Northwestern S I M U L AT I O N
Immersion Programs: Post Graduate Elective in Technology in Medical Education & Clinical Simulation Northwestern Simulation Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine 303 East Chicago Avenue, Ward 18-142 Chicago, IL 60068 T 312.503.7700 firstname.lastname@example.org simulation.northwestern.edu
Immersion Programs: Post Graduate Elective in Technology in Medical Education & Clinical Simulation Our goals are to: Provide a meaningful experience for post-graduate trainees seeking a career in the field of technologyenhanced medical education and clinical simulation. Learners will hone techniques relevant to not just simulation, but to medical education more broadly. This program will: Focus on advanced educational technologies, consist of several discreet immersion experiences in simulation and related fields. Clinical service is not required. Trainees will learn via simulation in the area of their specialty
Why this program?
Simulation-based training focuses on improving human performance by creating opportunities for deliberate practice that increase the transfer of knowledge, skills, judgement, and attitudes to the clinical setting. The desire to use this strategy has led to rapid growth of medical and nursing simulation centers nationally. Educators at both academic and community medical centers may lack the necessary technical knowledge and skills to maximize the efficiency and use of simulation-based clinical education. This document outlines the development of an immersive program for post-graduates seeking a deeper knowledge of medical education, simulation, and educational technologies.
The audience for this program includes individuals in post-graduate medical training. Residents and fellows from any specialty training program are welcome.
Context: What is an immersion experience? This program is designed for use by a variety of post-graduate trainees. Content will be presented over the course of four weeks. Five hours of didactic sessions are required per week with project assignments and practical experiences in medical education interspersed.
On completion of the immersion program, learners may choose to complete a certificate in technology in medical education by submitting a process improvement project completed at their home institution.
Clinical Service Post-graduate trainees will not be permitted to provide patient care unless properly licensed and registered with the McGaw Medical Center, Northwestern University. There will be ample experience in simulated clinical care. Trainees will engage in specialty-appropriate simulation-based training.
The Didactic Program The Goals of the Elective: Learners will be able to demonstrate the use of simulation-based educational strategies including: needs and learner analysis; creation of behavioral learning objectives; scenario development and implementation; moulage; simulator innovations; video-assisted debriefing; and learner evaluation techniques. Course Objectives Define simulation and immersive learning and give examples of when these educational modalities are effective choices. Describe adult learning principles and how those apply to simulation-足based educational activities and mastery learning.
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Synthesize learning events using instructional design principles and learning objectives based on subject matter. Given a choice of available technologies and learning adjuncts, select the appropriate modalities to achieve learning objectives. Apply principles of Advocacy-足Inquiry to facilitate a post-足 simulation, debriefing session and support faculty. Use software and hardware to capture instances of technical and non-technical behaviors for debriefing. Understand the salient ethical and legal issues revolving around the capture and use of collected data in simulation-足based events. Demonstrate effective moulage techniques for enhancing realism. Using knowledge of the existing modalities, produce immersive simulation environments to meet learning or assessment objectives.
About Our Faculty Northwestern is distinct in simulation research because of our faculty members, their scholarship, and innovation. Our Northwestern Simulation faculty members have produced more than 100 peer-reviewed publications in the field of healthcare simulation, healthcare studies, and outcomes research. Six senior investigators - representing medical education, emergency medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and pediatrics spearhead research at our center. The simulation program (STIL) formally resides within the Center for Education in Medicine, and is led by Dr. John Vozenilek, a member of the Feinberg Academy of Medical Educators and Associate Director of the Center for Education in Medicine. There are six core faculty of STIL. John Vozenilek, MD Director of Northwestern Simulation and Associate Director of the Center for Education in Medicine Mark Adler, MD Chair of the Research Planning Committee and Director of KidStar
Susan Eller, RN, MSN Director of Interprofessional Education
Christine Park, MD Medical Director of Clinical Simulation and the Patient Safety Simulation Center
Carla Pugh, MD, PhD Medical Director of the Northwestern Center for Advanced Surgical
Deb Rooney, PhD Psychometrician
David Salzman, MD Simulation Instructor
Selected Bibliography 1. Eppich W, Howard V, Vozenilek J, Curran I. Simulationbased team training in healthcare. Simul Healthc. 2011 Aug;6 suppl:S14-9. PubMed PMID: 21817858. 2. Pugh CM. Warm-ups, Mental Rehearsals and Deliberate Practice: Adopting the Strategies of Elite Professionals. J Surg Res. 2011 Jun 25. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21816430. 3. Pugh CM. Medical Education Meets Patient Safety. J Surg Res. 2011 Jun 25. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21816429. 4. McGaghie WC, Draycott TJ, Dunn WF, Lopez CM, Stefanidis D. Evaluating the impact of simulation on translational patient outcomes. Simul Healthc. 2011 Aug;6 Suppl:S42-7. PubMed PMID: 21705966; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3153601. 5. Kushner RF, Kessler S, McGaghie WC. Using behavior change plans to improve medical student self-care. Acad Med. 2011 Jul;86(7):901-6. PubMed PMID: 21617509; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3128665 6. Barsuk JH, Brake H, Caprio T, Barnard C, Anderson DY, Williams MV. Process changes to increase compliance with the universal protocol for bedside procedures. Arch Intern MEd. 2011 May 23;171(10):947-9. PubMed PMID: 21606103. 7. Pugh CM, Bevan MG, Duve RJ, White HL, Magee JH, Wiehagen GB. A Retrospective Review of TATRC Funding for Medical Modeling and Simulation Technologies. Simul Healthc. 2011 Aug;6(4):218-25. PubMed PMID: 21546864. 8. McGaghie WC, Issenberg SB, Cohen ER, Barsuk JH, Wayne DB. Does simulation-based medical education with deliberate practice yield better results than traditional clinical education? A meta-analytic comparative review of the evidence. Acad Med. 2011 Jun;86(6):706-11. Review. PubMed PMID: 21512370; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3102783. 9. Oâ€™Leary KJ, Buck R, Fligiel HM, Haviley C, Slade ME, Landler MP, Kulkarni N, Hinami K, Lee J, Cohen SE Williams MV, Wayne DB. Structured interdisciplinary rounds in a medical teaching unit: improving patient safety. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Apr 11;171(7):678-84. PMID: 21482844.
About our Facility STIL occupies a total of 12, 000 square feet of space and is comprised of five patient rooms, two skills labs, a virtual reality training lab, and a large and small operating room. Outpatient encounters are experienced in the adjacent 12,000 square foot standardized patient Clinical Education Center. The space, when taken together, simulates a hospital environment using stateof-the art devices, including adult and pediatric care delivery, womenâ€™s health services, including childbirth, and training in emergency preparedness and emergency medical services. An executive conference board room and three debrief rooms are also included in the space. Every room has audio/visual recording and playback capabilities operated through a central control room, and wireless mics allow for audio to be captured as learners move from room to room. Our innovations laboratory builds new training devices and test medical devices using simulation. The McCormick School of Engineering partners with Feinberg in this effort.
Room 1 Room 2
Innovations Dry Lab
Operating Area (wet lab)
Computer Storage / Prep
STIL offers multi-faceted, interconnected service lines which represent the core resources within STIL. These include:
Undergraduate and Graduate Medical Education
Northwestern Center for Advanced Surgical Education (NCASE):
for specialized surgical training and assessment
Northwestern Simulation TM:
a revenue generating arm for continuing medical education and outside vendors
Nurses and patient care technicians new to Northwestern Memorial Hospital experience simulation events and learning assessments as part of their onboarding process.
video and interactive web resources and durable learning objects
for the creation of new devices in partnership with faculty from the McCormick School of Engineering
of education seminars for international audiences
Curriculum Lesson 1: Simulation Technology and Technology-足based Adjuncts Introduction:
Everyone has heard the expression that practice makes perfect, in simulation-足based learning the belief is that practice makes permanent. One of the responsibilities of simulation technicians is to help facilitate learning experiences that allow for the transfer of knowledge, skills, and attitudes into the clinical setting. Simulation provides the deliberate practice opportunities in a safe learning environment. There are many methods of delivering this type of education strategy.
Define simulation and immersive learning and give examples of when these training modalities are effective choices.
1. Define simulation as an educational strategy and list four or five types of simulation devices. 2. Describe two ways to prepare learners prior to start of simulation course or event. 3. Give two examples of assessment technologies used during simulation.
1. Engage in a learning activity as a participant. 2. Demonstrate use of task trainers, and high fidelity pediatric and adult simulators.
Lesson 2: Deliberate Practice, Adult Learning Principles, and Mastery Model Introduction:
Deliberate practice details the journey from novice to expert describing the type of focused, feedback- driven practice that is required. Simulation provides an environment in which learners can benefit from deliberate practice in a safe, controlled environment. These principles along with adult learning principles form the core of simulation as an educational tool.
Describe adult learning principles and how those apply to simulation-based educational activities and mastery learning.
1. List key principles of adult learning theory and how those pertain to working professionals. 2. Define deliberate practice and explain the components. 3. Use Dreyfus or Brenner model to identify stages of learner development. 4. Discuss core competencies of interprofessional education.
1. Apply mastery learning principles to a task-trainer- based experience. 2. Evaluate two methods for standard setting in performance-based assessments.
Lesson 3: Instructional Design — a crash course Introduction:
A fundamental understanding of instructional design and learning objectives will help to both contextualize simulation-based curriculum as well as to assist faculty with basic instructional design. Learning events in the simulation lab that are effectively structured from an instructional design perspective lead to better educational outcomes.
Synthesize simulation-based training scenario(s) using instructional design principles and learning objectives.
1. Perform needs analysis to determine if/what training is necessary. 2. Demonstrate an understanding of scenario design principles that are mannequin-independent. 3. Construct learning objectives with given condition, expected behavioral outcome, and evaluation criteria. 4. Design scenario based on previous experience or subject-matter expert guidance.
1. Create scenarios from learning objectives.
Lesson 4: Fidelity in Simulation Introduction:
Simulation-based education allows for a flexible environment in which different levels of fidelity may be utilized. Enhanced fidelity can improve the educational outcomes for learners and faculty. However, using maximum fidelity at all times is not only unnecessary, but may be counterproductive. The simulation technician needs to be able to appropriately advise faculty on the level of fidelity that is most appropriate for their learning objectives.
Given a choice of available technologies and learning adjuncts, select the appropriate modalities to achieve learning objectives.
1. Define the different types of fidelity in simulation 2. Choose level of equipment and environmental fidelity appropriate for a given scenario. (Discuss in-situ 3. Differentiate between standardized patients and professional confederates; and determine the best option for a scenario. 4. Describe the benefits and drawbacks of different levels of fidelity in simulation.
1. Given educational goals and scenario design learning events of varying fidelity.
Lesson 5: Debriefing Principles Introduction:
Much of the learning in simulation-based education comes not from the event itself, but from reflecting on that event in an organized debriefing. One method of debriefing is called Advocacy-Inquiry, which is designed to continue to provide a supportive, constructive learning environment that allows for debriefing with good judgment.
Apply principles of Advocacy-Inquiry to facilitate a postsimulation, debriefing session.
1. List steps in the debriefing process: reaction, understanding, generalization. 2. Demonstrate debriefing technique of Advocacy- Inquiry. 3. Describe the importance of debriefing.
1. Engage in facilitated debriefing using Advocacy Inquiry in scenario-based environment
Lesson 6: AV in Simulation Introduction:
The role of AV in simulation is variable based on the objectives of a given event. AV is often used as a tool for video-assisted debriefing, but can also be used to capture data for research projects or allow people in remote locations to participate in simulation events.
Setup and utilize software and hardware to capture instances of technical and non-technical behaviors for debriefing.
1. Describe the different uses for AV in simulation. 2. Demonstrate the use of Studiocode to capture video performance. 3. Demonstrate the use of Coda to capture live data. 4. Apply learned principles to setup a basic, in-situ video capture system.
1. Create a brief training video for a simulation technique 2. Capture a recording of a task training session suitable for educational research
Lesson 7: Legal and Ethical Issues in Simulation Introduction:
Simulation-based education targets several audiences: students, residents, and practicing professionals. Performances are observed, evaluations are performed, and debriefings are done. Throughout the process, data is captured and much is learned about trainee performance and system issues. What is to be done with all of this data? What are our responsibilities with respect to this data? As the primary collectors and keepers of much of the data, simulation technicians need to understand the legal and ethical issues, implications, and ramifications of their work.
Understand the salient ethical and legal issues revolving around the capture and use of collected data in simulation-based events.
1. Explain the legal issues surrounding the storage of video performance. 2. Describe the ethical issues surrounding the performance of trainees in simulation. 3. Generate a data storage policy.
4. Review and revise an AV storage and capture policy and workflow.
Lesson 8: Enhancing Realism Through Moulage and Innovation Introduction:
There are times when increased realism can be quite helpful to facilitate certain learning objectives. The quality and realism of simulation-足based events can be greatly enhanced through the use of moulage. Additionally, other props or training devices can be created using several simple molding techniques.
Demonstrate effective moulage techniques for enhancing realism.
1. Identify when enhanced realism can be useful. 2. Understand how to use several molding techniques to create new objects. 3. Demonstrate use of moulage to create trauma wounds. 4. Demonstrate use of moulage to create changes in skin appearance.
1. Moulage a manikin or a standardized patient.
Lesson 9: Putting It All Together Introduction:
Performance as a simulation technician requires command of a variety of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. In this session, we bring all of these lessons together to create an effective learning environment.
Create an effective simulation session.
1. Define threats to fidelity, efficacy, and to a safe learning environment 2. Demonstrate the use of best practices in simulation to enhance learning
1. Create and deploy an effective learning session using some form of simulation
About the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University Approximately one of every five applicants to U.S. medical schools for the 2010-2011 academic year applied to the Feinberg School. The 170 members of the Class of 2014 include 89 men and 81 women who speak 24 different languages and have GPA averages of 3.79 overall and 3.74 in the sciences. This group ranked No. 12 in student selectivity, denoting outstanding matriculants to the MD program. Historically known for recruiting outstanding students, Feinberg also enjoys a long-standing reputation for its undergraduate medical education curriculum, which we are currently in the process of renewing. Out objective is to transform ways of creating an innovative, integrated program that will provide students with earlier, substantive clinical experience, increased flexibility in designing a course of study, and the opportunity to explore scholarly areas of interest in greater depth. Medical education is a lifelong process that requires the skills of self assessment, self reflection, continuous learning, and professional accountability. These skills must be developed at the undergraduate level and continue on through residency and practice. We are committed to helping our students develop the skills that the modern physician needs to care for patients and be a leader in the practice of medicine. Our competency-based curriculum is based upon eight skills: patient-centered medical care; effective communication and interpersonal skills; medical scholarship and knowledge; system awareness and team based care; personal awareness and self care; community engagement and service; continuous learning and quality improvement; and professional behavior an moral reasoning. The center for Simulation Technology and Immersive Learning is a vital resource in the execution of our training program.
Students in the Physician Assistant Program learn how to properly splint and cast different types of fractures.
Directions Directions from Chicago Oâ€™Hare International Airport Take I-190 E and merge onto I-94 E. Take exit 50B toward Ohio St E. Take E Ohio St to a left on N Fairbanks Ct. Turn left at the 3rd cross street onto E Huron St. 240 E. Huron will be on your right immediately after turn.
Directions from Chicago Midway International Airport Take S Pulaski Rd to I-55 N. Keep left at the fork and follow signs for US-41 N/Lake Shore Dr N and merge onto US-41 N/S Lake Shore Drive. Turn left onto E Chicago Ave and take the 1st left onto N Fairbanks Ct. turn right at the 2nd cross street onto E Huron St. 240 E Huron St will be on your right immediately after turn.
Directions from the North Head south on I-94 E. Take exit 50B toward Ohio St E. Take E Ohio St to a left on N Fairbanks Ct. Turn left at the 3rd cross street onto E Huron St. 240 E. Huron will be on your right immediately after turn.
Directions from the West Take I-290 to the I-90 E/I-94 W exit toward Wisconsin. Merge onto I-90 W/I-94 W and take exit 50B toward Ohio St E. Take E Ohio St to a left on N Fairbanks Ct. Turn left at the 3rd cross street onto E Huron St. 240 E. Huron will be on your right immediately after turn.
Directions from the Southwest Head northeast on I-55 N. Keep left at the fork and follow signs for US-41 N/Lake Shore Dr N and merge onto US41 N/S Lake Shore Dr. Turn left onto E Chicago Ave. Take the 1st left onto N Fairbanks Ct. Turn right at the 2nd cross street onto E Huron St. 240 E Huron will be on your right immediately after turn.
Directions from the South Head north on I-94 W. Keep left at the fork and follow signs for US-41 N/Lake Shore Dr N and merge onto US-41 N/S Lake Shore Dr. Turn left onto E Chicago Ave. Take the 1st left onto N Fairbanks Ct. Turn right at the 2nd cross street onto E Huron St. 240 E Huron will be on your right immediately after turn.
Preferred parking is located 1/2 block west of the simulation lab at 222 E Huron St
Yes Chicago! The opportunities you’ll find studying at Northwestern aren’t limited to its downtown campus. Located in the heart of Chicago, Northwestern enjoys all the benefits the world-class metropolis has to offer. The city is home to some of the nation’s most historic sports teams, museums, and entertainment venues, as well as cultural festivals and city events that are held throughout the year. What’s more, the Northwestern campus is conveniently located so you’re never more than a few blocks away from Lake Michigan beaches, Michigan Avenue shopping and dining, or Navy Pier. In all, you will find no shortage of opportunities for fun, excitement, and experiential learning!
Things to do in Chicago
Affinia Chicago Hotel
Adler Planetarium Architectural Boat Tour Chicago Sports Baseball - the Cubs and White Sox Basketball - the Chicago Bulls Football - the Chicago Bears Hockey - the Chicago Blackhawks Soccer - the Chicago Fire Chicago Symphony Orchestra The Field Museum John Hancock Observatory The Magnificent Mile Millennium Park Museum of Contemporary Art Museum of Science and Industry Navy Pier The Second City Shedd Aquarium
166 E Superior St, Chicago, IL 60611 (312) 787-6000
The Allerton Hotel Chicago
701 N Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL 60611 (877) 701-8111
Double Tree Hotel
300 E Ohio St, Chicago, IL 60611 (312) 787-6100
Omni Chicago Hotel
676 N. Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL 60611 (312) 944-6664
108 E Superior St, Chicago, IL 60611 (312) 337-2888
633 North St. Clair, Chicago, IL 60611 (312) 573-0300 *When making a reservation ask for the Northwestern rate for a potential discount.
Visit simulation.northwestern.edu to learn more about Northwestern Simulation at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Mark Adler, MD Chair of the Research Planning Committee and Director of KidStar
Deb Rooney, PhD Psychometrician David Salzman, MD Simulation Instructor
Susan Eller, RN, MPH Director of Interprofessional Education
John Vozenilek, MD Director of Northwestern Simulation and Associate Director of the Center for Education in Medicine
Christine Park, MD Medical Director of Clinical Simulation and the Patient Safety Simulation Center Carla Pugh, MD, PhD Medical Director of the Northwestern Center for Advanced Surgical Education
Northwestern Simulation Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine 303 East Chicago Avenue, Ward 18-142 Chicago, Illinois 60611
Phone: 312-503-7700 simulation.nortwestern.edu