Page 1

WOOD JONTS IN CLASSICAL JAPA ES ARCHITECTUR Torashichi Sum路yoshi

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Gengo Matsu'


WOOD JOINTS IN CLASSICAL JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE Torashichi Sumiyoshi

Gengo Matsui


Au1hor1' Biographies;

WOOD JOINTS IN CLASSICALJAPANESE ARCHITECTURE

T ora,1bichi Sumiyoshi " o••• or binh 1911 Bcglm carpcnuy apprcntia:ship in 1924 Sct.nJ own enterprise in 1930 Scnu in navy 1944-1946 - ~icmbcr of '"Tenri Kyokai'', involved in dtsign and construaion of templt-1 .. Prepares wood shop dta\\ ings for Ei11hin Onkuen f.ligo.a11h.ir10 I-Ugh School (1983· 1

19115) Ccngo ~1at1ui • Daoc or birth 1920 - Craduata in Architcaurc from \\l'ued.1 Uni\'crsKy 1943

- Receives Doct0< of ~g 1960 • Prof....,. of Wa.eda Univeni1y 1961 Dir«IOI" or the Japanese PhMoclastic Astotitltit:>n 1979

WOOD JOINTS IN CLASSICAL JAPANESE ARCHITECTURE

C TO<Uhichl Sumi)'O!hl and Gcngo Ma· lJUi

1989

Fir11 Publith.«l in japan by

Kajima ln•titute PublUhing Cc>., Ltd, Second 1>rinting1 May 1990 £nglith tran'11l&lion from the JapllnCJe in 190 I by Fcro1c Kovacs Advitor AndrE Cravd J>roofread and edited by Janos Nagy Pri.ntcd in Japan


Introdu ction by Yukihir o Kamiya ma Japanese architecture brings to mind stupendous Buddhist temples and shrines, plus the three- and five-story pagodas. Amongst these sacred places, one cannot help being overwhelmed by the radiance emanating from the structures. The purity or the lines leaves us in awe. Master craftsmen, inspired l.iy the beauty of the Japanese cypress and 1.dkova and influenced by the Japanese culture, produced these works of an. Behind the beauty lies the skill and knowledge of an artisan.The harmony of the creation conceals the complexity of the assemblage. Simple elements, such as bearing blocks, all play a role in the final result. There are many ways to join members together. Beams can be tied with ropes, carved and assembled or connected with nails, screws and glue. When these structures v.â&#x20AC;˘crc erected, joining '''as an extren1ely eJ;:,borate technique. !'.1aster jointers were dedicated craftsmen responsible for splicing and connecting elements of a building. l\.iany factors had to be considered. The connections bad to be srrong enough to transrer fortts such as bending, torsion and shear, yet appearance was an important factor. A variety of techniques sometimes simple, sometimes elaborate were developed. We can only marvel at the solutions adopted. They took into account time dependent process, such as shrinkage or slippage caused by dynamic loading. The intricacy of the internal structure of the joint is hidden by the apparent simplicity of its appearance. Various shapes connect into each other with ease. This wisdom is the result of years of patient work; we have much to leam from it. t.iaster Sumiyoshi and Professor Matsui met while working on the design and consrruction of Eishin Gakuen Higashino High School (architecture by Christopher Alexander). The school is famous for its large wooden structure, the lirst erected in Japan for many years. Master Sumiyoshi contributed his experience and knowledge to the many splices and joints available to che builders. Professor Matsui, working as an advisor, was deeply impressed by Master Sumiyoshi's k11owledge. Feeling his lirelong wisdom should not be lost, he planned this book to preserve a valuable heritage. It is CO be of interest to Students or wooden architecture and engineer-

ing worldwide. The purpose of this book is menciooed in the authors' comments. Nowadays, joints are made using metal parts. The splices and connecting joints have become much simpler. It is now possible to construct large wooden structures using standard processes. However, the unccnain properties of \\ood have brought forward the problem of weakening or the joints. This work goes back to the fundamental of joining. It is recommended to all technicians and also to architects and engineers.

Yuldhiro Kamiyama Professor, Waseda University


Authors' Comments

Acknowledgement

This book explains splices and connecting joints of traditional Japanese wooden architecture with pictures and diagrams. Although plenty of books have been published about splices and connecting joints, none of tbem have used both pictures and diagrams as illustrations. In most cases, pictures have only showed one or two examples of a joint and it is difficult to comprehend the complexit)' involved in joining the parts. Consequently, we decided to use several pictures and diagrams showing the sequence of assembl)' which will hopefolly make the descriptions easier to foUow. Dimensions have also been included, a feature n0t found in most other publications. Our first objective is to ensure that traditional workmanship skills arc accurately transferred to the next generation. Our predecessors accumulated the know-how necessary to achieve complex and effective design over the years. The intricacy of the joints enhance the character of lhe wood, bringing it alive. Many of these joints preserve the natural strength ratio carefully balancing shear, bending, torsion, compression and taking shrinkage into accot1nt. Our second objective is to sec whether these techniques can be utilized in contemporary architceturc. This book describes the original characteristics of the joints. Some modifications might be required to make them effective for today's building technology. Bolts and modern adhesive could be used. The authors do not want to make such proposals; we leave it to the readers.

\'Ve would like to thank Dr.Minoru Tczuka, Assistant at the Matsui Laboratory of Wascda University in Tokyo for his precious concribution to this work. Credit for the pictures, figures and diagrams goes to the Master degree students of the same Laboratory. Special thanks to ~1r. Kcnichiro Uwaso for helping with editing and to all others who helped along the way. \'Ve hcrcb)' express our gratitude.

May, 1989 Torashichi Sumiyosbi Gengo Matsui


vi

Contents (4) Osaka Ca<tle·Otcmon Gate's piUar splice

Introduction by Yukihiro Kamiyama

Aurhors1 Commencs

SPLICING J OlNTS ···························································· ··············· l

2 Stepped do\.'ctailed •plice 5 Stepped goo.cncck splice 8 Rabbeted oblique scarr splice 11 Mortised rabbeted oblique splice 15 Blind stubbed, housed rabbeted oblique scarf splice J7 Tenon and monise splice (I) Cross-shaped tenon and mortise splice (2) Right angle tenon and mortise splice (3) Housed tenon and mortise splice (4) Blind tenon and mortise splice 21 07 1lalved rabbeted oblique scarr splices (I) Triple-raced halved rabbeted oblique scarf splice ";th key (2) Miyajima splice (3) Quadruple-faced halved rabbeted oblique scarf splice 26 08 I loused splices (I) lloused rabbeted oblique scarr splice (2) lllind tenon and mortise (3) Blind pin (4) Blind key (5) Pole tenon 36 09 Column splices (I) four races gooseneck splice (2) Clam-shaped <plicc (3) Blind splice

0I 02 03 04 05 06

CONNECTING JOINTS ...................................................... ... ......... 45 01 Hair doveiailed joint 48 02 \\1edging joint

46

50 Blind wedging joint 52 Housed do"etailcd joint 55 Sumiyoshi double tenon 58 Double plug 62 Triple plug 67 Groundsill connectors (1) Housed dovetail (2) Rabbeied <enon and monise (3) Corner miter tenon 72 09 "Kyoro" system 76 10 ''Orloku'' systcrn 80 11 Tie beam connector 83 12 Jlip rafcer join< (I) Tee-shaped girder joint (2) Cro••·•haped girder joint (3) lkvelled ha lving 107 13 Corridor girder

03 04 05 06 07 08

MISCELLANEOUS ·················•·····•·· ········· ···· ··· ···· ····· ···· ·················113

114

01 Gable board

( 1) Ognmi with encased crossbrace (2) Ogami wi1h •urrace crossbracc (3) Ogami with stub tenon and key

121 03 Level 04 Bauer post 'r~inology

123

122


SPLICING JOINTS


0

-

....;u

The male slides into the female


F

• A cc1uion 1c.:.s1 \\'as carried ou1 on on assembly of typical dimcnsion.s. 'J'he tested splice waa 1nade of block pine with an average annual ring v.•idtll of 2.Smm. The comprcJSi\'C ca~1ci1y()'icld

<trcngth) or black pine is 420kg/cm•. The fcmaJc faiJc:.-d in tcmion by deveJoping a

longitudinal crack origina.cj11g from a nook and following the grain. The ultimate tCJU'ile the spike \\·as 480kg. s1rc.ngtlt

or

SPUCf

e SPLICE 02 e Stepped gooseneck splice

square scctk>n lumber between 150mm and 200mm. For sections of more than 200mm oblique scarf splir.es are more appropriate.

(Koshikoke komotsugi)

_rt•

"L! The: goo1<ncck 1phce is abo used on groundsills:; ho'n'C\'tt, it has a highu stttngth than the tlo"et•il<d splice. In prac1.ioce. ii is used to join larger lumber 1«tions 1hon the prc<:eding splice, The: gooscnedt "'-ith tenon and mortise Stt\'CS to splice:

l

°"'-

3

., .. , ... "

Teat 1emol• dimensions. Angular dimensions o.r• shown on th• ne)(t oege.

s

IO

Q.uillCe'nlnl ( m.n1 I

Lood·dispfecoment curve

~-~ · --~

I •


• r 11 l

f

-1

SPUC.E

Eltval.O'I

i1

I I "'"'

~:

tC"

l'f " ~

o..-

t ::J-~

·

...

i'" ~

I I

I

1

Mole

-... ............... ,._ pa lido U51'1

• M h- ._, of I

15 nm. .~"°'*"'

,.

'rn3" • t£E t

'f

b? ...

ii "--y-1l:l 1

1!

(Mm-+~ _f!in

-

}

chc goosc::nec;.k againsc chc abuuncnts of che lt1na.lc c1\d, The scco11d mode involved the for che dO\'Cl{lil ,;pllcc. Al uhimncc s1rcngth, shearing of a rib at tltc head of Lite male 1,~'0 modes of failure occurred. A1 f'irJt tl\c end. The ultimate strength of the model join1 faiJcd in bearing, <"rushing thr ht:ad of lc5tcd was 2400kg, a signif«::ant increase in strength compared 10 chc dovetailed splice. 111e tensile 1est was 1x:rfor1ncd on ~n a!fst:mbly of 1hc 5llmC 1i1,c nnd ntattrial 38

~ i}=: ,., '"' I

]~~ 1

&, ::j_

I

....

"""* rd ~···~·: of "'

/"' I

0

The male slides into tile female

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CMJ.til . . . 1 nt2)

Mole end fomale

I

Test .....,.,.. cfll'MnSIOnS

Llb:rtl ~

8

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Female

rf::::{.)~~L<iJ-

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II

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76

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7

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1'

~ l mm l

l..oeckli1Plac•ment curve

1

--

S.arina ,.,...,....

2 SheennC , ........ AftMf..lt.re

IO


SPUC£

lower wood, keeping the sutfacts or rhe middle drops (.surfaces 11d"') in close cont.atL The pieces arc then pressed together and secured by pounding in two draw pin.s, efTectivcly in1e<ioclcing lhe &on1 and back &urface1 or the joint (surfaces ''a"). The (Okkoke doisen tsugi) pins arc inscncd from the thicker end tO\\·ard the l.hinJ\Cr end, in an alternate $p1ices This splice can bc used 10 join ground· rashaon. Unlike olhcr oblique sills, girders or beams. 1'bc IWO ends of the no a.xW shifting is required to assemble this joinu are KlcnticaJ and referred 10 u the tplice, making ii particularly suitable ror upper "·ood and ~er "'ood· T\\'O mortilcl installing or replacing a beam bet"-cen fL"(cd arc dccptn<d throu~h 1he depth or the suppons ot a sill between anchored points. splice for irucning draw pins. The joini is This rabbcted oblique scarf splice could be assembled by abdin~ the in1ernal face or 1hc ._e oppropriatdy called ''pinned rabbet. upper \\'OOCI over the internal race of the td oblique scarf splice··.

e

SPUCE 03

9

e

Rabbeted oblique scarf splice

scan

the lower wood slK!ff wood .,,. ............ -todi$Olay

The -

the 6"<:.- of .......,;on).

The tensile test "'as also carried on an lOSmm square section assembly made of blJck pine. An even bigger srrength increase than that of the gooscneck splice wa3 obtained. The joint failed at 4000kg by shc.,ring through one of the adhesion

e

pl.1ncs. Completed spite•. Th• draw pins er• in-

.

sert~

., On.re ,._ ol !ho""' ,,.,

..:l'I; ~

Ii 120-

~~

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. •

1

F« squ.,.. sections bet-..n 1 05nvn to 120mm, the i.ngthof.,,. _ _ be 3 to 4 times the width of the section.

3

,,... 15

......" ..

.. 1l

I

Dial ga.ige

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o..,_ Atran.cement.s of di.al c:auc:es


10

SPUct

the principal difference consist$ or having co shift .. ,.,.ay f 1'0l'n cac.h other the upper and

e SPUCE 04 e Mortised rabbeted oblique splice x

I

lcniilc

nu.

join• ;, al"' ·-mblcd

~

each other lhc intern.II races of rht upptt \•oood and ~tr ,,.'God, kccp1nc; thr surf;icts or thc middle drops I IUl'f•.c:c. ..d·• in ck>st: co111ac1. ~tidin,:t O\'Cf

2

10

ls sirnil<lr to the pretc<ling one. In this c.a$C,

'•

I

~

To comp~te 1h1_, splicc, ctlt upptt \\ood is ~hifttd 3\-.3)' rrom .~ ~t'r wood a.Jon~ the longitudinal a"'iJ. f'1n.tll)· a '1nglc dra\~ pin is inscntd tJetY.'tC'n the nliddJc tlrop~, interlocking 1he front anti ~ck 1ur· laces of the joint ('1\arface• ......). 1'h1s ~plirc

'

I ,.. a After feilc.re

t~I

splice 03.

Both iends of the \pl~t att 1dtn1a1: only 1hc upptr "'ood i1 di1pla)·cd in 11~

diagnm.

complete the splice. The produced l"CSults identical co

lo"·cr \\'oocl.s

(Konawa l$ugi)

-

,1

10


13

SPLICE

12

Elevatim : f-----"'-----"'-----'-' For s.quare sections between I OSmm to I 20mm, the len&th of the splice should be 3 to 4 times the width of the section.

bd•

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u ___r_______. .____.n. =-: """~ .!

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17~

IS

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I

Bad<""'

Arrencement of dial iauces

~~O'l'Wfll

~- o' ga.ee 3 a-id 4)

"""l. ~

0

Tho surfeces of the middle dl"OPS

Upper wOOd and lowor wood

fac•s

"d'")

••

!

twch

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••

-' .I• , .lf I

• • • ••

o I

~ I

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••

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2

0

A stuft.

Wt

axta1 dnctton ooens •

bet-o....-.--o1u.. end tower woods.

pp

0

The splice is completed drew'*'•

by .nsert.irig

the

0

10


"

SPUCE

e SPLICE 05 e Blind stubbed, housed rabbeted oblique scarf splice (Shiribo>omi hugi)

The shape and mc:chotn;caJ proptnit:a of 1his splice arc pr.:.ctitall)· idtnll('.<t.I 10 ,p1ice 0~. A<11he1icallr speakin~ ho.. .-·cr, thb splice is saWj 10 be or a superior ck•ign th.an othtt rabbt1cd ohhquC" Karf iplic('s.; an cle\ acion ";~ of th<" 1phce rt'\·® onl)· a clean Straight line.

15


16

SPUCE

-

(lf!Ydh~

:

.'

e

'

.RI

i

For squ•r• sections between I 05 to 1 20

_..

mm the l•n.st.h of the spliee should be 3 to 4 times tht width of the section.

. •

e

Tenon and mortise splices (Mechiire)

1) Cros,.shapcd tenon and mortise splice (juji mechiire) This splM:e is crT'tt:ti\'t' against tonK>n

; .~ ~

..

SPLICE 06

but canno1 r-e~ist any 1cn1ilc forces. It it often combinai "ith 1pticing plates bolted

~~~~=.--....,~~~,-~..,..~-....

throughout.

..

j

·--'$

0

Upper wood and lower wood

The surfaces of the middte dl"QP$

fac•s '"d"') touch

Mate A shift 1n axial di....ct.ton

°""' • las>

be-themoddlo-oftheand_.wood.

0

The sol~• dr.w pin.

1$

compJet.ed by

insert.irtt the

Auomblod U>llce

17


SPUCE

18

Two faces of this splice rC'\·eal a clean (2) Right angle te11on and mortiJc 1pljcc ttraight line when assembled. (kancori mcchiirc)

19

(3) H oused tenon and mor1i1c 1plicc (kakutbi mcchiirc) Three faceli of this splice rtveal a ch:a1\ straigh1 line once asM::mblcd. It is a common method for splicing exposed pos10.

Mole end female

8

Assembled sphce

'

...,

,., :.

• 1---.J ~

Mal•

,

....... I I

t----.....J~3

·~

.. '·- . ,_

-

-

-

.

-<-- ~'-

~

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Female

.....

.•

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-

. [ ._··_·'- - - 1 ~------1-

.

......

-·-· -. · - - · - < , r!I - -...... ...

~

'------I Fomole


SPUCE

(4) Blind tenon and rnor1ise 1plicc: (Jiako mec hiire) This bcau1iful splice rt\'C314' only a clean s1raigh1 line on all faces once or.scmblcd. Ho\\·evcr, 1nanufac1uring of tlii• joint is ccchn~lly difficult

e

I I

•'

-'-

{

I-----------'-

' ,,I

I

e

Halved rabbeted oblique scarf splices (lsuko lsugi)

e

M.i. end female

8

Assembled splice

~

,1

SPLICE 07

1'

- ' I '

t

This decorative rpltt ls oOcn wed for 6t1ishing, particularly on exposed celling members; it has "·cry fc'" s1ruc1uraJ applica· cions. Double-faced halved rabbc1cd oblique Karf .splices, as shown in fl.gUl'"C a), ._..hen applied as dccorati\"C dci:ign. a.tt dimensioned so 1ha1 the lc:ngih of the in-

(a) Oouble--faced helved rabbeted oblique scarf splice

......

•••••j ! ,_.

··i ... ...... .....:

i

...... .·-· ...

I

" j

,,I

[_ L,____~

F-

LLJ

b' DoubM--fec.ed Maved rabbeted oblique :sc.-i IPlte• Wfth key

21

clh\cd plane is twice the size of the cross &eetion. For 1tronger structural use. a$ for batter posts for cxa1nplc, the length of 1he inclined planes i.s made equal to lhe size of 1he cross section. The double-faced halved rabbc1cd oblique scarf splice "itb key and the single-faced halved rabbeled obliqu<: scarf splice, as shown in rigure b) and c) rcspcc1ivd)\ are often used in buildings where appearance, a factO< of the length or lhe splice, is not or UllDO<I ;mpon.ance (fO< cx.a.mpk:1 the ''resident.$'' building of a ltmple). Hcreaf1er <b<ribcd arc three examples of hal»ed rabbeled oblique scarf splices v.itb three faces or more:


Sf'UCE

23

r

• 7 "'"''!!?-

.

'

" s----

( ! ) Triple-raced halved rabbelcd oblique acar( splice with key The key has no srructural function. lt is designed so 1hac the spUcc cannot be easily pulled apart. All mentioned c-.trlicr, the appearance of these joints i$ a direct function or the length of 1he splice. llowcvcr, the longer splices are also \\'Cakcr. Consequently, the inclined facc11 of the joint arc mnde to be a maxi1nurn of t\'10 1i111cs the :;i.ie of tl1c cross t«cioo.

l"

..

JI ~

I

"J

..,.... 8

Uoc>•r wood and lower wood

0

The SPiice i$ eompleted by locking it with • key.


• SPUCE

sutfaces. Very sophisticated crafcsmanship (2) Miyajima tplice Very si1nilar 10 1ht pre~~iou1 IJ>licc. 'l'hc is required 10 manufacture this joint. diR'crcncc resides in the pretence: of a tripJe.raud cone at the end or 1hc incJ1nt"d

25

(3) Quadruple-faced halved rabbeted oblique scarf splice 111c '-implicit}' of 1hi' splice hides the complexi1y of mantafncturing it. ~fcticulous ;ttltntion must be devoted to finithing i1.

8 ..,..,.,. wood end lowOt" wood

0

The s.plice is completed by locking it with o koy.

e

C) The splice is completed by locking it with a key.

Assembling tho sptlco

-·-

EltvatlOl'I

.. (l•"" II'<! !!'P!!!l

r I

••

- --EB·-"'-3-

r •

.,,

L

xCl>•'211

{ A

-f

~

_..

1

...

xf»l®I

cc I E~atO'I

Q

I

I

IP Cl>

• b Id

121 "''

Citvr.O'I

b


SPUCt

26

e SPLICE 08 e Housed splices (Kokushi tsugi)

Th~.sc ~plicet: c1.re of1c11 u~ on fi.11itih·

ing matcri<tls. I) Housed rabbeted oblique scarf splice kaku1hi kaoawa'

Very simil..'\r to the rabbeted oblique scarf splice c»ccpt that only l\alf of 1hc .... idth of the section is rabbeted oblique. The other half is lioused producing a clean 1itraight line on t"''O faCC$ once assembled. This joint is useful .....hen no signif.cant •tttngth is required. The length of the splice .a.1\d lnclination of the oblique surfaa: (line I and c) arc arbitnlr)'.

a:=

J.

I'

'

ff

~--··-n

27

}3

I I

i1

~

-

I i:i J

ji

e

Male and female

Tho surfaces of the mkk:tle elf-opt (1u,.. feces "<f') touch

8

~-

The male slides into the female


28

SPtlCE

(2) Blind 1cnon and 1nor-1isc (liako daimochi) Similar in shape to the prcvlou1 tplkc bu1 without any il'~clincd 1urrncc1. A key ls used to lock 1hi!i joint tOftC-lhcr.

~ ~,

~

l'I

' J. ,,.

29

{ ( .• .... .........Y

n

'i

-

e

Male and female

e

'The Splice is completed by insenina the

0 ExPosed surfec•s e~er completion

key.

The maSe sltdes. into the femate

]


SPUa

(3) Blind pin (hako aen) Tl\is splice a l.so follow• tl1c rncxlel or the rabbe1cd oblique 1carf t1plicc. TI1e form or splice 04 is c.a.rved 01\ l\\'O perpendicular

31

I

] j

races.

r""1r'"1

g3 ~

~ E-~ . . .-~:

\

e

M•fe •nd female

8

T..._ surle.ces of the middle droP$ lsurf•ets •d") touch.

A shik In axial direction opens e aep ~tween the middlo <Wops.

0

Tho 1pllee is comploted by inserting two dr•w pin.s.


11

SPtrcE

32

(4) Blind key (hako 1h•chi) AJmo&l idcnlical to the prc,riou1 tplicc but without any inclined aurr:accs.

A key is used to lock lhe joint together. The preparation of this splice is easier than ror the bllnd pin.

• _and,...,.le

The &plice is eomplet.ed by i1'1.Hf"t.1na two ke)'$.

e

Exposed surfaces after eomc>letion

33


SPUct

n- ..__,

(5) Pole tenon (oaollugi) Pole 1enons arc used on (xpo11ed ccil· ing elements. The 1hrcc fRC<'I or chi.- splice

fi

reveal a clean srraigl1t line once aa1ernbled.

····1··~····r·····~

i i

j

i i

~

i"'·

I I I ·I -

"""'...,,,,

.........J···--····· ~ ...........• ···....,..•. --"--:--Female

8

Th• mete slKtes into the female.

0 Thif $Pl.c• is completed by insertina: two keys.


p

36

e

SPLICE 09

$PUCE

identical goosencck motif found o n all faces

e

or the: colu1nn.

Column splices (Hoshiro tsugi)

( 1) Four fa ce• goou ncck aplict: T\\'O goosenccks are c.a_r\'ed diagonall)'

across the section ~ male •nd f<malc slide O\'tt each other 31 45" 10 a<i..crnble the splice. ~ l\\'O g0011tntt.kt are smaJJ in rd.ttion to the •ill or the t«tion. Skillrul crafis:manship u requirM \\hilc rrunufa('· (Urillg. This aplicc it 1Uil3bfc (or br-.c COi· umn.s. I lard wood. such ai ullcova, is ortcn used. The peculiarit)· of 1tu. ~plicc ii the

e

'·L •

..

Th• mete slides into the femel• d••Co--

8

~

! -·~.!.~"~ '·~

..

.. Female

.

-..

0

Campletlon

37


(2) Clam·shapcd splice (kai 110 guchi) clc1ncnts such as Lhe cenll'al columo in a This relatively long splice has a fC\\' pagoda. Both ends exhibit a ''French type'' exclllsive applictltions. ·r,viec the length of the splice i!I ruiuircd in a.s&rmbhng which i!I very ill(:onvcnicnt for underpinning. It i$ usuall)· reKr\•f:d ror 1pliting di~tingui$hcd

paper.

r

ii.• )

tenon and mortise pat1ern. finally lO stiffen the ::t'lsembly, a s;cccl ring may slide over the joint. Thie splice is polished with sand-

r

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SPUCE

(3) BHnd 1plice (hako 11ugi) Tills apllcc it inferior in ~urcngth to th(' rabbeted oblique sc.arf splitc bet nu~ lhe method used to lock ttlc joint. 1\ key c:on· tributes little co the sturdinc~-. of the ass.em· bly comj)Jrcd to a draw pin. The ~y hole and 1hc JongitudinaJ joint line Brc positioned dl the: corner or thc \tttion ~king this aplicc ''("l'Y attr.-ct.ive on columns.

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lnsertlnC the key


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SPLICE

(4) Osaka Ca•tle·Otcmon Gate's pillar splitc

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turc of the splice. No gap exists bcrn·ccn the t\VO parts.

Otcmon gate is 1t1c only kno\vn t:<am-

plc of this dtsi.gn. Once 'l!)ifCmblcd, a decorative mountain 1kyJjnc: like pattern c.an bt seen on the 1urface. An X~ray tC$l hacl to be carried out to iovc.tigatc the intcrn:.'1..I 'llru~-

Male and female (left: us>per part of t.ho

Tho m.elo Is inserted into the femate by a.ll<ling it upward from the center to the

column, riC:ht: lower part of the column)

edge.

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Compjetion


CONNECTING JOINTS

l'f llLAJI X-ray pie ture A

X-roy pteture B

The bright lints ore tho internal peru of tht

Tho a>ciel black lines display the grain of the wood. The hol'izontal Unos and the mountain-sh.aped lines are the upper face of tile male

joint and display tho out.lil\O of t.M dovotell,

on t.h6 inside and the seam on tho outside

1

s:

surface.


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CONNf.CnNC JOINT

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CONNECTING JOINT 01

e

Half dovetailed joint

dovc1ail connects a single tie into a corner column. The diagram belO\\' shows a tic conneccing into a column rrom l'°''O opposite

I

sides.

(Katasage ari)

The model dcpic1s a wall 1~ conncc1· ing into a corner column. The: column \\'tl!J split in h.aJ( &cnl{lh"' lsc to rc"c.t.1 1h~ internal Socking m«hanum. \\'all ttel arc tasuaUy covered up, hcmc,·cr, trdduionaJ Jap;inttc architeclUtt IOmc:ltr'nc.\ c.aU (or ex.posed tics. The "':edges, tornc\\·ha1 longer 1h.1n n«cs-sary, arc dri"-en in as d«:p as ~..able to avoid ratding. t'int, 1hc columns are erC'CI· td, then 1hc 1;es t\t'C irutt1cd 10 pre1i·cnt horizon1al tnO\"cmcnt. \\1ttfgt"J a.rlC' driven in after~ erection is co1nplttttl. Bract'd \\•alls help rcsit>ting horit0ntaJ carthqua.kc loading in Japa1l6C \\'OOd archi1cc1ure. ·rhc half

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Wei pu1in on two c>pposit.e s.ides of • column

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8

Tl"9 brace tS ~ed if\ tU ftN-1 J)OSfbon ootnna: • ~· fOt' • -.di•·

Th• btaee is inserted into the sk>t.

0 The jotnt l5 eomp:eted by dnving .n the wed&e.


CONNECTING JOINT

•8

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CONNECTING JOINT 02

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Wedging joint

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(Wori kusobi)

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This joint connects columns with groundsills, girdC"ri, gin, c1c: Jn chC' modC"l,

the column was split in half

kng1hwl~

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Te"O"

to '-

m,·cal the internal locking l)'atcm The joint is simply aucmbled by iruerting 1he 1enon into the mortbc. Two "·e<lga arc pounded in the tenon. 1pli11ing is open and lccling lt against the mortise.

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CONNECTING JOfNT

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CONNECTING JOINT 03

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Blind wedging joint (Jigoku hozo)

fully. The inside of the moni.se must be clean and blown free of any debris. Some. 1imcs the joint i.s splashed ,.,,ith water after in~rting the tenon into the caviry.

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This model was •!Jo •pl•l in rulf. This joinl is commonl\· uacd on ea\'C brackCI$., banging potlJ or bntcl and y,t\tn·

chc tenon and monue arc bttttt k(1 hidden. To auc:mblc thLI pn1. l\\O "cd~tl ate loosely dri\·cn an the 1cnon. The tenon lS then insottd in chc mortile dnd dm.~n in. 1be \\·edges hil the bottom or the montliC. opening cbc tenon like a fan and locking it permanently. Expcrltn« i.t imponan1 1n manufac1urlng thit joint. The tenon ii al"·a)·s cut a litt.lc bi1 1hont:r th11n the dr-pch of the mortise to insure the cltmc:nt btin~ as~mbk:d is fuUy in1'idc before the tenon C\'CT

,,·edges il$Clr J)Crmancntly. Some techniques arc helpr\tl for assc1nbling the joint •UC'f~SB·

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CONNECTING JOJNT

52

53

e CONNECTING JOINT 04 e Housed dovetailed joint (Okuri ori)

This joint is frcqucntJ)• uK'd on hanl{ing posts (tsurU:uk.:a). At ftrtC tht clm·cta1J is inserted in the larger opening of thf' moniM: (area A) and then shifted 'ldC~-')' into the narrower slo< (att• 8) which has the ex•CI in'-cncd 1hape. Finally a w-1cn plug;. ,.. to cmurc the joint "ill noc catily come apan. Somctimet the dovetail is tut in hJJf along the depth or the malt: cnd. The H.tlf housed dovetailed on sheif unit aucmbly procc«l1 a1 mcntk>ncd earlier. The larger Opening of the mort4c: (•r<a A) of thls joint can be u5Cd co anchor the Legs is now hidden by the male. The latter fonn of sh.tlving unics on a floor.

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e

The dcweta*I slides into the biUer end of the mortise.

Tho dovetell is shifted into th• small&r

Seme

end of

Assembled ,iolnt

e

th~

mortiH,

The ~u1 ls not shown for clarity.


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CONNECTING JOINr

CONNECTING JOINT OS •

Sumiyoshi double tenon

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The upper tenon l$ a dovclail \\'ith Oaring side "·all1. The lo"·el' tenon 11 rcc1.,n· ~ular '"ith one 11urfacc 1apcring up. 1°ht' JOin1 ii asoembkd by •tiding 1hc double 1cnon uJ)"·J;rd into tM: morti'C a1 the same 1hc W..cr angk as 1hc ••pored surface tenon. ~ t as:1er Su mi) oshl karncd of th" joint (rorn f("Jlov.· crarcsmen. An X~tA)' picture of the ~mbl)' sho\\·1 .aomc dixontinuity making it OOI cntirel)· ~1i1fac-10t)·

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X-f'•Y photogr..,n tho'iw.nt • d•scon\l,.,.ty after aSHfY'blv The lower tenon ~ eompt•tetv whri. tuUfftit\t an •moerlKt fit. Whit• aaps can also be seen on the l•ft and n&ttt aid• of ihe upored tltflOn. A perl.et fit aft« auembfy ..,.,,.._, the 1ntecrity of • Joint.

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CONNtcTING JOINT

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The m.tle is snserted into the fem.ate .-t

Mate ond f...,.te

en an1le.

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As$eml:>led Joint


CONNECTING JOINT

58

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CONNECTING JOINT 06

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Double plug Th1.J a.»cmbly connects "\"O beams on oppo!tU(' faces ol a column. The beams a.re splitcd through chc column. Larger splices (pole 1cno11) produce stutdicr assemblies. 1 he l:x:~un with the longer tenon is con· 1tec1cd lO the coltln1n first. The second lltn1n is inserted and shifted for\'•'ard until chc lower tenons btttl at the ccotrc of 1hc cohunn. 1'hc connection bet\\'CCn 1hc beams

to

cxce~"i\ely

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Beam t

male

Arr1n1ement of tlie members

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a1ld 1hc column is completed before finish·

inR the sp!ice ~t¥.cen the beams. In order 10 pro\'idc 1l1C joint \\'ith enough 1cns.ile rc~i•l-'OC'C, l\\'O keys and a dra"'' pin arc dri\'Cn in. One or the olher ¥.'Ould be inJuffi. cltnt b) 11aclf. It is imponan1 to righten I.lit

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as"tmbly l>t:rorc inM::ning pin and kC}'I, ~hern·1st the wmponcnls could be c.xposcd

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Boom 2 f -'


60

CONNECTING JO#NT

8

Beam 1 •s inut-t9d throuf;h the column.

Beam 2 slodes over the Ot'OJKMI end of the ......., of bMm I.

8

Aftet' til)\teni°' th• joint, two keys ere i.nMt"ttd.

61


62

63

CONNECTING J°'NT

proceeds in chc same fashion as !Or Lht lht preceding joint. The fO\\l"Cr part tenons or beam 2 (male) and beam 3 cremale) is shorrer titan on the double plug dut to the presence of the extra beam. ,'\ Vet)' tight join1 "'orks better. In order to Thi$ .1s-Kmbly connects three beams achieve this, the long projecting tenon of on three fa<:« of a oolumn. The l\\O oppo- beam 2 (malcj is made a row millimeters "Sitc beams are i.plitcd through the rolumn. •hortcr than the di.mcnsiom quoted in tht: The Gm i-m 10 be c:onnec1cd (be.im I. Ggurc. The: triple plug gi'os the appearance shon male) i• p<rp<ndi<ular 10 the Other or con1inuit1· when seen Crom the intidc, n\"'O beams. A do"·d ttturca i1 10 the col· Seen from the outside. a scam can be socn umn. ~ sccond p.ln or lhl- .t'LK'mbbgc \\here the l~"'O OpposltC beams meet.

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CONNECTING JOINT 07

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Triple plug

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8"m2 male

Beam t

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boom 1 fomol<I), boom 2 llhon mole), column. bNtn 3 (male) dr-•w pen and two k.,-s .,.. •t the front.

From !Oft to

Column

short male)


CONNECTING JOINT

9

Beom 1 short male) is....__ in.. The dowel piln i s lns«1.ed.

Beo.m 2 (mate) is assembled neict.

0

65

Boom 3 (female) s6doo ...,. the project,-

'"' end of the tenon of bNm 2 <rnei.).


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CONNE<:TINC JQNT

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CONNECTING JOINT 08

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Groundsill connectors {Dodai shiguchi)

( I) H oused dovetlH (ari 0101hi) A do,·t1aiJ is caf'·C'd on hal( of 1he &c:pc.h of one member. A rtttan~lat inor· o!I(': runs through the dcpch of 1he 1ttond m<mher immedia1ely behind 1he moru.., ror the dovetail. A column wi1h a 11mp&e 1cnon ma)· compJctc the MR-mb1y. A dra\\ pin tteurCJ che column to the ground.sill. The k-ngth of the pole tenon on 1hr column

67

(2) Rabbeted tenon and mortise (kooc bow sa•hi) This join1 i$ usefuJ lO assemble corner ground<ills. The male sill (8) bas an ccccnttic ttnon at 1hc end. The rcmalc (i\ ) bas a morti&e cut througbow. Af1er assembly, a \\edge iJ pounded 1hrough a slot in lhe tenon. locking the members together. If there is enough room left at the cod of member A (distance a-H/2). a column can be connected O\'cr the joint using a $Nb tenon.

<quals the depth of lhe RfOUOd<ill Thu!, t"i-cn if the groundsill roes, cht column will ~tand firm Th~.') or1c:n h.ippcn ~incc 1hc "'oundsill is u'iu3U)· madC' of 50ft"'·ood .tnd 1he column ma.de or h.Jrd"·oud

Column

L

Left side: houstd dovetail. A1C:ht side: robbet~ tenon aod morti.ff

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Groundslll (B

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°"'" Ec.c.ent.nc;

r~ted

tenon and mortise


CONNfCflNG JOINT

(3) Corner miter teno11 (1un1i1ome bozo

•••hi) This joinl al~o connccu corner ground11oiJls but is more attractive than tile prcviotaS one. 1\ tongue a11d groove on the insid<" ensure rigidity while a panel on 1hc outtide ~vcs 1hc joint a ele:o\.ncr look. The outiide scam is located at 1hc: corn~r makinst the

Grouncls<n A

assembly npptar to have been made out of a single piece of wood. The taper-eel panel at the end of member B (male) reduces the di.stance (a) lcr1 at the end or member A (fc1n..'lle). For this reason, a ua~idaJ ttub tenon is ptt.ferrcd to connect a column o~r the corner joint.

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Arran&em•nt of th• membef't

Ground5'11 !B l

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E1t~ll1M

G"°"ndtlll (A)

8

Rabbeted tenon and morti.se (fe~): After the male is auembl•<i, a ~S• is poonded in, lock· 1111& the joint. (no coh.a'nn shown • Housed dov-eta.il lrigtrt); the mal• $Sides in-io the temai.. Thee~ is: assentiecf and the joint is com°'9ted by driving is\ a drew pin.

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69

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GroundsiU (B)


70

CONNECJING JOINT

0

AtTangement of the CN>und,.lla

8

Tho joint JS MS&mbled.

0

A wedCâ&#x20AC;˘ " pounded on.

0

A c:otoo'wl ts Mt on top of the s4


73

CONNCCTING JOINr

72

e

CONNECTING JOINT 09

e

"Kyoro" system This roofing 1ystcm je>in.1 very 1pc:cializcd clc:Ol(Ott. The ~tve f,~rdcrt tu11 on top or the columnt 00 the OUICf \~lllls. The rafters are conncc-1td 10 1~ btams called the rainbo\\· beams. ~ rainbo\\ bc.uru arc •upported b)• the"'" Kirdrro. 11ic •upponing point of tht rainbo\\ bc.Jms i.l dc1crmin<d ..,;,ha 1001 called the rain"°" boGlrd (hikari i1a). The bam 10< 1hc roof•uppon system tin on the saddle poin1 (to«<). The saddle point is at the- inter~tton or the bottom edge of 1hc rafters and or a vcnical line perpendicular to the center line of Che e3\'C girders. Often this point i.s loc._ttcd above the cave girder in order to avoid weakening of the S..'lme. The r,1inbo\\· be.ant has a doveutil shape at the end which

connects onto 1hc eave girder. A groove at wide as tl1c ralnbo'~ beam iJ: also cut into the eave girder tO give ruU support IO the rainl:x>w beam. This system bas to be made: strong enough to suppon Lhc roofmg load and also roofers, who frequently hang onro the tic beams duri1\g erection or use them to lifl loads. The full wid1b groove pro•ects against spliuing of lhe tie beams_ Another gTI)O'\·e it sometimes cut through the top of the r-ain~· beam to rocch·e lhe rafters.

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111drf 1.-r to the t•$1: tool lkfltt&

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CONNECTING JONr

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Well fr~1n1 Ceolumn M•d: tenon end mortlM)

8

Tl\9 rainbow beam connt'et.s on th.t S.irder through the k&buto dovetail

The piteh of the rafter ts projec~ on th9 rainbow ~•m us1n1 the rai11bow board.


CONNECTING JCNN T

76

e

CONNECTING JOINT 10

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~~

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"Orioku" system

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[Ir.~:

(n this case. the rafters' tlc: be.ams 1it directly on top of 1hc columns nnd the cave girders run on top of 1he tie beams. The stepped tenon of the colum1t ls notrhed ll few millimctcn shorter 11\an ahown in the

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diagrams to avoid having 1M' girder •cciclcnW!y so~ by it The Orioku system results in a ~-c:r cci.lan~ ht'i.ght than 1~ K)·oro. 1bc Kyoro aystem i1 more flcx:ibk because raftcn and tit bc.all\I do not ha.\:c 10 be supJXN1cd a1 the umc location as 1hc columns.

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J Column

The colu'nn is Hl on • crouncts.U

8

t._

ll'9 Maim 1$ se-i onto the coMnn column hoted: stepped tenon).

n


78

CONNECrlNC JOINT

0

9

Same as before

0 s.... .. - .

79

T~ raftÂŤ sits on top of the eave girder.


CONNECTING JOINT

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CONNECTING JOINT I J

e

Tie beam connector (Koya daimochi)

Sometimes tic beams MUSI be spliced and lied to an internal roof beam nei"·ork. The unique charac:lcristtc or this jotnt lJ lhat neither 1hc: '°"·er tic bc.3m nor 1M

upper tie beam suffer a reduction in section at their splicing poinl.The diagram displays the arrangement of such a joinc with provision for a purlin post on top of the assembly. Generally purlin posrs arc evenly distributed. They are not al1A-ays located at the conntttlon of tic beams and roof bcaw. The do....·els wed to position the tie beams over each ocher are usuaUy 30mm "idc and arc always drilled in vertically instead or normal to the internal races or the joint.

f'

EIMOol

tnt.,-n•I roof beam

81


CONNECttNG JOINT

e

CONNECTING JOINT f 2

83

1nakc this _joint. The hip rarcer (sumigi} sics on top or the longer girder. An octcntric tc:non and mortise serves to assemble the

e

Hip rafter joint

eave girders.

(Yosemune no sumi)

Three kind5 of hip ra11er jo4n1 with five sun pitch will be introduecd (one 11un i$ one

1cn1h or a fooc). AU or 1hcsc j0in11 have common chatae:ttris1ic.t. ·me roof ra(cm includmg e:orncr·s eavt brackeu) art oormal to each other and all or 1Mm have the same pitch.

(I) Tee-shaped girder joinl Prcciscly manufactvn:d tenon and mortise (goya h07.0 sa.shi) arc nttcssar')· to

8

From &M"d9r

lo~

to right: eom.·s eave brackets. (8 ), hip l"f;fter

(AJ. g.ircMr

The tower tJ• sits on tN b'lt.emel f'OOf beiem.

ld»-1.t....J

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Girder (A)

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Corners eave lwaekets


CONNEC11NC JOlNT

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rnortow !.

The h.ip ratter is set on

top

of the

.,rd.,.._

85


86

CONNECTING JO#Nr

"'•~°'

Layout (1)

A carpcon1t"r tqlu1rc i.t utcd 10 l.-you1 1hc dirn<n11ibn.t on site.

One side or the carpenler

/l\ ~~ y

.square has a 1:1 trak. l"he ocher f.ldt ha1 a 1:/2 11C11le. F'.gurc a) 5)\o\\·• how to l;\yout the dimention11 for the rafler 80Ckct1 on the ca\'C girders. On gil"dtt I. • line iJI cx1cndcd down from the "'IC>kt'" (poin1 A) "'ith 1hc same pitch as the at poi.nr B raflt;t'f' (5 $UO pi1ch). Thi• tln.c ll'llt'Drclll tprder I 01i the lop face ;,tod outer and point C rcsptaivd)•. Ti...'O Ii~•. p.IJaUeJ fO 1he center- line of the girder.. art layod out from polnt Band pciint C 10 1he in1cnicct10C1 .,.,;,h glrder II al pomt G and point O. Line CD l$ otrcmd)• imponanl It ll calkd the: "'Kuch1.,.,aki" bne. From point 0 a.nocher line is layed 001 ~ith the same pitch u thr roof raftcr"L 'Illa1 hnr LntCTMCtJ the: end face of girder JI a1 poin1 E. l...i.nt EF iJ dn""'tt M".tth:I the fa«, par.l.Ud to 1he lop awfaca of lht gilders. 1l»t planes the rafters. SfU\' and \\' X \'Z tq>rnrnt 1h(- boctom f.us of the «TOQ\U dC'Stincd to The la)'OUt for 1tw hip r;afttr ll d1\f)l.1i}oai on frgu.re b). \\'e ha'"Cjwt explain«! how point Band C \<lctc creatccl from the "'toti:t.. {po1nt A on girder f_ fn the same fashion. point 8' and C' att cstabluhed on «ttdtt II . Tht Kuehn.. Hi hne rrom poi.nt C' and its counterpa.n on ch< cop surface rrom poinc B'. aric <fr.a~n a.long RiRkr JI_ Line 8' • intenccu tht inner race of gitdtt tat point J-1 (line B'•l 11p.ar;tUel10 girdc:r's II ccnttt Line RQjust as line: BG is paralld to girder'" I ccn1tr hne PQ)

ra<ie

r.

..

....

recen't:

Root rdf'iw Pich

'

"'

\ c....

-

, .,, I =--c

A

H

\

H•P••I~

__..

\

Ra'1er or 07lW

/ d ) LeYoUt of \he 1ntor"$e(;;t#on

of a raft.er corn.r e.ave bracket with t.h9 hip raftet"

87


••

CONNECTlNC 1°'NT

A new line, C l I, Ii lnycd ou1 on top or the intcrscctM>n or the 1\\'0 girders. T\\'O more points, J And K llrt' M'I one half of dit hip rafter ,..ldth apart from 1hc center poin1 H and point C. ThC'.' sidtt or ti~ hip rafit"r .ire projtttM do"·n on the top &urfaces to form lines JJ' and line KK' On thost liMJ, polnt J' .-nd K' are extended 10 the intcr'5Cetion with the outer face of gi:rder 11 a1 point I. Line IN di dra\\·n 1u one half 1t~ roof rafter's pitch (2.5 suns pitch) on the OULCr face or 1Prder II, !iloJ>ing down from point L 1be exteiuion of line JJ' and line KK' «f\'C us poin1 I.. and point ~1. k>catcd on 1ht ouccr face of girder IJ. from point L and ?1.1, l\\'O \"crticaJ Jinea are drawn ~·n tht fa« of gu'tkr II. The in1CNeaion of these tines "'ith lUlt' IN producn point S and point 0 rcspctt1\-'d)·· \\'c 00\'o ha\--e aJJ of the lines necessary to cut out tht g'rOO\e dcained 10 rccc:r\C: 1br hip raJtrr. The boctom surface of the gl'OO\"e is includod "ithin J'K'0:-1.ij'K'";dth or hop rafter)

5 LN=fL • 10, 2 • MO KM•

S io/i•

r.

LN

IL~fL• .2. IL -

5

*

10 2

Assume AC h CB 2h. AB /Sh, CO 2/2h, AD•3h. BD•2h. AB'-BE'=AE'. BD'-BE' ED'. AE+ ED AD

AE AD ED 3h

~h 3

/2h :. L

FF'D= 90',

L

h

13F-.rl:W' 1+ l'F"' consequent ly

Jih

;h

/2 4h l l ' 5 m=3·2Tz=3h • EF•ED h. 3 BE' AB' AE'- 290h'

FDF' 45' FF" FD*

...

<:BFE 90' EF BF

Bf.''+ El>'•

Tz

Gl/IJ

1

<:KL! /KLG=90'. £KNJ £KNG 90•, .C llMG <: HMJ-90' GH= 21ca GM 21 a• 31 61 a Assume KL h GL 1 h GK /Sh GN GK KN 2 2 3 conse<Jlent ly

KN/KL

,_10

3

~

f;acc of the girdtt. 1l'f pitch

CY EY

ex

1-·x t 0. Let the hip rafter "Klch be \\'.

E2 AO•OB•XF-FZ• ~·

I AC YD BE II' 2 • 2/2 AX-BZ

II'

3

2 • 212

II'

4,;i

311'

/2 l'D AX 4 2

/(;Ji-) FX/~'O= ~ w

{2

h( - F'O)

~h' = BE'

2

111/ (/2h) • ~

Figure d) <le.rnonti:tr.\ICS hO\\' to la}'Ollt the cuuing 1>lanc: for the intersection or a roor rafler (con1cr e~vc braekrt1 included) y, i1h tt~ hip roAer. l.fij on figure c) is made paralld to 0 18 1G in figure b). C IJ on figure c) is made J>-1.taUcl 10 0 1 8 1C io ftgurc b). The surfaces CJ IJ and CKN are oo the side of the raOer (corner C<l\'C bradcccs included}. Their pitch are Gl/IJ and KN/ Kl. r«J)<'<'lh<I)' .

.CGIJ Lll!J 90' .CG!ll LGllJ •90• £ 1liJ -.c JJH •45• Assume JJ a

IU -a HJ=/""2a tan (/ GJIO 1/2/2 GH=ta Gl'=GH'+HI'=fa' :. GI

conseque1ltl)1

firWJy, flgUtt e) '~" lh< b)'OUt or cht- t)O(com or che hip rafter "-bcrc it conraas lhe girdtt. X\"Z in figure c) i> mAdc para.lid to 0 1 8,G i.n figurt" b) - ZYD and XYD c:ontaa the

f"1.gUrc c) dc:mon1'.r.ttcs ht>'4 to l.a)out 1hl: ldtcral ptch on the top surface of the hip rafter. The- plane: BCD on r'flu~ c) ~ p;ait'filltl to O,B1G in figure b). 1bc latc:ra.1 pitch of the top surfuc is gi\·c:n b)· the ratio or EF/B• on rcurc c)

AB' BO' Ae"-ED' <AD EDl'-ED'=9h'-6h·EO :. ED=

89

z


90

CONNECTING JOINT

(2) Crost·ih"pcd girder joi1it ln practice che gird~rt join 1oge1hcr in a T~h:lpcd aJsc1nbly. Aftcr"•ard, "' "nose" is adcled to the •hortcf gird('r, givinR tl\c join1 the appcnrancc or a crost.

· -&-· -

-

Aoot ratter p.t(ti(5 Sl.n p1l:ti)

On toP. from le~ t.o rlat'lt: Gil"<l•r B. C•rdor not•. girder A. hip rafter On the bottom: raftera

- · - - · - Hip1«10' "!di pldll.2!>.Sll ~ - · - 6 - - - H J I tO¢f

r"°"'

180

.r• • ·•• •··• . ·i

. ..........•

G •• •

t--,

'i...._,: '"'-. . ".

~

..

\

LI

SS \ Hip

rett.r

91


92

CONNECTING JOINT

I 11

_ . , __

~

1'!

•• •

-u..-

..

-

1

. .. .' I ' •

0

'

;.... .. .i

-

Girder


••

CONNECTING JOINT

95

Layout (2) Nole: Tiie genrr1.Ll lllYQUI di&euQ«i for lht' Tte-sh:aped girder joint wiU be omitted ror the ncx1 t\\'O join1s, Only nr,~· conc;e1>1-8 llt'Cd b\" i11trotlutcd. The layout the ("nd of the hi•>raf1er i11 dlflplayW in dii.gr111n b). The pitch of the hip rartcr, called 11agC11urni phch, dc1>rnd~ on th~ roof 1•0,ftera: pitch (5 iiUn pitch) and is assumed perpcndieuhtr to the end 11urn1cca: of the hi1> rafi4!rt. 'l'he r>lan J>RS ii 1>aro1Jel co 0 1B1C in figure b). ·n1c 1)13n ORS Li parullcl tc) 0 10,C in figure b) . OQS .. nd OPS l<ly 'vithin 1he vcrtic.LI face ol the hi1> rafter. 1'hc vl'luc11 required tire OQ, OS nnd 1"V rti1pecti'-'Cly.

or

T

•. ,..-.:P."'-..u I

w

'!o"--~t

0

The hip r-efter lS Mt on too of the ......._

l.a)'Ol.lt ~

for cuttUC the

hip

rafter's end

turfK• OQS is normal to the fascie boards.


96

97

CONNECTING JOINT

Assume OP h RS PR 2h, PS 2/2h. OS 3h since ..: ORQ 90' ..: POR -' l'RQ l'Q PR • 2 4h ST

1

..

J(~')' t(~)' '~OW

since..:OSR

tl)(ir lntttstttK>n. The stepped tenon of 1he (3) Bevelled halving (nejigumi) The cave girden C?OQ on top or ~ach corntt colwnn Wdcs. lhrough the inrcrscc. other in a fornu.1ion called hip comer, ·ro lion or the girdCTs and extend bq·ond i~ balance the strenli(lh along both ax.L.. the =dy to recci"c tbc hip rafier. Tbc hip girder sections are C3rved out b)· .ln cquaJ rartcr joins onto a rafter column set back amount. This conupc: o( joining is c:.JJC'd (tom the corner column. be,.clled halving. Th< g>rdcn o"<rl•p a1

r

120

-

' I

=;

I I -t--·--r--'

"

. I

! "'

rL

j

.......:

·-,

I

L

~-·

\

,,-

--

\<"Ji_ 2'? \ •• B.

\

...•••

"

v·~,

.I. . i;:::

(I)

I

-

!.'! . •

·]!

lsz:

I --,2

\

\

!:::::

I

i

J

=

!.-"; I

1

~~

r-1 I'

J I

160

-

---...,I

9

TVS wuh OR/ RS

-,

1(1()

-

- />

~ --

I/ /

---------, ~

.+ I

I.

.

.

I

·" I,

.• 'I

• I '___ b:-}_

~

-


98

CONNECrfNG JOINT

16Q

..IL

"'i;:

:§= I

~ ~ ~ ~

, j

I

wt

j ..

'~. ~

--·

,

. /

/J

I ~ I

IT . .. ... .....

{

•• n

• ------~--

I'

_l

-··

c

,

E Q <.>

<

•'

·"'

·1, __

1

' L

'

"

~

~ lt

l

"'

~

·j

IJ

~

--1I -- ~

---·--·---,

109

....1

j

• 0

~

j

...

...

tr

' 12Q

f

f. ! l

~~J'

------"I 12G

"

J (

I

"'

-·--

100

...

...

,,•'

..• ~


100

CONNECTING JOINT

l01

-

"

'-"

>,

;.,) j ~

I ~ ~J .

~

I t:

\

\

.. ..• .

I

H

"

c;

,.

.,,,.

.... ,,~,;..

{ ~__j'~-.

!' .

fL_/

(

+--------1

\

. ....

.'/ /

I

1--~~..,,,,,...,,,..,r\l'-11--~--1

{

I

H

I

~~----1

~

8


102 CONNECTING JOINF

103

Top: Anal• bf"ece, cent.er from left to ri&1lt; r•ft.er1, ,.after column. girden A end 8, hip raft.er

Bottom; from left to rla:ht· Cov•ring boards, coh.1mns, hip rafter post

t.,_

Assetmlinc NV• .....,.. 4tht n~ tenon of tM corntir eoiumn ext«ds beyond the Cirders to the toP Mrfec. of tM hip rett.rJ


'°"

CONNECTING JOINT

0

ln.sullif'lC • short post to support the hip rafter (necessary for this system ontyl.

0

The

0

The roof refters .,.. Mt.

COf'Mr

rafter 1s fiJCed.

e

The coveritl• boards .,... On.

10$


106

CONNECTING JOINT

e

CONNECTING JOINT I 3

107

e

Corridor girder (Engawa no keta) Thi1 i1 a morr c-omplt-x joint 1hd.n 1hc pr-ev;ous hip comer join11. The •lrueturc ito

of 1v.o Iott glrdC'rt, joined 1n a The Tce-shap< and of a log gird<r th< au<mbly a girder nos< (8 I) balanced laok. Thc •hort<r l!l'd<r ( B 2) S(:l(Ol$ to rorm 3 single con1in,tOUJ mtmbtt with the girder OOloe. ro olCCCntW.IC thll elfttt th< nose ( B I) •nd th< 1hort girder (B ·2) arc cul out of the same piC't'c of ¥.ood. This assrm~.a~t b cxctcmcly complex Fir't the nose (8 l ) is in.stttccl into g-irdct 1\. After the tenon hits gont" 1hrough. 1h<" nose i.s rot3ted a1 90 dcgrriN and pushed IO\.'o'.ltd A in its ftn;.tl position. Aftcr\\ard, the Jihort girder B 2 is asf.Cmbled 01110 girder• t\ ,tnd com~

gi""

8-L

"'*'·

e - - - of ...,. loC ~ From left to ""'t: ait-cStc' now a- 1 • tone -

8

A .short- 62

Th• a•l"d•r nose's (a - I ) tenon is inserted into airder- (A) in a horizonta-1 position..


108

9

CONNECTING JOfNT

TM ....... OOH ( B I de.,-ees from •ts

1$

Pf'evtOU$

0

rotaited •t 90 Q06etf0f\.

8

109

Aft4< rotetion U.. . . _ nose (B-1) is P'ffMd forword Al.

"''° .._

The (irdor noM'$ (B 1) tenon is inserted

•nto Cirder (B 2) .

0

n. ho raft¥ cornoletes the~. tt is not~ to fill IN PP..,~ B-2 • plua.

with


110

CONNECTlfllG JOtNr

:

~

" < ·, . . . . - - ,

• · >"---'

I

'. i. '' . .. -..."·"".·

e

111

··:r.J-i:r

""

J !-----------::>- -· A

.. ' •,

'

t··"<---.

....,.. ----- -· '

~

--~----'{--

't·r--~ I -- -- - - _ ; / '

--------Top,: c.orner column. Bottom from ltft to ri&ht.: Gi,..,. nose B I • short aif'der 8 2 . tong girder A. hip rafter

:..m, ....

_,~

'

r· "l i '.:

l !------~··-~;~;___

'\-.-">

B 2 : Short girder (B 2 )

'

{{

1,._ I

~

/

I

J:U

''

\

A

;:::.i.. ...

I "

\

. '

t

I

. I' '

(

'-----'-

F""'H'":~~o:.;:~:l-ri-;

.

B 1 : Girdef- nose

C: Hip reftet

.,.


112

I

Ml

I

I

M

I

MISCELLANEOUS

f

'I

l

'

.... '

·, B I

"'\." K:

' '-..; .\l'"'

i ~

- •t--<:.

-

-

'

Ih

!

; ;

. :t.,i' !r

-fWJ.. I

i

!L··'~Q~

I

-

.

I

.

I

-

.,

...

-

-

-

1

.

--


MISCCLLANEOVS

II•

e

MISCELLANEOUS OJ

e

Gable board The gable board is u~ 10 CO\'tr the ends of purlins 3nd girders. The jolnt connecting the l\\O ._k>ping board i1 calltd ••ogami", which means praylnl{ \\ith b..1ndJ clapped togdhct. Thrtt "»·•or making an

"ogami" arc shO\Yn. The gable boards are not tixcd vertiai.lly to tltc c11ds of the purlin.s. Acsthctical considcralions determine the ailglC at ,,•hich they arc fixed. The "ogan1i" joint is Che \\"CakCSI part or the goblc boo.rd, conocqucntly when exposed to lo:.ding a gap m:.y open a1 the bottom. To •void this oc:c:urcn«: methods I) and 2) arc preferred.

(1) Ogami with encaJed crottbrace

0

The croubtec1 Is Inserted OtltO the gable board.

9

Two pins lock the cross.brace in place.

····--·-·=--- J

~

-<F - I

1 '

I I?°:::::: .. D !!=

Ult..

::::~

:: J I

Gtblo boord ot: j

J t:::

·:... : ":::: ::· .: """'1 -3

P!.l'l....... ~w:;:=======i'? ==='ffiii:iii'iii=~w~===

~ =:

~ :«

llS


116

MlsctlLANEOtJ$

(2) Ogami wi1h surface crotJbrace

8

The •~tm~t.s are inMrtt'd onto the I•~• boflrd bo,erd. crOUbrac:e, dt'1rwoin1).

8

l

I

~

G•bl• board ~ I

El~ ~

«$j .........

-

I

J

1"· 11 I

...

~..,

E~it E

I 11

"' "' "' ... • PG ' i:

as pteiure

1

........... the ct0$Slx"ee•

9

The drawpinJ s.cure the joint.

(from toP to bottom: Abutment.$. a:•bl•

0 Som•

~.-------

·~

Same

1apww

C<ooabrKe

j.

I

1:10 ..! ~

111


MJSCi-llAN'fOUS

118

,.

I

~

I/ .i/.'!d.

(3) Ogami with atub tenon and key

I

I

,...___.

1

'/

y-

119

I ;

"2i

_J

a .,

路! =---~


121

Ml$CEltAN£0U$

e

MISCELLANEOUS 02

e

Level h3nd IC\'t"I. Longer IC\~I• gi,·c more acc-ui att" rcadin~J. '11te lcvtl is l<'l on top of 1hc: surface 10 be mrasurtd. \Vater is poured into the mtddlt" cavil')'. 1bc horizon1aJ line i1 found whc:n an equal quancit')' or "'-atcr ~., on citht'r side d~·n 1he \lot. In genera.I, 1.M kngth of 1hc kvcl IS t~'O ken (six ftt1) and 1hc m><• tce•ion ,. 2 x 4 sun (one 1un il' one tenth of a fooc). This hand level hos been commonli- U>Cd in conjup.tion \••ith batter poses 10 Kl level refercnce5 around .. n "'rCO.l Tradit~nal

~I -iEl

L._LJ ~I

L

4

~

::Q<I

L.J

~

l2SI

·I

l.J_.J ·I


122

e

MISCELLANEOUS 03

Terminology

e

Batter post The b.1lcer posts arc wed on fra1nr:1 on y;hich lines arc taut as re.fctt-nee level. The post is tapered 10 a poinc 111 one end 10 make it easy to dri,·e lnto chc ground. The other end is Cr'OUbilLcd 1hapcd lO facilitate checlring of vertical ditplacom<nu of 1he pom.

Several systcnls exist for dctig1\a1ing joints. The ccrminology is noc s:tand.ardized. As poinced out in 1hc au1hot11 rommt:nll, Lhi1 book ainu at det<:ribing a wide variety of .rpliccs and jointl1 describing them in dcta.iJ. ff()\\"(:VCT, 00 pl'CICnSC iJ made O( giving an accurate designation for all of the joinu, nor do y,-c cry 10 explain the origi.n of the appcJJations

_.,.. ...

sdcacd.

TI>c follo-.ing tmninology 1hould pl'O'ido 10me hdp in undenianding the technical 1orms cmplo)·cd.

B~am

(hari): horUontal 11ruc1ural ckmcnt which ttetivcs k>ading from a roof or a floor and 1ransmiu it co tilt columns. Girder (keta): horizon1al stru<1ural clcmen1 ""bin the fnllDC"uk of the cnernal "'llll perpendicular 10 1he 1ic·beam. Girt ( dosashi): hori.wntal 11ruetw-a.l c&c:mcn1 within 1hc fraP'le\\·ork of the c.'dcmal "-all intersecting the second Door beam perpendicularly. Eave soeket ( udegi): Brackc1 anchoring the cave rafters onto a bc<'tm or a girder. \Vhcn the eave rafters arc not braced perpendicularly, the cave socket must be designed to carry a moment (cantiJever cave rafter). Hanging post (uurizuka): llanging posts arc used to suspend the lintd from a beam or girder "'hen column height exceeds 2. ?m. Tie (nuki): Bracing clement within the intcr·nal framc""·ork of a "'all running between columns. Male-female: ·rhc posilive and ncgRlive p;:1r1 of u splice or joint. Upper wood-lower wood: In conocetion with joints, the upper and lower wood refct to t\\'O identicnl ends of a s1>lice or a joint. Whc1t assc1nbling the joint, the part v.1hich is joined 01110 1he end alrcndy in pince i1:1 called upper ,.,ootJ, The other end is the

lower '"ood. Example: Rabbc1cd obli<1ue scnrf 1pliccs and oblique scarf stub tenon Stub tenon ( daimochi): When 1hc lower "'oocl is n\Cant to be exposed to ihc vettical load from the up!k'I" \\'ood over the entire llCClion of tlte joint, the 8..$$Cmbly is. called siub tenon. Exainple: Blind 11ub 1cnon and 1te atub 1c11on Stepped joint ( ko.shikake): Wilen 11\C m'11c end of a jolnl is !tepped to transmit a vertical lood on10 1hc female, or ·vice vcrs.a, tl\.C joint is taid 10 be s1cppcd. El<ample: S1cppcd d0\"cm1l splice and 11cppcd goo1Cncck splice Dovetail (ari): Th~ pan of a join1 shaped like the taiJ or a dove, narro"· at the girth then Oaring out.


... Exan1ple: Dovctailtd 1plioc, l\ou.scd dovetail SJ>licc aod lutlvcd dovetail

Tenon (bozo): A projec1ion at tht end of the male p._'lrt of a joint. ExampJc: True 1enon nnd 1norti1c, rol.,bctcd tenon. dovetailed tenon, blind "'-edged 1enon Gooseneck (kama): Rerers to the ribbed t.nd of a long tenon. Example: Stepped gooseneek "uh tenon and monilc and square steppcd gooseneok \\ilh te-non and monitc Tongue and groove/ 1ongue (mechiirc-mecbihozo)~ Refers 10 lhe joining of l"\\'O 1<non (tongue) covc'1 the length of the end surface of clemc:nu. A long and the male; an cquivakn1 groove it can·cd on the end surface of the female. Blind joint (hako): Refus 10 an enu.ted tenon shaped like the letter "L'' or lhc Japanese kana ":>" (ko) . Example: Blind 1enon and mortilc, blind 11ub tenon. blind pin and blind spiic.c Crossbilled or halved joint (itukal Refers to a jolnt where the male and fcmaJc arc shaped like the beak of a croubill finch. Example: Hal"cd rabbeted obhquc scarf splice, triple-faced and quadruple-faced rabbeted obljque scarf tplicc. ~tiyajima 1phce Miter joint (tome): \Vhcn an inclined tt~m 13 Loc.a1cd at the intcNCCtion of t''"O members, the SC..'lm is called miccr. dm,...pin 41rC used 10 tightCtl a joint. Some pins work Draw pin ( komiscn}. T\\'O types in shear (type A) the oth<r type withstand crushing pressure (type B) Example: A) robbc:tcd oblique Karr splice, double-faced plug, triple-faced plug B) ?vfor1i.se rabbeted obliqur scarf 1plicc1 hou5ed r.•bbctcd oblique scarf splice. blind pin Key (tbachi): Locking element inllerted into a key ltolc through the sections under shear. Example: triple-fo.ce<I hl'llved joint, Miyaji1no, blind stub tenon, corridor girder, ecc. Wedge (kusabi): Tnpcrcd 1ri.1nguh1r element pounded bct\VCCn ,,,.o surfaces, driving thent a1>nn frorn coc1t 01hcr. Ex.antple: \vcdgcd through halvc;<I dovccaU, blind \\!edging joint, \\'C::dging joint, etc. Dowel (dabo): Encast<l ele1ncn1 il\isert<.'<I into a a'vity passing tl\rough t\\'0 joining surfaces. Exa1nple: $tub ce11<>n 01\ tic11

••rro-.

or


Wood joints in classical japanese architecture  
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