MASTERS OF DESIGN

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Logos & Identity

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As a fast growing and expanding compa ny, Wasserman Media Group's identity is designed to represent the activity and energy of the company. The identity system also allows for brand extensions and new divisions. As the primary home for the logo is on air, and in a Web environment, the icon is designed to animate and use a wide spectrum of colors. A one-color version of the logo exists, but is almost never used.

The stationery system is printed on both sides. The logo is scaled to occupy the entire backside of the letterhead. This reinforces the power and mnemonic value of the icon, and communicates WMG's commitment to many forms of entertainment and sports.


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Oxygen very clear selecting the image attributes: style,

of advice by broadcast pioneer Fred Seibert,

black and white or color, candid or posed,

"If it's right on television for fifteen minutes,

wide shots or macro, the same photographer

you've done your best."

for all or a group of photographers. The content of the image choices can be politically touchy.

Controlling the logo and usage is challenging.

Everyone can take a photograph, so everyone

For example, we designed a word mark

thinks he or she is an expert. It's also difficult

for Aaron Betsky's book on gender and

to get beyond the content of an image, or the

architecture, Building Sex. The cover and

style. If someone hates a chair in an image,

accompanying word mark worked well

it can kill it. And finally, who is photographed?

to enhance sales of the book, but the final

Do you have a good mix of men and women,

product found its way into unexpected

racial divisions, age divisions? These are

places. For example, the bright red cover

questions that must be weighed very heavily.

and "Sex" word mark was used in a photo shoot for Cosmopolitan magazine. A scant-

Launch

ily clad model is shown leaning suggestively

In addition to a standards manual, steps

against a bookcase holding the book as the

should be taken to maintain the consistency

primary prop. The article was "How to Pick

of the identity system. Whenever possible

Up Men in a Bookstore."

OPPOSITE

TOP

A visual audit of packaging in the hair care industry showed that less expensive products had more flamboyant packaging. Philip B. is a high -e nd product selling at stores such as Barneys New York, Saks Fifth Avenue, and Bergdorf Goodman. The identity is a simple word mark with a classic and modern attitude. The other elements of the identity system, patterns, ico ns, shapes, and co lor combi ne to create a packaging line that remains direct without resorting to showy techniques.

Oxygen is a cable network that initially focused its programming toward a primarily female audience. Explorations for the logo included a simple ring shape that was set aside due to its lack of proprietary value. This exploration led to the sound of an "0." An exclamation mark was added to convey the network's energetic approach. On screen graphics, print materials, and Web applications use the logo as the center of a response. The logo never is "slapped" onto a corner, but given life with a variety of audio cues ranging from surprise to amorous.

we manage the launch and initial use of an identity system. Some projects require

Young designers beginning to work in the

that we release the system to an in-house

field of identity should stop and ask questions.

department and other creative partners.

Build the criteria and thinking with the client

This is where the science of systems applies.

before any visual studies begin. Nail down

A well-designed system will inspire creativity

the attributes that the logo should address

and allow for flexibility while maintaining

and make sure you have consensus with the

a strong proprietary perception. A system

client, and then start visual studies. Also ,

made too rigidly can lead to fast rebellion

follow the three rules: simple, simple, and

by the designers who take over the program.

simple. How can you do more with less?

My philosophy for this hand off is pragmatic.

All of the logic, and criteria, and systemic

In some instances, you simply need to let

thinking involved in the making of an identity

your children leave home and find their own

system are critical. But there is that one

way. Fast-moving media such as broadcast

element, more important than any other:

and online will begin to alter the system

personal creativity.

almost immediately. I was given a piece

AdamsMorioka, Inc.

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THIS PAGE Via is a large line of paper products from Mohawk Fine Paper. The vastness of the line, seven finishes, twentyeight tones, required a set of logos to identify each finish. They range in character to help with identification and clarity between finishes.

...--

....

The relationship of the finishes to Via is expressed as a hub and spoke diagram on the website, rather than hierarchical. Each finish is given its own information page. The visual system also includes a set of mascots, inc lu ding a squirrel and talking horse to explain the se lection. The humorous and sat iri cal copy is also a critical component of the Via identity system.

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I need 10 know what paper is right lot my ptOj~t.

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I'm used to ()(denng?

104

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MASTERS OF OESIGN

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THIS PAGE

~ EDBoNe FILMS

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Red Bone Films' four identity vers ions are used interchangeably in the system. The symbol of the dog interacts with the type as though it is alive, add ing persona lity and suggest ing movement even in the simp lest applications, such as the stationery. The Red Bone dog "jumps" from one side of the business card to the other, for example.

EDBoNE FILMS

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IVERSloE

Reinventing Invention Teaming up Against Cancer Mining the Seas for Medicine

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PIPERLIME

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MASTERS OF DESIGN

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JOHNSONBANKS

Michael Johnson, London, United Kingdom

Some designers belie e

at the

of the

designer should be in isible and no style should be imposed on a client. The other side of the coin is to use one unique style on all projects. Michael Johnson, cofounder of JohnsonBanks, designs logos and identity systems for clients that merge both philosophies. JohnsonBanks creates logos that are uniquely appropriate for the client, but the logos never fall into the banal or predictable. OPPOSITE

Seven million people enjoy Pleasure Beach, an amusement park which has over 130 attractions. The park has a dozen roller coasters, including Europe's highest and fastest roller coaster, and cabaret, circus,

and ice shows. The identity reflects Pleasure Beach's history but updates the forms for a younger attitude.

JOhnSOnBanks" 111

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MASTERS OF DESIGN

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Logos & Ident ity

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Johnson's logos are unexpected, yet they're

draws power from its name. "Shelter is a great

also entirely appropriate. "Every time I think

word that needs no extra identity baggage

that I've fixed my view about how an identity

other than small typographic twists," Johnson

should look, feel, or communicate, a new

explains. The same solution and reasoning

project will come along, and I'll realize that

are applied to the company More Th>n.

having no fixed modus operandi is what

The context of the logo and its applications

makes life so much more interesting."

provide another layer of meaning and message to this seemingly obvious logo. The success

Boring Words

of this identity is based on its craft and

Influential designer Bob Gill once said,

Johnson's willingness to allow the words

"Boring words need interesting graphics."

to do the heavy Iifti ng.

Johnson adheres to this when determining the choice of a symbol or word mark. But

Increasingly, varied technologies and media

he just as quickly says, "The opposite also

choices have led Johnson to rethink the

applies. My default setting is probably drawn

idea of static logos. "I've been fascinated

toward word marks, but I know deep down

for years in identities that can change and

that sometimes a symbol can be fantastically

adapt to their surroundings," Johnson says.

useful." He uses a symbol in situations where

"I'm thoroughly bored of the 'logo that goes

the name or messages of an organization

in the corner' syndrome and I will do almost

don't communicate clearly. The logo for

anything in my power to avoid this." The

the Art Fund is an example of this solution.

identity for BFI is an example. The simple

The symbol (about love and art) helped to

application of a lens flare applied on the top

differentiate the client in a crowded United

of an image serves as a nontraditional logo.

Kingdom art funding and art charity market.

Johnson doesn't deny the ease of static

A nondescript word mark might be lost in

logos. "Obviously one color, vector logos are

a competitive landscape.

fantastically easy to use and apply, but it

THIS SPREAD

Pleasure Beac h's identity system has the ability to use very expressive typography, imagery, and rich color to convey the fresh, updated activities and attractions. The logo is given the latitude to exist in a variety of colors. This guideline increases the designer's ability to create unique and exciting applications.

Thrill seeking and the unexpected inform, not only the printed materials and signage, but the choice of applications and the provocative placement of the exclamation mark logo. The identity is based on an exclamation mark. Typi cal ly, everyone who visits has an opinion (usually 'I loved it"). This response is paired with forms that reca ll Pleasure Beach 's 100 year history.

doesn't always work out that way," he says. Trying to narrow Johnson's philosophy into one simple approach is impossible. This

Time and Place

is a key ingredient in his ability to create

Designers commonly attempt to do work

an identity that is unique and appropriate.

that is timeless . Unfortunately, because we

While a symbol is used successfully to help

exist in a specific time and place, this can

communicate an oblique idea, a word mark

prove challenging. "Some might say I still

is just as readily adopted in other situations.

naively cling to the idea that a good identity

The logo for Shelter, a homeless charity,

should stand the test of time, so it shouldn't

JohnsonBanks

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THIS SPREAD

Addressing the issues of homelessness and unacceptable housing conditions, Shelter is an organization that helps more than 170,000 people a year fight for their rights and find and keep a home. The logo and identity system have the same approach as the organization; it approaches the challenge head-on and without apology.

114

*

MASTERS OF OESIGN

Most of the world knows what a welcome mat looks like. It's meaning is clear. Switching the word, "welcome," with the Shelter logo communicates exactly that; you are welcome.

*

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TH IS SPREAD

"People just seemed to think I was nuts when I argued for logos that cou Id change years ago."

The National Art Collections Fund had been the well kept secret of art funding in the United Kingdom for some time. With 80,000 members it provides an essentia l fund for U.K. galleries to keep works of art in the United Kingdom and on public display.

-Michael Johnson, cofounder, JohnsonBanks

I

116

*

MASTERS OF DESIGN

*

Logos & Identity

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~,

The logo communicates the idea of "loving" art pla inly. There is no room for misinterpretation. The icon is mutable, all owing fo r multiple uses and va ri ation . Printed matter, such as posters and advertising combine the ident ity system with the objects it represents: painting, sculpture, and app lied art objects.


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Art Funders this way

be too trendy or time-locked in its art

to make people want to get involved in

direction style ," Johnson says. " I love the

a project, not just grin and bear it to pay

idea that some of my work might last for

the mortgage, " he says.

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decades, and sometimes it does." His approach to sidestep dated logos includes

Johnson 's ability to design a logo to meet

avoiding any digital effects that will stamp

multiple challenges results in success .

an identity with a kind of digital date.

Failure occurs when a client demands

"I think the prevalence of three-dimensional

mediocrity. Johnson 's philosophy is direct.

logos now will look very early twenty-first

" I guess you could argue that organizations

century," he says . Johnson has also found

get the identities they deserve," he says.

a faster turnover for logos now, as opposed

"It's probably no coincidence that dull,

to longer-lived identities of the past. This,

rigid , and formulaic organizations prefer

he claims, can be a positive. " Obviously

dull, rigid , formulaic identities. There are

a faster turnover is good for business and

some people that simply don't want to

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implies that identity design can be more

be interesting." The stellar reputation of

of now and less classic, " Johnson says.

JohnsonBanks attracts blue-chip clients

" But I still hold on to the idea that a good

with vision . Johnson's logos never repeat

logo could last for ages."

themselves , and they don't rely on a

.......,...,..

standard bag of tricks. The clients that The willingness to allow for change , the

work with Johnson hire him for his thinking,

unexpected, and the accidental is inherent

and they understand that the visual form

in Johnson's approach to an overall identity

is a product of this thinking. " Luckily, no

system. "As I've hinted , identities that are

one rings us up to tweak ," Johnson says

overly static and rigid strike me as inappropri-

" No one sits in our studio and says

ate in the multimedia environment we now

'Can you just repeat what you did for them

live in ," Johnson says. " The schemes that

for us?' They might admire the thinking

are overly policed by in-house logo-cops

that got us to a solution , but they never

are such a drag to work on for other design

want the same solution. "

consultants . Before we became logo designers, we had to earn our spurs applying other

Moving Ideas

people's schemes, and that was quite

The advent of motion graphics and the

a salutary experience." The question posed,

Web has meant Johnson is constantly

then, is how to maintain consistency and

thinking about how an idea will work in

a clear message in a constantly changing

a moving or animated form. The logos are

environment, and with a variety of creative

not designed in a static form and then

partners. Johnson 's solution addresses the

animated. They are conceived as behaving

issue of the individual, rather than adding more rules to a rigid system. " The trick is

JohnsonBanks

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The Strangest Place My Logo Appeared Many, many years ago I worked in Sydney, Australia, and I designed a logo for one of Australia's biggest insurance companies, MM I. I was young, it wasn't that great (actua ll y it was pretty awful), and I forgot about it. Twenty years later, I sat in a cinema watching some Hollywood blockbuster (I think it was The Matrix), and at the movie's finale that invo lved some very fancy special effects and a fal lin g helicopter, I nearly fell out of my seat because there was myo id, forgotten logo. The company had painted its logo on top of their building, and as Sydney had then become the city of choice to film blockbusters, there it was.

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in motion from the onset of creative

he doesn 't find any specific applications

hasn't, and to decide what areas need more

thinking. For example, the BFI logo began

to be more difficult than any other, the

improvement, and whether to amend the

as an animation and was then repurposed

challenge becomes the maintenance after

guides. The JohnsonBanks office is built

as a logo. Johnson describes the shift in

a logo is released. "The challenging part now

with metal walls. The designers regularly

thinking, convergent with new technologies.

is that virtually all of our systems are sooner

magnet up all the work in progress and

"Changing technology has supplied the

or later handed over to in-house teams or

collaborate with the clients. A negative is

irrefutable reasons for flexibility that we've

the clients' day-to-day suppliers," Johnson

typically turned into a positive outcome with

always desired ," he says. " Before, flexible,

says. "We're still learning how to get what's

Johnson's attitude. " Some of our cultural

changeable identity schemes were just

in our heads, and what seems natural to us,

clients often are short of money, and they

limited to television broadcast companies.

down on paper or on a PDF, in a way that can

can't afford to do the manual early," Johnson

Now, everyone's interested in schemes

be followed, be inspirational, and not feel like

says. " That's meant we've had up to a year

that can adapt to their surroundings and

a bunch of restrictions." The alternative is

sometimes to tryout the scheme and iron

appear less monolithic than before."

to use a few simple elements. But for Johnson,

out any problems. It's quite an interesting

this is what leads to stale solutions. He finds

way of working, actually."

Because most logos and identity systems

the solution to be an inspirational identity

are eventually handed over to other creative

system and staying involved with every project

As the design profession evolves, Johnson

partners, in-house departments, and

after its release. Johnson 's approach is to do

finds less interest in logo and identity design

advertising agencies, Johnson creates

this, even if it is only a few hours a month.

among students . "To be honest, in England at least, very few students seem to be

a unique kit of parts to maintain a cohesive message. " One of our most consistent

The strategy of implementation is important

interested in logos," he says. " This strikes

approaches is unique, 'ownable' approach

to Johnson , but the designer inside describes

me as a huge mistake. Their portfolios are

to typography," he explains. " If we can find

his favorite logo application . " I'm a poster

crammed with ambient advertising, or viral

a reason, or the money, we'll draw or modify

man, always will be," Johnson says. "When

online clips, or posters for film festivals, or

a typeface. " He also maintains a common

a client mentions 'posters,' my ears perk up

personal projects. But they spend practically

and consistent set of criteria to create and

immediately, and I've usually designed them

no time in art school thinking about identity,

select imagery. Color is a prevalent component

by the end of the meeting."

designing them , practicing them ." The result

of all Johnson-designed identity systems.

of this lack of experience requires on-the-job

"Sometimes color is paramount," Johnson

Rules and Regulations

training at JohnsonBanks. Johnson typically

says . "If a client inhabits a very color-coded

The systems manual is a document in

teaches young designers the process of logo

sector, choosing a specific color to stand

transition. Some designers treat them as

making and identity from the ground up.

out is important."

sacrosanct. Others believe they are now

"Brochures or websites all change," Johnson

irrelevant. Johnson designs the standards

explains. "The one element that remains

The identity system's use on applications

manual, but he takes a more liberal app-

constant is the organizations' need to identify

is a critical phase in Johnson's work . While

roach than previous, immutable processes.

themselves in unique and interesting ways.

He uses review meetings as a collaborative

In other words, identity design isn't going

think tank to determine what is working

away. If our experience is anything to go by,

currently, what has worked, and what

it's getting more and more important."

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TH IS SPREAD

The British Film Institute is a well-known, but misunderstood organization. The Institute's activities include publishing, the London Film Festival, Waterloo I MAX, and a myriad of other activities. The identity provides visual glue holding the many activities in one place. The logo is based on the cinematic icon of a lens flare. There are four versions of the logo. They all share the same lens flare and letterforms, but are oriented in different directions to provide ease of use to the designer of any application. A poster for a series of films with Marlon Brando exemplifies the changeable lens flare logo and typographic system. The tone of all communications is minimal. The Brando poster has two primary messages: Brando and BFI. There are no other confusing elements of communications added.

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C&G PARTNERS

Steff Gelssbuhler, New Yorl(, New York, U.S.A.

e.G ParIne.. New York, New York U.S.A.=~=========

Steff Geissbuhler, Ke elmeta athan Alger, and Emanuela rigerio founded C&G Partners in 2005, after working together for decades at Chermayeff & Geismar. Their identity work is based on principles of clarity, simplicity, and universality. This approach has led to the creation of some of the world's most recognizable experiences.

OPPOSITE The peacock was used bÂĽ NBC In the earty days

of color televiSion as a symbol of the transition

from black and white to color prosrammlne. but not as a logo. After numerous unsu&eeSSfu1 attempts with logos

USIng the company's initials, an abstraeted N, and other Imagery, the peacock was used as a pivotal Icon for this large media network.

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The peacock logo is an evolution from a detailed illustration to a simple, bold symbo l where the colors represent both NBC's divisions and the spectrum used in te levision. The letlerforms echo the shapes of the icon, from the curve of the C and the edge of a peacock feather, to the sharp edges of the N and the meeting point of the feathers.

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NBC recognizes that each comm unication contributes to the overall impression of the company. The new identity is integrated across all platforms, incl uding advertising, marketing brochures, stationery, business forms, facilities and equipment, and on-air animations.

The identities clearly exemplify the concept of a logo serving as a foundation for the

The on-air animation of the logo begins with a variation of the ubiquitous color bars of television. they quickly evolve into the recognizable peacock form, combining the medium of television to the NBC brand.

Geissbuhler's big picture thinking is apparent in the instances where he has to create

visual system. These marks are deceivingly

a symbol. When the identity system includes

effortless. They share a commonality of

a variety of sub-brands or divisions, the symbol

appearing to be the only logical option for

is used to link all aspects to a parent company

each client. C&G's experience and exceptional

or master-brand. "Very few symbols or marks

skill create this illusion .

are identifiable and recognizable by themselves without a name or word accompanying them,"

Nomenclature

he cautions. "A mark, used by itself, needs

Working with large-scale corporate

frequent exposure before it is associated

clients demands a high degree of clarity.

immediately with what it represents." The

Nomenclature is often the first stumbling

NBC peacock is an example. This symbol is

block a designer can face. Often, the designer

given widespread and ongoing exposure on the

speaks in one language, while the client

screen, in print, on signs, and in advertising.

speaks in another. Geissbuhler begins

Even in this global communication , the danger

with basic definitions. "First, we establish

exists that without the name NBC attached

a nomenclature for what we generally now

to the symbol, some segments of the audience

call a logo or trademark," he says. "The word

may read television, but not NBC.

logo is actually the Greek term for word, as

in Barneys New York, for example. We refer

Geissbuhler designs a logo to be a visual

to this as a word mark." Delineating the

device, or shorthand for a company, organ-

nomenclature further, he adds, "A symbol

ization , or product to identify, represent,

represents a recognizable thing, like a bird,

and communicate the brand. The logo is

the sun, a forest, etc. The NBC peacock

a reduction of a complex message into a single

is a good example. A mark on the other

expression. It is the creation of a personality.

hand is an abstraction, like the Chase logo,

His pragmatic approach is as direct as the

which is meant to express a notion-in this

focused logos he produces. Clients can think

case enclosure, security, maybe even a coin."

of a logo as a magic bullet; one that will solve every problem they have. Geissbuhler's

There is no uniform answer to the word mark

philosophy follows the theme that a logo

versus symbol approach in Geissbuhler's

can never make a client's service or product

work. He believes a word mark is the simplest

better than they were in the first place.

and most direct way of identifying an entity;

"A visual identity is like a sponge, absorbing

no translation is necessary. The word mark

what we associate with a company's quality,

spells out the name and communicates the

performance, and history," he explains.

client's business or qualities. In the instance of a name being a common one, a word mark will not suffice.

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TH I S SPREAD

The New York Public Library is a cultural attraction and a center for scholarship. To celebrate the library's lOOth birthday, a specia l visua l brand was des igned to hel p launch an ambitious capital campaign. Rather than celebrate the past, the final graphic solution conveys the diversi t y of the institution's collections and holdings.

@

The logos forms, derived by treating each letter in the word " library" differently, suggests posters, rare books, braille, music, manuscripts, and digita l fi les. The identit y system is applied to a vast amount of collatera l, including stationery, press kits, invitations, posters, banne rs, signage, and a line of branded merchandise.

Being Simple One of the traits common to designers

Every identity Geissbuhler designs now needs

who excel at logo and identity work is an

to work on the Internet, in black and white

understanding of the need for simplicity

or in a single co lor, low and high resolution,

in form. Geissbuhler's logo for Time Warner

pixilated and be able to function in any other

is a strong argument for this simplic ity

environment. "You should be able to embroider

in design. The combination of an eye and

it," he jokes. Geissbuhler considers all of these

an ear in restrained and uncomplicated

applications and options in mind when initially

form has proven to last longer and prove

designing the identity, rather than having

more flexible than more complex solutions.

to make adjustments later.

However, with today's technology in terms of reproduction techniques, different media,

Building Blocks

where graphics can move and morph, spin

Multiple elements such as typography,

and blend, all variations are examined.

color, and imagery make a system that

Returning to the core message, Geissbuhler

accompanies the logo. " The most

states, "It all comes down to what is

challenging of these components depends

appropriate to the project and makes sense.

on which one takes the lead and becomes

Simple logos are still the most memorable

the most important element next to the

and ico nic."

logo itself," Geissbuhler explains. If a color scheme or coding is part of the system,

If an identity doesn't make a co nnection with

he finds the challenge to create a distinct,

something we can relate to, it fail s. Ri chard

yet wide, palette that works in any

Saul Wurman has said, "You understand

combination and each media , and with

something only relative to something you

each color being distinct from the other.

already understand." Geissbuhler's position

" I do believe that the most challenging

on logos that fail relates to the idea that a

aspect to creating an identity system is

good logo can never make a bad product good.

to establish firm enough rules to guarantee

The success or failure of a logo is inexorably

consistency and at the same time to leave

linked to the product or service it represents.

the door open for evolution," he continues.

Other identities have failed because the service, product, or company it represented

Geissbuhler's identity systems would never

have failed . " I often use the example of

succeed without clear guidelines that explain

Enron ," he explains, "Paul Rand , one of

usage to other creative partners involved

the great graphic designers of the modern

with a client. Typically, only the very basic

age, designed a beautiful logo for the Enron

standards are established in the beginning

Corporation. Today that same logo stands for absolute corporate corruption."

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When Time Inc. and Warner Communications announced a merger, the new company lacked a trademark . Warner was primarily concerned with entertainment, Time with journalism. Their common denominator needed to be much broader: looking and listening, reading and hearing, receiving and sending .

The new logo is a pictograph combination of an eye and ear, the essence of communication. Originally associated with the corporate parent, the mark has now become the symbol for TimeWarner Cable, one of the most profitable divisions of the compa ny.

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RIGHT

The logo, a one co lor icon, is given power and variety with extreme scale changes and a commitment to high printing standards. This is critical, giving the logo the ability to maintain and strengthen proprietary value with a consistent and specific color of blue.

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The Signature Theatre Company name is reversed out of a cloud of signatures that extends along the edges so as to reveal the names of several recognizable playwrights. The typ ography stacks in such a way that the first three letters of the word Theatre are set apart to allow for the double reading of The before the full name of the company.

A vibrant palette is added to the identity system, further highlighting the remarkable efforts of an essential cultural venue whose sustained artistic excellence has generated a deeply loyal following among New York's highly literate cultural audiences.

THE~.Iij,~TURE

eb~ANY

and are distributed in digital form, covering

While Geissbuhler's identities are designed

size restrictions, the relationships between

to function in multiple applications, there are

the identity's various elements, secondary

unexpected instances that provide surprise.

typography, and color. C&G also creates

"We designed the identity for Mercy Corps

Do intensive research, interview ing the top people

as many templates, prototypes, or actual

a few years back and have since seen it

in the organ ization, the peop le who embody

applications as possible before publishing

applied to boats, latrines, food boxes, water

the company, who'l l deal with the identity on a

the graphic standards guidelines. This allows

pumps, bricks, and tents. Quite often it's

the identity system to be tested and able

painted by volunteers from memory on a wall,

to evolve before firm rules are established.

cloth, or a piece of wood. I've seen some

2. Evaluate the problem in the context of current

Both the basic standards and, later on,

pretty strange and entertaining interpretations

and futu re needs.

more elaborate guidelines with samples of

of that logo," he recalls. And Geissbuhler's

Don't only depict the organizat ion as it is today,

applications are often published on a website.

pet peeves? "I personally find doormats and

Another practice that has led to the success

elevator carpets a particularly strange place

of Geissbuhler's identities is the advice

for a logo. Who wants to have their identities

design development.

given to clients that they revisit the identity

trampled and stepped on, all day long?"

Ask these questions: What makes sense-changing

1. Listen objectively to the client's description of the problem .

day-to -day basis. Include members of their anticipated audience.

but how it wants to be perceived in the future.

3. Define a conceptual approach to begin

the name or abbreviating the name' Is a symbol

elements and standards six months and a year after implementation.

Advice for Identity Designers

The logos and identity systems designed by

or mark more appropriate? Or is the name by itse lf more powerfu l and unique?

C&G Partners are among the world's most While the process and reasoning behind

successful identities. The success of a logo,

4. Create a series of design possibilities,

each identity project is carefully constructed

however, is directly connected to the product.

while weeding out the merely fashionable.

and maintains the highest degree of craft

"Just keep in mind that a trademark or logo

Otherwise known as thinking, sketch ing, trying

and logic, there is an obvious sense of joy

don't always solve problems," Geissbuhler

inherent in Geissbuhler's work. This is most

maintains. "It absorbs the quality and

apparent in the resolution of the logo's

performance associated with its business,

5. Present the proposed design with examples

applications. He describes which applications

product, or service. Remember what happened

of the mark in use.

provide the greatest pleasure . "For a television

to Paul Rand's beautiful Enron logo? Never

Show a logo in a wide variety of app li cations

network, I enjoy the animation of the logo,"

mind the 3,000 year-old symbol of the

he says. "For a theater it might be the

swastika. We all know how that turned out."

marquee or posters. For an art museum it

out, and exploring. whi le avoiding cliches and trendy expressions.

and contexts. These applications should be the most relevant ones for that specific entity: airline and an airplane, lawyer and stationery, TV station and on-screen appl ication.

might be the publication system. It really 6. Guide effective implementation and evolution.

depends on what is the most visible and

Rather than relying on elaborate printed guidelines

important application." This list repeats

and manuals , produce a master disc containing

Geissbuhler's commitment to communication.

only the most basic rules and specifications.

Each identity has a specific message that

In cases whe re a large number of people in

is the priority, the media, or application that

different locations need to have access to the

will be the predominant carrier of its message .

art and specifications, put extensive graphic guide lines on a company's website.

132

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Crane Paper is one of the United States' best known brand for high quality papers. The logo is a Simplified Icon of a bird. speCifically a crane. The identity system includes the logo. typographic standards. colors. and production techniques. The promotions Include a vanety of techniques such as embOSSing and debossing to articulate the papers' quality.

The logo is applied as the primary Image for the Crane Business Paper promotion. The tone of the materials is professional yet approachable. The choice to portray the brand as approachable with the open and Simple logo. and pure colors IS made to address a Wider audience.

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I MAGE SOURCE

THE LONDON DESIGN FESTIVAL 2003

LAURENCE KING PUBLISHING LTD

GI.. 55 MAN A U â&#x20AC;¢

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IMADESIGN CORP.

Erken Kagarov, Moscow, Russia

Imadesign Corp. , Moscow, Russia

â&#x20AC;˘

Erken Kagarov, founder of Imadesign Corp. in Moscow, approaches the design of logos and identities as if he were creating another reality. "The creation of visual style is like creating a virtual, imaginary world," he says. "I design this world's own language, rules, and culture." If this statement portrays Kagarov's process as fanciful or ungrounded, nothing could be less true. Kagarov insists that while this new reality requires a strong vision, hard work is a necessity for making this world real.

OPPOSITE

The Idea' festival, which is held in Novosibirsk, is the national advertising festiva l in Russia. The poster for the jubilee 10th festival introduces the logo in the midst of powerful and vibrant imagery.

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This hard work includes determining the

Modernist Theory

inhabitants of this world-who are the internal

Kagarov has no preset determination of

and external audiences? Who is the decision

a specific style for his logo design. "In our

was on the rug in front of the bui lding entrance;

maker? Who are the stakeholders? Once these

field, we are working to solve problems,

everyone wiped their feet on the logo.

questions are answered , the task becomes

that's why form should always be subordinated

-Erken Kagarov, fo under, Imadesign Corp .

finding the best way to communicate with

to the communication goals, " he says.

each group. " Once I have made these

"Every logo must be designed into a form

determinations, " Kagarov says, " then I find

appropriate to the content. Simple forms

the exact image , or the distinct world, that

typically are best, but due to the amount

can specifically express the idea of my client."

of logos in the world, this is sometimes

The Strangest Place My Logo Appeared Th e strangest app lication of one of my logos

ÂŽ

challenging. Doing something simple and Following the concept of designing a language

unpredictable is not easy." In basic terms,

for a new reality, Kagarov believes it is

Kagarov is citing a primary modernist concept,

important to remember the audience needs

"form follows function. " Logos that fail are

to be given a logo that "appears to have an

not designed to communicate, but for Kagarov,

interesting history. The logo's usage and

are designed with style that ignores the needs

applications should develop over time,

of the project. " Unsuccessful logos do not

appearing in different ways." He uses the

correspond to the client, company, or product,"

analogy of a plot to describe the need for

he explains. "For example , a logo may be

evolution and variety in usage of the logo.

complex and interesting with great flexibility,

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"Just like cinema, we need to maintain

in an instance where only a simple reading

ItlAeR!

the interest of our audience ," he says.

is needed."

"Consistency of language and visuals in a film is the same as consistency in a logo

Digital media has changed Kagarov 's approach

and identity system." This provides a

to logo design over the past decade. He

continued interest in the logo and its

now believes a logo can be not only complex

applications, and it creates a style for all

and polychromatic, but also changeable

the elements in the service of the message.

and dynamic. "Generally the whole world is changing," he says. "People are changing, and that has influence on both the logo and its implementation. This is about the characters and the plot of the story we are telling," Kagarov explains. Understanding the changing needs of culture and society, incorporating the shifts of audience usage and perception, and adapting the visual forms of a logo have been tools Kagarov has used to create some of Russia's best identities.

142

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For advertising messages calligraphy was used to give special expression. Functional applications such as the website, use traditional typography from the identity system's elements.

A one color version of the image functions as a logo on merchandise. The simplified forms retain their message and create a strong solution.

~ rL

Applications use traditional Russian motifs and focus on the primary image, a combination of a nested doll and light bulb. This expresses the process of creativity, and the need to go deeper into ones head to find ideas .

The star, which is the main element of the logo, is painted to give the sense of spontaneity and energy. Bright and multicolored, the logo creates a fresh and dynamic image of the Idea Festival.

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TH IS SPREAD

aTnaCJlKJI(C "I enjoy doi ng what I haven't done before." -Erken Kagarov, founder, Imadesign Corp.

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Atlu s Lu x Kitchen Furniture Stores is a leade r in the market of Russian kitchen furniture manufacturers. The symbol represents a combination of two Russian cap ital letters f rom the name and is reminiscent of the light rays of a kitchen lamp . The word mark is built with the Univers typeface which has a highly refined fami ly of different weights.

A style guide maintains cons istency with the logo and its applicat ions. Photographs of vegetables are se lected to correspond to the identity systems' colors. The vegetables are associated with growth, cooking, and the kitchen They are successful brand identifiers, in creasing recognition in tandem with the logo.


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The store design for Positronika uses the primary identity colors, light green, white, and black to identify zones. Supplementary colors are used for identification of sales area zones to simplify navigation. Each product group uses a unique color and pictogram. This reinforces the digital and technical focus of the brand.

The systems manual is a guide to the logo usage, identity elements, and color code requirements. It is presented ina simple and clean fashion, reflecting the simply and "friendly" tone of the logo.

Reflecting the wide range of goods, simplicity of choice, and pleasure of purchasing, the symbol is dynamic, bright, and multicolored. It is a string of interlocking lines that has a festival nature. The symbol is related to the structure of the atom, which reflects the store's technical orientation. The interiors use identity elements and maintain the theme of openness and friendliness.

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Medved Vodka is a " lux" class vodka brand for the Republic of Kazakhstan market. The logo and identity elements are associated with vodka of Russian origin and create a strong and vivid image. The iconic bottle shape underlines product purity and transparency. One year after being introduced Medved Vodka became the leading vodka brand in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

RBT provides a fu ll range of services to business with trip planning and management of corporate travel expenses. The logo's dotted line represents RBT's three main services: reservations of air tickets and hotels, visa management, and organization of conferences.

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BAR ES&NOBLE BOOKSELLERS

..* * *w *

* ~ LOEWS HOTELS ~

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TISHMAN SPEYER

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MORLA DESIGN

Jennifer Moria, San Francisco, California, U.S.

Moria Design, San Francisco, California, U.S.A . ----I

A Chinese proverb says "the reed that does not bend will break." Jennifer Moria applies this thinking to her logos and specifically, identity system design. When Moria Design was founded in 1984, this philosophy was in contradiction to all accepted identity rule. Logos and identity systems were historically rigid and unchangeable. A system in 1960 might be as simple as a black-and-white logo, and a system of Helvetica and navy blue only. With the introduction of additional media and greater technological choices, this attitude began to change. OPPOSITE

Recognizing the need to strengthen their appeal to the design professional, DWR Profile addresses topical design and architecture issues and showcase mid-century classic and contemporary furniture and products.

The applications, including this sixteen page semi-annual magaz ine, contains relevant case studies and interviews, and highlights products and company benefits.

Moria Design

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LEFT Th e DWR Profil e logo ac kn owledges the Design Within Reac h identit y and its midcentury and contemporary products, wi th co lor usage, and tone. It ext ends th e vi sual language t o create a one-color logo t hat foll ows basi c tenets of moderni sm.

The need for flexibility was also demanded

were more appropriate prior to the advent

Moria cites numerous instances where a

by a rise in the " creative" class. As nondesign

of the digital era," she says. "For a logo to

well-conceived logo was applied over and over

professions, such as medicine , finance ,

succeed in both print and Web environments ,

again as the sole design element on a plethora

manufacturing, and law were encouraged

it must be able to evolve. It should succeed

of corporate and consumer applications. The

to explore creative thinking, the concept that

in one color or full color, and it should be able

applications must maintain the same level of

each individual in society was creative has

to move and animate in a way that reveals

care , as the logo itself. Moria uses the example

expanded. Moria's response was to embrace

and surprises." The willingness to allow this

of carpeting. "Is it really appropriate to slap

a company's message, but to allow the identity

radical flexibility is not a freeform, anything

a logo on a carpet and have the audience walk

to be flexible. "A good logo should reveal

goes response. Moria creates accompanying

all over it?" she asks.

the character of the company or brand," she

visual systems that support the logo, providing

explains. "It should reflect their DNA , but it

a strong foundation . "The burden of creating

Increasingly diverse technologies have

should be flexible and adapt to a variety of

a successful corporate or brand identity

expanded the opportunity for communication.

applications. I try to create a visual vocabulary

should not fallon the logo itself, but in

Moria anticipates the broad range of applica-

that is adaptable in a variety of media."

the successful implementation of a design

tions as a logo is being conceived. While other

language and visual system that supports

designers may design a logo and then create

Symbols

the logo," she explains. The understanding

versions for different media, Moria integrates

Moria's design process is rooted in an

of inherent limitations of the logo as a singular

the need for multiple versions into the earliest

analytical and methodical philosophy.

object is one of the qualifying elements of

explorations. "The applications for each logo

The seemingly simple determination of a

Moria's expertise in logo and identity design.

now are broad: animation , signage, packaging,

symbol or word mark is as carefully considered

even creating the building barricade graphics,"

as the critical messaging. " Both symbols

Fluid Systems

she says. "All of these have unique confines

and word marks can be equally successful.

Echoing Moria's philosophy that rejects

that allow for a new expression of the identity."

Each have limitations ," she explains .

a rigid and didactic approach , her attitude

"A symbol often can be scaled down to

toward the visual system looks in the opposite

Moria's identity system for Wells Fargo Bank

a quarter inch, making it very appropriate

direction from the immutable systems of the

reached every consumer touch point for Wells

for digital and online applications. The

1950s and '60s. Once again , a system of

Fargo Bank. She designed and oversaw

downside to a symbol is that it has to be

Helvetica , navy blue, and a twenty-four-pica

production on all credit cards, ATM cards,

supported by consistent, large scale, and

rule at the edge of every page will not function

ATM signage, brochure systems, proprietary

mass marketing for the public to recognize

with the multi platform needs today. Moria

check designs, branch signage, wayfinding

and identify the company or brand."

creates not a visual system, but a visual

systems, and private banking materials, all of

language. Her visual systems encompass

which created a unified system for " the oldest

The concept of fluidity is infused into all of

a vocabulary of fonts, colors, patterns,

bank in the West." This serves as a pivotal

Moria's logos. Many of her logos are allowed

photographic or illustrative styles that

example of Moria 's ability to maintain the

to be one color, two color, multicolored,

complement each other, communicate the

integrity of a logo, while allowing fle xibility in

animated, morphed , spun, and make sound.

business, and enhance the logo. These

the system. The Wells Fargo Bank materials

She describes the need for fluid systems

elements are then applied in a unique and

remain fresh and creative, without falling into

with the same passion she has for color and

thoughtful way to promote the message

the predictable and dull. They do this and

vitality in the logos. "I think rigid confines

of the brand.

create equity for the brand and the logo.

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THIS PAGE

Infuselle is an upscale product line from Shaklee, a mail order beauty and health care company. The logo's forms are repeated in the design of the packaging, and the shapes of the bottles: rectangles and circles. The Infuselie identity system includes color, typography, shapes, and materials. The bottle caps are color coded with specific anodized metal tones to identify skin type categories.

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THIS SPREAD

The logo and identity system for Levi's Original Spin refle ct the nature of the product, custom designed jeans. The concept of the consumer as creator of their jeans is enhanced by the word mark and imagery. The black-and white photographs, a key component of the system, represent the many types of personalities and individual and style options of the product.

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THIS PAGE

the Wells Fargo identity and collateral materials. The script word mark is derived from forms originally drawn in the 19th century. It reflects the company's values and history. The imagery and color palette of the system further reinforce the bank's philosophy and heritage .

From its founding in 1852, during the California Gold Rush, Wells Fargo earned a reputation of trust by dealing rapidly and responsibly with people's money and goods. This history, and the ethos of the American West inform the design of

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Moria Design isms

1. Design does not live in an aesthetic vacuum.

10. Design that moves others comes from

Design is influenced by and influences

issues that move you .

contemporary society. 11. No design is completely original. We are 2. Design is not solely a marketing device

all influenced by the bombardment of visual

that supports consumerism . It can be a

information we are exposed to on a daily basis.

communicator of dissent; it can market ideology.

But understand that influence and plagiarism

It can affect change .

are two different things.

3. Design must surprise and inform .

12. A good designer is a great listener. And if you listen smartly, the client nearly

4 . Design can be seductive propaganda. It is

always tells you the solution .

our responsibility to be knowledgeable about what we are asked to communicate. Make your

13. A good designer is a great storyteller. Every

decisions edu cated decisions.

company, service, and institution has a story to tell. Explore the narrative and banish the banal

5. Design has a rather symbiotic relationship

corporate speak we 've read a million times before.

with style, and style is somewhat precarious. What looks great today may look silly in fifteen

14. Accidents often produce the best solutions.

years , and maybe if you're extremely lucky

And accidents are a hands-on experience. Only

and talented, it will look good again in twenty.

you can recognize the difference between an

Great design is, quite simply, innovation that

accident and your original intent.

reflects the spirit of an era and becomes a classic because of its timeless appeal.

15. Collaboration is good.

6. Question the need for any piece of print

16. Passion enables us to remain true to our

communication . This is the most elementary

creative vision . Analyze , synthesize, visualize,

way of protecting the environment. Often,

but don't compromise .

the communication can be executed in a much more meaningful way that goes beyond traditional

17. Extremes work: really large, or really thick ,

design vehicles .

or really small, or really colorful, or really simple, or really dense.

7. Respect the power of printing. A piece of paper doesn't necessarily go away. That message,

18. We are the creators of artifacts.

that image, with your name proudly credited in four-point type, may last decades. It's a

19. Designing takes time.

humbling thought. 20. Ideas come faster the older you get. 8. Multiplicity works . Sol LeWitt knew it when he lined up 100 white boxes on a floor. Bruce

21. Asking questions generates more ideas .

Mau knew it when he put hundreds of big, grainy pictures back to back for Rem Koolhaas, and

22. "Seriously funny" works .

the Gap knows it when they fill their wi ndows with hundreds of kids' sneakers .

23. Dichotomy works . Try ju xtaposing opposites: the historical with the vernacular, the rough

9. Find your own voi ce by experimenting, by

with the refined, the brash with the sublime.

allowing the time to experiment, and by taking risks. This is why being in school is a lu xury.

24. The space in between is as important

School allows you the stru ctured time to research,

as the space occupied .

analyze, synthesize, ideate, strategize, and create . This is what being a designer is all about.

Mori a Design

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SEA BLUE

~G~ GRAND HOTEL 3799 LAS VEGAS BLVD . SOUTH LAS VEGAS NV 89109 702891 - 77 11 WWW . MGMG R AND ,(O M

SEA BLUE MGM GRAN D HOTEL 3799 L AS VEGAS BLVD SOUTH

LAS VEGAS NV 89109

SEA BLUE J A Y WETZEL , EXECUTIVE CHEr

MGM GRAND HOTE L 3799 LAS VEGAS BLVD . SOUTH LAS VlGAS , NV 89109 702891 - 7711 WWW.MGMGRAND.COM

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THIS SPREAD

Sea Blue is a fish restaurant at the MGM Grand in Las Vegas, Nevada. A signature visual element in the restaurant is a 120-foot (3.7m) sardine tank. The logo and identity system "ride the horse the direction it's going." The system does not

layer a new visual element onto the restaurant. Moria uses the most recognizable and memorable part of the experience, the sardine tank, and lets that form the foundation of the identity. The color palette follows the same logic, and based on a variety of blue tones.

My First Logo My first job after receiving my design degree was as a designer for PBS in San Francisco. I had to create logos for each program produced. That included app lications to all traditional print: press kit covers, stationery, posters, and advertising. But the true excitement was animating the logo for the show's opening sequence . This was back in the seventies, when television and film were the only mediums that required animation . Creating the animation of type was all done by hand cutting individual letters of photo-type and photo stat artwork, each captured as still video frames. And this animation of type and imagery had to be communicated by producing frame by-frame storyboards to engineers, who would, fingers crossed, do the design justice .

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LETTERING

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CUrl0US ~ lctureS •

The Met fO olitan Opera

TIFFANY & Co.

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5. Leave it open. Don't try to make a logo

7. Do good work.

that will explain at a glance to everyone who

9. Get good advice. Common sense works well. But sooner or later, a professional graphic

sees it the complete nature of your company's

8. Don't be embarrassed. Well-made and

designer is needed for help. AlGA is the largest

history, its business plan, its organizational

attractive is better than cheap and ugly.

professional organization for graphic designers.

structure, and its product lines. You will not

This is true for products, and it's true for the

The AlGA website, www.aiga.org, has advice

succeed . This is a good thing. A logo that

tools you use to communicate. Quality counts.

about how to find and work with them.

raises a question and is open to interpretation

Everyone's got a budget. Consider doing a

is better than one that attempts to contain

little bit less and a little bit better. Make

10. Be a good company. IBM President

all the answers.

everything used to communicate as good as

(1952- 1971), Thomas Watson Jr. is credited

it can be. Logos and colors can be considered

with saying, "Good design is good business."

6. Know your audience. Who is your

cosmetic, and hardheaded business people

He also pointed out that a good design can

audience? The whole wide world? Or just

sometimes avoid focusing on them. But most

help a bad product fail faster. Your brand

a few dozen customers? Too often, logo

design-driven companiesgot that way thanks

is a promise. It's up to you to see to it that your

design is an internal exercise with predictably

to a highly-placed advocate, from Thomas

products and services deliver on that promise.

arcane results. Never forget that at the end

Watson at IBM in the sixties, to Steve Jobs

America's all-time greatest logo designer,

of the day, the design that you do only works

at Apple today. For a design program to work,

the late Paul Rand, created logos for IBM,

when it works for people who haven't been

it needs to be seen as important to important

Westinghouse, ABC Television, and UPS.

in all the meetings, and who are just going

people. Care about it.

His last logo was for a company you may

to encounter your message briefly in the

have heard of called Enron. It's actually

course of a busy day.

a good logo.

Pentagram

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chi THEATRE

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"Designing any logo, whether a symbol or a word mark, has to do with the awareness of written language as visual communication. You have to be direct, more and more clearly. You must never be traditionalalways avant-garde!" -Philippe Apeloig, founder, Apeloig Design

It is never ordinary, but it will soon become

spectacular effects if it is to appear as

familiar. And it is the foundation to a system

remarkable as a purely symbolic mark,"

that supports multiple applications. "The

he says. "The strong use of typography

structural frame of every identity system

is critical. It must result in a dynamic

must be invisible," Apeloig says.

composition, regardless of the typeface or the style of type that is used."

Overuse and Abuse A logo should create an immediate dialogue

Apeloig uses simplicity and reductive

between the designer, the company, and

aesthetics in much of his work. His logo

consumers. For Apeloig, at times, a symbol

designs are no different. He believes a logo

reveals a meaning better than a word

does not seek to command the viewer's

or a series of words. It could be used as

attention, just to hold it. While the logo's

a pictogram or an ideogram, similar to

use and its combinations can be complex,

hieroglyphics. "The essence of a symbol

diverse, and rich, a successful logo is like the

is the form, the shape, the proportions,

foundation of a building. "The more stable

the abstract idea," Apeloig says. "Of course,

this foundation is, the higher you can go,"

some symbols have been used so much that

Apeloig says. Logos that fail are unmemorable

they become boring or lacking in novelty.

or too difficult to understand. These can

We think that we know them already. Only

be badly drawn, too complex, or have clumsy

if the style or the graphic aspect is innovative

proportions creating a situation that will

can it become a new visual identity." This

not allow for innovation. The logo is failed

is the crucial question for every designer:

before it is launched.

THIS SPREAD

The Chatelet system included a strict color palette with a mixture of alarming, eye catching colors and complementary calming earth tones. Printed collateral, such as this brochure, used limited resources without sacrificing the distinct look for the theater. An unexpected execution for the seasons brochure added to the unique and proprietary qualities of the identity system.

How do I make something appear fresh or have a new layer of meaning when it has

The Space/Time Continuum

been used so many times? Apeloig compares

New technologies and media have not

the challenge with the difficult exercise of

changed Apeloig's design of identities.

designing a chair. A chair is a simple piece

"I look for an inexhaustibility of the modern

of furniture. How can a designer make

language of design and feel comfortable in

it appear new, with a unique form?

its alliance with the classical rules of formal language," he says. "I try to create links

The same challenge exists for word marks.

with the modernist past without ignoring

While letters are already symbols that

the fact that technology has dramatically

anyone who knows how to read can decode,

changed our vision for design and the way

Apeloig believes that the design must be

we communicate." Amidst the proliferation

deliberate and innovative to make a word mark

of media, Apeloig enjoys the new artistic

extraordinary. "A successful word mark must

process and infinite possibilities in the

be overdramatic, intricate, or have

creation of animation. He uses this as

Apeloig Design

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My First Logo I designed my first logo when I was an intern at

Later on, in 1986, I designed a logo for a dance

Total Design in Amsterdam. That was in 1983,

and music festiva l ca lled Festival d'ete . Once aga in

and I was twenty years old . It was the first t ime

I used the accent on the letter E as a repetitive

that I was exposed to modern typography and that

element to emphasize the idea of movement and

I adopted abstract art. I designed my first logo

a dot. I found a link between typography, geometric

for my parents' business. It was an association of

proportions , and performing art. For that reason,

the letters A (for Atelier), and

E(for Electronique) .

I consider the logo to have been successful. I had

I started to find a rhythm of shapes by using the

many occas ions to apply the logo in a variety of ways:

accent as a repetit ion of the horizontal line of the A.

from a monumental scale on signage to a small size

I added a grid made of lines and smal l dots to

on tickets. It was a surp rising logo that generated

evoke the electronic circuit. It was like a geometric

a new dynamic for the festiva l.

exercise in literature.

a medium to find a new space for experimentation, using art and aesthetic motion in sensory psychology. This medium has transformed many of Apeloig's identity systems into kinetic works based on the concepts of space, motion, color, and light.

The critical component of an Apeloig visual system is the capacity for the logo to mutate and evolve over time without losing its clarity. A logo cannot escape its functionality as a necessary design element. It needs to ignore trends and explore the infinite combinations of its possible evolutions, while maintaining its identity over time. One of the solutions to aid in this ability is a complete and consistent design system. "Every visual element must connect, whether that means repeating the same identical element or creating patterns, symbols, or systems that work well together," Apeloig explains. " The logo must be the key to the entire system, summing up everything you mean to say about the company at once." Regardless of the element or application, all of Apeloig 's pieces work together to maintain a cohesive message.

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Ou ertur 15 ept mbr

Musee d'art et .'histoire d u a'ime

199

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THIS PAGE A quarterly magazine dedicated to fine arts of Pays de la Loire area, the 303 magazine identity is based on the sum of the area's departmental codes. This is shown conceptually by simply modifying the '0' as parts coming together.

With the identity occupying a limited amount of vertical space, the cover designs of the magazines are able to have unique design from issue to issue.

The creation of a consistent and united message is one of Apeloig's most difficult but exciting challenges. With a good logo, it is easy to be inspired with new ideas for applications and uses. This can be fun and interesting, but in the end, the message may not be connecting and the viewer may not feel the full impact of the visual system. "With a great logo, the system should come together almost naturally," Apeloig says. "The original idea is so good that the rest of the system feeds into it naturally."

Maintenance Apeloig's standards manuals are distilled to the minimum guidelines necessary to ensure that the identity system will never be mishandled. In the act of working with the logo, the end user must not be drawn into a complex and heavy system. If the logo

F

is stable and clear, it is easier for the end user to maintain the consistency of the identity system. However, a visual identity

J

carries a fragile dimension that needs to be checked and supervised regularly. Apeloig advises each client to have an art director pay attention and protect the integrity of the visual identity while seeing that it is not frozen and static, but lively and fresh.

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Jean-Fran,ois Chougnel Commlssalre general

Annee du BresiL en France

AFAA Association fran,alse d'acllon artlsllque 1bls avenue de Villars 75007 Paris T +33 (0)1 40037472 F +33 (0)1 53698393 Jf.chougnet@vlliette com

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THIS SPREAD

Inspired by Brazilian visual and aural characteristics, the identity and system for Annee du Bresil en France is able to show the Brazilian festival by rhythmic letterforms and bold national colors.

The backside of printed collateral is printed with the simple three color version of the identity. The logo is recognizable when broken into parts, and energetic as a whole. Typography is calm in contrast to the li vely identity.

Advice for Identity Designers l. Fi nd a good concept to engage the tru st not on ly of the client, who comes to a designer to solve its visua l communication problem , but also of the huge mass of consumers. A logo is a label of tru st.

2. Simp lify to reac h the poin t where the logo expresses the esse ntia l wit hout riski ng a poor design.

3. Create a memorab le mark. A logo is a sign of strength .

4. Ach ieve a logo t hat is easy to use, especial ly on a small scale. Most of the times a logo fi rst appea rs are in a small fo rmat: on business cards, alongside a signature, or on a listing of sponsors. In that context, a logo must be easy to iden t if y, to recognize .

5. Be flexible. A logo must be fl exible fo r its future uses, not too st rict , not too dry. It must be a point of departure for fut ure combinat ions and brand extension. A logo must be a time less design. It must be a robust const ruction, a crucia l eco nomic force.

Apeloig Design

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HOUSIN WORK

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NATIONAL SEPTEMBER 11 MEMORIAL &2 MUSEUM

HOMEMADE

AT THE WORLD TRADE CENTER

BABY®

SATU R DAYN I G HTLIVE

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WILLOUGHBY

Ann Willoughby, Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A.

DESIGN GROUP

Willoughby Design Group, Kansas City, Missouri, USA

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At first glance, an identity designed by Ann Willoughby, founder of the Willoughby Design Group, appears simple, well crafted, and elegant. Upon closer inspection, however, it becomes clear that they are the cornerstones of a much larger structure. While some designers may focus on the form alone, and find pleasure in the crafting of a beautiful logo, Willoughby Design Group sees the bigger picture. The well-crafted logo is only one component of a larger branded experience.

OPPOSITE

Without ruining the playful original design, the new Wonder Bread design bu ilds a clean distinct presentation of the identity that is again playfully app lied to all sides of t he packaging.

Willoughby Design Group

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Willoughby 's first logo was used on a

sustainability, accountability, customization ,

" For Sale" sign for a local independent

information , and convenience are some of

realtor when she was fifteen years old.

the many examples. While this process may

Brand architecture

From that noble beginning, she has built

sound clinical, the end result is emotional.

Signature

one of the most internationally respected

"Our approach to identity helps people fall in

Color system

design and branding firms . The Willoughby

love with the brand through a kaleidoscope of

Design Group's attitude toward identity

well-designed experiences," Willoughby says.

Critical Components of an Identity System Brand identity standards

Typography system Icons and symbo ls

and brand is founded on Willoughby 's

Sound and motion

T HI S PAGE

A bold new Asian inspired boutique that sell s brand ed goods and designer collecti ons required a loo k as bo ld and memo ra ble to compete in the retail wo rld. Rath er than di re ctl y copyin g Asian art ifact s, the identity and system inco rporate borrowe d Asian influences and co nte mporized art wi th a Far East natural color palette.

perspective that for any organization -

Willoughby 's identity work is a combination

whether it's a nonprofit, a start-up, or a

of simplicity, elegance, and wit. The simplicity

well-established business-brand is about

of the work exemplifies the idea that a logo

reputation. "A logo and identity help

and visual identity program should express

build brand equity, and if the enterprise is

a distinctive point of view and create a brand

successful over time , the brand (reputation)

strategy that resonates clearly in the context

becomes a more valuable asset," Willoughby

of our visually cluttered world. The elegance

says . "A brand lives in the hearts and minds

of the forms is, for Willoughby, a point of entry.

of real people, through their experiences

Beautifully crafted elements provide the

and encounters with brands in daily life.

quality that is evidenced in all of the work

As these encounters become more targeted ,

done by Willoughby Design Group. And finally,

personal , and interactive, companies are

the concept of wit is added to maintain a

learning how to create more authentic,

degree of levity and to never let a logo sink

meaningful experiences . Fortunately this

under the weight of its own importance .

means opportunity for designers who can design experiences that delight and engage."

of symbols or icons over words . According

The retai l space also has a tea market t hat se lls loose teas and signatured brand ed produ ct s. With out overpowering the package design, th e id enti t y mai nta ins a memora ble system in the store and when taken home.

The Bigger Picture

to Willoughby, symbols and color provide

If logos amplify and clarify brands through

a stronger connection to cognitive processes

distinctive combinations of words, colors,

than words. "Well-crafted pictorial symbols

images, sounds, packaging, products,

are generally more memorable than abstract

service, and websites then the entire

symbols," she says. "If used, word marks

response is designable. Willoughby believes

must contain distinctive pictorial elements

that a designer and a collaborative brand

that aid memory. "

team can shape the experience of a brand and its content, meaning, products , and services. As evidenced in Willoughby's experience since 1978, current trends indicate that people want more from brands;

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Sl G1RA, Sl MAWGIA, Sl PIAOEt

SPIN, EAT, ENJOY! Umore Napoletano,

Wn the Beopolitan spirit, c us our sto .. e oven to roast ¢ve~.'~.' onion, l'lushroo~, ga~ l ic clove, tOl'Dato, tUl'i.e~' breast, cb1c i. cn sausabC, art ichoi. c and cven c::o tons 1r.t ~ the s .... eet and savor:,' l'Dorse.s tbat top ~'our pizza y We han<i grate our ch ses 'ne 3 rye ou on 1,:,' the quaUt;> oJ: ingredients that~ : ',:o¡u ' d. serv our g ests at ho~c. ~on appetitol

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THIS PAGE

The identity concept was taking the owner's two loves, Neapolitan Pizza and bicycling, and mixing them together as the basis for the logo and fi Iter to what visuals would theme the open designed restaurant. From the website to the dining room wall graphics, the system layered one color images to give a unique feel of motion, excitement and fun.

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THIS SPREAD

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The Mary Carol logo has a "history" as opposed to a clinical approach. The packaging for Mary Carol promote the brand's message that is warm and nurturing, with a hometown feel, while maintaining a professional attitude.

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The Sheridan's logo is used li bera lly and ex uberantl y. The grap hi c elements of the system are re peated on th e menu board s, space dividers, wall paper, and 3¡ 0 sc ulptures. The graphi c system clearly li st s brand attribute s, providing logica l re aso ns for the visu al solutions. She ri¡ dan's pac kaging takes th e library of grap hi c el ements and ap plies them with messages, the logo and mascot. The broad color palette all ows for va riation and maintain s a co nsistent and co hesive message.

Cross-Platform Thinking

Vision

Since forming Willoughby Design Group

But with the proliferation of new media as well

almost thirty years ago , Willoughby has seen

as the growth of branding experts , Willoughby

a shift from mostly print-based work to more

has also seen a down side. Logos and identity

screen-centric applications. Her work has

design often becomes the misunderstood

evolved to reflect the approach that logos

stepchild of marketing and branding experts

need to engage across multiple media. She

without the benefit of the design process.

now approaches identity work as experience

"We have all seen millions of dollars spent

design rather than traditional print graphic

on a beautiful logo and identity for a company

design, and she has even let the change

where there is a total disconnect between

in media inform her design process . Although

the logo and the brand experience ," Willoughby

often not listed in an identity brief, Willoughby's

says. "Trust and authenticity, essential to

form-making process plans for animation

successful brands, are qualities that often

and includes working with an expanded

have little to do with how much a logo costs .

collaborative team of multimedia design

In a perfect world, the logo and identity

specialists. Media issues aside , however,

are inspired by the founder's values , vision,

Willoughby maintains that the forms always

and entrepreneurial passion to build

need to arise out of brand strategy and

something of lasting value."

meaning and deliver its desired emotional triggers. Her process always starts with an

Willoughby Design Group's work clearly

audit that unearths the character of the

demonstrates a high caliber of expertise

company and its business and then moves

across all media, and it has a timeless quality

to identify all the places the logo might exist,

regardless of the final application. But when

including the nuances of the specific media

Willoughby discusses her favorite applications

and its audience. Once the parameters of

for an identity project, she lights up. " We enjoy

the identity are framed , Willoughby trusts

retail environments where there is opportunity

the design process to reveal the most beautiful

to make a statement with the environment,

and delightful forms. These " aha" moments,

merchandising, products and packaging, and

when the right idea emerges, tend to result

signage," she says. To this end , Willoughby's

in marks that are strong, simple, and flexible.

logos have also been applied to unexpected places, such as a T-shirt promoting an eating contest in Las Vegas. That's a long way from corporate letterhead and high-end packaging. "You just never know where your designs might take you ," Willoughby says.

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THIS SPREAD

A landmark Kansas City luxury jewelry store known for perfection in every detail, the identity was an extension of the sophisticated shopping experience they offered to each customer. With the identity as a solid and simple voice, the jewelry and timepieces were able to stand out, but still remain branded in advertising, printed collateral and packaging.

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"A bra nd lives in the hearts and minds of real people, through their experiences and encounters with brands in daily life." -Ann Willoughby, founder, Willoughby Design

190

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THIS SPREAD

Identities are not required to have the same expected elements. For Katalyst, the identity relies on like memories and human responses such as the feel of paper, texture of a rubber ball, or personal characteristics.

Business forms were printed on unrefined paper and labels for the address were hand placed on the letterhead to lend to the human experience.

Printed collateral, including special edition books, continued the identity system's tone and material. The Rules of the Red Rubber Ball book was the clients' signature story that "answered" the image choices of the other collateral.

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MASTERS OF DESIGN

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ZETALAB

Lucio LuZo Lazzara, Mi lan, Italy

Zetalab, Mil an, Italy

Zetalab founder Lucio LuZo Lazzara is a global leader in the integration of logos, identity systems, and applications with multiple types of new media. Using the example of Steven Spielberg's Minority Report, he describes the

contemporary environment: "I see new potential in entertainment, information design, and in the personalization of brands. The media are tending to integrate more and more with each other, and merge into a single instrument." OPPOSITE

Design Pubb lico identity is as multifaceted as the many programs it sponsors. Based on drawing templates, each event was given a signature icon as an extension of the main identity.

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DESIGN

THIS PAGE

The identity for Design Pubbli co is black and white allowing the applications to utilize a vibrant color palette.

As our society consumes messages in

In the face of these forward-thinking concepts,

Lazzara's words, "in a pan-medium,"

Lazzara maintains that the core of logo design

communication, advertising, and messaging

is still a problem-solving activity. The logo

become more challenging. The logo is

is the beginning of a communication. It is

the element that creates a unified message

the signature of a wider system, a visual

across these multiple mediums.

language. This system of different elements

The system consists of a stencil typeface and specific colors for the types of events or venues. Red represents the Designers' House venue and green is used for the Pubblico site.

work together to solve the problem and

Identify and Define

communicate the message in any medium

The message vehicles used are becoming

or setting.

increasingly varied with the use of traditional media and nontraditional methods such

Message, Medium, Marks

as guerilla marketing and viral campaigns.

Following Lazzara's philosophy of multiple

For Lazzara, the logo must clearly and

platform usage, and basic communication,

directly identify a company, a product, or

he modifies the "Form follows function"

an event. "This can be achieved in different

maxim. "I believe that form follows function,

ways," he says. "An identity can be narrative,

and the 'form' issue by itself is not an issue

it can be symbolic, it can be simply visually

at all," he says. His logos are varied in

memorable, it can create a mood, or it can

form and style, from simple to complex,

be minimal." The process to reach this

from symbols to word marks. The solution

solution begins with Zetalab identifying and

is dictated by the message and the final

understanding the real need of the client.

medium. Similar in concept to Marshall

This need often involves a logo and identity

McLuhan's phrase "the medium is the

system, but when that is not the answer,

message," Lazzara's logos are designed

Lazzara admits, "Sometimes we have even

with the belief that the application of

recommended to our clients that they not

the logo, the context of its environment,

have a visual identity. It wasn't necessary."

and the medium it uses are as important as the form of the logo itself.

The visual exploration includes a strong examination of the logo design in multiple settings,

"Failed identities reflect only the point of

from an animation to a stencil on the street.

view of the designer," claims Lazzara. The logo

"The future of the logo experience is, on one

and identity system must reflect the culture

hand, an example like a tollbooth FastPass,

of the company, or they will not work. He also

which brings about the disappearance of the

cites examples of failed logos that are too tight

manual interface, as services will start to be

and limited. These are logos that are too static

automated," Lazzara explains . "On the other

and are unable to animate or evolve in multiple

hand, entirely new media will be necessary

media. Following the need for a varied use

with new functions and new requirements."

in an extremely complex and uncontrollable

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THIS PAGE

Moleskine asked celebrated architects, artists, designers, illustrators and writers to fill their Moleskine notebooks with personal comments and ideas about the city they live in. The My Detour identity served as the focal point of the project and spread into a campaign in a range of mediums. Here, a promotional poster and detail above show the identity system including typeface usage, color and image style.

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communication environment, Lazzara insists

Holistic Values

that logos that try to " tell everything" or

The elements that are the backbone

solve a client's every communication problem

of Lazzara 's identity system include a color

will not succeed.

palette, a relevant or custom designed typeface , image and illustration usage ,

Pain and stress are typically part of a

and less traditional components. "To create

logo's release to outside creative partners,

a flexible and usable system, I also look

or an in-house department. Lazzara tries

at the rhythm created by voids and fills ,

to keep the identity system under the

textures , patterns , materials, and back-

control of Zetalab for as long as possible.

grounds," he says. Working with the logo,

He understands that someone else will

these elements create a singular message .

eventually handle the logo. Each logo and

The logo for the cultural association Esterni

identity system is designed to be flexible

in Milan represents the meeting, the

and consistent. In a multi platform

social interaction, the piazza , and Esterni 's

environment, this is the only possible

fundamental values. A flexible system of

solution to maintain a clear message.

identifying marks was created to maintain

A singular, unchanging, inflexible identity

consistent formal elements on many

may work in print, but it will fail in a

different applications. The system included

broadcast setting. It may function on a fax

color, typeface, and logo, but it also

form , but become banal and predictable

incorporated multiple identifying marks

on merchandise. Lazzara's elastic and fluid

to create a constantly refreshed and vibrant

approach to logos produces successful

attitude. Lazzara summarizes its success,

and surprising applications in all media.

and his core philosophy : "Don 't think about a single logo . Think about a system ."

196

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ABOVE

OPPOS ITE

A signage system for Detour's different venue s is based on the elements of the identity system.

Grap hi c elements, inclu di ng wind ow displays, di d not need heavy se ll copy. Combin ing t he artwo rk from th e notebooks wit h the strong identity system makes th e collateral not iceab le and understood. Exhi bit s and poster signing events make it possible fo r th e public to interact with the note books. The identity is al so used on a spec ial project websi te, video, and interactive bloggi ng space.


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THIS SPREAD

Identity graphic elements, limited colors and boxed typography are the key characteristics for the Milano Film Festival system. These choices enable the graphics to avoid any reproduction issues including low-end newsprint printing.

The Critical Components

of a Visual System Logo Color pa lette Typeface pa lette Texture palette Pattern pa lette Material pa lette Background pa lette

The graphic elements work as eye-catching, large-sized graphics, and can be sca led down to smaller sizes and with no problems of losing recogn izable qualities.

Illustrations and photos usage

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THIS SPREAD

The 10 go, strong , Illustrations, color palette and t ypographic stYle' create un't ' multiple ' I Y with applications,

The ' consistent from identit y y IS onl ear to year with y the simple ch of ange numbers in the upper right circle B dOing so , th e system ,y graphics change each ea~ butthe id ' Y rem ' entity alns consistent.

L

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--

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MASTERS

OF

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"An identity ca n be narrative, it can be symbolic, it can be simply visually memorable, it can create a mood, or it can be minimal." -Lucio LuZo Lazzara, founder, Zetalab

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The Guardian

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CONCRETE DESIGN

Diti Katona, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

COMMUNICATIONS

Concrete Design Communications, Toronto, Ontario, Ca ada

Logo design requires a focused visicm1that uses large amounts

complex information

0

and funnels that into a clear message. Concrete Design Communications partner Diti Katona has created a body of work that is connected with a philosophy that makes more with less. She designs a logo and identity project by distilling the message into a simple visual. "Generally, we think that successful logos should express as much as possible with the greatest economy of form," she explains.

OPPOSITE

Even cropped and as a background, the Masterfile identity is recogn izable. Together with the photography it represents, both gain recognition and value.

Concrete Design Communicatio ns . . 207

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,

(S

This approach is made successful not by

she explains. "Logos often have very simple

simply making a logo minimal. It is successful

ideas behind them. They need to because

due to Katona's skill at slowly condensing

of the issues we've discussed. But what makes

a client's message, politics, business goals,

them work, what makes them come alive,

and audience into a seemingly obvious

is the way they are crafted . Often, the most

solution. Understanding the client's culture

successful logos are the ones that have a very

and the audience's culture is at the core

simple idea, brilliantly executed." Katona

of every Concrete solution.

uses the example of a project that involved collaboration with an advertising agency.

Form and Function

The agency had developed the concept (the

The goal of every logo and identity system

heavy lifting so to speak), but they needed

is to create an outcome that makes a business

help to give form to it. The implication given

successful. The aesthetics and form are

to Katona was that most of the hard work

critical , but they are secondary to the final

had been done and the only part remaining

business goals. It is easy to fall in love with

was to make the logo look pretty. However,

a specific shape or color, and Katona is

the reality was that very little had been done.

no different than any other designer in that

The concept had used very predictable

respect. She has the ability, however, to

symbolism. "While this may not have been

set that aside, understand the larger issues,

the wrong symbol, it needed to be direct

and modify the forms successfully to reach

and easily understandable. Its predictability

the desired business goals. "Designers

required a distinctive way of articulating

have a tendency to try to make the logo say

the concept ," Katona says . The crafting of

too much ," Katona says. "You cannot commu-

a unique graphic form would distinguish this

nicate a company 's product/service offering,

particular logo from the thousands of others

vision, intended audience, and aspirations

that used similar themes. This logo succeeded

in a single graphic form , at least not explicitly.

in the end due to Katona's unique vision and

A successful logo needs to choose a singular

insistence on perfection of form.

message and express it clearly." Signs and Symbols The logo must have a clear message, but this

For Katona, symbols can often have more

cannot happen without well-designed visual

power than a name because they use visual

forms. Katona believes that most logos fail

imagery rather than the alphabet. The symbol

due to poor execution. She adamantly rejects

can be much more expressive. A picture

the devaluation of skill. " In recent years,

of an apple, for instance , is instantly more

so much emphasis in design has been placed

recognizable than the word apple. "I still

on 'concept, ' that often the articulation of

remember the time when my children were

the logo, the artisanship, has been neglected,"

very young, well before they were able to read,

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"When design ing a logo, d ist ill, d ist iII, d ist iII , distill, and distill." -Diti Katona, partner, Concrete Design Communications

THI S SPREAD

At first, th e id entity for Masterfil e looks as if it's just a standa rd typeface, but at a closer glan ce you realize that the letlerforms are a un ique typeface. Th e identity system and exec ution of th e promotional coll ateral are more free and open . Therefo re , the quality of each piece is depe nd ent on th e designer.


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Elements of a Standards Manual Even if I have a good relationsh ip and strong advocate wi th a client , we still create a standards manual to help eve ryone use the logo properly. Typ ica lly, we tr y and create one t hat leaves some creativity to th e final designer. Th e manual includes th ese elements: Logo use Black and wh ite examp les Color examp les Scale in stru ctions Pri ma ry color pa lette Second ary co lor pal ette Prim ary typeface Second ary typeface Image use Print examp les such as stat io nery Envi ronm ental examples such as signage Merchandise examples Vehicle appl ications

recognizing t hat McDonalds was a brand,

The shift in technologies, from a print-

The simplicity of the golden arches was all

based solution to a multiplatform solution

that was needed to commun icate to them ,"

has affected Katona's approach to logo

Katona recalls.

design. The result has been logos with more dimensionality and more reliance on color

Katona's philosophy on complexity and

to tell t he story. However, while keeping these

simplicity is pragmatic. For her, a logo

influences in mind , Katona believes strongly

should ultimately be whatever it needs to be

that while important, these should never

to communicate effectively. The context and

dictate the design . "Just because you can

the communications criteria should dictate

have a three-dimensional , spinning logo,

what form the logo should take. " Not the other

doesn 't mean you should have one," she jokes.

way around," she clarifies. In the past, logos

Once the identity leaves Katona's hands,

designed by Concrete were fairly simple in

the unexpected will happen. Her strong

form . This was partly due to Katona's bias

standards for a color palette and typography

for simple and direct ways of communicating.

will help the identity maintain a consistent

In recent years, she has been exploring

look in multiple hands.

identities that are more complex and more reliant on color. Technological advances in

Formally, Katona 's logos tell stories.

reproduction influenced this. "Not very long

The color conveys an idea. And, while

ago, logos were designed for the lowest

often forgotten , or ignored , Katona always

common denominator of reproduction

addresses the typographic system . For her,

processes," Katona says. "This, of course,

colors are relatively easy to specify, but

meant the dreaded fax, along with other

typography is much more challenging.

black and white applications. But with the

"Specifying font families isn't sufficient,"

pervasiveness of color reproduction, having

she explains. "Type treatments, including

it 'work in black and white' is no longer

hierarchy, relative sizes, and case, provide

the prevailing mantra."

so many variables that very specific guidelines are critical for a consistent look."

OPPO SITE Pull ing from opposite sides like its rusti c modern ized European influenced food , Cava visually identifies itself with interpretations

of 1930s dining graphics that are flat, but made contemporary by di mensional perspectives.

THIS PAG E & NEXT SPR EA D

An established Italian rest aurant since 1963, the Pizza Nova identity is constructed with a primary word mark and a decorative scri pt listing all the menu items in t he restaurant. At a larger scale size, t he script becomes a secon dary graphic. From packaging, wrapping paper, website graphics, the Pizza Nova identity is exciting and ta sty at a variety of sizes.

Concrete Design Comm unications . . 211

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1999 COLLECTION

L!I

umbra

DRAPERY

L!I umbra

THIS PAGE

Umbra is an international leader in casual, contemporary designed products for the home, the identity reflects the design approach with simple and elegant shapes. Somewhat neutral , the identity is able to present the products without being overpowering.

umbra

OH C H A I R DC

orww •• llbruollt

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KEILHAUER Police Work The elements of an identity designed by Katona are explained and described in a standards manual. "It helps if you can keep working with the client, and handle all of their communications," she advises. "Failing that, the success of any system depends

THIS PAGE

Most creative work starts with a designer's first sketches. This Kielhauer identity celebrates the first sketch and relationship to the end final design. Several variations of the logo exist to work with different applications and varying sizes.

on having a person within the organization champion the cause of adherence to identity guidelines. This person needs to be fairly

Corpom~e

Idenu'ty

LAuner, 200<\

senior with the authority to enforce the standards." This advice is not given to create restrictions on other users. When it comes to graphic communication , creative partners often resist rules and have a natural impulse to be "creative" with the brand. But it is vital that they understand that this impulse does not benefit the organization . "A consistent identity system may become boring to those who work with it every day, but is vital to portraying a strong image to the outside world ," Katona says.

The consistent use of a logo and identity system, strategic goals, and business issues partnered with Concrete's thinking and visual skill create proprietary and successful brands. Katona, nevertheless, has a passion and humor that inform all of her work. In terms of logo and identity, this is expressed with her choice of a favorite application to design . "I love designing for vehicles," she says. "It's a great feeling to pass a logo you designed somewhere on the road." She adds that the strangest place a Concrete designed logo has appeared was on a homeless person. "Company logos printed on T-shirts invariably end up in the hands of a very unintended audience ," she says.

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1 S9Uig.

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218

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17

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Sterling Brands 10 Tropicana 11 Optimum 12 Kleenex 13 Ce lestial Seasonings

18

Estudio Mariscal 14 Metropol Ie Cafe 15 Zoo de Barcelona 16 Swedish Socia list Part y 17 Marmo Bar 18 Granship


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* Bancaja

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Estudio Mariscal (cont. ) 19 Benicassim 20 Bancaja 21 Camper for Kids 22 Ajuntament de Gava 23 32nd America's Cup

39

Chase Design Group 24 Chinese Laundry 25 Kamasutra 26 Pe rdu 27 Hou rglass 28 Kemper Snowboards 29 Nymph 30 Pearl Dragon 31 Little Buddha 32 Mara is

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Crosby Associates 33 AlGA Chicago 34 Captive Resources 35 Cole Taylor Bank 36 Eimer Stahl 37 Searle 38 Chicago GSB 39 Sachnoff & Weaver 40 Tr.

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219


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MUCCA DESIGN

PAG ES 7 0 - 79

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Mucca Design 23 Bal t hazar Bake ry 24 Butte rfield 25 Country 26 Presidio Soc ial Club 27 Schiller's Li quor Bar 28 The Gracious Gourmet 29 Sant Ambroeus 30 Mao

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Felix Beltran & Asociados

31 Estamex 32 Grapus 33 Hi ll Print ing 34 Hospitalaria 35 Steelmex

Liska + Associates 36 10 Chicago Visions 37 BNSF Railway 38 Expand Beyond 39 Goodman Theatre 40 Northwestern Nasa l + Sinus 41 SAA 42 Stay. 43 Tim Bieber

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221


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Pentagram SF 11 Sundance Institute 12 Wild Brain 13 Wasserman Media Group

14 @Issue 15 Beach Blanket Babylon

16 California Academy 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

222

M ASTERS OF DE S IGN

~~ Logos & Ident ity

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of Sc iences Columbus Des ign Within Reach Fuego Gymboree IDSA 2007 Independent Means Lucky Fish


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45

34 San Francisco Zoo 35 University of Ca liforn ia Riverside 36 The Walt Disney Fami ly Museum 37365

46

JohnsonBanks 38 Think London 39 The Art Fund 40 Shelter 41 Basis 42 Pleasure Beach 43 Dimensions 44 Living Paintings 45 Mecklenburgh Opera 46 Global Warming

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22 3


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1

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9

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224

MASTERS OF DESIGN

*

PAG ES 134 - 139

Logos & Ident ity

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21

Modern Dog 7 ACT Theatre 8 Ass Kisser 9 Brown Paper Tickets 10 Greenwood Park 11 Green World Now 12 Juju 13 K2 Snowboards 14 Lotto 15 Malo Soap 16 Olive

C&G Partners 17 Crane 18 Time Warner 19 Signature Theatre Company 20 New York Public Library 21 NBC


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23

24

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Frost Design 2254 23 ADG 24 Australian Design Award 25 Channel V 26 Chris Boot 27 Coast Restaurant 28 Franco & Co 29 Freestyle 30 Glass Works 31 Image Source 32 Internationa l Fashion Group

33 Sydney Dance Company 34 Sydney Opera House 35 Trio 36 Tyro 37 Creative Magazine 38 Khai Liew 39 Laurence King Publishing Ltd. 40 The London Design Festival 2003 41 Manta 42 Swiss Re Centre fo r Global Dialogue

Imadesign Corp. 43 Atlus Lux 44 EIS

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"*

225


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3Kcn02010 1

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19

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21

Imadesign Corp. (conI.)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

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e- Russia Expo 2010 Idea Stroynadzor EE Medved CTI Modula Creative Action

10 Marjani Foundation

226

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~~ Logos & Ident ity

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23

22

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Iskona Vita land Stone Bridge Capital Cehex Meijin Pozitronika Russian Business Travel

Doyle Partners 18 Barnes & Noble 19 Cook & Fox 20 Loews Hotels 21 Martha Stewart

22 PAX 23 SPY


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TISHMAN SPEYER 24

25

27

29

30

MORlA DES IGN

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PAGES 154 - 163

26

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PENTAGRAM NY PAGES 164 - 167

31

32

33

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41

44

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Doyle Partners (conI.) 24 The World Financial Center 25 Tishman Speyer 26 Top of the Rock 27 USGBC

Th Met

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39

42

37

36

35

Moria Design 28 DMJM 29 Infuselle 30 We lls Fargo Bank 31 Sea Blue 32 DWR Profi le 33 Levi's Origina l Spin

Pentagram NY 34 Saks Fifth Avenue 35 Highl ine 36 Da llas Symphony Orchestra 37 Bard School 38 Madison Squa re Park 39 Curious Pictures 40 Jazz at Lincoln Center 41 The Metropoli tan Opera

42 Criterion 43 Tiffany & Co.

44 Citi 45 POV

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APELOIG DESIGN

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PAG ES 168 - 177

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*

Logos & Ident ity

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16

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Willoughby Design Group 13 Apres Peau (symbol)

14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Apres Peau (word mark) Feng Tivol Sheridan's O'Brien Pharmacy

MAX Mary Carol 21 Spin!


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Tn.

katalyst OONSOLTANCY

23

22

25

24

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PAGES 192- 201

25

26

27

28

29

30

STUDIO DAV I D H I LLMAN-'---_ _ _- : ' " PAGES 202-205 ;:.

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TheGuardian

PAGES 206 - 217

32

31

33

~ KEIUlAUER 34

35

38

39

36

37

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Willoughby Design Group (cont.) 22 Lee Dungarees 23 Wonder Bread 24 Einstein Bagels 25 The Katalyst Consultancy

ZetaLab 25 Milano Film Festival 26 Design Pubblico 27 My Detou r

StudioDavidHiliman 28 Bu ilding 290bongo 30 Phaidon 31 The Guard ian 32 Editorial Inte lligence 33 Modernism Exhibition

Concrete Design Communications 34 Cava 35 Keilhauer 36 Masterfile 37 Pizza Nova 38 SGU IG 39 Umbra

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229


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DIRECTORY OF CONTRIBUTORS

Sean Adams

Bart Crosby

Fritz Gottschalk

AdamsMorioka

Crosby Associates

Gottschalk + Ash International

8484 Wilshire Boulevard, suite 600

203 North Wabash Avenue , suite 200

Bocklinstrasse 26, Postfach 1711

Beverly Hills, CA 90211

Chicago, IL 60601

8032 ZOrich

U.S.A.

U.S.A .

Switzerland

323 .966 .5990

312.346 .2900

41 44 382 1850

www.adamsmorioka.com

www.crosbyassociates .com

www.gplusa.com

Felix Beltran

Stephen Doyle

David Hillman

Felix Beltran & Asociados

Doyle Partners

Studio David Hillman Ltd

Apartado Postal-M 10733

1123 Broadway, 6th floor

Unit 100, Pall Mall Deposit

Mexico City 06000 DF

New York , NY 10010

124-128 Barlby Road

Mexico

U.S.A .

North Kensington ,

212.463 .8787

London WlO 6BL

www.doylepartners.com

United Kingdom 44.(0)20.8960.1717 www.studiodavidhillman .com

Michael Bierut

Vince Frost

Kit Hinrichs

Pentagram Design

Frost Design

Pentagram

204 Fifth Avenue

15 Foster Street, level 1

387 Tehama Street

New York , NY 10010

Surry Hills, New South Wales 2010

San Francisco CA 94103

U.S.A.

Australia

U.S.A.

212 .683 .7000

61.2 .9280.4233

415.896.0499

www.pentagram .com

www.frostdesign .com.au

www.pentagram.com

Matteo Bologna

Steff Geissbuhler

Michael Hodgson

Mucca Design Corp.

C&G Partners

Ph.D

568 Broadway, suite 504

116 East 16 Street

1524A Cloverfield Boulevard

New York, NY 10012

New York, NY 10003-3034

Santa Monica, CA 90404

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

212 .965.9821

212 .532.4460

310.829.0900

www.muccadesign .com

www.cgpartnersllc.com

www.phdla .com

Margo Chase

Alexander Isley

Margo Chase Design

Alexander Isley Inc.

2019 Riverside Dr.

9 Brookside Place

Los Angeles , CA 90039

Redding, CT 06896

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

323.668 .1055

203 .544 .9692

www.chasedesigngroup.com

info@alexanderisley.com www.alexanderisley.com

230

MASTERS OF DES I GN

*

Logos & Ident ity

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Michael Johnson

Javier Mariscal

Paula Scher

Johnson Banks Design

Estudio Mariscal

Pentagram Design

Crescent Lane

Pellaires 30-38

204 Fifth Avenue

Clapham, London SW4 9RW

08019 Barcelona

New York, NY 10010

United Kingdom

Spain

U.S.A.

44.020.7587.6400

34 .933.036 .940

212 .683 .7000

www.johnsonbanks.co.uk

www.mariscal.com

www.pentagram .com

Erken Kagarov

Debbie Millman

Ann Willoughby

Imadesign

Sterling Brands

Willoughby Design Group

Russia

Empire State Building, 17th Floor

602 Westport Road

+7.495 .775.4810

New York , NY 10118

Kansas City, MO 64111

+7.495.729.5693

U.S.A.

U.S.A.

www.imadesign.ru

212 .329.4600

816.56l.4189

www.sterlingbrands .com

www.willoughbydesign .com

Diti Katona

Jennifer Moria

Concrete Design Communication

Moria Design Inc

2 Silver Avenue

1008A Pennsylvania Avenue

Toronto, Ontario M6R 3A2

San Francisco, CA 94107

Canada

U.S.A.

416.534.9960

415.543 .6548

www.concrete .ca

www.morladesign .com

Lucio LuZo Lazzara

Emily Oberman & Bonnie Siegler

Zetalab

Number Seventeen

via Tadino 29 /a

285 West Broadway, Room 650

20124 Milano

New York, NY 10013

Italy

U.S.A.

39.02 .29.533 .992

212 .966.9395

www.zetalab.com

www.number17.com

Steve Liska

Robynne Raye & Michael Stassburger

Liska + Associates Inc.

Modern Dog Design Co.

515 North State Street, 23rd Floor

7903 Greenwood Avenue North

Chicago, IL 60610-4322

Seattle , WA 98103

U.S.A .

U.S.A .

312.644.4400

206.789.7667

www.liska.com

www.moderndog.com

Directory of Contributors

www.leadoffer.net

*

231


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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, Sean, Noreen Morioka, and

Heller, Steven. Paul Rand. London: Phaidon

Neuhart, John, Marilyn Neuhart, and Ray

Terry Stone. Logo Design Workbook.

Press, 1999.

Eames. Eames Design: The Work of the Office

Gloucester, MA: Rockport Publishers, 2004.

of Charles and Ray Eames. New York:

Hess, Dick, and Marion Muller. Dorisman Chermayeff, Ivan, Tom Geismar, and Steff

Abrams, 1989.

& CBS. New York: American Showcase, 1987.

Geissbuhler. TM: Trademarks Designed

Pentagram. Pentagram Book Five. New York:

by Chermayeff & Geismar. New York:

Jacobson, Egbert, Editor. Trademark Design.

Princeton Architectural Press, 2000.

Chicago: Paul Theobald, 1952.

Monacelli Press, 1999. Rosen, Ben. The Corporate Search for

Chermayeff, Ivan, Tom Geismar, and

Jaspert, W. Pincus, W. Turner Berry, and A.

Visual Identity. New York: Van Nostrand

Steff Geissbuhler. Designing. New York: Graphis Press, 2003.

F. Johnson. The Encyclopaedia of Type Faces. London: Blandford Press, 1953.

Reinhold, 1970. Tuckerman, Nancy, and Nancy Dunnan.

Dondis, Donis A. A Primer of Visual Literacy.

Johnson, Michael. Problem Solved:

The Amy Vanderbilt Complete Book of

Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1973.

A Primer in Design and Communication.

Etiquette. New York: Doubleday, 1995.

London: Phaidon Press, 2002. Fella, Edward. Letters on America. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000. Friedman, Mildred, Editor. Graphic Design in America: A Visual Language History. New York: Abrams, 1989.

Wheeler, Alina. Designing Brand Identity: Kirkham, Pat. Charles and Ray Eames:

A Complete Guide to Creating, Building,

Designers of the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995.

and Maintaining Strong Brands. New York:

Meggs, Philip B. A History of Graphic Design (Third Edition). New York: Wiley, 1998.

Gardner, Bill, and Cathy Fishel. LogoLounge: Meggs, Philip B. Type and Image: The

Designers. Gloucester, MA: Rockport

Language of Graphic Design. New York:

Publishers, 2003.

Wiley, 1992.

Halberstam, David. The Fifties. New York:

Moss, Marie Y. ÂŽ Hello Everything!: 25 Years

Ballantine Books, 1994.

of Fun. New York: Abrams, 2001.

Hall, Peter, and Michael Bierut, Editors.

MOiler-Brockmann, J. The Graphic Artist

Tibor Kalman, Perverse Optimist. New York:

and His Design Problems. New York:

Princeton Architectural Press, 1998.

Hastings House, 1961.

MASTERS OF DESIGN

*

Young, Doyald. Logotypes & Letterforms: Handlettered Logotypes and Typographic Considerations. New York: Design Press, 1993.

2,000 Intemationalldentities by Leading

232

Wiley, 2003.

Logos & Identity

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Masters of design