Page 1

Technical Memorandum #9 Context Sensitive Solutions

November 12, 2014


This page is intentionally blank.


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan


This page is intentionally blank.


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Executive Summary This issue paper identifies and outlines the principles of Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) to implement with the Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP). CSS provide street environments that meet the needs of adjacent land uses and traffic flow. They may involve strategies to enhance livability including those where the automobile is prioritized less than transit, pedestrian and bicycle modes. Livability and CSS as a specific improvement type within the LRTP is a new approach from prior LRTP updates. This issue paper explains the background, policy, candidate corridor selection process and elements of CSS, and identifies strategies that could be considered within the candidate projects for inclusion in the LRTP. Successful applications of CSS in our region today include the recently completed improvements along SR A1A 3rd Street in Jacksonville Beach and SR A1A Amelia Island Boulevard. These projects include bicycle and pedestrian accommodations and the development of roadway environments consistent with local communities. Other successful examples within our region include San Marco Boulevard in Jacksonville and Nocatee Parkway in St. Johns County. On the cover of this report is an artist’s rendering of a proposed town center context within the City of St. Augustine. The application of the livability policy within the Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan encourages implementing agencies to consider alternatives and enhancements beyond adding lanes to increase automobile throughput. Identifying this improvement type does not preclude road widening or adding new roadway capacity. An alternatives analysis, including engineering, environmental assessment, planning and public involvement, will be performed in the project development process to determine the best solution for each corridor.

Source: St. Augustine Mobility Institute - SR A1A Anastasia Boulevard

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: Google Streetview - SR A1A Fernandina Beach

-1-


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Table of Contents Executive Summary....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................- 1 Table of Contents........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................- 2 Context Sensitive Solutions for the Path Forward 2040 Long-Range Transportation Plan ....................................................................................................................................- 1 Purpose ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Livability ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Background ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Guiding Vision and Goals ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Candidate Livability Corridors....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Context Sensitive Alternative Prototypes.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Urban Collector ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................10 Urban Major Arterial .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................12 Urban Primary or Principal Arterial ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................14 Pedestrian Improvements ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................16 Bicycle Improvements ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................25 Mixed Motor Vehicle and Parking Improvements........................................................................................................................................................................................................27 Green Improvements....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................32 Transit Improvements ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................33

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

-2-


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Context Sensitive Solutions for the Path Forward 2040 Long-Range Transportation Plan Purpose

The 2040 Path Forward Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) includes a goal to implement Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) and livability improvements as an alternative to adding new capacity on key corridors identified within the plan. This issue paper identifies the corridors for which this policy applies and the type of alternatives that could be considered in place of adding lanes. By adopting these policies, this issue paper also satisfies the LRTP objective to establish prototype corridor concepts for use within designated corridors or areas. The following is the livability policy included in the LRTP.

Livability Transit Investment Incorporating a regional policy with in the 2040 LRTP to would guide investment decisions to promote transit and mode choices is recommended. The Jacksonville Transportation Authority has defined a vision for future transit investments with the 2040 horizon that may include bus rapid transit, trolleys, commuter rail and other modes. The intent of the policy is to support these investments with the 2040 Cost Feasible Plan. In addition to considering transit alternatives, successful transit investments are dependent on walkable access, pedestrian-oriented design, transitoriented design, mixed land uses, higher densities and place-making. With the adoption of these policies, the following actions will be performed within the 2040 LRTP: 1. Work with local governments to define a consistent regional definition for multimodal districts that includes a minimum size, density and network. 2. Work with local governments to identify multimodal transportation districts based on adopted sector plans, developments of regional impacts or multimodal transportation districts established for concurrency purposes.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

3. Consider alternatives within each district for evaluation. 4. Consider requiring adoption of designated Multimodal Transportation Districts (MMTD) policies by local government where alternate transportation investment will be funded.

Context Sensitive Solutions A policy in the 2040 LRTP that identifies corridors where investments would be made consistent with Context Sensitive Solutions (CSS) principles is recommended. With the CSS concept, we are working to change the paradigm from “moving cars quickly” to “providing safe mobility for all modes. The implementation of these concepts should reflect the context and character of the surrounding built and natural environments. These transportation investments need to be linked to land use and zoning requirements to ensure a consistent urban character and link transportation investment to achieve the goals of livability. Some of the definitions that could be considered CSS could include:  Maximizing the number of lanes to six general use lanes. Any additional lanes would be in the form of bus rapid transit or other managed lanes.  Investing in each corridor consistent with an urban character defined through the project or adopted from a prior study such as the Neighborhood Vision projects performed by the City of Jacksonville. For example, on some corridors an urban village could be used which would require wider sidewalks and on-street parking or grand boulevards, or “Grand Boulevard” concept that would require bicycle, pedestrians and transit to be considered with equal consideration to automobile mobility.  Requiring land use and zoning regulations to be in place by local governments to encourage redevelopment consistent with the urban design characteristics established for the corridor.  Establishing prototype corridor concepts for use within designated corridors or areas.

-1-


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

With the adoption of these policies, the following actions will be performed within the LRTP process: 1. The policy can build on work being prepared by local agencies within the region that are developing context sensitive solutions, livable communities and low impact development guidelines. A more generalize regional CSS policy will be developed based on these local plans. 2. A network of CSS corridors will be identified where CSS are considered a priority. 3. A list of CSS templates will be prepared where specific types of investments are encouraged. For example, grand boulevards that include dedicated transit (bus rapid transit, trolley or light rail), and wider sidewalks to create town centers. 4. A conceptual evaluation of these CSS will be screened and identified for more detailed evaluation during project development phases. 5. CSS improvements will be included in the 2040 Needs Plan and 2040 Cost Feasible Plan. The policies and issues presented in this report build on work being prepared by local agencies that are developing context sensitive solutions, livable communities and low impact development guidelines.

Background

With the livability and CSS concept, we are working to change the paradigm from “moving cars quickly” to “providing safe mobility for all modes. There is no single definition of what constitutes a “livable” or “sustainable” transportation system. The Transportation Research Board Sustainable Transportation Indicators Subcommittee defines a sustainable transportation system as: Allows the basic access and development needs of individuals, companies, and society to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations.

Limits air, water, and noise emissions, waste, and resource use. Limits emissions and waste within the planet’s ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation, and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes, while minimizing the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise. Traditional streets, typically designed for the car mode only, limit transportation choices by making walking, bicycling, and using public transportation inconvenient and unattractive. Conventional street designs that solely move motor vehicle traffic should be modified to conform to the goals of CSS. A typical traditional street may either directly or indirectly cause a number of problems for communities, such as: • • • • • • • •

Limit access or the quality of service of other viable transportation modes and choices. Reduce access or safety for senior citizens because they cannot cross streets. Result in unnecessary driving for short trips. Contribute to energy overconsumption and unnecessary greenhouse gas emissions. Result in economic hardship and recession when energy prices rise. Result in streets that do not support neighborhood retail. Reduce livability within neighborhoods. Increase storm water runoff and impacting polluted waterways and underground water aquifers. Reduce access for the underserved.

Implementing these concepts should reflect the context and character of the surrounding built and natural environments. These transportation investments need to be linked to land use and zoning requirements to ensure a consistent urban character and that transportation investments achieve the goals of livability.

Is affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers a choice of transportation modes, and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

2


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Guiding Vision and Goals

Establishing a vision and goals that guide the development of our communities is necessary so that it will be as efficient, equitable, safe, livable, and sustainable as possible for future generations. CSS can reverse the auto-centric development trends of the 20th century. For the future and sustainable growth of North Florida, developing and implementing CSS and the added value and benefits they bring to communities should be highly considered. Key CSS goals include: Efficiency: CSS moves more people in the same amount of road space, thus improving the efficiency and capacity of existing roads. Congestion can be reduced by increasing productivity from the existing road and public transportation system. CSS can maintain volume, reduce speeds and conveniently accommodate bicyclists and pedestrians. Public Well-Being: CSS streets promote walking, bicycling, and public transit. A strong correlation exists between planning and the investments made in infrastructure with some of the most serious health concerns facing the United States, including heart disease, obesity, and diabetes. Promoting active transportation and CSS can provide some relief to ameliorate these ongoing public health issues. Social Fairness: CSS streets provide more equitable options for making essential trips to work, school, retail and recreational places. People of all ages, abilities and incomes will have more feasible options when making these trips. Walking, bicycling, and using public transportation are less expensive forms of personal transportation than relying on automobiles. Safety: Often times, CSS treatments include traffic-calming techniques which typically reduce vehicular speeds and alerts drivers to the presence of other road users such as pedestrians and bicyclists. CSS improvements that have reduced the annual toll of injuries and fatalities to pedestrians and bicyclists are well documented. Adding CSS elements to existing roadways improves safety for all users. Synergy: Collaboration and partnerships between different interests are teaming together for safer, healthier streets. American Association of Retired Persons

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

(AARP), American Public Health Association (APHA), Safe Routes to School National Partnership, Smart Growth America, Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE), American Planning Association (APA), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), and many other national organizations have committed to being a strong supporter of CSS. The City of Jacksonville is currently developing CSS design standards. New and existing residents and employees expect a high quality of life, which often includes a walkable, bikeable and vibrant community. Incorporating CSS into a community can assist in achieving this vision. Many policies applicable in North Florida already incorporate CSS concepts as a part of their visions including the Florida Statutes and Regulations and the Florida Green Book. These policies aim to provide guidance and minimum standards so public streets serve more functions and expand travel choices beyond that of only automobiles. It is vital for more agencies to adopt proactive policies that encourage implementing and expanding CSS. Some examples of current Florida Statute include: Bicycle and pedestrian ways shall be given full consideration in the planning and development of transportation facilities, including the incorporation of such ways into state, regional, and local transportation plans and programs. (The Florida Statutes and Regulations- 2012) Promotes walkable and connected communities and provides for compact development and a mix of uses at densities and intensities that will support a range of housing choices and a multimodal transportation system, including pedestrian, bicycle, and transit, if available. (The Florida Statutes and Regulations- 2012) For the best results, the vision for implementing CSS should be coordinated with other smart growth-oriented goals including: • • •

More compact and focused growth with higher densities. Protection of environmentally sensitive areas. Mix of integrated land uses.

3


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

• • • • •

Viable and healthy economy. Continued maintenance of existing infrastructure and facilities. Underutilized parcel revitalization and infill. Varied housing choices and costs. Empowered, informed and engaged citizenry.

Candidate Livability Corridors Candidate Livability Corridors where CSS improvements are proposed were identified using the following criteria •

Elements of the Strategic Intermodal System were excluded. FDOT is responsible for the investment strategy and focused on moving goods and people.

Constrained corridors identified in the North Florida TPO’s Congestion Management Plan were included. Constrained corridors include facilities that have restricted rights-of-way limiting the ability of these roadways to be widened.

Arterial roadways with six or more lanes were included.

Corridors where mobility enhancement projects to support transit are identified were included.

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

• Investing in each corridor consistent with an urban character defined through the project or adopted from a prior study such as the Neighborhood Vision projects performed by the City of Jacksonville or Nocatee Master Plan. For example, on some corridors an urban village concept could be used which would require wider sidewalks and on-street parking, or a “Grand Boulevard” concept that would require cyclists, pedestrians and transit considered equally with automobile mobility. • Requiring land use and zoning regulations that encourage redevelopment consistent with the urban design characteristics established for the corridor. • Investing in corridors where transit accessibility is a high priority with the opportunity to provide additional transit service or quality of service. A network of Livability Corridors where CSS are considered a priority and are summarized in Table 1, Table 2 and Figure 1. Table 1 summarizes the corridors that meet the criteria above. Table 2 summarizes the corridors identified by JTA where CSS are needed to support transit accessibility. Table 3 summarizes the CSS projects within the 2040 LRTP Needs Plan consistent with the Livability Policy.

For other streets and highways, CSS should be considered before adding lanes. The determination of the recommended improvements for any of the CSS corridors will be determined during the project development and design of the project. The improvements are not limited to widening in the future, but the intent is to encourage CSS criteria be considered as part of project development. The following criteria were used to identify CSS livability corridors: • Limiting the number of lanes to six general use lanes. Additional lanes are for bus rapid transit or managed lanes.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

4


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Table 1. Candidate Livability Corridors for CSS

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

County

Facility

From

To

Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Duval Clay Clay Duval/St. Johns/Nassau Duval/St. Johns St. Johns St. Johns St. Johns

Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway Acosta Bridge SR 10 Atlantic Boulevard SR 10 Atlantic Boulevard SR 152 Baymeadows Road US 90 Beach Boulevard Belfort Road SR 21 Blanding Boulevard SR 21 Blanding Boulevard SR 104 Dunn Avenue SR 109 University Boulevard Duval Road SR 115 Southside Boulevard Hodges Boulevard US 17 Roosevelt Boulevard SR 202 J.T. Butler Boulevard Kernan Boulevard SR 13 San Jose Boulevard SR A1A Mayport Road Main Street Old St Augustine Road SR 211 Riverside Avenue US 1 Philips Highway US 1 Philips Highway US 1 Philips Highway San Pablo Road SR 113 Southside Connector SR 134 103rd Street St Johns Bluff Road US 23 Kings Road 8th Street Town Center Parkway SR 21 Blanding Boulevard SR 224 Kingsley Avenue SR A1A Nocatee Parkway US 1 Ponce De Leon Boulevard King Street San Marco Boulevard

Myrtle Avenue I-95 I-95 SR 115 Southside Boulevard Southside Blvd SR 228 Commodore Point Expressway SR 202 J. T. Butler Boulevard Collins Road Wilson Boulevard Biscayne Boulevard Powers Avenue SR 102 Duval Road/Airport Road US 1 Philips Highway US 90 Beach Boulevard I-295 I-95 SR 10 Atlantic Boulevard Julington Creek Road SR 10 Atlantic Boulevard I-95 Hood Landing Road Forest Street Bus Park Boulevard Baymeadows Way Center Avenue SR 202 J.T.Butler Boulevard SR 115 Arlington Expy. Old Middleburg Road US 90 Beach Boulevard Martin Luther King Jr. Parkway I-95 Gate Parkway Duval/Clay County Line SR 21 Blanding Boulevard Flagler County Line US 1 Philips Highway Lewis Point Road/St. Augustine Drive Avenida Menendez US 1 Ponce De Leon Blvd

I-95 Mary Street SR 109 University Boulevard SR A1A Mayport Road US 1 Penman Road Southpoint Parkway Duval/Clay County Line Cassat Avenue I-95 Spring Park Road US 17 Main Street SR 10 Atlantic Boulevard Chauny Road SR 129 McDuff Avenue San Pablo Road Glen Kernan Parkway SR 152 Baymeadows Road Dutton Island Road Gulf Life Drive Losco Road Water Street I-95 Baycenter Road SR 109 University Boulevard Crosswater Boulevard Regency Square Boulevard Ortega Farms Boulevard Saints Road Edgewood Avenue Jefferson Street I-295 Old Jennings Road Professional Center Drive Georgia State Line Crosswater Parkway Old Dixie Highway US 1 Ponce De Leon Boulevard King Street

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

5


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Table 2. JTA Mobility and Transit Accessibility Corridors

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

County

Facility

From

To

Duval

SR 115 Arlington Expressway

Regency Center

Matthews Bridge

Duval

SR 212 Beach Boulevard

I-95

Southside Boulevard

Duval

SR 21 Blanding Boulevard

I-295

US 17 Roosevelt Boulevard

Duval

US 17 Park Street

Green Cove

Downtown

Duval

SR 104 Dunn Avenue

I-295

I-95

Duval

Edgewood Avenue

Cassat Avenue

N. Main Street

Duval

SR 114 Lem Turner Boulevard

Downtown

I-295

Duval

SR 1 US 17 Main Street

US 23 SR 115 State Street

Clark Road

Duval

SR 210 Moncrief Road

US 1 US 17 Main Street

MLK Parkway

Duval

Myrtle Avenue

West 8th Street

SR 210 Myrtle Avenue

Duval

8th Street

US 1 US 17 Main Street

SR 201 Myrtle Avenue

Duval

US 1 New Kings Road

I-95

MLK Parkway

Duval

SR 228 Normandy Boulevard

I-295

Cassat Avenue

Duval

Cassat Avenue

Edgewood Boulevard

Blanding Boulevard

Duval

Lenox Avenue

SR 228 Normandy Boulevard

Cassat Avenue

Duval

SR 5 US 1 Philips Highway

SR 9B

I-95

Duval

SR 109 University Boulevard

St. Augustine Road

Fort Caroline

Duval

Merrill Road

University Boulevard

Townsend Boulevard

Duval

Mandarin Road

SR 13 West Intersection

SR 13 East Intersection

Duval

Plummer Cove Road

SR 13

Scott Mill Lane

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

6


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Table 3. Proposed Context Sensitive Solutions Projects in the 2040 Path Forward LRTP County

Facility

From

To

Improvement in Draft Needs Plan

Alternate Improvement

Duval

SR 152 Baymeadows Road

Southside Blvd

US 1

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

Duval

Duval Road

SR 102 Duval Road/Airport Road

US 17 Main Street

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

Duval

SR 115 Southside Boulevard

US 1 Philips Highway

SR 10 Atlantic Boulevard

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

Duval/St. Johns

SR A1A

Flagler County Line

Georgia State Line

Bike/Pedestrian

Context Sensitive Solution

Duval

US 90 Beaver Street

McDuff Avenue

I-95

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

Duval

Kernan Boulevard

SR 202 JT Butler Blvd

SR 116 McCormick Road

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

Duval

Mayport Road

NS Gate

Wonderwood Drive

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

Duval

Normandy Boulevard SR 228

First Coast Expressway

Cassatt Avenue SR 111

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

Duval

Philips Highway US 1

I-95 Avenues

Wishart Road/I-95

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

Nassau

Amelia Island Parkway

S 14th Street

Buccaneer Trail CR 105A

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

St. Johns

CR 214

US 1

Homes

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

St. Johns

International Golf Parkway

I-95

Turn

Add 2 lanes

Context Sensitive Solution

St. Johns

Kings Street

Avenida Menendez

US 1

CSS

St. Johns

San Marco Avenue

Kings Street

US 1

CSS

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

7


" ) 108

" ) 115

" )

§ ¦ ¨ 95

£ ¤ 1

2

£ ¤ 17

" ) " )

" ) 127

2

301

CSS5

" ) 122

CSS 12

¬ «

105

" ) CSS6

221

¬ «

" ) 124

£ ¤ 90

295

130

CS S2

10

228

" )

CSS1

5 S1 CS

228

¬ «

£ ¤ 301

134

¬ « ¬ « 23

1 S1 CS

S CS

116

10

¬ «

18

£ ¤ ¬ « 90

202

CSS3

" )

§ ¦ ¨

¬ « ¬ «

§ ¦ ¨

CSS19

125

" )

A1A

CSS5

CSS9

295

119

250A

¬ «

S7 CS

§ ¦ ¨

" ) 250

A1A

® q

£ ¤

" )

A1A

A1A

¬ «

108

¬ «

105

¬ « ¬ «

107

§ ¦ ¨ 295

0

Amtrak Station

§ ¦ ¨ 95

21

¬ «

Passenger Rail Station 16

¬ «

16

¬ «

Context Sensitive Solutions Corridors Roadway System

" ) 315

Water Bodies Conservation Lands

S CS

CSS6

A1A

¬ «

206

¬ «

" ) 204

® q 20

" ) 21

CSS3

" )

" ) £ ¤

CS S1318 7

301

316

CS S1

225

225A

441

0

25A

25

310

19

¬ «

" ) 309

" ) 308

6

200A

200

326 326

CS S1

" )

200

« £ ¤¬ £ ¤ ¬ «" " ) " ) ) ¬ « ) ¬ « " ) " ¬ ) ¬ «" «

" )

Date: 8/13/2014

5

¬ «

100

¬ «

18

75

326

§ ¦ ¨ 95

¬ «

315

200A

329

500

¬ «

CS S2

" ) 27

" ) 305

" )

CSS9

5

§ ¦ ¨

335

207

17

CSS7

A1A

214

£ ¤

S7 CS CSS19

¤ n

¬ «

¬ «

1 S1 CS

335

£ ¤

13A

CSS5

CSS1

320

13

" )

CS S 12

" )

208

17

26

S1 CS

16

¬ « " ) " " ) ) " )

" )

315

£ ¤ 1

214

CSS5

CSS4 CSS8 CSS14

® nq ¤

209

" )

Six Counties Boundaries

CSS13

¬ «

¬ «

220

" )

Airport

A1A

13

" )

218

JTA Mobility and Transit Accesibility Imp

" ) " )

1

S1 CS

Legend ® q ¤ n ¤ n

£ ¤

326

Context Sensitive Solutions Corridors

¯

0

10,560 Feet

0

4

Page 8 8 Miles


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Context Sensitive Alternative Prototypes

Alternatives to adding additional capacity may be proposed for CSS corridors identified in the LRTP. Future phases of the project (planning studies, PD&E and final design) are needed to determine the location and design concept, but the following provides a summary of the alternatives that can be considered. Prototypes for the following types of roadways are proposed: • • •

Urban Collectors Urban Major Arterials Urban Principal Arterials

Following the prototypes, a section is provided that includes a comprehensive CSS toolkit that utilizes five specific improvements for CSS treatments within the right-of-way: • • • • •

Source Google Streetview - SR A1A Third Street, Jacksonville Beach

Pedestrian Improvements Bicycle Improvements Mixed Motor Vehicle and Parking Improvements Green Improvements Transit Improvements

Source: Google Streetview - San Marco Boulevard at Landon Avenue, Jacksonville

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

9


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Urban Collector

Urban collectors are destination locations that provide access and function as centers of civic, social and commercial activity. Urban collectors may currently exist as older neighborhood centers or potentially refurbished business areas. New urban collectors may be developed in mixed-use developments or as part of pedestrian-oriented developments. Examples of urban collectors identified as livability corridors within our region include: -

King Street in St. Augustine Town Center Parkway in Jacksonville Kingsley Boulevard in Clay County

Development Zone

Pedestrian Zone

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Developoment should include pedestrian –oriented land use and design with narrow setbacks, buildings facing the sidewalk and first floor active spaces. The pedestrian zone is crucial because of high pedestrian volumes. The zone should be spacious with unobstructed sidewalks and pedestrian lighting.

Green Zone

This zone includes street trees or other landscaping elements that provide extra buffering between pedestrians from vehichles.

Parking Zone

Parking is needed for businesses, traffic calming and as an added buffer between pedestrians and vehicles.

Mixed Vehicle Zone

The mixed-vehicle zone serves cars, trucks, buses and bicycles in a limited number of travel lanes operating at low speeds, with relatively low traffic volumes.

10


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Elements to Consider for an Urban Collector Design Speed Lane Width Sidewalk Width Green Zone/Buffer Width On-street parking

30-35 MPH Allow 12-13’ for lanes next to parking. In 3-lane situations, 10’ per lane is sufficient. Allow 10’ unobstructed is most desirable, but should not be less than 6’ in the most constrained situations. Provides spaces for trees, lights, benches, transit amenities, etc. Should be 8’ wide (not including the sidewalk). In more constrained ROW situations, this area can share space with the sidewalk if necessary. Should allow 7’ from the face-of curb to the next travel lane.

Curb Extensions

Can be provided at intersections, mid-block crossings, for landscaping, or for street furniture. Should match the width of existing on-street parking.

Utilities

Consider placing underground to preserve sidewalk capacity for pedestrians, maintain a clear zone per ADA requirements and allow larger trees and other aesthetic treatments.

Elements to Exclude for an Urban Collector Bike Lanes

Recommended wherever feasible. In restrictive conditions, bicyclists can operate in mixed traffic due to the low vehicle speeds and the wider outside lanes or use “sharrows” – or shared lanes.

Planting Strips

Can be excluded to allow for more sidewalk space for pedestrians. Not as important as a buffer since travel speeds are much lower.

Driveways

Minimize the number of driveways to lower conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles. Service access should be at the rear of the commercial properties. Shared driveways are encouraged.

Pedestrian Refuge Islands/Medians

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Depending on the number of lanes, these features may be unnecessary because of lower travel speeds. A median without on-street parking for instance could stimulate faster travel speeds. However, in high pedestrian environments these features may be warranted.

11


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Urban Major Arterial

Urban arterials serve an important function in providing transportation choices because they are designed to provide a balance of service for all transport modes. Urban major arterials serve a diverse set of functions in a wide variety of land use contexts. Urban major arterials provide access from neighborhoods to commercial areas, between various areas in the county and, in some cases, through neighborhoods. They include high-quality pedestrian access, high levels of transit accessibility, and bicycle accommodations such as bicycle lanes, yet they also may carry high volumes of automobile traffic. Most arterials in our street network would be classified as urban major arterials. Some collectors and connectors would also be classified as urban major arterials. Since they serve many functions and contexts, a number of alternative urban major arterial cross-sections exist, designers should carefully review the information on design elements provided. Examples of urban major arterials identified as livability corridors within our region include: -

Kernan Boulevard in Jacksonville Nocatee Parkway in St. Johns County

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Development Zone

Setback, design and land uses will vary, but the basic intent is for development to be oriented towards the street.

Should allow for comfortable travel with appropriate widths for adjacent Pedestrian Zone and surrounding land uses.

Parking Zones

Very important to provide a comfortable buffer for pedestrian travel, although some configurations could include a median or on-street parking with intermittent landscaping. Although not necessary in all situations, on-street parking provides buffering and a layer of traffic calming appropriate for certain land uses.

Motor Vehicle Zone

Can be configured in a variety of ways (number of lanes and traffic volumes) while accommodating modal balance.

Bicycle Zone

Due to higher average speeds, in order to provide comfort and safety for bicyclists, dedicated-lanes are recommended. This zone would also add to the buffering between travel lanes and the pedestrian zone. Physical separation using cycle-tracks should also be considered.

Green Zone

12


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Elements to Consider for an Urban Major Arterial (UMA) Lane Width Sidewalk Width

Green Zone/Buffer Width

Minimum of 11’ lanes, with wider lanes (up to 12-14’) that are near on-street parking/bike lanes/gutter. Should allow 5’ with sufficient buffers, but additional space may be needed to accommodate other elements such as street furniture, opening car doors, and other obstruction. In highly urban conditions, a sidewalk amenity zone can replace the planting strip, which includes street furniture and other amenities. Should be provided on urban major arterials to separate pedestrians from vehicles, provide a better walking environment, and enhance the streetscape. Planting strips should ideally be a minimum of 8’ between curb and sidewalk to allow for grass and large maturing trees and as wide as needed based on site conditions and landscape plans. If the planting strip is less than 5’ wide, shrubbery or groundcover may be more acceptable. Planting strips should never be less than 3’. The spacing and size of trees should be considered as to not constrain sight distance.

Bus Stop

Most UMA’s will have local and/or express bus service. A minimum 8’ setback from the curb is an ADA requirement for bus shelter, which can be accommodated with a large enough sidewalk/amenity zone. Bus stops must include curb extensions where there is fulltime on-street parking.

Medians

If a median is provided, it should never be less than 6’ wide to provide adequate refuge for pedestrians. Medians over 8’ can be landscaped including trees or shrubbery. Pedestrian refuge islands with different paving material can be incorporated at crosswalks or at mid-block crossings.

On-street parking

Desirable in areas with front facing (retail) development. In very constrained situations, cut-outs could be used to create parking, preferably 7’ wide. Cycle tracks or bicycle lanes should be evaluated based on local conditions.

Curb Extensions

Can be provided for mid-block crossings, landscaping or for street furniture. Recommended where there is on-street parking to shorten the crossing distances for pedestrians and improve visibility.

Utilities

Consider placing underground to preserve sidewalk capacity for pedestrians, maintain a clear zone per ADA requirements, and allow larger trees and other aesthetic treatments.

Elements to Exclude for an Urban Major Arterial Driveways

Minimize the number of driveways to lower conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles. Separation between driveways should be maximized. Service access should be at the rear of the commercial properties; shared driveways are encouraged.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

13


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Urban Primary or Principal Arterial

Urban primary arterials (UPA) are intended to move large numbers of vehicles (typically greater than 15,000 vehicles per day), often as “through traffic�, from one part of the city to another and to other lower level streets in the network. As a result, the modal priority on urban primary arterial shifts somewhat towards motor vehicles, while accommodating pedestrians and cyclists as safely and comfortably as possible. Many major roads are classified as urban primary arterials. Examples of urban principal arterials identified as livability corridors within our region include: -

Southside Boulevard in Jacksonville US 1 Ponce de Leon Boulevard in St. Johns County

Development Zone

Land uses and design will vary, but setbacks will likely be deeper and buildings may not front streets as frequently as on urban primary arterials.

Pedestrian Zone

Should allow for comfortable travel with appropriate width for adjacent and surrounding land uses vehicles.

Green Zone

Higher speeds and volumes require significant space with adequate landscaping for a comfortable buffer between pedestrians and vehicles.

Parking Zones

Although not necessary in all situations, on-street parking provides buffering and a layer of traffic calming appropriate for certain land uses.

A very important zone, since urban primary arterials are more auto-oriented. The Motor Vehicle Zone number of travel lanes will vary based on capacity needs, but typically two traveled lanes in each. Due to higher speeds and volumes, bicycle lanes need a lot of consideration to provide Bicycle Zone enough comfort and safety for bicyclists. This zone would also add to the buffer between travel lanes and the pedestrian zone.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

14


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Elements to Consider for an Urban Primary Arterial Lane Width Sidewalk Width Green Zone/Buffer Width

A minimum of 11’ lanes with 5-ft bicycle lanes. Should allow 5-6’ with sufficient buffers, but additional space may be needed for other elements such as street furniture and other obstructions. Since UPA’s typically have higher speeds, higher volumes, and wider cross-sections, adequate separation between vehicular and pedestrian traffic is desirable. Planting strips should ideally be a minimum of 8’ between curb and sidewalk to allow for grass and large maturing trees and as wide as needed based on site conditions and landscape plans. If the planting strip is less than 5’ wide, shrubbery or groundcover may be more acceptable. Planting strips should never be less than 3’. The spacing and size of trees should be considered as to not constrain sight distance.

Bus stops

Preferred locations are generally at cross streets and high traffic generators; pedestrian enhancements which meet ADA standards should also be included. Bus pull outs should be considered on urban primary arterials.

Medians

All medians should be landscaped including trees, where possible given sight distances. Pedestrian refuge islands can be provided at specified mid-block crossing or at intersections. Medians should be wide enough to accommodate turn lanes and traffic separators.

Bike Lanes

A minimum of’4’ (not including the gutter) is suggested for bike lanes due to the higher speeds and volumes of vehicular traffic. Wider outside travel lanes or sharrows in the outside lane may also be considered under constrained conditions.

Utilities

Consider placing underground to preserve sidewalk capacity for pedestrian, maintain a clear zone per ADA requirements, and to allow larger trees and other aesthetics treatments.

Elements to Exclude for an Urban Primary Arterial Inappropriate because they present a safety issue on higher speed/volume streets. Curb extensions are also used in Curb Extensions conjunction with on-street parking, which is usually not allowed on urban primary arterial. On-street parking Mid-block Pedestrian Crossing

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Should be completely separated from travel lanes and provided along a separate, parallel facility. Should be avoided due to higher speeds, but may be allowable in rare situations where the nearest signalized intersection is 600’ or more from high pedestrian and/or bus stop volumes.

15


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Pedestrian Improvements Amenity Improvements A hardscaped extension of the sidewalk to the back-of-curb, typically used instead of or alternating with a planting strip. Provides space for street furnishings (benches, trash cans, bus shelters, etc.) and street trees outside of the unobstructed walking space for pedestrians.

Purpose and Benefits • In areas with on-street parking, the amenity zone provides a hard surface for passengers exiting parked cars. • Streets furnishing help to create a more active pedestrian environment in dense areas.

Design Considerations • Higher intensity pedestrian-oriented uses including retail, office, high-density residential and mixed uses are more likely to require the amenity zone. This is a more “urban” treatment than a planting strip. • The amenity zone can help to extend the sidewalk area when there are rightof way constraints to the preferred sidewalk width; in most cases, however, the amenity zone should not be considered part of the unobstructed pedestrian pathway. • The amenity zone should include intermittent landscaping and street trees using appropriate planting techniques (ex. In grates or planters). • Shading from street trees, awnings, shelters or other structures should be considered for a more comfortable and hospitable public space.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Downtown Jacksonville

16


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Corner Island A raised triangular or semi-triangular island used to direct traffic in a particular direction or to separate a right-turn lane from the through lanes at an intersection; also referred to as a ‘Channelization Island’.

Purpose and Benefits • Helps to separate the turning traffic from the through traffic; potentially enhances flow. • A corner island can be used for pedestrian refuge at large intersections. • Accommodate larger vehicle turning radii where a significant number of trucks are present.

Design Considerations • Consider the use of well-designed corner islands to’ break up’ distances and conflicting turning movements that must be traversed by pedestrians at wide intersections. • The safest design for pedestrians is when the corner island is designed to bring the turn lane into the receiving lane at an angle rather than as a sweeping curve; if not designed properly the turning driver is likely to look over his/her left shoulder at oncoming traffic rather than at pedestrians crossing the turn lane. • The use of corner islands and their design should be based upon intersections volumes, surrounding land use and design characteristic; the potential ‘pedestrian refuge’ benefit should also be weighed against the additional right-of-way requirements and overall dimensions of the intersections.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: pps.org

17


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Crosswalks/Enhanced Pavements A crosswalk generally refers to the most direct pedestrian pathway across a given leg of an intersection, and may or may not be marked. For this toolkit, the term ‘crosswalk’ will refer to the marked portion of a street that is specifically designated for pedestrian crossings, whether at an intersection or a mid-block crossing.

Purpose and Benefits • Crosswalks clearly define the pedestrian space and enhances safety and comfort for all users. • Crosswalks are an important part of the pedestrian network. They form a continuation of the pedestrian’s travel path and enhance pedestrian connectivity, as well as enhance and define public spaces. • Crosswalks support the overall transportation system. Motorists, bicyclists and transit users will become pedestrians at some point during their trip and potentially will cross the street.

Design Considerations • Can be installed at intersection or designated mid-block crossing locations. • A crosswalk location should be highly visible so that a pedestrian can and seen by oncoming traffic while crossing. • Signalized intersection should typically have crosswalks on all approaches. • Installation at unsignalized intersections and mid-block locations may be affected by a number of factors including street classification, width of street, traffic speed and volume, use of traffic control devices including stop signs, and surrounding land uses. • Can be used in conjunction with a speed table which helps to calm traffic by slowing vehicular speeds and providing a safer pedestrian environment. • Pedestrian crossing distances should be minimized; on some streets this may require using additional street design elements including curb extensions and/or pedestrian refuge islands.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Third Street, Atlantic Beach

18


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Curb Extension A traffic calming feature that extends from the sidewalk into the pavement at an intersection or at a mid-block crossing (also referred to as a ‘curb bulb’ or ‘bulbout’). A curb extension can be hardscape, landscaped or a mix of both.

Purpose and Benefits • Reduces street width both physically and visually, shortens a pedestrian’s crossing distance at crosswalks and potentially reduces traffic speeds. • Provides increased visibility for pedestrians and motorist. • Moves parked vehicles away from street corners improving visibility.

Design Considerations Should be used when possible in pedestrian-oriented areas. Should be used for transit stops where full-time on-street parking exists. Should be used where a permanent parking lane exists. Should not encroach into bike lane. Street furniture or plants on curb extensions should not impede motorist or pedestrian sightlines. • Can manage storm water runoff with landscaping that takes up some of the water through root systems, with remaining water infiltrating or draining back to the sewer. • • • • •

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: Bing Maps – St. Johns Avenue, Jacksonville

19


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Curb Radius The curved section of a curb connecting the curb lines of two intersecting streets. The curb radius measurement is taken from the back of the curb.

Purpose and Benefits • Defines the space for (and helps direct) vehicle turning movements at intersections. • The curb radius dimensions can affect ease and speeds of vehicular turning movements, which provide more comfortable conditions for pedestrians and bicyclists.

Design Considerations • Radii should be minimized to allow the necessary dimensions for traffic while reducing impacts on pedestrians, cyclists and adjacent land uses. • Smaller curb radii narrow the overall dimensions of an intersection which may shorten pedestrian crossing distances and reduce right-of-way requirements. • A smaller curb radius provides a more visible pedestrian waiting space at the intersection. • Smaller radii help reduce the turning speeds of vehicles. • A smaller radius allows for more flexibility in placement of curb ramps; with a larger radius, the ramp(s) may need to be located in the radius or its location will be too far from the corner for good visibility. • Larger radii may be required on streets that carry a high percentage of truck traffic; they allow easier turning movements for large vehicles. • A bike lane or parking lane allows a smaller curb radius than might otherwise be required for motor vehicles and provides extra maneuvering space for turning.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: fabb-bikes.org

20


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

In-pavement Lighting In-pavement lights are used in crosswalks to alert motorists of the presence of a pedestrian crossing or preparing to cross the street. The lights face oncoming traffic and are activated by either push-button or through an automated detection system.

Purpose and Benefits • Increases the distance at which a motorist becomes aware of the crosswalk. • Crossing intervals can be extended. Lights can continue to flash and allow slower pedestrians to safely cross. • Reduces the mean speed at which vehicles approach the crosswalk. • Reduces the mean number of vehicles that pass over the crosswalk while a pedestrian is waiting.

Design Considerations • Should be considered in areas with high pedestrian activity and vehicular conflicts. • The amount of time lights should be based on crossing distance vehicles speeds and pedestrian characteristics (ex. age). • Manual or automatic triggers for lights should be considered. • Consider combining in-pavement lighting with an advanced flashing amber beacon to alert motorists earlier or using a speed table which acts as a traffic calming device for a more pedestrian-friendly environment. .

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: Greensocal.net

21


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Pedestrian Refuge A protected area between traffic lanes that separates a pedestrian crossing into segments and allows pedestrians to wait safely for gaps in traffic (also called a ‘median refuge’, ‘refuge island’ or ‘pedestrian refuge island’).

Purpose and Benefits • Reduces pedestrian and vehicular conflicts. • Shortens the distance a pedestrian must cross at one time. • Allows the pedestrian to consider traffic coming from one direction at a time only; potentially reduces confusion and increases crossing opportunities. • Can reduce the time a pedestrian must wait to cross by increasing the number of gaps in traffic.

Design Considerations • Typically provided on wider multi-lane roads to reduce the effective crossing witdh. • Should be signed and illuminated to identify purpose. • Should be a minimum of 6’ wide to provide sufficient space for refuge; large width is preferable, particularly on high- speed streets or in areas where large pedestrian crossings exist at one time (ex 8-10’). • Might be used at signalized or unsignalized crosswalks, intersections, and midblock crossing. • Landscaping on pedestrian refuge should not impede visiblilty of pedestrians or drivers. • The crosswalk should pass through the refuge at grade for accessibility by all travelers. • The key tradeoff when providing pedestrian refuge islands is the additional width required; consideration should take into account adjacent land uses and the existing width of the roadway. • Should typically include a vertical element (ex. landscaping or signage so that drivers can clearly see and avoid running into the refuge).

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: fhwa.dot.gov

22


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Wayfinding Signage Wayfinding signage can range from standard roadway network signage to custom identity signage plans for neighborhoods and districts.

Purpose and Benefits • Provide direction, destination and/or location information for motorists, pedestrians and bicyclists. • Helps to caution road users of roadway conflicts. • Can provide a sense of community and vibrancy to a community or corridor. • Helps to promote interaction and engagement between the public and streetscape environment.

Design Considerations • Most appropriate for downtown, commercial, tourist-oriented locations or large institutions. • Signage should include destination, distance and direction. • Maps and real-time information depending on the purpose of the signage.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Downtown Jacksonville

23


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Street Lighting Illuminates a street’s travel lanes; other portions of the street right-of-way may also be illuminated by the street lighting and/or by pedestrian-scale lighting, which specifically illuminates the sidewalk or other pedestrian areas.

Purpose and Benefits • Street lighting enhances safety for all by illuminating hazards, curves and other people ad vehicles in the street. • Lighting can improve safety and security around buildings and in parking areas. • A mix of street and pedestrian-scale lighting may be best depending on context and land uses.

Design Considerations

Source: Avenida Menendez – St. Augustine

• Optimal type and number of street lights vary depending on street classification, configuration and adjacent land uses. • Street lighting that reduces glare should be considered to ease localized light pollution and increase visibility. • Cobra lights should be avoided. • Consider if pedestrian-scale lighting can be used to illuminate or define a curve or other feature and help reduce the need for additional street lights in some locations. • For proper illumination and to avoid glare, pedestrian-scale lighting should typically be no more than 12’ in height. In parking areas, pedestrian-scale lighting can better define and enhance pedestrian space. • Areas of high pedestrian activity or primary pedestrian routes should have pedestrian-scale lighting specifically intended to illuminate the sidewalk rather than the travel way.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

24


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Bicycle Improvements Bicycle Lanes Segment of the street specifically designated for use by bicyclists; utilizes pavement markings or other means of street delineation.

Purpose and Benefits • Provides a clearly marked area of the street for bicycle travel and separates cyclists from motor vehicles. • Help reduce conflicts between motor vehicles and bicycles. • Provides an additional buffer between pedestrians and motor vehicles. • Gives motorist more confidence about passing cyclists; uncertainty about passing without bike lanes can create unnecessary backups of dangerous passing conditions.

Design Considerations • Placement and width of bicycle lanes is dependent on right-of-way width, traffic speed and volume, signalization, turn lanes and parking. • A marked bicycle lane should be a minimum 4’ wide (not including gutter); 5’ is preferred. • Wider lanes are preferred next to on-street parking (to avoid opening car doors) and steep hills (to allow room for weaving caused by pedaling uphill). • At an intersection with a right turn lane, the bicycle lane should be placed to the left of the right turn lane to clearly separate the bicycles’ through movement from the motor vehicles’ turning movements. • If right-of-way to include a 4’ wide bike lane does not exist, 14’ outside lanes with sharrows (pavement markings for motorists to share the roadway with bicyclists) should be included where bicycle traffic is expected. • Segregated cycle facilities consisting of marked lanes, tracks, shoulders and paths designated for use by cyclists where automobile traffic is prohibited should also be considered. The term includes bike lanes, cycle tracks,

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: change.org separated bike lanes, road shoulders and side paths located within a road right-of-way. • Future options such as colored pavement on bicycle lanes may be considered as these standards are adopted in Florida.

25


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Bicycle Box A designated and marked area of a signalized intersection that places bicyclists in the front of the traffic queue when the traffic signal is red.

Purpose and Benefits • Places where bicycle traffic exists; allows bicyclist to enter and clear an intersection before motor vehicles. • Bicyclists are more visible to motorists at the front of the queue. • Provides a storage area for bikes at an intersection where heavy left turn movements exist. • Stores vehicles further back from the crosswalk providing a better crossing environment for pedestrians.

Design Considerations • Should only be used at signalized intersections where no right turn on red exists. • May require additional signage to inform motorists and cyclists how to correctly use the bike box. • Must be accessed via a bike lane which allows cyclists to safely move ahead of motor vehicles in the intersection.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: bikearlington.com

26


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Mixed Motor Vehicle and Parking Improvements Median A raised barrier that separates traffic flow; generally used to control access and reduce vehicle-turning movements.

Purpose and Benefits • Separates opposing traffic flow; reduces or eliminates vehicle conflicts. • Can be used for access management by restricting turning movements into driveways or side streets. • If properly designed can provide a pedestrian and bicycle refuge on wider streets. • If properly designed can provide a landscaped element to the streetscape that increases storm water retention, C02 absorption, mitigates traffic noise and adds beauty.

Source: Bing Maps – San Marco Boulevard, Jacksonville

Design Considerations • Median design and installation varies according to street type and right-of-way width. • It is recommended that if a median is used it should be wide enough for landscaping and a pedestrian refuge island. • In the absence of other design elements including landscaping, street trees and on-street parking, a median may encourage higher traffic speeds; this unintended consequence should be carefully considered when designing streets in residential areas or with pedestrian activity. • Spacing between openings in the median depends on the street type and land use context; spacing should be longer in areas with higher speeds, fewer driveways and larger setbacks; spacing should be more frequent in areas with shorter block length and greater access needs.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

27


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

On-Street Parking Segment within the street’s right-of-way (between the curbs) and roadway for vehicle parking.

Purpose and Benefits • Provides improved access to nearby land uses, especially in higher density neighborhoods and commercial areas. • Reduces the need for large off-street parking area. • Provides a buffer between moving vehicles and pedestrians on the sidewalk. • On-street parking can narrow the perceived right-of-way width and help reduce traffic speed.

Design Considerations • On-street parking is allowed on many local streets, however parking spaces are not always marked. • On- street parking spaces should be located carefully relative to intersections and crosswalks; cars parked within on-street parking spaces should not impede visibility for pedestrians, bicyclists and other vehicles. • Providing on-street parking depends on street width and traffic speed; angled or reverse-angled parking requires more roadway space than parrallel parking but can accommodate more vehicles per block. • On-street parking can be allowed during certain times of the day and disallowed at peak traffic times; this can improve lane capacity efficiency when needed. • Curb extensions can make pedestrians more visible at crossing points as well as clearly define and separate parked cars from travel lanes where dedicated full on-street parking is provided.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: Bing Maps –Laura Street Jacksonville

28


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Road Diet A physical conversion of a street, wherein one or more travel lanes is converted for another use, often to support other modes; ‘narrowing’ the motor vehicle travel way.

Purpose and Benefits • Converts excess vehicle capacity on a street into useable space for other modes. (e.g. a four-lane street might be narrowed to two lanes, with bike lanes and a median/two-way turn lane). • When a street is “dieted” to two lanes, this helps calm traffic in part by eliminating the opportunity for passing. • Can enhance aesthetics and livability of adjacent land uses.

Design Considerations • Very high volume streets are not good candidates for road diets. Consider street classification, function and traffic volumes when identifying potential locations. • Right-of way width, adjacent land uses and the existing and planned street network should be considered. In some cases benefits can be gained for other modes without the road diet. In a well-connected network it may be possible to save right-of-way by using the road diet. • Properly integrate pedestrian, transit and bicycle circulation and related facilities. • The decision to use a road diet solution should carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages to all stakeholders including representatives of the adjacent land uses.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

29


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Roundabout A circular island located where two or more roadways converge that replaces traffic signals or stop signs; traffic circulates around the island rather than through the intersection.

Purpose and Benefits • Can be used to improve traffic flow by eliminating the need to make a complete stop when the intersection is clear and/or reducing the delay if other vehicles are in the intersection. • May be used as a gateway feature to a neighborhood or commercial area; this usually entails using landscaping or public art in the island. • Small roundabouts known as traffic circles, mini circles or mini roundabouts can also be used for traffic calming purposes. Free flow is maintained while requiring motorists to enter the traffic circle more slowly.

Source: Bing Maps – Laura Street at Water Street, Jacksonville

Design Considerations • Single-lane roundabouts are relatively pedestrian-friendly. Multi-lane roundabouts can be difficult for pedestrians and cyclists to traverse and should typically be avoided where pedestrians are likely. • Properly integrate pedestrian and bicycle facilities and emerengy vehicles access in roundabout design. Special care should be taken to provide a safe entry and exit for cyclists. • Roundabouts should typically be landscaped. The landscaping can help make the roundabout more visible to motorists as well as enhancing its role as a gateway feature. Landscaping should not obscure visibility. • Roundabouts should be designed to be major focal point of a streetscape or area. • Turning movements of larger vehicles can be accommodated by utilizing a paved area with a mountable curb on the inside curb of the roundabout.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

30


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Wide Outside Lane An extra wide traffic lane that provides enough space for motor vehicles and bicycles to use the same lane (also called a shared lane) is typically used where there is inadequate space for a separate, marked bicycle lane.

Purpose and Benefits • Provides increased safety and comfort for both cyclists and motorists in the absence of a bicycle lane (which is the preferred treatment for bicycle safety).

Design Considerations • Should be wide enough to allow a motor vehicle to pass a cyclist without crossing into the next lane (minimm 14’ width). • Extra width is required if the wide outside lane is to be used with on-street parking (to reduce the risk of cyclists being hit from opening car doors. • Wide outside lanes can potentiallly lead to increased speeds and should be utilized carefully; marked bicycle lands are the preferred option.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: charmeck.org

31


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Green Improvements Planting Strip An unpaved area within the right-of-way that separates the street from the sidewalk.

Purpose and Benefits • Serves as a buffer between vehicles and pedestrians. • Trees in the planting strip provide shade and additional buffering for pedestrians. • This unpaved area can enhance the storm water drainage system by helping reduce run-off. • If properly designed the planting strip can soften the appearance of the streetscape, enhance aesthetics and contribute to an increased sense of safety and identity along the street.

Design Considerations • Width of the planting strip will dictate the size and type of landscape materials to be installed. • Generally the wider the planting strip the better the functionality and aesthetics. • The planting strip might be replaced or alternated with a ‘hardscaped amenity zone’ in more urban higher-density contexts. • The planting strip and its width may need to be considered against other design elements if right-of-way is limited (ex. retrofitting). • Landscaping and trees in a planting strip should be located to assure an acceptable sight distance. • Consider increasing the width of the planting strip as travel speeds increase.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: charmeck.org

32


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Transit Improvements Street Furnishings/Furniture Physical features as part of the streetscape including benches, bicycle racks, lighting, trash receptacles, bus shelters and banners.

Purpose and Benefits • Can improve aesthetics and provide a sense of identity for neighborhood / commercial area. • Enhances street functionality for users other than motorists. • Can enhance safety and protection from vehicular traffic. • Can provide focal points for street activities.

Design Considerations • Street furnishing should be carefully located to not obstruct the sidewalk. In high pedestrian volume areas they should be placed in the minimal unobstructed walking area. • Placement should be strategic for each type of furnishing’s purpose with appropriate furnishings well-located relative to bus stops and major pedestrian focal points. • The design and placement of street furnishings should not contribute to visual clutter along the street. • Street furnishings should be carefully located relative to other features including street trees, landscaping, adjacent land uses and signage. The necessity for shade within the pedestrian zone should also be considered.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: tripadvisor.in

33


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Bus Shelters A convenient amenity that protects transit riders from the elements while waiting for transit service.

Purpose and Benefits • Can improve aesthetics and provide a sense of identity for a neighborhood/commercial area. • Provides a comfortable waiting location for transit users to avoid harsh weather conditions. Comfortable bus shelters are more attractive to transit users and thus increase the potential for greater ridership while stops without shelters may deter transit users

Design Considerations • Bus shelters should be carefully located to not obstruct the sidewalk. In high pedestrian volume areas they should be located in the amenity zone or green zone. • Off-board fare collection at or near a bus shelter should be considered to expedite the boarding process and improve travel times. • Providing passenger and route information at a transit shelter including maps, kiosks and real-time passenger information systems should be considered.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: transformca.org

34


North Florida Transportation Planning Organization

Path Forward 2040 Long Range Transportation Plan

Bus Lanes Bus lanes are exclusive use travel lanes designated for buses only; they can vary in form from rush-hour only lanes to physically separated transit ways.

Purpose and Benefits • Offer a competitive transit alternative to the automobile by reducing travel times and increasing speeds. • Helps to increase the modal share for bus ridership, thereby helping to reduce congestion.

Design Considerations • When adding a bus lane to an existing street, convert an automobile travel lane instead of widening the roadway or removing parking. • Bus lanes should be shared with bicyclists especially if there are a low volume of buses. Bus and bike lanes do require some special accommodation to reduce potential conflicts at bus stops, streets without dedicated bicycle facilities and most right-turn lane locations. • Consider including transit signal priority (TSP) a technology that reduces the dwell time at traffic signals for transit vehicles by either holding a green light longer or shortening a red light as a way to improve on-time performance and reduce overall travel time. TSP can be utilized at select intersections or throughout a corridor. A major benefit is that it helps attract new riders with a more competitive and faster service.

Livable and Context Sensitive Solutions

Source: fhwa.dot.gov

35


This page is intentionally blank.

2040 LRTP Tech Memo #9: Context Sensitive Solutions Guidelines  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you