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CORN TALK September/October 2017

A Publication for North Dakota Corn Growers Association Members

Photo by Katherine Plessner







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Carson Klosterman President North Dakota Corn Growers Association

This is generally the time of year that farmers enjoy the most to find out what their year-long planning and the growing season has brought. In 2017, many growers have watched their crops wither up due to near-record drought conditions or be chopped down with hail or wind. Because of the risky nature of our business, farmers need to band together to support programs and initiatives that help cover their risks and their bottom line. Since this spring, the North Dakota Corn Growers Association (NDCGA) has made a difference on policy and regulation affecting North Dakota farmers and ranchers. We have met with state and federal agency staff, our governor, congressional delegation and Trump administration officials. The various efforts we have made on your behalf have led to significant accomplishments. Here are a few I’d like to point out. 1) NDCGA had the opportunity to meet with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Scott Pruitt, Senator Hoeven, Congressman Cramer, and Governor Burgum, along with a small group of representatives from agriculture. The meeting was a very good give-and-take on what commodity groups are interested in and what the EPA administrator can offer. One of the takeaways was the recent action by EPA to reconsider the Waters of the USA (WOTUS) rule. This is a rule that considers pot holes as navigable waters. Secretary Pruitt was straight forward with his comment that prairie potholes will not be considered Waters of the USA by the EPA.

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Another issue addressed was the need for the EPA to use science-based studies on release of chemicals for use in agriculture. The last important issue discussed was EPA’s review of the Renewable Fuel Standard for ethanol. The value of ethanol to North Dakota was recently determined as having a value of over $600 million, bringing forth the importance of timely and accurate decisions on ethanol usage. 2) At the end of June, we participated in the E-tour with EPA staffers from Washington, D.C. and Denver. The tour is covered on page 16 of this newsletter. It was extremely beneficial having the opportunity to meet EPA staffers that write the labels on our chemicals. The tours were very valuable for both EPA and agriculture. A big shout out to the North Dakota Grain Growers Association for allowing North Dakota Corn and other commodity groups to participate. 3) We continue to work towards a new farm bill that covers the priorities many of you have expressed to us. We have worked with NCGA and our congressional delegation to ensure that your priorities are included. 4) The loss of crops and livestock due to drought can be heartbreaking and financially debilitating. As a result, we have worked with partners in agriculture to push for common-sense CRP haying and grazing. We have also initiated a corn stover to livestock producer effort to offer corn acres after harvest for haying or grazing. Our board members have offered over 4,000 acres of corn ground for access by livestock producers. You can join us by adding your name to the NDSU FeedList site. Lastly, a big Thank You to all of our sponsors and golfers who participated in the ND Corn Classic golf tournament. The golf tournament is one of our top fund raising events of the year and gives us a chance to hang up our work boots and break out the golf shoes before we start harvest. So far, 2017 has been an impactful year for NDCGA. We continue to work with our partners to increase our bottom line in farming for all agriculture and livestock enterprises. My wish for all is a safe harvest season.



Scott German Chairman North Dakota Corn Utilization Council

In the last issue of Corn Talk I identified the value of using corn checkoff dollars in partnership with other organizations within the state. This article is related to the North Dakota Corn Utilization Council’s (NDCUC) partnership with the United States Grains Council (USGC) and their work on trade to promote and market corn, ethanol and dried distillers grains across the world. Each year, the NDCUC provides a portion of corn checkoff dollars to USGC to help market corn and corn by-products internationally. Trade and trade agreements with other countries are key in adding value to our commodity. For example, every dollar of agricultural exports creates an additional $1.27 in business activity. The USGC utilizes funding from the USDA’s Market Access Program and Foreign Market Development programs, which were recently determined to have a 28 to 1 return on investment. At a recent USGC meeting I participated in, the message received was loud and clear: U.S. agriculture needs to continue to invest in trade and exports. Here are some points on the importance of trade and our partnership to USGC that I would like to share: 1) Trade is one of the best bangs for our buck as producers. We hope to maintain agriculture’s market access in the modernized North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and preserve duty-free access for corn and corn products. Mexico is our number one international


corn market, annually importing 13.3 million metric tons of U.S. corn, worth $2.5 billion. It is imperative that current NAFTA negotiations build upon, rather than disrupt, this vital relationship. The entire world is watching the NAFTA trade negotiations and it is suggested that NAFTA will be used as a template for all other bilateral agreements. As a result, education on the value of trade is incredibly important. 2) The U.S. exports over $130 billion in agricultural goods each year and support over one million American jobs. Exports are vital to the agriculture economy and provide the greatest potential for market improvement. Exports for U.S. meat and dairy are on the rise, which benefits both livestock producers and corn producers. 3) In a positive development, trade of ethanol and dried distiller grains is improving. USGC has a goal of 2.3 billion gallons of ethanol exports by 2023. Mexico recently has lifted their cap from a 5.8% ethanol blend to 10%. To assist USGC, NDCUC has helped USGC fund an ethanol marketing position in Mexico. This position has been of great help in expanding ethanol in Mexico. Even with the 10% cap on ethanol in place in Mexico, another 2-3 years will be needed to see the maturation of this ethanol market. 4) Year in and year out, Canada is one of our largest ethanol export partners. Vietnam has just recently lifted their tariff on imported dried distiller grains. Unfortunately, the ethanol market is under pressure due to recent tariffs invoked by China. China went from the US’s #1 importer in 2016 to virtually no ethanol imports in 2017. We are hopeful issues with China can be resolved. The effort that USGC and their staff put into these countries is invaluable. Please feel free to let us know if we are on the right track supporting trade through USGC. We believe investing in the development of trade makes a big difference in the demand for corn, ethanol and dried distillers grains. Let's hope we see a nice price recovery soon for our crop and its by-products. Stay safe and enjoy your fall harvest.

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RESPONSE TO SULFUR FERTILIZER ACROSS THE RED RIVER VALLEY JASHANDEEP KAUR AND AMITAVA CHATTERJEE, NDSU SOIL SCIENCE DEPARTMENT Sulfur (S) is considered the fourth major nutrient for optimum plant growth and development. Unlike other major nutrients, researchers have not studied S extensively mainly because it was highly available from several sources like industrial emissions, fertilizers and pesticides, but several S deficiency incidences have been recorded in the Northern Great Plains. The major reasons are: declines in atmospheric S deposition, use of high analysis fertilizers with no or low S, and continual S removal by crops like corn, canola and alfalfa. Fertilizers like ammonium sulfate and ammonium thiosulfate have the potential to overcome S deficiency. However, the lack of accurate soil testing methods restricts the ability to determine the soil S levels and the amount of fertilizer S required. In recent times, S deficiency in corn has been recorded at many sites. This results in lower corn grain yield and chlorosis of new leaves. Generally, a corn crop with 180 bushels/acre yield removes 16 lbs of S/acre. Previous research across North Dakota recommended to apply 10 lbs of SO42-/acre of ammonium sulfate for corn in low organic matter coarse textured soils. Our study aims to revisit this recommendation by determining the corn response to various S treatments. In addition, we will evaluate the relationship between plant S uptake and yield at critical crop stages.

applied using ammonium sulfate in randomized complete block design with four replications. Our objectives were 1) to evaluate corn response to five S application rates and 2) to determine relationship between corn S uptake and yield under different soil types. Our results showed that corn response to S was observed at one site (Downer) out of five sites. Significant increase in yield at Downer with fertilizer application might be due to low organic matter and sandy loam soils. Sandy soils have less capacity to retain nutrients and at more risk for S deficiency due to its high leaching potential. In addition, the soil organic matter was less at this site (3%) compared to other four sites. Thus, the mineralization of soil organic matter could not provide enough S to meet plant needs at this site and corn showed response to the applied S fertilizer whereas enough S was available from soil organic matter at other sites and no response was observed to applied S. In addition, no relationship was noticed between corn yield and plant S content. We are conducting this experiment in 2017 growing season to validate our findings.

Our experiment was planned at five sites: Absaraka, Ada, Downer, Gardner and Walcott for the 2016 growing season. Five S treatments (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 lb SO42- S/ acre) were

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NDCUC SUPPORTS BANQUET IN A FIELD A perfect North Dakota summer evening served as an ideal backdrop for the fourth annual Banquet in a Field on Tuesday, August 1st. This unique meet and greet event creates an opportunity for farmer volunteers to sit down with non-agricultural influencers to converse about sustainably grown food and farming. The 2017 event, brought together approximately 135 guests and volunteers to the middle of Julie and Carl Peterson’s farm, located at Peterson Farms Seed near Harwood, North Dakota, where they were treated to a multi-course meal. The fare was prepared with 12 North Dakota crops, three meats, honey, and dairy products by local chefs and food-writers Tony and Sarah Nasello, together with NDSU Meat and Animal Science. Event staff included 16 CommonGround volunteers and

13 North Dakota FFA members from Kindred and Central Cass Schools as servers. The purpose of the Banquet in a Field event is to create an opportunity for conversations about food especially how it is raised or grown, which ultimately provides an educational opportunity that eliminates fear or misinformation. “In our fourth year of hosting this evening, I continue to be surprised at the questions about technology and science in agriculture, particularly GMOs,” says Julie Peterson, whose farm has served as the event location each year. “Ultimately, these conversations – and the opportunity to share a meal – are all about ensuring that consumers can enjoy food without fear.” CONTINUED ON PAGE 7

Photo by Betsy Armour Guests enjoy the meal prepared by chefs Tony and Sarah Nasello and NDSU Meat and Animal Sciences.


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Photo by Lauren Hopke CommonGround North Dakota Coordinator Val Wagner (middle) leads a panel of farmer volunteers, Sarah Wilson and Sarah Lovas.

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 6 The event is organized by CommonGround North Dakota, a group of farmer volunteers who work to bring clarity to discussions about food and farming. Of the 135 invited guests that were served, 100 are not involved in agriculture. The 35 farmers and ranchers at the banquet openly fielded questions and discussion about food and their personal experience. “Events like these are a great way to give people a connection to the food they buy at the grocery store,” says CommonGround North Dakota Coordinator Val Wagner. “Not only did we have the chance to mingle and socialize, we were able to address some of their questions and concerns and have our guests leave with a connection to agriculture.” Prior to the sit-down dinner, guests toured crop plots to learn more about each crop and tasted appetizers featuring the food grown in those fields. Throughout the meal, a panel

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of CommonGround North Dakota volunteers, led by Val Wagner, answered questions from guests. The North Dakota Corn Utilization Council sponsors CommonGround North Dakota, and staff assist with planning the event. North Dakota Corn Growers Association Vice President Randy Melvin and his wife Kristi attended the event to converse with guests about food and farming. The Melvins enjoyed the conversations they had at both the corn plot station and during the meal. Randy reported receiving tough but insightful questions, particularly about genetically modified crops, genes and traits. "I am very proud to represent North Dakota Corn at this wonderful event. The opportunity to visit with and make a connection to urban Cass County folks is invaluable. These are the people making everyday decisions about the food they feed their families and I'm thankful for the chance to connect with them."


ETHANOL, CORN PROMOTED AT RED RIVER VALLEY SPEEDWAY The North Dakota Corn Utilization Council (NDCUC) and Tim Hoggarth from Rob-See-Co held an ethanol promotional night at the Red River Valley Speedway in West Fargo on July 28th. Staff and board members handed out promotional items prior to the races and encouraged fans to fuel their vehicles with a higher blend of ethanol. The ND Corn truck served as the pace vehicle and took a few laps around the track. Board members and staff cheered on the E85 Racing car, driven by Jason Strand, a North Dakotan farmer and proponent of ethanol. Read more about Jason Strand and E85 Racing on page 20 of this issue. Race night was a great way to promote ethanol and corn while enjoying an evening of racing!

The ND Corn mascot Bob the Cob rode along in the ND Corn truck as the pace vehicle prior to the start of the races.

Board members Mike Clemens and Justin Halvorson pose near the E85 Racing vehicle with driver Jason Strand (left) prior to the race.


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JUST ANOTHER AVERAGE NORTH DAKOTA SUMMER John Flaa District Sales Manager Proseed As we all know in North Dakota, normal or average is hard to define. I think I’m pretty normal, but my wife and kids remind me quite often that surely, I am not. In many areas across the state, we may end up close to average annual precipitation, but 6” in one shot or no rain for 60 days seems far from average. The same can be said of temperature over a period of time.

that? One thing is for sure in our area: environments are seldom the same from year to year. I will continue to evaluate products across our state and across the river to try and bring solid hybrids and varieties to market. So far, I think Proseed will advance seven new corn hybrids and six new soybean varieties. Check out the yields on Twitter (@proseedyields). As I write this, wheat harvest is underway, Big Iron is right around the corner, and corn/soybean harvest is no longer a distant thought. Have a safe harvest and a fun fall hunting season.

Part of my role at Proseed is to evaluate new products, both corn and soybeans, and the corresponding traits/technologies that each carry. These nice average growing seasons in North Dakota make it difficult at times. One way we try to eliminate some of the anomalies is to plant the same plots in many locations, usually specific to certain maturity ranges. I have lost three plots this year that I will not use data from…one from severe drought, one from hail, and one from excess water. Go figure. Just another average growing season on the plains. We still have plenty of locations to evaluate, but I always think more is better. That goes for looking at products over multiple years as well. “Multi-year and multi-location data is the safest way to advance products.” I remember someone said to me many years ago. We want to know of any chinks in the armor before we release a product for widespread use. In soybean acres across the state it was maybe not quite a normal year. I saw some the most severe Iron Deficiency Chlorosis issues I have seen in 20 years. Poor crop canopy makes it so much fun to control our average weeds we have around the state…namely kochia, common ragweed, and water hemp. How bout two generations of caterpillars? What’s up with



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ND CORN CLASSIC HELD AT THE MAPLE RIVER GOLF CLUB The 15th annual ND Corn Classic golf tournament was a fundraising success for the North Dakota Corn Growers Association. The ND Corn Classic was held Tuesday, August 8 at the Maple River Golf Club in Mapleton, ND. There were about 140 golfing participants and 40 sponsors that donated supper, lunch and hole sponsorships. Prizes were given for first, second and third place teams. Winning first prize was Team Fyre from BASF with a score of 58. Team Williams representing Streeter Farmers Elevator was awarded second place and Team Sletto of AgCountry Farm Credit Services took home 3rd place. Prizes were also given for the Closest to Pin, Longest Drive, and Longest Putt contests. Those contests winners were Greg Sjostrom, Ralph Ubben, and Brad Turner. Eight golfers won prizes for making the putt in the putting contest. The NDCGA thanks our sponsors, members, board members, Maple River Golf Course staff and golfers for their support and making this event a huge success!

The BASF team of Chad Fyre, Jeff Kyllo, Kasey Lien and Kevin Dockter took first place in the ND Corn Classic golf tournament.

NDCGA TO AWARD SCHOLARSHIPS The North Dakota Corn Growers Association (NDCGA) will offer (10) $1,000 scholarship to senior high school graduates and college students that are members of NDCGA. Applicants can register to be a member at www. NDCGA board members will choose up to 10 applicants as a scholarship recipient. Typically, one winner from each of the seven grower districts plus three overall winners from all applications will be chosen. Applicants can only receive the scholarship once.

• Letters of Recommendation • NDCGA membership Applications must be postmarked by January 5, 2018. Completed applications can be mailed to the ND Corn Growers office or emailed to Katelyn at katelyn@ndcorn. org. Good luck to all applicants!

Scholarship applications are available on our website now. Scholarships will be rated on the following: • • • •

Academic transcript Resume Activity participation Career plans

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North Dakota Corn


US GRAINS COUNCIL MEETS IN VANCOUVER In August, the 57th Board of Delegates meeting of the United States Grains Council (USGC) was held in Vancouver, Washington. USGC develops export markets for U.S. corn, barley and grain sorghum crops and related products, including ethanol and distiller's dried grains (DDGs). North Dakota Corn has four delegates, who help determine priorities of USGC to maximize crop prices for the commodity they represent. The ND Corn delegates include Bart Schott, Kulm, ND; Andy Braaten, Barney, ND; Scott German, Oakes, ND; and Rob Hanson, Wimbledon, ND. ND Corn board member Kevin Skunes, Arthur, ND, also attended representing the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA). NCGA and USGC work closely on issues related to trade and promotion of corn products. The main emphasis of this meeting was setting priorities related to trade. Attendees learned about trade

agreements and current market opportunities related to our long-standing trade agreements. One of the guest speakers and educators on trade was Darci Vetter, former chief agricultural negotiator with the U.S. Trade Representative. In her keynote talk she emphasized the need for all in agriculture to not only understand the current trade environment, but also communicate its importance on the local, state and national levels. “All of you should consider yourselves ambassadors of trade,” Vetter said. “Recurring, persistent conversation about trade is what will turn the tide. We have to tell that story.” The board of delegates discussed how the USGC can capture new demand, including ethanol in Mexico, as well CONTINUED ON PAGE 13

The ND Corn delegation attended the USGC board of delegates meeting in Vancouver, Washington. From left: ND Corn members Rob Hanson, Andy Braaten, Scott German, Kevin Skunes and Bart Schott, with other meeting attendees.


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CONTINUED FROM PAGE 12 as the role of the USDA's Foreign Market Development program and Market Access Program in helping the USGC drive export growth. Delegates also heard details of the USGC's newly-released demand model, which seeks to understand long-term growth potential in global markets and inform USGC strategy. Some of the highlights or recent successes of the USGC include the 20% year-over-year increase of all U.S. feed grain exports. U.S. ethanol exports hit an all-time high of 1.15 billion gallons with 2 months remaining in the export year, which runs from September 1 to August 31. Brazil and Canada are numbers 1 and 2 of importers of U.S. ethanol. Vietnam reopening trade with the US on DDGs was another highlight. "Our program this year focused on the changing environment of trade that affects the USGC's daily work," said Deb Keller, newly elected Chairman of USGC. "Our speakers updated our delegates on issues that affect the

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cornerstones of our work and, in turn, our teams discussed how to more effectively carry out programs and support our offices overseas. By its very nature, the USGC's work must look at today and far into tomorrow, managing the need to be responsive to market conditions now with seeking and developing robust markets for future years and future generations.� The USGC operates seven advisory teams of delegates focused on the key regions of Asia, Western Hemisphere and the Middle East and Africa; and the topics ethanol, trade policy, value-added products and innovation and sustainability. The USGC utilizes the input gathered from these meetings to guide development of the USGC’s operational blueprint and strategic planning. An attendee noted that the work the USGC team in Washington, D.C. has been doing to look at where demand will be over the next several decades is revealing and offers important context for our discussions about trade policy, programs and how we manage the organization.



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THE SOIL HEALTH LEARNING CONTINUES ABBEY WICK, NDSU EXTENSION SOIL HEALTH SPECIALIST There are many opportunities to learn throughout the summer, whether it be a one-on-one visit with a farmer or a large field day. In all cases, NDSU specialists and researchers are learning alongside farmers as we continue to ask questions and get results from on-farm research. This summer there have been a several times that stand out to me where important connections were being made. I’ll share a couple of those learning opportunities. The first learning opportunity that stands out was a phone conversation I had with a farmer in June. This conversation has led to the inclusion of information around his questions in a new cover crop booklet, “Incorporating Cover Crops” that is posted on the NDSU Soil Health web page (ndsu. edu/soilhealth). We were talking about where to start with cover crops and questions he had about the importance of different functions cover crops provide. The question that sticks out is, “how important is mycorrhizal fungi and should I focus on picking cover crops based on this?” Mycorrhizal fungi has gained traction in the soil health discussions, so let’s explain what it is. Plant roots form a relationship with mycorrhizal fungi to help explore a greater volume of soil for nutrients. The roots give the fungus carbohydrates and the fungus in return delivers nutrients (especially phosphorus) back to the plant. Caley Gasch, NDSU Assistant Professor of Soil Health, will tell you that around 80% of all plant species form these relationships. So, the good news is chances are high that you will have a cover crop in a mix that forms a relationship with mycorrhizal fungi. So include a grass species, like oats, winter wheat, barley, and you’ll get your mycorrhizal associations from your cover crops to prepare the soil for

realize how confusing the idea of planting green had become. When NDSU talks about planting green, we are talking about planting soybean into a living cereal rye cover crop. We do not promote planting corn into a living

Dave Franzen, the Grim Reaper, presents on the timing of terminating a cover crop.

next year’s corn crop.

cereal rye cover crop and here’s why: 1) competition of the rye with corn for water and nutrients, 2) disease and pest transfer from the rye to the corn, 3) temperature and 4) an allelopathic effect where a chemical that leaks out of the rye root will affect corn growth/yields. In other regions, farmers are posting positive experiences with this approach on social media, but our growing season is short and we know early season growth is too important for yield potential to take a risk of planting corn into a living cereal rye. If using cereal rye before corn (which I would suggest another cover crop like barley or oats anyway), be sure to terminate it with a full rate of herbicide 10-14 days in advance of planting corn.

Another learning opportunity that I remember clearly was during the Soil Health Field Day NDSU co-hosted with UMN in Morris, MN. Dave Franzen and I presented on when to sentence a cover crop to death (i.e. termination timing). One reason it was memorable is that Dave showed up dressed as the Grim Reaper, which is a testament to Dave’s sense of humor! The other reason is that I didn’t

I shared a lot of what I learned throughout the summer on the AgWeek TV and magazine "Soil Health Minute" that was sponsored by the ND Corn Council and ND Soybean Council. If you missed this series, the TV clips and written columns are posted on the NDSU Soil Health web page. It should give you a nice overview of what we're learning related to soil health.

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EPA STAFF VISIT NORTH DAKOTAN FARMS Staff from Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offices in Washington, D.C. and Denver, CO were invited to tour North Dakotan farms and agricultural facilities during the annual E-Tour, organized by the North Dakota Grain Growers Association (NDGGA). This year, the North Dakota Corn Growers Association (NDCGA) helped arrange farms for the tour, including the farm of NDCGA board member Kevin Skunes. The goal of this tour was to highlight some of the new, more precise technology that farmers are using for spraying so EPA officials can have a better understanding of farmer’s capabilities when they conduct risk assessment for certain products and procedures. The EPA officials also learned about seed production, grain handling, seed protection, aerial application of crop protection products

and sugarbeet production when visiting area grower’s farms. NDGGA has worked with the EPA to provide these educational tours to create connections between the EPA's regulatory staff and farmers who use the regulated products. This annual event is popular and EPA staffers have to apply and be accepted to take part in the tour. According to Dan Wogsland, Executive Director of NDGGA, the 2017 E-tour was the largest turnout of the many EPA events that NDGGA has been hosting for over 20 consecutive years. It was very valuable to have North Dakota farmers and representatives from the agricultural industry spend time discussing farming practices and chemical usage with the EPA employees who write regulation of those products.

NDCGA board member Kevin Skunes welcomed the EPA staff members attending the E-Tour to his farm in Arthur, ND.


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FERTILITY PLANNING AFTER HARVEST TO OPTIMIZE YIELD NEXT HARVEST replacing nutrients used by the previous crop is critical for Derek Pruitt, DPH Technical Agronomist Asgrow/DEKALB With last fall being so wet there were concerns about getting into the field this spring. We know that a timely planted crop has a better chance of yielding well than a late planted crop. Spring came and went and planting went much smoother than many would have anticipated last fall. Soil moisture often dictates the timeliness of planting. Planting went well, but in some areas of the state timely rains did not come. This led to problems with uneven emergence due to poor seed-to-soil contact and reduced herbicide efficacy. Weather conditions in the western part of the state were particularly dry early on and stayed dry into the summer. Moving to the eastern part of the state drought conditions lessened and in some areas, excessive rain was the issue. Timely rains in the late summer and fall provided much needed relief for those crops that were still growing. We know that with corn, moisture at the reproductive stages and especially at the silk stage is crucial to reaching yield potential. Weather conditions this year highlight the importance of taking steps to control what we can and optimize yield where possible. We can’t control weather, or the markets for that matter, but we can take steps to ensure that we get the best yields possible under the conditions we are given. Nutrient inputs are critical for optimal corn production, even when corn prices are low. Soil testing is important to take advantage of residual nutrients in the soil. Timing nutrient applications to provide nutrient applications closer to crop needs helps increase use efficiency and reduce losses. Nutrient placement of phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and other nutrients in bands near the seed can increase efficient nutrient use. Fertilizer needs should be determined after evaluating the current fertility level of the soil and the nutrient needs of the crop to be grown; they should be based on realistic yield expectations. Fertility planning should start with a good estimate of previous crop nutrient removal because

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maintaining nutrient balance and soil nutrient sufficiency (Table 1). Nitrogen (N) applications should be applied according to crop needs. Split applications can reduce the likelihood of N loss from leaching and denitrification during wet spring weather. Corn extracts only 15% of required N prior to rapid vegetative growth (V5 to V8 growth stages). A corn plant will need the most N at the V10 growth stage, which is generally about 40 days after the plant emerges. Phosphorus (P) can be applied either in the fall prior to tillage or in Table 1. Soil nutrients removed the spring. P is by various crops. nearly immobile in the soil, so incorporation is recommended within the corn root zone.




P2O5 K 2O

Corn Grain



0.38 0.27

Corn Stover





Corn lb/ton 9.7 3.1 7.30 Potassium (K) is Silage essential for the Soybeans lb/bu 4.9 1.08 2.30 plant to move energy from the Alfalfa lb/ton 51 12 49 leaves for grain Wheat lb/bu 2.2 0.76 1.54 fill. If K is limited, Oats lb/bu 0.77 0.28 0.19 silk emergence Source: Plant Nutrition Today. 2008. Average may be delayed nutrient removal rates in the northcentral region. and ears with (verified 10/10/16) unfilled tips may result. Low K levels can result in yellow leaf margins on lower, older leaves. Because K may be recycled back into the soil through crop residue, K deficiencies can occur when crop residue is removed from the field. K requirements will be higher in production environments with heavy crop removal such as silage production. Soybean production requires more K and will deplete the soil at a faster rate than other crops. Although the uptake of nutrients such as sulfur, zinc and manganese make up less than one percent of the fertilizer applied in corn, they are critical for corn development and it is important to identify and manage deficiency symptoms. Sources: Mallarino, A.P. , Oltmaus, R.R. Prater, J.R., Villavicencio, C.X., and Thompson, L.B. 2011. Nutrient uptake by corn and soybeans, removal, and recycling with crop residue. Iowa State University. 2011 Integrated Crop Management Conference: 103-22.


NDCUC PARTICIPATES IN EVENT AT RED RIVER ZOO The North Dakota Corn Utilization Council (NDCUC) has partnered with NDSU Extension, the North Dakota Soybean Council, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) the Fargo Forum and various other organizations to enhance and improve the Children’s Zoo Farm at the Red River Zoo in Fargo.

To highlight these improvements, Agriculture Adventure Day was held on July 22. The event featured free admission for children, live entertainment by Penny and Pals, a free lunch prepared by NDSU's BBQ Bootcamp, and many hands on-activities for children to learn about agriculture.

Some improvements completed at the Children's Zoo Farm include an improved plot planted with corn, soybeans, sunflowers, wheat and cover crops, a combine cab donated by Skunes Farms, and informational signage and photography of North Dakotan agriculture.

Some of the activities included digging for worms, planting a seed, crop sensory bins, face painting, learning about a dairy cow's diet, identifying crops growing in the field plot, and a soil health tunnel. CONTINUED ON PAGE 19

Photo by Josh More A family learns about feed ingredients that are a part of a dairy cow's diet such as corn silage, ground corn and dried distillers grains.


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Photo by Josh More Healthy soils have worms! Visitors enjoyed playing with worms in bins of soil.

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 18 CommonGround North Dakota led the passport activity where visitors visited different activities and received a passport stamp when the activity was completed. Once the child’s passport was full, they received a prize. The passport activity ensured that visitors participated in the agricultural activities presented. Approximately 2,300 people attended the event. Terry Wehlander, secretary/treasurer of the NDCUC, volunteered at the event. Terry enjoyed talking to both adults and children about agriculture and his farm. "This event was a great way to talk to families about how their food is grown. It was fun to show kids the crops growing, and help them connect that crop to the foods that they eat." The NDCUC and other project partners are planning more improvements to the Children's Zoo Farm to be completed in 2018, as well as another Agriculture Adventure Day.

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NDCUC secretary/treasurer Terry Wehlander talks to a young visitor about the crops growing at the Children's Zoo Farm.


E85 RACING TEAM HAS SUCCESSFUL SEASON BY CHRISTA AND JASON STRAND Jason Strand and the E85 Racing Team had a successful 2017 season in the ethanol-powered race car! The team brought home seven top five finishes, thirteen top ten finishes, and four heat race wins. The season started out in April at North Central Speedway in Brainerd, MN, and finished off in August at Norman County Raceway in Ada, MN. Other tracks the E85 team visited include the Red River Valley Speedway in West Fargo, ND, Jamestown Speedway in Jamestown, ND, and Buffalo River Race Park in Glyndon, MN. In July, we had E85 Race night at Red River Valley Speedway to promote ethanol and agriculture. It was fun to see the North Dakota Corn pickup leading the cars as the pace vehicle. In August, Jason was featured on Racing on the Radio Review on KRJB. This is a radio show that airs every Saturday throughout the summer and features interviews with drivers and others affiliated with the racing community.

Before the race season begins each year, Jason travels to his engine builder where they do testing and tuning on his ethanol-powered motor. They have found that using ethanol increases horsepower and allows the engine to run at a cooler level. Ethanol is also easier on the engine because it burns cleaner. In between race days, our time is spent working on our farm where we grow corn, soybeans, and sunflowers. Our kids enjoy being on the farm and “helping” when they can. They like to watch what happens during planting, spraying, and harvest time when the combines come out. Thank you to all of our sponsors, especially the North Dakota Corn Council for their support and the opportunity to promote their organization and American Ethanol. We are proud supporters of ethanol, and the positive impact that even our local corn producers bring to the whole world! We’re looking forward to the 2018 race season, and are hoping to travel with the E85 car down south for some fall and winter racing!

Photo by Mike Spieker, Speedway Shots


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GRAIN, BYPRODUCTS ARE OPTIONS DURING DROUGHT CARL DAHLEN, NDSU BEEF EXTENSION SPECIALIST With much of North Dakota experiencing drought conditions, many producers are or will be facing shortages of summer pasture and forages for fall and winter feeding. In addition, the forage shortages have caused the prices of purchased hay to escalate. As a result, cattle producers are exploring many options to maintain the health and wellbeing of their herds. “An option that warrants serious consideration is to source and secure cereal grains or by-product feeds to serve as energy sources for cow herds,” says Carl Dahlen, North Dakota State University Extension beef cattle specialist. “Not only can these feeds provide needed energy for herds, they also may be purchased at a significant cost savings, compared with buying hay.” Energy and protein are two key nutrients cattle need. To determine whether to pursue specific alternative feeds, producers should compare the nutrient content and price


per unit of energy and protein of the alternative feeds and traditional feedstuffs. To make that comparison, calculate the dry matter of the feedstuff and multiply by the nutrient content of interest, then divide the purchase price by the total pounds of nutrient. For example, average-quality hay might contain about 53 percent total digestible nutrients (TDN), a measure of energy in feeds. If this hay has a dry-matter content of 90 percent and can be purchased for $125/ton, the cost per pound of TDN is 13 cents/pound (2,000 pounds/ton times 0.9 equals 1,800 pounds of dry matter times 0.53 TDN equals 954 pounds of TDN/ton; $125 divided by 954 pounds equals 13 cents/ pound of TDN), notes Karl Hoppe, area livestock systems specialist at NDSU’s Carrington Research Extension Center. CONTINUED ON PAGE 23

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CONTINUED FROM PAGE 22 If the hay price creeps up to $150/ton, the cost would be nearly 16 cents/pound of TDN. In comparison, with corn prices currently under $3.25/bushel, the price per unit of energy equates to 7 cents/ pound of TDN. This comparison shows that on a TDN basis, corn may be two to three times less expensive than hay as an energy source. “Evaluating prices of other grains may yield similar advantages, and many cattle have been fed wheat, barley, oats, etc., in times of forage shortages,” Hoppe says. Janna Kincheloe, livestock systems specialist at NDSU’s Hettinger Research Extension Center, says distillers grains is another option because of its lower energy cost (a little over 6 cents/pound of TDN for dried distillers grains at $100/ ton). It also is one of the least expensive sources of protein available (20 cents/pound of protein, compared with 87 cents/pound of protein with hay at $125/ton and 8 percent protein). “Watching markets and being in close contact with processing plants can result in exceptional deals if markets experience seasonal declines or plant dryers break down and product is available for the price of shipping,” she adds. Wet by-products can be stored long term by placing them in a pile and covering the pile with plastic. Covering the pile will result in less storage loss, compared with leaving the piles uncovered. Another option is to mix the wet by-products with processed poor-quality forages and make a pile. If enough forage is added, these piles can be driven over and packed in a way that’s similar to how corn silage is packed. Visit for a list of many alternative coproduct feeds available in North Dakota, current prices of those feeds and contact information for the processing facilities. Here are management factors producers need to consider if they decide to incorporate high-energy feeds as energy replacements in their cows’ diets:

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• Free access to high-energy diets can lead to digestive upsets and founder, so cattle must be transitioned slowly. Start with 3 pounds daily and move up to 7 or 8 pounds of dry feed during a 10-day period. • To avoid rumen acidosis, intake limiters, when mixed with corn, have been effective in providing energy without overconsumption when feeding free choice on pasture or in a dry lot. • If feeding grains, a supplemental protein source may be needed to meet cattle requirements. • Provide access to hay or another forage source. Cattle need some fiber from forage to maintain rumen health. The livestock specialists recommend a minimum of 0.5 percent of body weight as forage. • If feeding distillers grains, supplemental calcium will needed to maintain the appropriate calcium-to-phosphorus ratio. “With high-energy diets and a shortage of forage, cattle will need to be limit-fed because they are receiving the nutrients they need in a much smaller package, compared with eating free-choice forages,” Dahlen says. “The end result will be cows that have all of the energy they need but still don’t feel full. “To accomplish limit-feeding, facilities must be capable of holding in hungry cows,” he adds. “Sufficient bunk space for cows (around 30 inches per head) or spreading out feed over a large area also is important because all cattle need to access the feed at the same time to avoid competition. If not all cows can access the bunks at the same time, then social dominance comes in to play and thin cows get thinner, while heavy cows get heavier.” Many other by-products and alternative feeds are available for producers to consider during this period of forage shortage. “Making decisions before pasture conditions deteriorate can have positive long-term advantages for pasture health and productivity,” Hoppe says. “In all cases, determine the nutrient content of the feeds, compare feeds on a cost-pernutrient basis, and devise feeding strategies that optimize the use of available feed and financial resources.”


NDCGA DELEGATION ATTENDS CORN CONGRESS The North Dakota Corn Growers Association (NDCGA) sent delegates to Washington, DC to meet with Congressional staff and attend Corn Congress, a meeting of National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) affiliated states on July 17-20. The NDCGA delegation included board members Carson Klosterman, Kevin Skunes, Larry Hoffmann, Randy Melvin, Clark Price, Paul Thomas, and Kyle Speich. NDCGA staff Dale Ihry and Jean Henning also attended. The Corn Congress meetings are used to identify top issues for corn growers across North Dakota and the United States. Some of the NDCGA farmer leaders participated in NCGA action teams to help set the direction of many key programs and activities.

Attendees also heard from Mexican Ambassador Gerónimo Gutiérrez about the prospects of modernizing NAFTA. Gutiérrez indicated a keen interest in strengthening agricultural trade between the U.S. and Mexico. NCGA President Wesley Spurlock thanked the Ambassador for his remarks and echoed the importance of NAFTA to U.S. corn farmers. "NAFTA has made the agriculture industry stronger in both the U.S. and Mexico. We thank Ambassador Gutiérrez for his remarks today, and we share his desire to protect a strong agriculture trade relationship between our countries," said Spurlock. "The Ambassador engaged in a productive dialogue with our farmers, who will be on Capitol Hill this week reinforcing the importance of a trade policy that strengthens existing markets such as Mexico and develops new ones to ensure U.S. agriculture CONTINUED ON PAGE 25

The NDCGA delegation met with Representative Kevin Cramer during Corn Congress in Washington D.C. From left: James Callan, NDCGA WDC consultant; Paul Thomas; Kyle Speich,; Jean Henning, NDCGA Finance Director; Larry Hoffmann; Carson Klosterman; Clark Price, Representative Cramer, Kevin Skunes, Dale Ihry, NDCGA Executive Director; Joe Breker, and Patty Breker.


North Dakota Corn Growers Association |

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 24 keeps its global competitive edge," said Spurlock. "We are encouraged that the Administration's NAFTA objectives reflect that the Trump Administration has been listening to corn farmers and other voices in agriculture on trade," said Spurlock. "We look forward to continuing our close collaboration with the Administration as the hard work of NAFTA modernization begins." The week included visits with the North Dakota Congressional members regarding key agricultural issues affecting North Dakota famers. The NDCGA delegation emphasized the following issues on Capitol Hill: • Identify additional needs of livestock producers affected by the 2017 drought • Share the importance of trade, including the priorities for the renegotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) • Expand consumer access to higher blends of ethanol – E15 or higher

• Farm Bill priorities such as crop insurance and the commodity programs • Continued reduction of regulations affecting farmers In addition to meetings on the Hill, North Dakota delegates participated in identifying priorities for the upcoming farm bill and approval of NCGA policy resolutions. Many of the priorities identified align with priorities that ND corn growers provided to NDCGA during the farm bill meetings in January 2017. “NDCGA and NCGA are asking Congress to fully fund the new farm bill with special emphasis on crop insurance, trade and fixing ARC-CO,” said NDCGA President Carson Klosterman. “In a year like this year, where our state is experiencing a devastating drought, crop insurance will once again show its worth to farmers in covering crop losses in the state.” Klosterman offered his thanks to the North Dakota Congressional delegation and their staffers for working on behalf of all ND farmers and ranchers in recent USDA action to release CRP lands for haying.


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NEW RESOURCE FOR CORN DISEASE MANAGEMENT BY NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL GENOTYPING CENTER STAFF Accurate and rapid diagnosis of disease is a key component to crop management. During the growing season, it is strongly recommended to continually scout fields to detect diseases as early as possible. To aid with diagnosis, many agricultural extension services provide resources to help recognize particular pathogens. For example, the color and length of the lesions on leaves have been suggested to be diagnostic features for particular corn pathogens. But are the symptoms consistent at early stages compared to late stages of the disease? Probably not. Are the symptoms for the same pathogen consistent across different varieties of corn? Probably not. These issues become immediately obvious as many guides or handouts on how to visually diagnose diseases have disclaimers noting that several groups of pathogens can produce similar symptoms, such as fungi and bacteria, two very distinctive groups that require entirely different strategies to control. Another issue is that many guides have illustrations that show only the best lesions that fit

the description of a particular pathogen, but in reality, symptoms (e.g., streaks or spots) in the field can be highly variable. Thus, while visually diagnosing potential disease in the field is rapid, it may not be accurate. Ultimately, for the producers this confusion can be costly, leading to ineffective control practices that can add up quickly, amounting to wasted time and money. Reliable Resource To help reduce confusion of visual disease diagnosis, the National Agricultural Genotyping Center (NAGC) has validated genetic tests for several diseases that may look similar in the field, but have unique molecular (DNA) signatures. These tests can detect diseases in plant tissue, roots, crop residues and soil. NAGC is a not-for-profit organization that has undergone a rigorous audit from the International Organization for CONTINUED ON PAGE 27

NAGC staff members, from left: Hom Pokhrel, Lindsey Fransen, Megan O'Neil, Lisa Piche, and Zack Bateson.


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Fungicides have been shown to be effective against GLS.

Standardization and is certified as an ISO 17025 testing facility, which is the highest recognition available for a testing laboratory.

Bacterial Leaf Streak Disease (BLSD) Bacterial Leaf Streak Disease (BLSD) is caused by the bacteria, Xanthomonas vasicola pathovar vasculorum, and was first reported by USDA-APHIS in the US during the 2016 growing season. Symptoms of BLSD are similar to other diseases, making visual diagnosis difficult to impossible. Infected corn plants appear to have narrow stripes similar to fungal disease, like Gray Leaf Spot. The disease has been detected early and can develop three weeks after the plant emerges. Due to its recent discovery in the US, the epidemiology (control and spread) of BLSD is largely unknown, but it is highly unlikely that foliar fungicides typically used against Gray Leaf Spot will be effective against this bacterial disease. The bacteria likely persists in field residue from previously infected plants and common weeds may serve as important reservoirs for the pathogen. To keep costs down and aid the producer in evidence-based management practices, NAGC has developed a single test for both Bacterial Leaf Streak Disease and Gray Leaf Spot.

With funding provided by the National Corn Growers Association and the North Dakota Corn Utilization Council, NAGC has made available corn-specific molecular tests to confidently diagnose Goss’s Wilt, Bacterial Leaf Streak, and Gray Leaf Spot; three diseases that can be confused by visual inspection alone. These assays were made possible through collaborations with the laboratories of Jan Leach and Kirk Broders, Colorado State University, and Ryan McNally from the University of Minnesota. Goss’s Wilt Goss’s Wilt and Blight of corn, also shortened to simply Goss’s Wilt, is a bacterial disease that has spread throughout the US and into Canada. The pathogen causing Goss’s Wilt is Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, and surface residue has been reported to be the main source of inoculum for Goss’s Wilt. The wilting is more common on young seedlings, while Goss’s leaf blight is typically characterized by large, elongated lesions (streaking) with small, water-soaked freckles in the periphery of the lesions. Currently there are no chemical treatments to manage Goss’s Wilt. NAGC can also perform a field test for Clavibacter loads in crop residues so that growers can customize their management strategies, or plant resistant varieties. Gray Leaf Spot (GLS) Gray Leaf Spot (GLS) is a destructive foliar disease caused by two closely-related fungal species Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina, which have different distributions in North America. C. zeae-maydis is thought to be found throughout North America compared to C. zeina, which appears to be restricted to the eastern Corn Belt. When plants are infected by either species, GLS first manifests as small pinpoints, which eventually turn into brownish-gray, rectangular lesions. Once infected, plants continually shed GLS fungal spores throughout the growing season which can be transferred to adjacent plants or fields by wind-driven rain. During periods of high humidity and moderate temperatures, large GLS outbreaks can occur.

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Sample Submission Details The fee for service analysis offered by NAGC is available to producers, researchers, and government agencies. The internationally accredited laboratory provides quality testing with a low turnaround time and a written report sent to clients via email. To submit a sample to the lab, visit our website at www. to download a submission form and instructions. Send the completed submission form with the samples by mail or hand carry to the laboratory. Payment must be made at the time of submission of samples. Check or money orders should be made payable to the National Agricultural Genotyping Center. Electronic payments by credit card will be accepted. As funding becomes available, NAGC will continue to research and develop more rapid diagnostic tests, especially for corn diseases known to result in yield loss that are challenging to diagnose in the field. Ultimately, NAGC strives to provide rapid and accurate test results so that producers are more confident with their disease management decisions.


NDCGA EXHIBITS AT THE BIG IRON FARM SHOW North Dakota Corn Growers Association (NDCGA) staff and board members spent September 12-14 at the Big Iron Farm Show in West Fargo, ND. NDCGA staff and board members popped about 200 pounds of popcorn to give to visitors while also recruiting new members to join NDCGA. Both current and new members of NDCGA received a gift for visiting the booth. The Big Iron Farm Show celebrated its 37th year in 2017. An estimated 60,000 people from across the US and several countries attended. Attendees were able to connect with peers, attend training sessions and demonstrations while enjoying the trade show with over 900 exhibit booths.

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STUDY FINDS ETHANOL HAS ANNUAL ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF $623.4 MILLION The North Dakota Corn Utilization Council and the North Dakota Ethanol Council jointly funded an economic impact study of ethanol to the State of North Dakota. The study was completed by North Dakota State University’s Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics and The Center of Social Research. The publication is available electronically at: Any inquiries related to this study should be directed to Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, NDSU by phone 701-231-7441 or email: Ethanol was first produced in North Dakota in 1985. Starting in the mid-2000’s large scale commercial ethanol production was driven by a combination of the phasing out of MTBE as a fuel additive and the passage of the Renewable Energy Policy Act of 2005 which mandated specific volumes of renewable fuels replace petroleum based fuel. Five ethanol plants have been built in North Dakota since 2007 with a combined annual production capacity of 498 million gallons. This study examines the economic impact of the operational activities of those plants on North Dakota’s economy. Contact information for each of the state ethanol production facilities were provided by the North Dakota Ethanol Council. A questionnaire was developed to solicit information on in-state operations expenditures, such as wages and salaries, benefits, inputs to production, transportation, utilities, and business and professional services. Each of the state’s ethanol producers responded to the request for information resulting in a robust data set based on actual industry expenditures. Those expenditures were applied to the North Dakota Input-Output Model to estimate the total economic impact. The model used interdependence coefficients to estimate the secondary economic impacts arising from spending and re-spending of those initial outlays. Direct and secondary impacts are combined to estimate the total economic impact. Impacts are expressed using indicators such as personal income, retail trade activity, and employment.

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Total economic impact (direct plus secondary) for the industry was $623.4 million in FY 2015. Direct impacts constituting in-state industry expenditures totaled $212.3 million. Secondary impacts from the spending and respending of initial industry expenditures totaled $411.1 million. The industry generated $187.7 million of economywide personal income and $121.5 million in retail trade activity. The industry also had direct employment of 234 FTE jobs and supported another 873 FTE secondary jobs throughout the economy as the result of the industry’s business activity in FY 2015. State and local tax revenues attributable to the industry were over $11 million in FY 2015. The ethanol industry has substantial economic effects as this study illustrates. While the ethanol industry is relatively new in the state compared to other value-added agriculture enterprises and other components of the state’s energy industry, North Dakota continues to be well positioned to continue to produce ethanol. The state’s agriculture industry produces corn for feed stock. Infrastructure capable of delivery of corn feedstock for conversion to ethanol as well rail and truck transportation systems for delivery of ethanol and dried distillers grain used as feed for livestock are well developed. The ethanol industry also offers corn producers another potential market and adds value to corn and other agriculture commodities. Production facilities help to diversify the state’s energy industry and economies of the rural communities where ethanol conversion facilities are located. The ethanol industry also creates employment opportunities with stable well-paying jobs in communities where employment opportunities can be limited. The ethanol industry clearly makes an important contribution to the state’s economy. Copyright © 2017 by Coon, Hodur, and Bangsund. All rights reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this document for non-commercial purposes by any means, provided this copyright notice appears on all such copies.


MILLING AND STABILIZATION OPTIMIZATION OF CORN FLOUR NEIL DOTY, NORTHERN CROPS INSTITUTE Human food and animal feed industries have become focused on reducing microbiological hazards originating from agricultural commodities. Flour and meal products derived from grain, such as corn, can be contaminated with microbiological hazards from the commodity itself; animal, bird, and insect contamination; transport equipment; storage facilities; processing equipment; and packaging materials.

minimal effect upon corn starch characteristics. A Fitzmill® hammermill was used to produce whole grain corn flour.

Food and feed processors are charged with ensuring all potential microbiological hazards are identified and mitigated as mandated by the 2011 FDA Food Safety Food Modernization Act. Many food processors have adopted the attitude that seeds, nuts, and grain are not safe to use for human food without a microbe reduction treatment. Several treatment technologies involve the use of heat to achieve a microbe reduction treatment for seeds and grains. A combination of increased corn acres in North Dakota along with increased demand for whole grain flour as a superior food ingredient for a variety of food products may provide an opportunity for the development and operation of a food-grade corn mill in North Dakota. New foodgrade corn mill operators in North Dakota will be faced with the decision whether to incorporate heat treatment technologies to corn prior to milling in order to mitigate the risk of microbial contamination of milled corn flour. The objectives of this study were twofold: 1) to select a potentially effective heat treatment procedure on corn kernels that result in milled whole grain corn flour with minimal effect on starch viscosity characteristics and 2) to determine if a heat treatment on corn kernels affects the quality of whole grain corn flour baked goods, snack food, and pasta products. The Northern Crops Institute (NCI), Fargo, ND, evaluated samples using the Rapid Visco Analyser® technology to analyze heat and moisture treated corn kernels to select an effective heating time and temperature that had a


Three commonly consumed corn-based baked goods, cornbread muffins, corn pancakes, and Brazilian corn cookies, were produced and evaluated at the NCI bakery laboratory to determine the effect of a whole grain corn flour heat treatment on product quality. 100% whole grain corn extruded snack puffs (also known as snack collettes) were produced at the NCI twin screw extrusion laboratory. 100% whole grain corn, gluten free pasta was produced at the NCI pasta pilot production laboratory to evaluated to determine the effect of a whole grain corn flour heat treatment on pasta quality. Heat treated whole corn flour can be utilized to produce corn flour expanded snack collettes with a milder flavor profile and a more appealing texture. Heat treated corn flour does not exhibit detrimental effects on the preparation of corn flour expanded snack collettes. Unheated whole corn flour is superior to heat treated whole corn flour as the primary ingredient in whole corn, gluten free penne pasta. Heat treated corn flour penne pasta had nearly double the cooking loss of unheated corn flour penne pasta. Heat treated corn flour penne pasta had only ¾ of the el dente firmness of unheated corn flour penne pasta. In industry practice, high temperature, short time, high humidity heat treatments are being used to sterilize nuts, seeds, and grains. Heat treatments on corn kernels can be utilized to reduce the incidence of microbiological risk and also improve food product characteristics, primarily in extruded snack foods and baked goods. Conversely, heat treated corn flour yielded pasta products with unacceptable cooking losses and inferior firmness scores. A North Dakota-based corn milling entity should fully evaluate adding a microbiological kill step to corn to determine effectiveness of microbiological mitigation and corn flour product quality prior to implementation.

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2018 Exhibitor Rules and Regulations February 13, 2018 • 7:30am – 4:30pm FargoDome • Fargo, ND 1. The arrangement for the space and privileges granted herein, or any part thereof, cannot be assigned, sublet or otherwise disposed of by Exhibitor without the consent of the North Dakota Corn Growers Association (NDCGA) and North Dakota Soybean Growers Association (NDSGA). 2. No persons other than the exhibitor’s employees may exhibit or solicit business in the assigned space. Advertising and solicitation of orders by persons not registered to exhibit at the Northern Corn and Soybean Expo (Expo) is not permitted. No exhibitor is permitted to show goods or services other than those manufactured or provided by his/her firm in the regular course of business. Exhibitor representatives may not enter the exhibition other than exhibitor scheduled admission times, without prior permission. 3. The Expo will take reasonable precautions for safeguarding the exhibitors’ property. However, neither the Expo, NDCGA, NDSGA, sponsoring organizations, the Fargo Dome nor employees or agents thereof will be liable for loss or damage to property of the exhibitor or his representative from theft, fire, accident, loss in transit or other causes. Notwithstanding the above, exhibitors may make their own security arrangements regarding items requiring special security. 4. Exhibitor shall assume all liability for damage to exposition facility by reason of its exhibit. Exhibitor agrees that the Expo, NDCGA, NDSGA, sponsoring organizations, Fargo Dome, and their respective officers, directors, employees and agents are not responsible for any damages or charges imposed for violation of any law or ordinance whether due to exhibitor or agent of exhibitor. Exhibitor agrees that at the conclusion of the convention, exhibitor shall surrender the space occupied in the convention center in the same condition it was in at start of move-in. Exhibitor agrees that it is responsible for the defense and payment of any and all claims, demands and suits on account of any alleged injuries, death or other loss by individuals, or damage to property or other loss, to any party occurring in the convention center area or elsewhere because of the acts or omissions of the exhibitor, its employees or agents, licensees, guests or contractors. Exhibitor agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless, Fargo Dome, NDCGA, NDSGA, the Expo, and their owners, managers, officers or directors, agents, employees, independent contractors, subsidiaries and affiliates, from any damages or charges resulting from Exhibitor’s use of the property. Exhibitor’s liability shall include all losses, costs, damages, or expenses arising from or out of or by reason of any accident or bodily injury or other occurrences to any person or persons, including the Exhibitor, its agents, employees, and business invitees which arise from or out of the Exhibitor’s occupancy and use of the exhibition premises, the Fargo Dome, any part thereof. The term of this section survives the termination or expiration of this contract. 5. The Expo reserves the right to determine the eligibility of any company, product, promotion or part thereof, that in its opinion is not in keeping with the character or purpose of the Expo.

Contract and Payment Deadline: December 1, 2017

Exhibitors may not engage in conduct or activities at their booth that has a negative impact on the programs or operations of NDCGA, NDSGA, affiliates or sponsors. Exhibitors shall not make misleading claims. NDCGA, NDSGA and the Expo reserves the right to cancel this contract immediately and may remove Exhibitor from the Expo if they determine that Exhibitor, their staff, or their messaging in their booth has negative impact on NDCGA, NDSGA, the Expo, or their affiliates or sponsors. 6. Exhibitor booth location preference will be given first to current Exhibitors and then considered on first-served basis after space is released to the general public. However, the Expo will be the sole assignor of the Exhibitor’s booth location. The Expo reserves the right to rearrange the floor plan and relocate any exhibit upon notification with said Exhibitor. the Expo retains the right for first-priority assignment of association and associationrelated booths that may not be displaced by other Exhibitors regardless of the point system or booth assignment process. 7. Exhibits must be arranged so as not to obstruct the general view or hide other exhibits. Except by special permission, Exhibitors may not erect a back wall higher than 8' or side higher than 3'. End caps must allow for a 4' sight line on each side of the back of the booth. 8. The Exhibitor is entirely responsible for the leased space and agrees to reimburse the Expo for any damage to the booth floors, walls or equipment. All materials must be flame proofed. No flammable or toxic fluids or substances may be used or shown in the hall. Smoking and balloons are prohibited in the hall. 9. Exhibitors shall be responsible for maintaining booth noise so as not to interfere with the normal display and conversation of other exhibitors. Speakers and other sound devices should be positioned so as to direct sound into the booth rather than into the aisle. Rule of thumb: Sound and noise should not exceed 85 decibels when measured from the aisle immediately in front of a booth. (Refer to OSHA at for more information.) the Expo reserves the right to restrict exhibits which, because of noise, method of operation or other reason become objectionable. Exhibits that, in the opinion of the Expo, detract from the general character of the exhibit as a whole will be prohibited. This reservation includes persons, things, conduct, printed matter or anything of a character that the Expo determines is objectionable. In the event of eviction, the Expo is not liable for refunds. 10. The aisles, passageways and overhead spaces remain strictly under control of the Expo. No signs, decorations, banners, advertising matter or special exhibits will be permitted in these areas except by purchase of aisle space and special permission of the Expo. No overhead signage/materials may be hung from the ceiling by exhibitors. Lighting must be indirect and completely shielded so as to eliminate glare and interference with other exhibitors and guests. The use of flashing or rotating lights will not be allowed. Products on display that have such lighting must be pre-approved by Show Management. Signage, draping and lighting MAY NOT block any the Expo signage or other booths. Hanging signs and/or lighting must be hung directly over the

Exhibitor Authorized Signature (REQUIRED) This contract is made and entered into by the North

Dakota Corn Growers Association (NDCGA) and the North Dakota Soybean Growers Association (NDSGA), hereinafter referred to as the “Northern Corn and Soybean Expo” (Expo). The Expo has released unto the party listed above (the “Exhibitor”) certain space, hereinafter described, at the Fargo Dome for exhibition during the Expo. All rules and regulations as outlined in this contract, by the Fargo Dome, and established by the Northern Corn and Soybean Expo for governing exhibitors are accepted upon signature by the Exhibitor and made part of this contract.

booth and not the aisles. All signs, regardless of size, should be constructed of lightweight metals and plastics to allow greater flexibility and ease of installation. Signs and/or lighting should be set back 5' from each aisle. Signs and/or lighting should not be more than 50 percent of your booth space in size. Rigging must be supplied by the appointed decorator or by the Holiday Inn as required. All hanging signage and/or lighting must adhere to the policies of the show facility. The Expo reserves the right to refuse the use of such hanging signage and/or lighting that in its opinion is not in keeping with the character or purpose of the Expo, or causes injury or interferes with the display of other exhibitors. Obstruction of the aisles is strictly prohibited. Should you need to request authorization for rigging to support a booth structure that comes from the floor up, please submit to the Expo decorator. Approval for the use of hanging signs, draping and graphics, at any height, must be received by the Expo decorator at least 60 days prior to installation. Variances may be issued at the exhibit management’s discretion. Drawings should be available for inspection. 11. If NDCGA or NDSGA should be prevented or materially affected from conducting the Expo, cannot permit the Exhibitor to occupy this exhibit space due to circumstances beyond its control or determines not to offer the Expo at its sole discretion, the Expo will refund the exhibitor the amount of the rental fee paid with no further obligation or liability to the Exhibitor. In all circumstances, the Expo shall notify the exhibitor at the earliest date possible of the circumstances preventing the Expo from being held. 12. Exhibit hall admission is by official badge only. Exhibit personnel must wear the Expo exhibitor identification badges while on the exhibit floor. Personnel list must be provided to the Expo by Feb. 1, 2018. Exhibitors receive four exhibitor registrations for their exhibit space. 13. At the expiration of this agreement, the Exhibitor shall surrender possession of the exhibit area to the Expo. All booth items not arranged for after 5:00 p.m. on closing day will be disposed of or handled at the official contractor’s discretion at the Exhibitor’s expense. 14. Installation must be complete at time published or space will be released without refund. The Exhibitor agrees to not dismantle, pack or remove any part of his exhibit until the published close. 15. These regulations are a part of the contract between the Exhibitor and the Expo, and are formulated in the best interest of the Exhibitor. The Expo requires full cooperation of the Exhibitor in observing these regulations. Points not covered in this contract are subject to the decision of the Expo. Exhibitor acknowledges that the Expo may amend such rules and regulations at any time and shall provide exhibitor with notice of such amendments. 16. Violations of any of these Rules and Regulations on the part of Exhibitor, its employees or agents shall, at the option of the Expo, constitute cause for the Expo to terminate this Agreement, expel Exhibitor from the show, become ineligible to participate in future Expo shows and exhibitor shall forfeit all fees paid.

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North Dakota Corn Growers Association |

CORN & SOYBEAN EXPO TO BE HELD FEBRUARY 13, 2018 On February 13, 2018, the first annual Northern Corn and Soybean Expo will be held at the FargoDome in Fargo, ND. This one-day event will replace the North Dakota Corn Utilization Council's (NDCUC) CornVention, and the North Dakota Soybean Council's (NDSC) Northern Soybean Expo. Featured speakers are Jay Lehr, science director at The Heartland Institute, and Mike Pearson, host of Public Television's Market to Market. Lehr will open the Expo speaking about "Mega Trends in Agriculture." Pearson will discuss markets in "What's Driving Agriculture in the Year Ahead," and will serve as the emcee of the event. Four breakout sessions will comprise the remainder of the Expo. Breakout topics will include soil health, soybean and

corn diseases, trade, water management, soybean and corn pests, weeds, livestock, weather, consumer engagement, and more. The complete agenda will be released soon. The North Dakota Corn Growers Association (NDCGA) and North Dakota Soybean Growers Association (NDSGA) will be hosting a trade show of vendors at the event. Exhibitor information is located on page 31 of this newsletter and will be available soon at The NDCUC and NDSC look forward to welcoming you at the first annual Northern Corn and Soybean Expo on February 13th. We hope you'll plan to attend this day of networking and education.

COMPLETE YOUR CROP SURVEY! Each fall, selected farmers are mailed a survey from USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS). NASS survey results are used to determine farm payments and programs you depend on, like the ARC-CO and PLC programs, crop insurance yields and prices and even farm land appraisals. Please take the time to participate in the survey process. If NASS does not receive an adequate number of completed surveys from your county, a yield is not published, forcing the USDA to use other less reliable data sources to calculate the production numbers that impact you. With fewer farmers completing surveys, NASS is already unable to publish reliable data for many counties, and if the trend continues, many more are at risk. Farm programs and payments are too important to rely on third party sources and best guesses. Play an active role in ensuring fair implementation of farm programs in your county. Farmers can complete the NASS crop survey with any electronic device using the online census questionnaire. This improved questionnaire saves time by calculating totals automatically and skipping questions that do not pertain to the respondent’s operation. This is about your bottom line. Take the time to complete the NASS crop survey.

Funded by the North Dakota Corn Checkoff |



Chris Novak CEO National Corn Growers Association

Even on a good day, production agriculture is a risky business. That’s why organizations like the North Dakota Corn Utilization Council (NDCUC), North Dakota Corn Growers Association (NDCGA) and National Corn Growers Association (NCGA) work together on various issues affecting your bottom line. Both NCGA and NDCGA lobby our state and federal governments to reduce regulation, build strong markets, and ensure farmers have good risk management tools. You may know the work we do for you in Bismarck and Washington, D.C., but if that’s all you know, you may only be seeing the tip of the iceberg. We know that, over the long-term, growing demand for your corn is your best risk management tool. Strong corn demand is central to your success and is the driver for virtually every NCGA program. Whether you know it or not, you play a vital role in the success of these efforts. NCGA’s programs are funded, in part, by your corn checkoff dollars through the NDCUC. Checkoff investments from North Dakota corn farmers, and farmers across the country, play a crucial role in helping us promote corn, educate consumers, leverage innovative research, and build new markets. One of the best examples of the power of your checkoff investment is the work done to grow demand for corn ethanol. In the last decade alone, corn used for ethanol has grown from 3.7 billion bushels to 5.3 billion bushels. This generates over $13 billion in economic activity in rural America annually.


Behind this success you will find checkoff funded research on ethanol efficiency, increased ethanol yield, and on documenting the environmental benefits of ethanol. Our current American Ethanol program, which has powered every NASCAR race car for more than 10 million miles on E15, has fired consumer imagination on the use of higher ethanol blends in their own cars. NCGA is using corn checkoff investments to give consumers access to higher ethanol blends via two major pump infrastructure initiatives. The first, Prime the Pump, is using the funds pledged by corn farmers to match grants from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA’s Biofuel Infrastructure Partnership is making $100 million in grants available to install E15 pumps across the country. Building on this success, the NCGA has worked with major pump manufacturers, like Wayne Fueling Systems, which is now manufacturing pumps that can dispense higher blends of ethanol such as E25. One of our latest demand initiatives is the Consider Corn Challenge. This global competition seeks to identify new and innovative uses for field corn as a renewable feedstock for making sustainable chemicals. NCGA is inviting innovators around the world from industry, academia and other research institutions to consider new ways to utilize corn and maximize its contributions to the economy and your profitability. The winner/winners will be named at Commodity Classic in March 2018. Beyond finding new uses, we have learned that building demand requires us to engage today’s consumers to foster a better understanding and trust of how corn is produced. NCGA is taking positive messages to consumers through cooperative programs such as the US Farmers and Rancher’s Alliance, Common Ground and our Corn Reputation Initiative. Our new corn reputation effort is using cutting edge social media strategy to place positive educational messages in five of the largest urban areas in the nation and is anchored by a series of articles featured on National Geographic’s website. CONTINUED ON PAGE 35

Funded by the North Dakota Corn Checkoff |

CONTINUED FROM PAGE 34 Finally, everyone in ag today seems to be talking about soil health. This is due in part to the Soil Health Partnership (SHP) forged by NCGA, the Walton Family Foundation, and Monsanto. The mission of the SHP is to enhance agricultural sustainability and productivity by demonstrating and communicating the economic and environmental benefits of improved soil health. The data gained from more than 100 demonstration farms, including the Soil Health and Agriculture Research (SHARE) Farm near Mooreton, ND, will help document on-farm environmental progress as we farm under ever increasing public scrutiny. It will also allow farmers improve soil health, water quality,

resilience to extreme weather, and reduce economic risk in a planned and common-sense manner. These programs are directed and guided by the 15 farmers on our Board of Directors and more than 90 farmers who serve on our Action Teams and Committees. Equally important, these programs are funded by you, as a North Dakota corn checkoff contributor, through dollars invested by the North Dakota Corn Utilization Council into national programs. NCGA appreciates your support of these efforts and tackles each project with great attention to grinding more corn, increasing your profitability, and growing new markets for tomorrow’s corn crop.

ND LIVESTOCK ALLIANCE HIRES EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR In September, the North Dakota Livestock Alliance (NDLA) named Amber Boeshans as executive director. “NDLA is very excited to have Amber on board as our executive director,” says Chairman Craig Jarolimek. “The agriculture industry continues to be a driving force in North Dakota, and we are fortunate to have an experienced livestock professional to help grow farms and ranches in a responsible and successful manner.” Boeshans comes to NDLA with over 11 years of experience in the livestock industry. Prior to NDLA, Boeshans was the livestock development specialist at the North Dakota Department of Agriculture (NDDA). At NDDA, Boeshans assisted livestock and dairy producers to explore different practices and systems to add value to their bottom line. She also provided technical support, research, and contact information to commodity groups, individual

Funded by the North Dakota Corn Checkoff |

producers, processors and producer cooperatives to enhance profitability of the livestock and dairy industries. Boeshans also has experience as a herd manager and dairy insurance specialist. A Bismarck native, Boeshans holds a bachelor’s of science degree in animal and range science with a production emphasis from North Dakota State University. “I am thrilled to be brought on as the Executive Director of the ND Livestock Alliance,” says Amber Boeshans. “This is an incredible group of people and organizations that have joined together to support and expand ND’s animal ag industries. It is of the utmost importance that our communities and neighbors understand the truth about modern animal ag practices, along with understanding our dedication to protecting our environment and producing safe and nutritious food. North Dakota has unprecedented opportunities to responsibly expand our animal ag industries, and I am honored to join the effort.” The NDLA is a nonprofit, non-partisan organization that assists farmers, ranchers and communities with the development or expansion of the livestock industry. The NDLA also works to strengthen the connection with consumers in order to instill confidence in the practices used by livestock owners, which will also help to create awareness about the food and products that are produced by the livestock industry.


THE FARMACOLOGY APPROACH: IT'S MORE THAN A BAG OF SEED! Jessica Karels Legend Sales Specialist Legend Seeds Are you tired of seedsman that offer you a bag of corn in the fall and don’t return until the following fall? At Legend Seeds, we have a different approach to treating acres and maximizing yields for your operation. Powered by Legend Seeds, the Farmacology approach brings value to your seed investment through four key components: agronomic confidence, locally proven products, data insights, and our dealer advantage. Agronomic Confidence Our team in North Dakota has a dedicated regional agronomist, Mike Tofsrud, who brings vast agronomic experience to the Legend Seeds Account Managers and dealers regarding local growing conditions and product placement recommendations. Our goal is to give you the confidence you need to meet whatever challenges come each year. We also bring you industry leading, practical insights through our Advantage Newsletter, agronomic white papers, blog, and social media. Additionally, Jared Swiontek, our Dairy and Livestock Team member is strategically positioned within the region to assist dealers and growers with products and services to help maximize forage and silage quality. Locally Proven How do we recommend locally proven products for your farm? Three ways – on-farm trials, Knowledge Plots, and our Replicated Corn Research Program. Like most seed companies, we’ve been conducting on-farm trials since day one. It’s the foundation of getting-to-know how a product performs in local conditions. Since 2012, we have taken our on-farm trials to the next level with our Knowledge Plots. We also offer public, hands-on, educational tours at multiple events each summer and fall. These events are a great opportunity to learn about new practices, technologies and products that will help improve your ROI. Finally, through our Replicated Corn Research Program we have conducted over 70,000 replicated corn trials since 2014. This summer, we have two trial locations taking place here in North


Dakota near Strasburg and Garrison to ensure that our corn products are tested here and locally proven before it’s added to the product lineup for 2019. Data Insights Data Insights is the third key component of our Farmacology approach. Here we bring real world data applications through the use of three tools: hybrid placement tool, plant and soil testing services, and our soil analytics tool. The Legend Seeds hybrid placement tool allows us to create a field map and provide precise agronomic recommendations, variable rate seeding, variable-rate fertility maps and multi-hybrid seeding prescriptions. The second two data insights tools are access to a soil and plant testing service for quick, trusted results on grid, composite, tissue and feed samples. Finally, the soil analytics tool combines soil health information, the correct fertility programs and in-season data, to result in actions we can take to improve your return on investment with confidence. Dealer Advantage Finally, the fourth key component to the Farmacology approach is our dealer Advantage. Our dealers serve their customers with the same mindset as a local partner to your operation. We believe that your local dealer is the best person to recommend products for your field and your operation. Plus, when you work with a local Legend Seeds dealer you have quick access to seed and seed treatment when every day counts in planting season. In addition to your local dealer, you’ll also have access to your entire Legend Seeds team. This allows us to quickly and accurately provide support across any level of our business. The Four Key Components We have a clear mission; to deliver high-yielding, consistentproducing, top-quality seed products that will provide our customers with more profit potential than they can get anywhere else. Our Farmacology approach provides our customers with the tools and resources they need to be successful, adding value to your seed investment. When you choose to partner with Legend Seeds, you’re getting more than just a bag of seed. We will provide you with confidence from planting to harvest … and every moment in between.

North Dakota Corn Growers Association |

PHOTO ENTRIES REQUESTED We are now accepting entries for the 2018 ND Corn Photo Contest! Although not required, we request photos be taken by camera with a high resolution, rather than cell phones. Rules: • Photographs must be taken in North Dakota. • Photos must depict the corn industry. • Photographs must be taken by an amateur. Photographs must be emailed to by January 5, 2018. Please include your full name and phone number so that we may contact you if you’re chosen a winner. The winning photo from the 2017 photo contest, submitted by Katherine Plessner from Verona, ND, can be seen on the front cover of this newsletter.

The National Corn Growers Association is also accepting photos for their 4th annual Fields of Corn photo contest. The contest seeks high resolution photos to help tell the story of farming field corn. Photos can be entered in seven categories: Conservation, Corn, Growing Field Corn, The Farm Family Lifestyle, Farming Challenges, Scenery/Landscapes, and Little Farmers. Three winners will be chosen in each category by a panel of judges, while the three highest ranked photos in Facebook "likes" will receives prizes in the Most Popular category. First place in each category will vie for the Grand Prize title. Photos can be submitted at until November 30. Winners will be announced in January 2018.

Morgan Winkler from Lyon Station, PA won the Grand Prize in the 2016 Fields of Corn photo contest with her photo "Bees wings-a-flyin'"

North Dakota Corn Growers Association |


NDCGA Board of Directors

District 1: Carson Klosterman, Wyndmere (President) District 1: Andrew Braaten, Barney District 2: Randy Melvin, Buffalo (Vice President) District 2: Tim Kozojed, Hillsboro District 3: Andrew Torkelson, Grafton District 3: Paul Thomas, Velva (Secretary/Treasurer) District 4: Robert Hanson, Wimbledon District 4: Ryan Wanzek, Jamestown District 5: Justin Halvorson, Sheldon District 5: Kyle Speich, Milnor District 6: Chris Erlandson, Oakes District 6: Bart Schott, Kulm District 7: Anthony Mock, Kintyre District 7: Clark Price, Hensler

ND Corn Utilization Council

District 1: Arnie Anderson, Hankinson District 2: Jason Rayner, Finley (Vice Chairman) District 3: Paul Belzer, Cando District 4: Dave Swanson, New Rockford District 5: Terry Wehlander, DeLamere (Secretary) District 6: Scott German, Oakes (Chairman) District 7: Robert Ferebee, Halliday

Director-at-large: Mike Clemens, Wimbledon Director-at-large: Jeff Enger, Marion Director-at-large: Kevin Skunes, Arthur Director-at-large: Larry Hoffmann, Wheatland

NDCGA Industry Directors

Vern Anderson: Livestock Consultant, Carrington Gary Geske: Latham Hi Tech Seeds, Enderlin Ray Kotchian: Prairieland Ag Inc., Fargo Tom Cook: Cargill, Wahpeton

As a Thank You, Proseed is offering $250 to all customers who servedDakota past and present. Go to details North Corn Growers Associationfor |

COUNTY CORN REPRESENTATIVES Corn Council District 1 County



Arnie Anderson

Corn Council District 5 District Rep. X

Corn Council District 2 County



Patrick Skunes


Jason Rayner


Steve Doeden

District Rep.




Justin Halvorson


Terry Wehlander




Scott German


Dennis Feiken

District Rep.


Name Jordan Christman


Randy Simon


Paul Smetana






Tony Pierce


Mike Muhs


Lance Hagen


BJ Wehrman


Robert Ferebee

Grand Forks

Greg Amundson


Alex Deis


Jason Schiele

Golden Valley

Steve Zook


Nevis Hoff


Cody VandenBurg


David Steffan


Darwyn Mayer


James Cusey




Dennis Erbele


Nick Schmaltz


Anthony Neu


Paul Becker


CJ Thorne




Paul Anderson




Riley Schriefer


Paul Belzer


Elwood Barth


Timothy Zikmund


Clark Price


Gary Neshem






Jarrod Becker

Corn Council District 4


Ryan Stroh


Duane Zent


Richard Lies



Jeff Enger


Bill Smith


David Swanson


Troy Haugen


Kevin Haas

x District Rep. x

Corn Council District 7 Adams


District Rep.

Corn Council District 6


Corn Council District 3 County



District Rep.

District Rep.



Funded by the North Dakota Corn Checkoff | Funded by the North Dakota Corn Checkoff |


1411 32 n d S t. S outh, S uite 2 • Fargo, N D 58103 - 63 0 4 • (701) 36 4 -2250

The ND Corn Growers Association does not endorse the use of products promoted in the newsletter.




Profile for North Dakota Corn Growers Association

September/October 2017 CornTalk Newsletter  

Sept./Oct. 2017 CornTalk

September/October 2017 CornTalk Newsletter  

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