2015 ANNUAL REPORT
Dale Ihry, Executive Director North Dakota Corn Council
Scott German, Chairman North Dakota Corn Council
Welcome to the 2015 Annual Report from the North Dakota Corn Utilization Council (Council). This report is being published to illustrate and explain the collection and the uses of the North Dakota corn assessment funds for the fiscal year 2015 which is the period of July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015. The corn assessment, as approved by the North Dakota legislature in 1991, (NDCC 4.1-04), is assessed at .0025% of the value of a bushel of corn purchased by the first designated handler of the corn sale in North Dakota. The corn assessment is otherwise known as a “checkoff.” The Council is responsible for the collection of checkoff funds from corn purchasers and utilizing those funds for the funding of research, education programs, and market development efforts (domestic and international). The Council uses checkoff funds to participate in programs under the auspices of other state, regional, national and international promotion groups. These efforts apply to both the corn crop, livestock and ethanol production. It is the Council’s responsibility to develop and disseminate information regarding the purpose of the corn assessment and ways in which the assessment benefits corn producers in the state. This report is one of those tools used to educate the valued use of
the checkoff funds. The value of the checkoff funds vary greatly from year to year based on the planted corn acres in the state, the yield produced and the price received at the market place. The past few years have shown a great change in the value of corn in the state and the resulting value of the checkoff received from those crop sales. As producers you have realized this drop in corn value in your pocket books. We have also realized the results of the reduced checkoff levels. This report will show income and expenditures that ran from July 1, 2014 to June 30, 2015. We have been focusing our efforts on the most efficient use of your checkoff funds. Administrative costs have been reduced by 50% and we have narrowed the scope of research projects, specifically looking into new uses of corn in an effort to “move the pile.” This report contains several articles on the use of checkoff funds in fiscal year 2015. These yearly investments are part of an overall plan towards enhanced corn production, more uses of corn and corn by-products and education of the public to understand the importance of agriculture to the State of North Dakota. These goals require diligence and the continued annual investment that your checkoff dollars provide. The ND Corn Council works closely together with the ND Corn Growers Association to grow a healthy, profitable business climate for northern corn. We hope you enjoy the report.
FINANCIAL REPORT ND Corn Utilization Council-Annual Revenue $7,000,000
FISCAL YEAR END
ND Corn Utilization-FY 2015 Allocations $3,176,010 Total Allocation Mini Grants
Producer Communication Mini Grants 2% 1% Consumer Info/Marketing Public 2% Policy 5%
Board Expense 1%
Research "Agronomy" Research "Value Added" Research "Livestock"
Research "Agronomy" 16%
Research "Value Added" 7% Administrative 19%
Ethanol Marketing 5% US Grains Council 5%
Ethanol Marketing US Grains Council Refunds Research "Livestock" 3%
National Corn Growers Administrative Board Expense Sponsorships Consumer Info/Marketing
National Corn Growers 22%
Producer Communication Public Policy
ND Corn Utilization Council Checkoff Investment at Work 2015 Actuals $26,270.07 $514,606.77 $218,018.15 $107,467.43 $165,415.00 $156,000.00 $124,913.72 $697,000.00 $596,896.15 $17,775.70 $288,824.93 $412.70 $13,731.14 $74,637.88 $174,040.59 $3,176,010.23
Mini Grants Research "Agronomy" Research "Value Added" Research "Livestock" Ethanol Marketing US Grains Council Refunds National Corn Growers Administrative 1 Board Expense Sponsorships National Agricultural Genotyping Center 2 Consumer Info/Marketing Producer Communication Public Policy Total
2016 Projected $10,000.00 $665,320.22 $180,957.02 $65,103.49 $102,000.00 $156,000.00 $122,850.00 $697,000.00 $430,000.00 $21,000.00 $240,000.00 $400,000.00 $16,000.00 $73,000.00 $125,304.69 $3,304,535.42
Total Administrative Costs from 2015-2016 reduced 28% due to staff reductions.
Total National Agricultural Genotyping Center Funding of $800,000 payable over two years is matched by a ND Department of Agriculture Grant. The National Agricultural Genotyping Center is located on the campus of North Dakota State University. This location was chosen over several other locations from across the country. 2
ND Corn Production in Bushels 422,120,000 396,000,000
USDA-NASS Reported Data
EDUCATIONAL AND PROMOTIONAL OUTREACH ag in the classroom
The ND Corn Council participated in four Ag in the Classroom events this year, educating over 4,000 elementary students about corn in North Dakota. These four events included the Winter Ag and Construction Expo in Jamestown, KYFR Agri-International Show in Bismarck, Living Ag Classroom in West Fargo and Harvest North Dakota in Lisbon. When teaching the students about corn, the Corn Council focuses on the three types of corn grown: popcorn, sweet corn and field corn, and the four “F” uses of corn: food, feed, fuel and fiber. Students also learn more about corn by playing a game using the spin NDCUC Accountant/Budget Specialist wheel. By the Jean Henning presents to 4th graders end of the about corn at Harvest ND. six minute presentation, the students have learned all about America’s number one field crop! ag cab lab
For the second year, the Corn Council sponsored the Ag Cab Lab at the Cass
County Farm Bureau Ag Education Center at the Red River Valley Fair in West Fargo. The Ag Cab Lab is a Case IH tractor cab that engages and informs ‘drivers’ in a handson learning experience. Inside of the cab, the driver experiences operating a tractor to disk or plant a field, or drives the tractor in a fun racing mode through a virtual simulator software program. The driver can start the engine with the key, control the steering wheel, throttle forward and operate two hydraulic systems on the tractor. The Ag Cab Lab was developed by the Great Plains STEM Education Center at Valley City State University allowing participants to visualize the essential role that science, technology, engineering and mathematics plays on the modern farm. The Ag Cab Lab is a A fairgoer drives the Ag Cab Lab at the Red River Valley Fair.
hit with visitors of all ages and the Corn Council is proud to sponsor this educational program. thank a farmer magic show
The ND Corn Council sponsored the Thank a Farmer Magic Show at the Red River Valley Fair, July 7-12, 2015. The show runs three times a day in the Cass County Farm Bureau Ag Education Center. The show’s creator, Rhonda Ross, comes from a sixth generation farm family and is the first in her family to grow up in the city. Ross writes, speaks and develops educational programs promoting agriculture to bridge the gap of understanding between rural and urban populations. The show is a fun, energetic and educational show aimed to educate the crowd on the importance and impact that farming and agriculture have on our daily lives. Thank a Farmer creator cornvention
Rhonda Ross performs at the Red River Valley Fair.
CornVention 2015: “Harvesting Technologies,” was held on February 18 at the Holiday Inn in Fargo. “Harvesting Technologies” featured discussion on the latest advances in agriculture technology and how it can be applied to corn farmers’ operations. Speakers included Eugene Graner, Heartland Investor Services and Leon Osborne, meteorologist. The morning panel discussion regarding the National Agricultural Genotyping Center featured Dr. Richard Vierling, National Corn Growers Association; Dr. Robert Dye, Los Alamos National Laboratory; and Pete Nelson, Ag Innovation Development LLC. The afternoon panel discussion regarding technology at work in the field included Carl Peterson, Peterson Farms Seed; Alex Warner, Pedigree Technologies; and Gary Inman, SVP of Information Technology at Bell State Bank and Trust. Greg Tehven, cofounder of Emerging Prairie served as the moderator. banquet in a field
CommonGround North Dakota hosted its 2nd annual Banquet in a Field at Peterson Farms Seed near Prosper, ND. CommonGround North Dakota is a group of female farmers who start conversations with urban mothers concerned with food and its origin. This event is designed to give consumers a chance to connect with North Dakota agriculture by touring crop plots, enjoying a five course meal featuring 11 crops and 3 meats grown in North
Dakota, and conversing with North Dakota farmers. The meal was prepared by Tony and Sarah Nasello, owners of Sarello’s Restaurant. Over 120 influencers from the Cass County area attended the event. The CommonGround movement was developed by the National Corn Growers Association and United Soybean Board to provide a ND Corn Growers President platform and support Carson Klosterman converses with to help farmers reach Banquet in a Field guests. urban consumers.
Laboratory on the North Dakota State University Campus and has a growing staff of five researchers and technicians. The National Agricultural Genotyping Center is developing custom test kits which will help growers, researchers and scientists identify diseases before they become visible to the eye. The benefits to agriculture and food safety are profound, with applications for field crops and animal production. The newly established high throughput facility will reduce the time and resources required to the current field testing approach. Quick turnaround times will allow for a prompt remedial action in the field to possibly salvage remaining, unaffected crops. An official grand opening of the laboratory is scheduled for June 21, 2016. NAGC staff members Megan Palmer and Hom Pokhrel welcomed Representative Kevin Cramer for a tour of the laboratory.
The ND Corn Council once again sponsored the Innovation Challenge at North Dakota State University. The Innovation Challenge is organized by the NDSU Research and Technology Park and NDSU Office of the Provost to showcase NDSU students innovative ideas and entrepreneurial skills. In FY 2015, the Innovation Challenge featured three innovation tracks: corn, Service and Product. Cash prizes were awarded to first, second and third place in each of the three tracks as well as one People’s Choice Award winner. The Corn Council was a sponsor of the corn track. Twenty-three teams competed in the final stage of the corn track competition. Neil Doty, Daniel Hieserich and David Hahn served as judges of the corn track. The winning teams were as follows: 1st Place: Paul Subart, a crop and weed science major from Robinson, ND. Subart’s innovative idea is a modified rotary hammer mill mounted to the rear of a combine to pulverize weed seed rather than plant it back in the field. 2nd Place: Dre Steinwehr, a microbiology major from Hankinson, ND innovated the use of green tea as a pesticide on corn rather than commonly used pesticides. 3rd Place: Joseph Kallenbach from Dickinson, ND and Cassandra Hillen from Fargo, ND won third place honors with their idea of using natural antioxidants and colorants found in corn byproducts to color butter and other food products, reducing the need for artificial colorants. national agricultural genotyping center
The National Agricultural Genotyping Center, made possible through a partnership between the National Corn Growers Association and Los Alamos National Laboratories in New Mexico, was established in late 2015. The ND Corn Council awarded an $800,000 grant to the National Agricultural Genotyping Center matching an award by the ND Department of Agriculture. The National Agricultural Genotyping Center is located at the USDA-ARS Biosciences
commodity trading room
The Commodity Trading Room (CTR) in North Dakota State University’s Barry Hall was completed in 2012 and received video conferencing capabilities in FY 2015 with funding provided by the ND Corn Council. The CTR is used for teaching courses in agribusiness and the College of Business. It is described as a laboratory for analyzing markets and financial instruments. Students are able to analyze portfolios, trading strategies and risks. With the video conferencing updates, instructors are able to invite outside speakers to present to students participating in workshops and conduct outreach from the CTR, including simultaneous video of the presenter and displays such as DTN/Bloomberg. ethanol outreach
North Dakota Corn Council continued market support and promotion of ethanol throughout the state. North Dakota ethanol plants use approximately 160 million bushels of corn annually with more than 80 percent of the corn purchased from North Dakota farmers. Forty to 60 percent of North Dakota’s total corn production annually is purchased by North Dakota ethanol plants. The North Dakota Corn Council has a valued relationship with the North Dakota Ethanol Council to educate the public on the value of corn to the state of North Dakota as well as the environmental benefits of using ethanol.
Research Project - Agronomy Carena - Breeding the Next Generation of Short Season Corn Products
Contracted Funds $185,813.00
Cihacek - Corn Stover Removal Effects on Soil Properties Cooper - CCSP Corn Plots Franzen - Potassium Recalibration for Corn Franzen - N2 Recalibration Friskop - Developing a Corn Plant Pathology Program at NDSU Rahmen - Gas Analyzer Ransom - Technical Support for a Revised Corn Hybrid Testing Program
$4,566.00 $42,420.00 $14,885.25 $26,346.06 $8,294.84 $25,000.00 $54,496.20
Wick - Developing Treatments of Interest to Producers at the Share Farm Wick - Research & Extension Efforts at the Share Farm Wick - Influence of Soil Salinity Gradients on Corn Production of Arthropod Pest Infestations
$59,168.93 $56,113.73 $37,502.76
Research Project - Value Added Bajwa, D. - Wood Composite DDGS Bajwa, S. - Biocomposite DDGS Bauer-Reich - Sensing Earth Environment Directly Sensor Hall - Multifunctional Natural Food Additive from Corn & Dried Distiller Grains Jiang - Corn Residual Derived Carbon Nanosheets for High Volume Battery Knodel - Evolution of Bt Resistant Insects Larsen - ND Farm Simulation Game Pryor - ND Corn Innovation Competition Zollinger - NDSU Pest Management App
Contracted Funds $13,891.55 $6,680.56 $1,493.77 $17,833.49 $25,435.76 $39,802.00 $112.98 $97,087.42 $15,680.62
Research Project - Livestock Anderson - Beef Production Internship: Investing in Future Corn Consumers Anderson - Effects of Fat Level In Distillers Grain Fed with Corn or Barley on Steer Performance Bauer - Stover as Feed Engel/Anderson - Tempering Corn Koch - Add'l Pellet Dies for DDGS Product Development
Contracted Funds $8,411.76 $43,634.82
$17,799.82 $25,621.03 $12,000.00
Research Project - Mini Grants Kalwar - World Congress on Conservation Ag Conference Redden - ND Lamb and Wool Expo Harstad - Plot Tour Berg - Travel to North America Manure Expo Jia - Improving Corn Growth and Production with Clear Mulch Caton, Joel - TEMA 15 Meetings Endres - Extension Crop Field Tours & Winter Meetings Zilahi-Sebess - Corn Yield Response to Sulfur Application Under Two Tillage Practices Cihacek - Nutrient Content of DDGS from Three Ethanol Plants Ransom - Fertilizer Value of DDGS
Contracted Funds $2,173.48 $500.00 $500.00 $1,338.99 $4,754.05 $2,677.00 $4,999.00 $4,800.00 $27.55 $4,500.00
Research Expense $83,091
$400,000 $200,000 $-
$353,431 $402,063 2011
Research is divided into Agronomy, Value Added and Livestock areas. Growth in research expenditures as revenue grows, scaling back with the National Agricultural Genotyping Center commitment.
NUTRIENT CONTENT OF DDGS FROM THREE ETHANOL PLANTS Larry Cihacek, NDSU Soil Science Department
Recent issues with availability of rail capacity for transportation of distillers grains (DGs) away from regional ethanol plants has resulted in individual plants, at times, stockpiling the DGs. In addition, stockpile storage of dried distillers grains (DDGS) requires additional costs for drying the material as well as accommodating for long term storage (>30 days). Wet distillers grains (WDGs) have a short storage life due to excess moisture promoting spoilage and during warmer weather, storage is limited to only a few days before disposal is necessary. Disposal of large volumes of WDGs becomes another significant cost in ethanol production. Condensed distillers soluble (CDS), WDGs and DDGS from three ethanol plants within a 60 mile radius of Fargo, ND were analyzed for their plant nutrient contents. The materials included two samples each of CDS, WDG, and DDG collected weekly for 8 weeks and then monthly for 4 more months and represent the nutrient quantities contained in the materials over a 24 week sampling period. The CDS materials contained 25.3-29.1 % dry matter (D.M.), 0.95-1.24 % nitrogen (N), 0.390.43 % phosphorus (P), 0.59-0.62 % potassium (K), and 0.32-0.45 % sulfur (S) and smaller quantities of other plant nutrients. The WDG materials contained 31.4-52.0 % D.M., 1.45-2.39 % N, 0.25-0.41 %
P, 0.33-0.55 % K, and 0.31-0.34 % S. The DDG materials contained 84.6-85.3 % D.M., 3.78-3.81 % N, 0.72-0.77 % P, 0.97-1.04 % K, and 0.61-0.89 % S. The differences within each material appear to be primarily due to the water (or D.M.) content. The nutrient contents of the CDS products showed the most variation over the time of sampling. However, the WDG and DDG products were relatively uniform in nutrient content over the sampling period. Evaluation of the three by-products of ethanol manufacture showed that each of them was somewhat different in nutrient content. The differences appear to be mainly influenced by the water (dry matter) content of the material. All materials had amounts of N, P, K and S as well as other nutrients that can make them useful as plant nutrient sources. Sampling over a 24 week period showed that WDG’s and DDG’s were relatively uniform over time. However, the CDS products showed some variability which may be due to differences in feedstock composition and quality and changes in composition of the water sources used in the production of ethanol. When utilizing these materials as a nutrient source for crops, each lot or batch of material should be analyzed for nutrient content in much the same way that animal manures or other biosolids should be handled. The availability of the nutrients in these materials to crops is currently being evaluated in separate field trials.
FEASIBILITY OF DEVELOPING A WHOLE GRAIN CORN-BASED DRY MILL FACILITY IN NORTH DAKOTA Neil C. Doty, Ph.D., Northern Ag Development Corporation Northern Ag Development Corporation conducted a feasibility study analysis that employed three interrelated components: an industry and market feasibility analysis, a product and technology analysis, and a financial feasibility analysis. The study focused on the production of milled whole corn products with intrinsic nutritional value for human consumption that was superior to individual fractionated corn constituents. Whole corn meals and flours contain the original proportion of natural constituents excepting moisture. Corn’s components are Starch (61%), Fat (4%), Protein (8%), Fiber (11%), and Water (16%). Industrially, the four primary components of corn are fractionated to produce a huge variety of useful products. Three major consumer trends have converged within the food industry and to a great extent in the pet food industry as well. Those trends consist of a sizeable portion of the consuming public seeking products that feature whole grain, gluten free, and non GMO (Genetically Modified Organism) ingredients. Milling of whole corn to produce whole grain flour products in North
Dakota for ingredient use in foods would supply whole grain, gluten free, non GMO whole corn flour to food manufacturers eager to address consumption demand from the worldwide public. The study concluded that the market for whole grain, gluten free, non GMO ingredients is growing at a much faster pace than the overall aggregate food marketplace. The North Dakota and surrounding states region has an infrastructure consisting of specialty corn producers and merchandisers to ensure adequate quantities of high quality raw material corn supply. Corn dry milling technology is well established whereby qualified expertise is available for dry mill development and operation. Representative examples of whole grain, gluten free, non GMO products were developed at the Northern Crops Institute to demonstrate how whole corn flour ingredients can successfully be incorporated into popular food products. Whole grain, gluten free, non GMO flour, pasta, snack, and bakery products were developed at the Northern Crops Institute to demonstrate the applicability and appeal of whole corn flour in popular food products. An analysis of the 2014 financial
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-CONTINUED FROM PAGE 8performance of flour milling companies concluded that in general the composite flour milling business was on average profitable with discretionary owner earnings of 6.5% and after tax net profit of 3.31% on a combined average of $20.5 million in annual sales. This study provided an example of capital equipment and facility resources required to achieve $20 million in ingredient sales. Industry and market;
technology and product; and financial analyses indicate that a North Dakota corn-based dry milling enterprise is feasible provided adequate capital and human resources are identified and provided upon launching the enterprise. North Dakota is home to a number of manufacturers of intermediate milled and refined products and a corn-based dry milling enterprise would complement those established North Dakota-based businesses.
MULTIFUNCTIONAL NATURAL FOOD ADDITIVE FROM CORN AND DRIED DISTILLERS GRAINS Clifford Hall, NDSU Plant Sciences Department, Frank Manthey, NDSU Plant Sciences Department, Scot Pryor, NDSU Ag. and Biosystems Engineering Dept.
Objectives: The goal of this project was to characterize the functionality of SF-CO2 and solvent extracts of corn and DDGS in cereal-based food systems. To achieve our goal the following objectives were investigated: 1. Conduct chemical analysis of extracts obtained using existing (i.e. literature) extraction protocols. 2. To determine the color stability of the extracts in durum and non-durum wheat pastas. 3. To assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts in snack food like chips. 4. To evaluate the sensory characteristics of pasta and chips containing the extracts that helped retain pasta color and provided the best antioxidant activity. Summary: The original proposal was to include the use of super critical fluid extraction as a means to recover pigments and antioxidants. Before super critical fluid extraction could be carried out, characterization of the DDGS was necessary to insure that the optimal extraction would be completed by Thar Technologies. The delay in completion of the project related to the inability to schedule a time with Thar Technologies. However, we were able to obtain a unit from the USDA. Prior to completing the extraction using supercritical fluid, we did some preliminary work to identify the impact of DDGS moisture content on extraction efficiency. The moisture contents explored range from 0 to 30% moisture. The high moisture represented the wet distillerâ€™s grain while 0% represented lab dried DDGS. The lab dried DDGS were completed using three different methods to determine if extraction efficiency was affected by the drying method. The extraction efficiency was the same for each product and thus the use of the simplest and most inexpensive drying method (i.e. air oven drying) is recommended to reduce moisture content to a level between 10-15%. At these moisture levels, comparable extraction efficiencies were observed. The majority of the DDGS obtained from ethanol
Photo: Ethanol Producers Magazine
plants were close to 15% moisture and thus no additional drying is necessary. Corn had similar moisture content. Based on the information collected, we moved forward with the super critical carbon dioxide extraction method. We also used a solvent extract method as a means to compare extraction methods. Experiments were also completed on deodorization of the DDGS extract. Unlike corn extracts, DDGS extracts carry an odor as a result of ethanol production. We used several techniques to deodorize the DDGS. Steam distillation of the DDGS extract resulted in slight reduction of the odor. The amount of time needed for the odor reduction was too long and thus a different approach for deodorization was completed. Saponification was the selected method to remove the odor. Although slight reduction in the oil color occurred, a nearly odorless final extract containing color and antioxidants was obtained after the saponification method. Developing an odorless extract is significant because an ingredient added to a food cannot contribute negatively to the sensory quality of the food. However, the loss of extract yield occurred during deodorization and thus we opted not to deodorize the extracts due to the loss of extract yield. The super critical carbon dioxide extraction method produced a DDGS extract with less odor than the hexane extracted DDGS. Additional research is needed to optimize the deodorization of the DDGS.
EVALUATION OF BT-TRAITS IN CORN HYBRIDS FOR CONTROL OF CORN ROOTWORM IN NORTH DAKOTA Dr. Janet J. Knodel, NDSU Plant Pathology Department, Dr. Joel Ransom, NDSU Plant Sciences Department, Dr. Mark Boetel, NDSU Entomology Department Veronica Calles-Torrez, Ph.D., Kellie Podliska, M.S.
Situation: Northern corn rootworm (NCR) and western corn rootworm (WCR) are major insect pests of corn in the Midwest. Corn rootworm larvae damage plants by feeding on roots, which results in plant lodging and reduced yields. Corn producers have adopted the strategy of planting rootworm Bt hybrids to manage corn rootworm. Rootworm Bt-corn hybrids contain Bt proteins that are toxic specifically to corn rootworm larvae. Recently, researchers in several Midwestern states have documented resistance to rootworm Bt-corn hybrids in WCR populations. In the summers of 2012 and 2013, we observed unusually high numbers of WCR and increased corn lodging in Cass and Richland Counties in fields with a history of continuous corn. The goal of this research was to determine if current rootworm Bt traits control corn rootworms in problem fields in southeastern North Dakota, and to determine if resistance to rootworm Bt traits has evolved.
Objectives: 1) To evaluate Bt-traits for control of CRW in corn hybrids, 2) To determine if Cry3Bb1 resistance exists in CRW populations in North Dakota. Findings: Objective 1: Field experiments were established at three locations in southeastern ND for testing the performance of rootworm-resistant Bt-corn. Locations included: Arthur, Hope and Page in Cass County. A split-plot design was used to evaluate the following treatments in two main plot environments (i.e., with and without a planting-time application of Force 3G soil insecticide at 5 oz / 1000 row ft): In 2014, we evaluated rootworm Bt-corn
hybrids with different Bt traits: a Cry3Bb1 hybrid, a Cry34/35Ab1 hybrid, and a ‘pyramid’ hybrid that contains both Cry proteins. Comparisons were made to a non-Bt corn hybrid with and without Poncho 1250 insecticide seed treatment. Additionally, the use of Force 3G soil insecticide applied in-furrow was evaluated across all hybrids. Emergence cages were placed in experimental plots to capture emerging adults from the various treatments. Root feeding injury and yield were measured and evaluated. In 2014, we observed severely reduced corn rootworm pressure at all field sites due to the cold open winter, which likely caused high mortality of overwintering eggs. Under light rootworm feeding pressure we found that: • Rootworm Bt-corn hybrids had less root injury than the non-Bt corn hybrids. • There were no differences for root injury among the rootworm Bt-corn hybrids. • There were no differences for root injury in the non-Bt corn hybrids regardless of whether Poncho 1250 was used.
Objective 2: The second part of this experiment is to determine if Bt resistance exists in corn rootworm populations in North Dakota. Thousands of corn rootworms were collected from corn fields in southeastern North Dakota in 2014. Research is still underway assessing whether NCR and WCR have developed resistance to any of these Bt traits used in corn hybrids. Results should be available after the greenhouse experiments are completed in the summer of 2015. This funding also supported training of two graduate students in the fields of Plant Sciences and Entomology. Ms. Podliska successfully completed her M.S. Degree in the Spring of 2015. Ms. CallesTorrez plans to complete her Ph.D. in Winter 2016.
ACQUISITION OF 1412 PHOTOACOUSTIC MULTIGAS MONITOR Shafiqur Rahman, NDSU Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department
Background: Ruminant livestock is the predominant source of enteric methane emissions to the atmosphere, whereas manure storage and treatment are the primary sources of methane and N2O emissions resulting from manure management. A recent report from the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 2013) of the United Nations indicated that the main sources of GHG emissions are: feed production and processing (45% of the total), enteric fermentation by cows (39%) and manure decomposition (10%). In ruminant livestock, methane generation depends on the animal type, daily feed intake, and quality of diet, while GHG emissions from storage and treatment of manure depend on the type of storage, duration of storage, ambient temperature, and manure management practices. The growth of the ethanol industry is generating a substantial amount of by-products (e.g., DDGS) that increasingly add to livestock diets. Use of the DDGS in livestock diets is expanding because of its feed value as well as its price advantage over traditional feed sources and easy availability in this region. The use of DDGS and other food processing by-products in livestock diets are expanding which may change pollutant
gas and GHG emissions, but that information is lacking in North Dakota At present no portable field instrument is available at NDSU to monitor pollutant gases including ammonia and GHGs continuously for an extended period of time. Therefore, the specific objective of this grant request is to fund for the purchase of a Photoacoustic Gas Analyzer (INNOVA 1412), which is necessary to continuously monitor CO2, NH3, CH4, and N2O for the successful continuance and expansion of current research programs of the PI and collaborating scientists. This project is aligned with ND Corn Council competitive grants program for FY 2014-15 entitled, “Projects and research that address the odor and environmental issues related to confined animal feeding operation.” Therefore, the acquisition of the INNOVA 1412 is the objective of this proposal. Instrument location: The total cost for the INNOVA 1412 is $75K. The NDCC has provided partial funding of $25K to purchase this instrument. This instrument has been purchased and is in my laboratory (Waldron 210). Extramural funding is sought for conducting research with this instrument.
ANIMAL SCIENCE BEEF PRODUCTION INTERNSHIP: INVESTING IN FUTURE CORN CONSUMERS Chanda Engel, NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center In both 2013 and 2014 an animal science student who was in between their freshman and sophomore or sophomore and junior year in a bachelor’s of science program, at NDSU, were interviewed and employed in a beef production internship at the NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center (CREC). Much of the corn grain production in North Dakota is processed in the state resulting in millions of tons of feed grain and by-product feeds available annually. North Dakota cattlemen had 869,000 head of beef cows in 2010 but only 90,000 head of cattle were fed to market weight. The availability of exceptionally good quality feeder cattle, combined with the availability of abundant and variable feed ingredients, leaves no doubt that North Dakota has the potential to increase beef feedlot finishing in the state. Increasing cattle feeding and beef cow numbers in North Dakota would increase the amount of North Dakota produced corn and processed corn by-products utilized in North Dakota. However, the culture of cattle feeding and beef production in North Dakota is trending downward. Providing high school and college age students opportunities to gain experience with cattle feeding, through production internships, is an opportunity for the corn industry to actively engage in reversing this trend. These experiences can kindle
a desire and passion for beef production and cattle feeding in the state and provide these young people with the tools to be successful cattle producers and managers, and position them to utilize the quality corn grain and by-product feeds produced in North Dakota. The students assisted with daily activities in both the cow-calf (both year-round drylot and pasture systems) and feedlot program at the NDSU CREC. The students were able to gain valuable insight in what needs to be done to manage a diversified livestock production operation. The interns also assisted with feedlot and cow-calf research, much of which was focused around the use of corn and corn by-products in cattle rations. The students were exposed to ration balancing and how to properly sample and analyze the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The students had to develop a report based on their internship experiences to receive college credit towards achieving their bachelor’s degree. Both students planned to stay in North Dakota and either return to the home operation or work within the beef industry sector in the state.
DEVELOPING TREATMENTS OF INTEREST TO PRODUCERS AT THE SHARE FARM IN 2014-2015 Abbey Wick, NDSU Soil Health Specialist and Frank Casey, Director of the School of Natural Resource Sciences Assessing management practices of interest to producers in North Dakota is a primary objective of the SHARE farm. Producers expressed interest in the effects of tiling on both soil health and other components of the agricultural system (yields, weeds, pests, pathogens, economics). Action: We installed tile drainage on 80 acres of the SHARE farm in the fall of 2014 to be used in comparison with the same treatments on 80 acres of non-tiled field. Producers were interested in conservation tillage practices in the Red River Valley. Producers want to know how effective different tillage approaches are over tiled and non-tiled field and also for salinity management. Action: To evaluate conservation tillage effectiveness on tiled versus un-tiled and saline versus non-saline soil, we installed full scale strip till with shank, strip till with coulter, vertical till and chisel plow plots. NDAWN Station: Placement of an NDAWN station on-site improves our interpretations of research
conducted on-site and recommendations for management practices. Action: we installed an NDAWN station in the summer of 2015 to get on-site climatological data and soil moisture with depth. Key Points: 1. Producer driven treatments – the SHARE farm uses producer input to guide assessment of management approaches 2. On-site climatological data will improve our management recommendations for whole system approaches.
SENSING EARTH ENVIRONMENT DIRECTLY (SEED) SENSOR Cherish Bauer-Reich, NDSU Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering
A common issue causing reduced corn yields is salinity. Salinity can be difficult to manage due to changing levels within a field and with depth. A proposed solution to this problem is a biodegradable sensor that can be placed directly in the ground to provide real-time information about salinity conditions. Our proposed solution, the SEED (Sensing Earth Environment Directly) sensor, has the potential to help monitor salinity and other soil conditions. The SEED sensor is a biodegradable sensor that can be placed and left in the soil. A soil-located sensor can give real-time soil conditions faster and more efficiently than mobile testing units, particularly after crops are growing. The SEED sensor is made out of corn-based plastics and contains no materials or batteries that would contaminate the soil or cause toxicity to plants. Construction from these materials eliminates the need to recover sensors at the end of their useful life. The purpose of the funded project is to develop a larger ground-based sensor to study soil salinity levels. These initial sensors are larger than the final conception of the SEED sensor, and they are made from traditional electronic materials rather than biodegradable materials. These initial prototypes are needed to study how well groundbased sensors work compared to other salinity measurement methods, such as an EM-38. Creating these sensors help investigators understand the
challenges of in-situ soil measurement before miniaturizing the technology. The Electronics Technology Group at NDSU’s Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering developed several prototype sensors designed to work in pairs to measure temperature and a broad range of conductivity values. While the sensors cannot measure salinity directly, conductivity can be used with temperature and moisture levels to determine salinity. The sensors were 2 ¼ inches on a side and made of traditional electronics materials. Traces and antennas were created from copper on glass-reinforced epoxy laminate. Some types of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) chips can be used without batteries by harvesting energy from an antenna. This principle was used to build the salinity sensors, so an RFID-based sensor chip was attached to the sensor board. This chip provided the electronics necessary for the sensors to communicate with an above-ground computer attached to an RFID reader as well as read conductivity levels from the soil. Three other components were added to the sensors for tuning all of these components and the copper boards were coated in a water-proof material to prevent corrosion of the copper as well as soil contamination. Finally, a pair of probes was attached to one side of the sensor. The probes are used to measure the conductivity of the soil between them. After they were constructed, all sensor boards were tested in the lab to confirm conductivity measurement accuracy. Any boards that did not take
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controlled measurements were rejected. The final testing left six pairs of sensors. Five of these pairs were waterproofed in a traditional plastic material while one pair was coated with a corn-based plastic. The sensors were distributed in pairs at six well sites at the SHARE farm. The sensors measured conductivity at a depth of approximately two inches, and the sites range from highest to lowest salinity in the field. A sensor reader was made into a portable device that could attach to a laptop for field monitoring. Portable readers typically have low
power, making it difficult to read sensors through moist soil. A higher-power wall-mount reader was outfitted with a handle and two portable batteries. A laptop was connected to the reader via an Ethernet cable so that the computer could control the reader to make measurements. Initial measurements made at the SHARE farm were plagued by wet soil with moisture levels outside of the sensor-reading range. Funding for the continued monitoring is being provided by c2sensor, a North Dakota start-up company that has licensed the patent on the SEED sensor technology and plans to continue its development.
REHYDRATING (TEMPERING) METHODS FOR DRY CORN TO ENHANCE ANIMAL PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS QUALITY OF GROWING AND FINISHING FEEDLOT CATTLE Chanda Engel and Vern Anderson, NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center
Corn is a primary grain source for feeding cattle and is commonly processed by dry rolling in northern regions where the cold weather makes steam flaking a significant challenge. Tempering is a process in which water is added to corn prior to processing, to increase moisture content and improve rolling consistency. Typically, tempering is done with water but commercial surfactants are available and have been reported to have positive effects, when used with water. In addition, solubles from ethanol plants may be available to temper corn, as in addition to their moisture content they include additional protein and fat. This project was designed to investigate if there are advantages to animal performance, carcass performance, or profitability by adding water, a commercial surfactant, or corn distillers solubles to whole shell corn grain before processing through a roller mill. The project was completed using 150 predominantly Angus based feeder steers. Diet treatments were 1) dry-rolled corn, 2) water-temper rolled corn, 3) water + surfactant-temper rolled corn and 4) water plus condensed distillers solublestemper rolled corn. Tempered corn treatments were soaked for a minimum of 12 hours prior to processing through and roller mill. Growing diets (60% concentrate, 55 Mcal NEg/lb) were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and fed daily for two 28 day periods. Finishing diets were formulated with 85% concentrate (62 Mcal NEg/lb or higher) and fed until steers were ready for market (104 days on feed). Overall, there were no differences observed between dry rolled or the three tempering treatments on animal weight gain, gain efficiency, dry matter intake, and carcass performance. However, while the overall carcass value and net profit per animal for the tempered treatments ($253/ CWT and $1725.00, respectively) were similar, they tended to be greater than the dry rolled treatment ($245/CWT and $1632.00, respectively).
Table 1. Performance for steers fed diets with dry-rolled corn or corn tempered with 3 different methods.
Treatments Surfactant CDS + Water + Water Water tempered tempered Tempered corn corn corn
Days on Feed
Initial Wt. (lbs.)
Final Wt. (lbs.)
Average Daily Gain (lb/hd/d)
Dry Matter Intake (lb/hd/d)
Gain: Feed (lb:lb)
Table 2. Carcass characteristics for steers fed diets with dry-rolled corn or corn tempered with three different methods Dryrolled corn
Surfactant CDS + Water + Water Water tempered tempered Tempered corn corn corn
Marbling Score 1
Carcass Wt. (lbs.)
Back Fat (in.)
Rib-eye Area (sq. in.)
USDA Quality grades based on scores of 300-399=select, 400-499=low choice, 500-599=average choice, 600-699=high choice, 700+=prime. 2 Yield grade is composite calculation of fat to lean yield in a carcass calculation of fat to lean yield in a carcass based on a relationship of hot carcass weight, rib-eye area, fat thickness and KPH; low values=lean carcasses. 1
CONSERVATION CROPPING SYSTEMS PROJECT REPORT Kelly Cooper, Wild Rice Soil Conservation District
The Conservation Cropping Systems Project (CCSP) is located on a 130 acre tract of farm land two miles south of Forman, ND along Highway 32. A 14 member Board of Directors composed of local producers in northeastern South Dakota and southeastern North Dakota advises the CCSP staff. Diverse crops are grown in 15 rotations that range from one to six years under no-till, mechanical strip till, bio strip-till, shank and disk drill cropping systems. A total of 172 60x220 foot plots plus several irregular shaped “bulk area” plots ranging from 1/10 acre to 8 acres are used for production and demonstrations. Rotations are demonstrated to look at their effect on water and wind erosion, soil tilth, soil moisture retention, organic matter changes, and profitability. Each crop within a rotation is grown every year and replicated three times. Other practices and demonstrations done currently or in the past include variety trials, livestock waste applications, carbon sequestration studies, weed control experiments, livestock grazing, saline cover crop and saline alfalfa trials, biological strip till, radish rooting depth, and equipment demos to name a few. By the time it was fit to start planting corn, it was time to be finishing. When we were planting wheat, there was some corn planted in the area. Some of it did okay, some needed to be replanted. Planting corn in bad conditions is just the norm in North Dakota it seems. Whether it is mid-April or mid-May. The frost apparently was not out until June this year. Board members shared my experience on CCSP farm. Wheat stubble was the first ground we could get into. The stubble caught what little snow there was and limited frost depth. Soybean ground had deeper frost. Our loam and clay loam soil took on the consistence of angel food cake. I did not get stuck but left rather deep depressions. “Waffle Tracking” was the name given by one board member. Where these tracks were made, the corn looked tough the whole year. Compaction, nitrogen loss, hard to say exactly what, but it was not good for yields. The higher, well drained plots obviously did better. The N rotation, where corn follows alfalfa, was the clear winner which is by past experience very predictable on a wet year. What also has become predictable is flax as a previous crop is always near the top. This makes me wonder if flax would be a good choice as a cover crop to fly on soybeans mid to late season. Our Strip-till/Variety trial was done in the large bulk area this year. With the late spring, I thought it would be a good opportunity to look at 85-90 day corn planted late. Unfortunately this plot was negatively affected by the wet June. I should note that large areas just to the SW of the CCSP farm intended to be planted to beans ended up being prevent plant. Overall, the yields were low on
all varieties. The multiple wet spots that developed in the plot area rendered the data unreliable for the most part. It is interesting to note we had a very low advantage to strip till for 2014. At one point, near the 2 foot tall stage, the strip till looked quite a bit better. The bio strip was unremarkable this year. Bio strip, also called precision cover cropping, is where radish is planted in rows after winter wheat harvest, where the following year’s corn will be planted. In between the radish rows, peas are planted. The theory is the radish will scavenge nutrients and bring them close to where the corn plant will be next year. Corn is reportedly very compatible with radish, and does well following Brassicas in general. The corn roots will also follow the radish roots allowing for faster, deeper rooting. The peas planted in-between will add nitrogen and carbon to the system. Last year this rotation did very well. I should note this is a very low disturbance rotation, with no mechanical strip till. The cover crop growth was marginal in the fall of 2013, but adequate. The drawback this year could be the slower warm up as compared to the alfalfa, flax, and strip tilled ground, but the strip till trial did not support that theory. I do have a new plan for the bio strip that I have been thinking about for a while. This fall, on the first bio strip plot, I forgot to turn off the fertilizer pump on the 7200 planter. After about 50 feet I noticed fluid blowing out and realized my mistake. The results were a very vigorous crop of brassicas where they got a rather large dose of N. The peas were unaffected. We also had nice moisture for growth as well. The winter wheat stubble typically has a very wide carbon to nitrogen ratio and this year very little residual soil N. I am thinking about giving the radish/brassica mixture a large shot of nitrogen, to not only enhance their growth but to hopefully capture more carbon. This extra nitrogen may get partially immobilized but should be of benefit to the following corn crop. If we can run this plan for several years I would hope to see a faster increase in soil organic matter. Higher organic matter would then lead to a reduction in applied nitrogen needs. The real question I have is how much nitrogen will be available to the immediate corn crop. One of many unknowns is at what level does the soil organic matter need to be at before an equilibrium is reached. Or, there may not be a level that is steady, but a range of fluctuation. Although no one talks about it very much, the amount of nitrogen released by the soil that is available for crop growth varies considerably from one year to the next. I have seen replicated research plots where 200 bushel corn was grown on 14 pounds of applied nitrogen without manure. This is a somewhat rare event, but it does happen.
BUILDING A SHORT-SEASON QUALITY GENE POOL FOR THE NEXT GENERATION OF ND CORN HYBRIDS Marcelo Carena, NDSU Plant Sciences Department Project activities focused on developing the next generation of short-season corn hybrids with reduced risk to farmers. We have worked toward increasing the genetic diversity from tropical and temperate regions while improving earliness, fast dry down, cold and drought tolerance, disease resistance, and ethanol and feedstock quality. Summer corn-breeding nurseries included tropical varieties from Colombia, Thailand, Mexico, and Cuba. Sample sizes reached 25,000 individuals per pedigree. Screening and harvesting was completed and selection has made corn one week earlier in one year. These varieties are in the process of adaptation to ND and NDSU is the sole genetic provider. They are the sources of new corn hybrids less vulnerable to pests, diseases, and climate changes. Our cooperation with farmers and industry allowed a total screening of two million different corn lines and hybrids in multi-trait, multi-location trials along with commercial checks in 2015. Top experimental designs and statistical methods were utilized. Data from 15 traits were collected in most experiments. All 59 experiments were harvested across 55 locations and samples were collected for grain quality. After statistical analyses, NDSU experimental hybrids showed better performance than commercial checks, especially in marginal cold and drought-prone environments. This is a consequence of our program with controlled winter nursery conditions (no rain and extreme cold when wanted and needed during U.S. winters), to screen thousands of corn lines and hybrids for drought and cold tolerance. During this period, a Ph.D. student has assisted in the invention of BRACE, a new method to identify drought tolerant lines and hybrids through corn root screening without the need to dig and destroy plants. Top yielding genotypes were planted in southern and northern New Zealand corn nurseries for screening and seed production. As of today, a total of 3,700 rows are close to R1 corn stage near pollination time in the southern hemisphere to allow at least two seasons of corn per year. We expect seed back during March-April for
planting in May. Additional data will be generated this winter for starch, protein, oil, and essential amino acids. Most of 2015 NDSU crop releases were from the ND corn-breeding program during this period. As a consequence, a total of 13 new and unique corn products (NDSSR, NDS21-27, 57, 68, 69, and NDEarlyGEM32-34) are available to private and public breeding programs. They have outstanding characteristics in not only grain yield but also fast dry down, drought tolerance with strong root systems, disease resistance, and grain quality for ethanol and feedstock nutrition. NDSU corn lines ND2021 and ND2038 have made the silver pre-commercial trials in a Foundation Seed Company and NDSU corn non-GMO hybrids have made the top-yielding list in the U.S. National Testing Network. The program has acquired new tropical-derived products that have shown resistance to Gossâ€™s Bacterial Wilt, which will be incorporated in our gene pool. Two small seed companies are producing NDSU inbred lines for hybrid production. Our program has continued to lead a large network of public and private cooperators without the need to spend federal and state funds in costly academic labs becoming obsolete very quickly. The development of short-season tropical corn is serving as new sources of unique public x public non-GMO and public x private GMO hybrid combinations that supplement the narrow genetic diversity present in most industry hybrids. This gene pool will offer unique early maturing competitive genes and products not available in the northern U.S. industry and the corn genome sequences available. Information has been delivered in publications (8 peer-review and 2 book chapters during this period), progress reports, and newsletters. Two Ph.D. students have graduated during this period generating excellent research that will be directly applied to farmers and industry. Major seed companies have already hired former students.
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