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38-ՐԴ ՏԱՐԻ, ԹԻՒ 1136

ՇԱԲԱԹ, 16 ՄԱՐՏ 2019

´²¼Ø²Ð²¼²ð вںð ºðºô²ÜÆ Ø¾æ ºðÂàì ÜÞºòÆÜ §Ø²ðî 1¦-Æ ¼àкðàôÜ 11-²Øº²Ú î²ðºÈÆòÀ THOUSANDS OF ARMENIANS MARKED 11TH ANNIVERSARY OF MARCH 1 BLOODY POST-ELECTION PROTEST CRACKDOWN 1  


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ö²ÞÆܺ²Ü ºô ²Èƺô Øúî ²ä²¶²ÚÆÜ äÆîÆ Ð²Ü¸ÆäÆÜ Ð³Û³ëï³ÝÇ í³ñã³å»ïÁ »õ ²½ñå¿Û׳ÝÇ Ý³Ë³·³ÑÁ ѳٳӳÛÝ³Í »Ý Ùûï ³å³·³ÛÇÝ Ñ³Ý¹ÇåÇÉ º²ÐÎ ØÇÝëùÇ ÊáõÙμÇ Ñáí³ÝÇÇÝ Ý»ñùáÛª ÏáÕÙ»ñáõ Ñ»ï í»ñçÇÝ μ³Ý³ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ¿Ý »ïù, Û³Ûï³ñ³ñ³Í »Ý ÙÇçÝáñ¹Ý»ñÁ: ö»ïñáõ³ñ 20¨21-ÇÝ Ñ³Ù³Ý³Ë³·³ÑÝ»ñÁ ³Ûó»É³Í ¿ÇÝ Ð³Û³ëï³Ý »õ ²½ñå¿Û׳Ý, ѳݹÇå³Í »ñÏáõ »ñÏÇñÝ»ñáõ ջϳí³ñÝ»ñáõÝ áõ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍáó ݳ˳ñ³ñÝ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï: §î³ñ³Í³ßñç³Ý ϳï³ñ³Í Ù»ñ ³ÛóÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï, ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñÁ Ý»ñϳ۳óáõóÇÝ ÛáõÝáõ³ñÇÝ î³õáëÇ Ù¿çª Ð³Ù³ß˳ñѳÛÇÝ îÝï»ë³Ï³Ý гٳÅáÕáíÇ ßñç³Ý³Ï¿Ý Ý»ñë ï»ÕÇ áõÝ»ó³Í ϳñ׳ï»õ »ñÏËûëáõû³Ý Ù³Ýñ³Ù³ëÝ»ñÁ¦,– Û³Ûï³ñ³ñ³Í »Ý ØÇÝëùÇ ÊáõÙμÇ Ñ³Ù³Ý³Ë³·³ÑÝ»ñÁª ³õ»ÉóÝ»Éáí, áñ ³ÛóÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï ÏáÕÙ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï ùÝݳñÏ³Í »Ý ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³ÝÇÝ Ù¿ç ëï»ÕÍáõ³Í Çñ³íÇ׳ÏÝ áõ Û³çáñ¹ ù³ÛÉ»ñáõ í»ñ³μ»ñ»³É ³ÝáÝó ³ÏÝϳÉÇùÝ»ñÁ: §Ð³Ù³Ý³Ë³·³ÑÝ»ñÁ ¹ñ³Ï³Ý ·Ý³Ñ³ï³Í »Ý ß÷Ù³Ý ·ÇÍÇÝ íñ³Û ÏáñáõëïÝ»ñáõ Ýáõ³½áõÙÁ »õ áÕçáõÝ³Í ï³ñ³Í³ßñç³ÝÇ ÅáÕáíáõñ¹Ý»ñÁ ˳ճÕáõû³Ý å³ïñ³ëï»Éáõ ßáõñç ùÝݳñÏáõÙÝ»ñÁ: ºñÏáõ ÏáÕÙ»ñáõ ³é³çÝáñ¹Ý»ñÁ ÁݹáõÝ³Í »Ý ØÇÝëùÇ ÊáõÙμÇ Ñáí³ÝÇÇÝ Ý»ñùáÛ Ñ³Ý¹ÇåáõÙ Çñ³Ï³Ý³óÝ»Éáõ ѳٳݳ˳·³ÑÝ»ñáõ ³é³ç³ñÏÁ¦,– Áݹ·Íáõ³Í ¿ Û³Ûï³ñ³ñáõû³Ý Ù¿ç: гϳٳñïáõû³Ý ßáõñç í»ñçÇÝ ½³ñ·³óáõÙÝ»ñáõ »õ ÏáÕÙ»ñáõÝ Ñ»ï Ó»éùμ»ñáõ³Í ѳٳӳÛÝáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñáõ Ù³ëÇÝ Ñ³Ù³Ý³Ë³·³ÑÝ»ñÁ ï»Õ»ÏáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñ ÷á˳Ýó³Í »Ý ݳ»õ º²ÐÎ ·É˳õáñ ù³ñïáõÕ³ñ ÂáÙ³ë Îñ»ÙÇÝÏÁñÇÝ áõ ϳéáÛóÇÝ Ù¿ç ݳ˳·³ÑáÕ »ñÏñÇݪ êÉáí³ùdzÛÇ ³ñï³ùÇÝ ·áñÍáó ݳ˳ñ³ñ ØÇñáëɳõ ȳÛã³ùÇÝ:

Ô²ð²´²Ô ´²Ü²Îò²ÚÆÜ ¶àðÌÀܲòÆÜ ä¾îø ¾ زêܲÎòÆ Æ´ðºô ÈƲðľø ÎàÔØ. ö²ÞÆܺ²Ü §²ñ¹Çõݳõ¿ï μ³Ý³ÏóáõÃÇõÝÝ»ñÇ Ñ³Ù³ñ ³ÝÑñ³Å»ßï ¿ ³ñ¹Çõݳõ¿ï μ³Ý³Ïó³ÛÇÝ Ó»õ³ã³÷¦,– ²½·³ÛÇÝ ÅáÕáíÇÝ ³éç»õ ϳé³í³ñáõû³Ý ѳñóáõå³ï³ë˳ÝÇ Å³Ù³Ý³Ï Û³Ûï³ñ³ñ³Í ¿ г۳ëï³ÝÇ í³ñã³å»ï ÜÇÏáÉ ö³ßÇÝ»³Ýª ß»ßï»Éáí, ÿ ³ÛÅÙ ç³Ýù»ñ ÏÁ ·áñͳ¹ñáõÇÝ, áñ í»ñ³Ï³Ý·-

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Nikol Pashinyan sends congratulatory address on Artsakh Revival Day NEWS.am -- Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan has addressed a message on the occasion of the anniversary of Karabakh Movement, the Office of the Prime Minister of Armenia reported. The address runs as follows: “On this very day of 1988, February 20, an incident took place that was historical in all senses. The NKAR Regional Council took a decision to be incorporated into Armenia. The people of Armenia expressed full support for the decision. Soon our sisters and brothers from the Diaspora joint their compatriots in Armenia and Artsakh. February 20 of 1988 was an exclusive example of national revival that inspired million. We regained our national unity, consolidation and determination. An all-national movement emerged in Armenia and Artsakh that was unique in the sense of its power and being unpreventable, it was deeply national and at the same time deeply democratic. The implementation of the right of peoples to self-determination and democratic freedoms became a clear target to which our people went, being convinced that freedom and independence ware indisputable values. 30 years later, in spring 2018, as a people, as a society and as a state, we once again experienced a new revolutionary awakening, again standing for the ideas that are valuable for every one of us. We proved to ourselves and to the world that we are dignified and patriotic citizens of our country, who are faithful to our struggle and ideals, we are faithful to the path of freedom pursued by Armenia and Artsakh.”

Aliyev and Pashinyan agree to meet again MassisPost -- Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan and Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev have agreed to meet soon for further talks on the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, international mediators said on Friday, March 1. The U.S., Russian and French diplomats co-heading the OSCE Minsk Group made the announcement in a joint statement issued more than a week after they held talks with Pashinyan and Aliyev in Yerevan and Baku. They said they discussed “preparations for a meeting of the leaders in the near future, including possible topics for discussion.” “The leaders accepted the Minsk Group Co-Chairs’ proposal to meet soon under their auspices,” added the statement. It gave no dates. Pashinyan’s most recent meeting with Aliyev took place on January 22 on the sidelines of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. It came a week after fresh negotiations held by the Armenian and Azerbaijani foreign ministers in Paris. According to the mediators, the ministers acknowledged the need for “taking concrete measures to prepare the populations for peace.” Visiting neighbouring Iran, Pashinyan announced that another Armenian-Azerbaijani summit will likely be held “soon.” “In essence, it is going to be a meeting without an agenda,” he told members of the Armenian community of Tehran. Pashinyan sounded pessimistic about chances of decisive progress towards a Karabakh settlement. He again declared that he cannot “speak on behalf of Karabakh” in the negotiating process. The Armenian leader also said that Azerbaijan, not Armenia, must be the first to tell the international community whether it is prepared for a compromise peace accord because it regularly threatens a military solution to the Karabakh conflict. Pashinyan similarly stated on January 30 that the Armenian side will not agree to make territorial concessions Azerbaijan in return for mere peace in the region. “We can’t even discuss the lands-for-peace formula,” he said. The Azerbaijani Foreign Ministry criticized those remarks, saying that “withdrawal of Armenian troops from the occupied Azerbaijani territories” has long been at the heart of the peace process mediated by the United States, Russia and France. Over the past decade, the mediating powers have advanced a framework accord calling for the liberation of virtually all districts around Karabakh that were occupied by Karabakh Armenian forces during the 1991‒1994 war. In return, Karabakh’s predominantly Armenian population would determine the disputed territory’s internationally recognized status in a future referendum. 34  


Pashinyan: It is absolutely necessary to get Karabakh involved in talks NEWS.am -- Armenian PM Nikol Pashinyan believes that the Karabakh settlement should take into consideration the interests of all three parties; namely, Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh and Azerbaijan. “I was criticised by the Armenian public and media, since the president of Azerbaijan refused to do the same. Moreover, he repeatedly uses aggressive rhetoric that has a very negative impact on my efforts to prepare people for the peace and damages the mediation efforts of the OSCE Minsk Group co-chairs,” he said in an interview with Euractiv website. He described it as “absolutely necessary” to get Karabakh involved in the negotiations, in a process that ultimately will determine the status of Nagorno-Karabakh and ensure the security guarantees for the people who live there. “Two former presidents of Armenia were born, raised, and lived in Artsakh. Unlike them, I do not represent Artsakh, the people living there did not participate in the elections in Armenia, and therefore, I do not have the mandate to represent the population of Artsakh in a peace process. I represent Armenia and am ready to engage in negotiations on behalf of Armenia. If Azerbaijan also states that the settlement of the conflict should include the interests of all parties involved, it would give a good opportunity to resume the negotiations based on mutual trust,” he said. Asked about Ilham Aliyev’s tweet that 2019 would give “a new impetus” to Karabakh, Pashinyan said it is positive if by “giving a new impetus” President Aliyev meant recognition of the right of self-determination of people of Nagorno-Karabakh. “If not, then it is simply another bold statement. Of course, we would like to give new content to the peace process and have already submitted our vision through the mediators to the Azerbaijani side. Peace is in the best interest of all countries of our region, and we are committed to exerting efforts to achieve a lasting and sustained peace,” he added. Pashinyan emphasized that it is important that UN welcomes the peace process. “The mediators represent influential countries that have permanent interests in our region, and we see that all three co-chairing countries are effectively cooperating with each other in the exercise of their mediation mission. All three of them are also permanent members of the UN Security Council. We highly appreciate the statements made by the high-ranking UN officials, who keep highlighting the OSCE format of the settlement established in 1992,” he said.

Nikol Pashinyan and Bako Sahakyan co-chair first ever joint meeting of security councils of Armenia and Artsakh RFE/RL -- Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan again called for Nagorno-Karabakh’s becoming a full party to the negotiations as he addressed on Tuesday his top security aides ahead of his first meeting with Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev to be held with international mediators’ assistance sometime soon. Together with Nagorno-Karabakh president Bako Sahakyan, Pashinyan presided over the first-ever joint meeting of Armenia’s and Nagorno-Karabakh’s security councils held in the Karabakh capital of Stepanakert on March 12. In his opening remarks before the start of the meeting the Armenian premier described it as “unprecedented” and “very symbolic” and singled out three main issues to be addressed by senior representatives of the Armenian political and military leadership. Pashinyan reiterated that Nagorno-Karabakh’s becoming a full party to the negotiations conducted under the auspices of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe’s Minsk Group co-chairmanship (the United States, Russia, France) will be a key point during his upcoming discussions with Aliyev. “This is not a whim, nor a precondition. This is simple logic that Nagorno-Karabakh’s involvement is key to the settlement process,” Pashinyan stressed, as quoted by his press office. 35  


Azerbaijan has opposed Nagorno-Karabakh’s participation in the talks as a separate party, insisting that the region is “occupied” by Armenia and negotiations should be held only with official Yerevan. At the same time, the Azerbaijani leadership has repeatedly raised the issue of ethnic Azerbaijanis displaced from Armenian-populated Nagorno-Karabakh during the 1988‒1994 war. Pashinyan explained that unlike Aliyev, for whom “Nagorno-Karabakh’s Azerbaijani community” also voted as current citizens of Azerbaijan, he cannot represent the people of Nagorno-Karabakh, since only citizens of Armenia voted for him and his political team in Armenian elections. The international community, Pashinyan said, is represented at the negotiations by the OSCE Minsk Group co-chairs. “So far, the negotiation process has in fact involved all stakeholders except one… The problem is that no one has the authority and legitimacy to represent the people of Nagorno-Karabakh at the negotiations today,” he said. At the same time, Pashinyan described as absurd claims that by seeking Nagorno-Karabakh’s involvement in the process Armenia tries to shun responsibility and put the entire responsibility on the authorities or the people of Nagorno-Karabakh. “The Republic of Armenia has and will be the number one guarantor of Nagorno-Karabakh’s security and will continue its involvement in the peace process,” the Armenian prime minister underscored. In its latest statement issued over the weekend the OSCE Minsk Group co-chairs reiterated that “a fair and lasting settlement must be based on the core principles of the Helsinki Final Act, including in particular the non-use or threat of force, territorial integrity, and the equal rights and self-determination of peoples.” “It also should embrace additional elements as proposed by the Presidents of the Co-Chair countries in 2009‒ 2012, including: return of the territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh to Azerbaijani control; an interim status for Nagorno-Karabakh providing guarantees for security and self-governance; a corridor linking Armenia to Nagorno-Karabakh; future determination of the final legal status of Nagorno-Karabakh through a legally binding expression of will; the right of all internally displaced persons and refugees to return to their former places of residence; and international security guarantees that would include a peacekeeping operation,” the mediating troika said. Speaking before the security councils’ meeting in Stepanakert, Pashinyan said that one of the questions to answer was whether the government of Armenia accepts these three principles and six elements as a basis for the negotiation process. “This is really an important question, but in answering this question we need important clarifications. What can these principles mean in practice and who has the right to interpret them? This is important, because the way Azerbaijan interprets these principles is unacceptable for us. We, of course, can come up with our own interpretation of these principles, but it’s pointless because our goal is not to engage in a war of words, but to have an efficient negotiation process. And consequently, the basis for the negotiation process should not leave room for different interpretations,” Pashinyan said. “However, the principles and elements proposed by the co-chairs have given rise to all sorts of interpretations over the past 10 years and, therefore, the most important objective of the forthcoming negotiation process should be to clarify the so-called main concepts – the three principles and six elements, and we are ready also for such a conversation.” Another major issue pointed out by the Armenian prime minister at the Stepanakert meeting is preparing societies for peace. “I think it is necessary to emphasize that preparing the peoples for peace cannot be a separate issue of only one government involved in the negotiations. This should be joint work. I mean, for example, preparing Azerbaijan’s society should take place not only with the participation of Azerbaijan’s government but also with the participation of Armenia’s government. It was this consideration that forced me to make a statement from the parliament tribune last fall, a statement that was, in fact, unprecedented for our reality, as I said that any solution to the NagornoKarabakh issue should be acceptable for the people of Armenia, the people of Nagorno-Karabakh and the people of Azerbaijan… Unfortunately, we do not hear similar statements and do not see similar steps from the president of Azerbaijan. Despite this, I am ready to continue the dialogue not only with the president of Azerbaijan, but also with the people of Azerbaijan, because I am convinced that the people of Azerbaijan are as peace-loving as the people of Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh,” Pashinyan concluded. For his part, in his opening remarks Nagorno-Karabakh president Sahakyan, in particular, stressed that international recognition remains a priority for Stepanakert. As a result of discussions both security councils reaffirmed that Nagorno-Karabakh’s “defence capabilities are guaranteed and are at the high level.” “At the same time the two Armenian sides again expressed their support for and commitment to an exclusively peaceful settlement of the conflict under the aegis of the OSCE Minsk Group and on the basis of the fundamental principles of international law, in particular, the right of peoples to selfdetermination,” the Armenian prime minister’s press office said in the press release. 36  


Azerbaijani military conducting large scale military exercise MassisPost -- Azerbaijan has launched large-scale military maneuvers ahead of an expected first meeting between President Ilham Aliyev and Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan. Azerbaijan’s Defence Ministry said on March 11 that up to 10,000 troops, 500 tanks, 300 missile systems, aircraft, and other military equipment will take part in the five-day exercises. According to an official statement, the Azeri troops will carry out an offensive plan, trying to defeat the conventional enemy in a number of directions. It is reported that new weapons acquired by Azerbaijan in recent years will also be used during the current military exercises. Spokesman for the Armenian Defence Ministry Artsrun Hovannisyan stated on his official Facebook account that these military drills by Azerbaijan represent an attempt to exert pressure in the context of the possible meeting between the two countries’ leaders. “In accordance with the Vienna document, notifications should be issued on military drills if they involve at least 9,000 people, 250 tanks or 500 military armoured vehicles, 250 self-propelled and towed artillery weapons, mortars and multiple rocket launchers. We did not receive any notifications from OSCE [Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe] and consider the planned military exercise to be an attempt to exert pressure in the context of the meeting between Pashinyan and Aliyev,” Hovannisyan said. Armenia’s Foreign Ministry said the drills “do not contribute to the creation of an environment conducive to peace.”

Defence Minister David Tonoyan: If hostilities resume Armenian armed forces will go on the offensive MassisPost -- Armenian armed forces will go into the offensive if hostilities in Nagorno-Karabakh resume, defence minister David Tonoyan said in a televised interview. “Psychology is changing; approaches are changing; defending armies are always defeated. We are not going to remain in defensive positions,” the minister said in an interview with the Public Television of Armenia. He said if there is a threat that hostilities will resume, Armenian armed forces will not linger. When asked if that means that the Armenian army will also go on the offensive, Tonoyan replied, “Why not?” The minister agreed that Armenia has no opportunity to compete with Azerbaijan in terms of demography and economy; therefore, qualitative changes in the armed forces are necessary. He said the $100 million loan provided by Russia for purchase of arms allows Armenian armed forces to solve the problems without getting involved in a quantitative arms race. Asked to comment on Tonoyan’s statement, Taron Hovhannisyan, an expert on Azerbaijan, said Tonoyan in all likelihood had in mind preventive offensive actions, given the aggressive and unconstructive policy pursued by Azerbaijan that gives the Armenian side the right to take preventive actions. According to the expert, preventive offensive actions do not always mean conducting hostilities in the enemy’s territory. “This also means suppression of the enemy’s main firing points with the help of long-range artillery systems,” said Hovhannisyan. He agreed that Armenia cannot compete with Azerbaijan in demographic and economic aspects; therefore, without a preemptive strike it will be more difficult to defend oneself in case of an attack. 37  


Thousands of Armenians mark 11th anniversary of bloody post-election protest crackdown RFE/RL -- Thousands of people led by Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan marched through central Yerevan on Friday, March 1, to mark the 11th anniversary of the breakup of post-election protests in Armenia’s capital which left ten people dead. The crowd silently walked from the city’s Liberty Square to the site of violent clashes between security forces and opposition protests which broke out on March 1, 2008. Pashinyan laid flowers there, as did many other demonstrators. “Today, on March 1, 2019, I want to make it clear that the return to the past is impossible in our country,” Pashinyan declared in an address to the nation aired earlier in the day. “Armenia will not return to corruption, political persecutions, political violence and abuse.” Pashinyan urged Armenians to join him in paying respects to the victims of the worst street violence in Armenia’s history and “all political killings” committed since the country’s independence. The 2008 unrest resulted from a disputed presidential election which formalized the handover of power from outgoing President Robert Kocharyan to his preferred successor, Serzh Sargsyan. The main opposition presidential candidate, Levon Ter-Petrosyan, refused to concede defeat, alleging serious fraud. Ter-Petrosyan supporters held nonstop rallies in Liberty Square until they were forcibly dispersed by riot police early on March 1, 2008. Thousands of them gathered and barricaded themselves elsewhere in the city centre later on that day. Pashinyan, then a newspaper editor, was among Ter-Petrosyan’s associates who addressed them there. Eight protesters and two policemen died in ensuing clashes. Citing the violence, Kocharyan declared a state of emergency and ordered army units into Yerevan late on March 1, 2008. The former Armenian authorities accused the Ter-Petrosyan-led opposition of organizing the “mass disturbances” in a bid to seize power. Dozens of Ter-Petrosyan allies, including Pashinyan, were jailed on charges strongly denied by them. Armenia’s Special Investigative Service (SIS) completely changed the official version of events shortly last spring’s “velvet revolution” which brought Pashinyan to power. It now says that Kocharyan illegally used the military against the protesters. Kocharyan was arrested in December, five months after being charged with overthrowing the constitutional order. The ex-president denies the accusations as politically motivated, alleging a “vendetta” waged by Pashinyan. The SIS has also indicted but not arrested three retired Armenian generals. They and Kocharyan could go on trial already this spring.

PM Pashinyan: I apologize on behalf of the state to all the victims of March 1, 2008 Armenpress -- Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan has addressed the nation on the occasion of the March 1, 2008 events. In a televised speech, the prime minister said that today, 11 years since the events, it is “extremely important to give a political assessment to what happened.” He said that in 2008 the actions of the then-ruling elite were not at all aimed against an individual power, a group or an individual, but the main and perhaps the only targets of this violence and illegal actions were the citizen of the Republic of Armenia: their rights, their dignity and freedom. On behalf of the state, Pashinyan apologized to all victims of March 1, 2008, to all victims of political murders that took place in Armenia since independence, to all citizens and political forces who have been subjected to political persecutions. 38  


Armenia’s economic activity index grows 6.1% in January Armenpress -- Armenia’s economic activity index grew 6.1 % in January 2019 against the previous year’s same month, according to the National Statistical Committee. Construction growth was 22.1%. Electric-energy production dropped 26.3%, while service volume (excluding trade) grew 15.6%. Consumer price index increased 0.6%, while the industrial product price index dropped 2.6%. Trade turnover grew 19.3%. The industrial output volume is 0.4% lower against the 2018 January indicator. The average monthly nominal wage grew 4.1% (172,198 AMD). The average monthly nominal wage in the public sector grew 6.5%, amounting 149,399 AMD. In the private sector, it grew 1.8%, totalling 184,646 AMD. Foreign trade turnover volumes dropped 7.6% in the reporting period (15.8% drop in exports and 3.3% drop in imports).

German-Italian consortium to build new thermal power plant in Armenia RFE/RL -- A German-Italian consortium planning to build a new thermal power plant in Armenia has secured over $200 million in funding from the World Bank Group and other multilateral lenders. The ArmPower consortium consists of a subsidiary of Germany’s Siemens group and two Italian companies. One of them, Renco, will also act as the engineering, procurement and construction contractor for the new Yerevan-based plant that will further diversify foreign ownership in the Armenian energy sector. Renco had supposedly launched the project with a ground-breaking ceremony in March 2017 attended by then President Serzh Sargsyan. The start of the construction was delayed, however. Armenia’s current government froze Renco’s contract with the Sargsyan administration shortly after taking office in May 2018. It said the deal is not beneficial for the Armenian side and must be renegotiated. The two sides signed a revised deal in November. Energy Minister Garegin Baghramyan said concessions made by the Italian firm will allow Armenia to save $160 million in energy expenses over the next 25 years. Baghramyan also said that electricity to be generated by the new plant will be cheaper than power supplies coming from two other gas-powered facilities that currently meet roughly one-third of the country’s energy needs. The Washington-based International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, also stressed the project’s economic importance for Armenia. “A modern 250-megawatt combined-cycle gas turbine power plant in the south of Yerevan will help increase efficiency for gas-fired electricity generation,” it said in a statement. The statement said the funding for the project includes a “$42 million loan for IFC’s own account” as well as “$121 million from IFC’s innovative syndications platform … plus parallel loans from the Asian Development Bank, the OPEC Fund for International Development, and the German development finance institution DEG.” In addition, it said, the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), which is also part of the World Bank Group, will provide up to $39 million in loan guarantees to “help Renco manage non-commercial risks.” “We are committed to starting the work as soon as possible to complete the commissioning of the plant within schedule,” Renco’s chief executive, Giovanni Rubini, was quoted as saying. Rubini said in November that the construction will take just over two years. Renco has done business in Armenia since the early 2000s. It has not been involved in the local energy sector until now, investing instead in luxury housing, hotels and office buildings. But the company has built, installed or operated power generation and distribution facilities in other parts of the world. 39  


First Holiday Inn Express Hotel opens in Armenia MassisPost -- The first Holiday Inn Express Hotel, part of international IHG hotel chain, opened its doors in Armenia’s capital Yerevan. The investment program was implemented by Ghukas Grigoryan, Founder/President of Harmony International LLC. The construction lasted three years. About ten million dollars were invested, with 50 new jobs created. The Holiday Inn Express has 130 rooms, a well-equipped conference room. There are computers, comfortable seats, chargers and highspeed Wi-Fi in the lobby. The opening ceremony was attended by Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan and Yerevan Mayor Hayk Marutyan. They toured the premises to get acquainted with the work done and the amenities available in the hotel. PM Pashinyan welcomed the implementation of the investment program and the initiative to build new hotels in Armenia as a whole, which provide tourists with high-quality services and comfortable conditions. In turn, Minister of Economic Development and Investments Tigran Khachatryan said that the number of tourists visiting Armenia reached 1.6 million in 2018, and added that the government’s goal is to ensure 7‒10% annual growth in the area.

Ryanair to launch regular flights between Armenia and Europe RFE/RL -- Ryanair is planning to become the world’s first budget airline to launch regular flights between Europe and Armenia, the head of the Armenian government’s civil aviation department said on March 8. The official, Tatevik Revazyan, told RFE/RL’s Armenian service that she has held talks with senior executives of the Irish carrier in Dublin for that purpose. “We received a proposal and are now negotiating over that proposal,” she said. “They made clear that they want to enter the [Armenian aviation] market in 2020.” “They said that the average price of their tickets is 40 euros ($45). Obviously, they won’t be able to fly to Armenia at that price, but it definitely won’t be 350, 400 or 500 euros,” added Revazyan. She did not give other details of the planned flights. “Ryanair can really revolutionize, completely transform our aviation market,” argued the 31-year-old official. “If Ryanair does enter the Armenian market, I’m sure that air ticket prices will fall and passenger traffic from Europe to Armenia and also from Armenia to Europe will increase as a result.” Armenia’s international air traffic has already grown rapidly since the liberalization of its civil aviation sector in 2013. The former Armenian government decided to switch to the so-called “open skies” policy following the bankruptcy of the Armavia national airline. Armavia had enjoyed exclusive rights to fly to Europe, the former Soviet Union and the Middle East for almost ten years. The liberalization, strongly backed by Western donors, allowed local and foreign carriers meeting safety standards to carry out flights without any restrictions. This has led to lower ticket prices, giving a strong boost to the country’s burgeoning tourism industry. The number of foreign tourists visiting Armenia reached a new record high in 2018, according to official statistics.

Over 27 thousand Armenians got Russian citizenship in 2018 NEWS.am -- Over 27 thousand Armenians were granted Russia's citizenship last year, Russia's ministry of internal affairs said. According to the ministry, up to 269.4 thousand foreigners got Russian citizenship in 2018. Ukrainians top the list of foreigners getting Russian citizenship (83 thousand), they are followed by Kazakhs (45.3 thousand), Tajiks (35.7 thousand), Armenians (27.1 thousand) and Uzbeks (21 thousand). In October 2018 Russian president signed a concept of state migration policy which is expected to facilitate the process of getting Russian citizenship for ethnic Russians living in other countries. 40  


Number of Armenians visiting Turkey in 2018 grows NEWS.am -- The number of visits of Armenian citizens visiting Turkey in 2018 increased. According to the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 51,800 tourists from Armenia visited Turkey in 2018, which is 7.37 percent more compared to 2017. In 2017, this figure was 48,320, and in 2016 39,063. It should be noted that 73,000 Armenian citizens visited Turkey in 2011.

Armenian doctors provide surgical and therapeutic assistance to patients during humanitarian mission in Syria Armenpress -- The group consisting of humanitarian deminers, doctors and Armenian specialists, while in Syria on a humanitarian mission, launched the demining works on February 19, the Humanitarian Demining and Expert Centre SNCO told Armenpress. As of today, March 7, the Armenian specialists have demined over 10,510 square metres of land. “Hundreds of anti-tank and other types of mines have been eliminated. The doctors involved in the humanitarian mission carry out activities in the military hospital of Aleppo and university clinics. From February 18 to today, the Armenian doctors, jointly with their Syrian colleagues, have provided 50 surgical and nearly 100 therapeutic assistance to the patients,” the Centre said, adding that one doctor each day is involved in the demining group. “The humanitarian aid to the Syrian people continues,” the Centre said in the statement.

Armenian church blown up in Aleppo to reopen in spring NEWS.am -- After the reconstruction, the first Divine Liturgy at the Armenian Cathedral of the Holy Forty Martyrs in Aleppo, Syria will be celebrated in late March or early April, RIA Novosti reported. The ISIS militants had blown the church up in 2015. “Nearly 70 percent of the building was destroyed,” engineer Garbis Tamassian said, in particular. The new doors and windows of the church have already been installed, its pews are being brought, the facade is completely restored, and the coating works are coming to an end. The reconstruction of this church is funded by the donations from the faithful among the Armenian community of Aleppo. At least 150,000 people have contributed to the reconstruction of this cathedral. 41  


Four Armenians on Forbes 2019 world billionaires list MassisPost -- Forbes has listed four Armenians on its latest annual index of the world’s richest persons. Russian-Armenian businessman Samvel Karapetyan, with an estimated net worth of $3.7 billion, is perceived to be the most successful among them. The owner of Tashir Group of Companies ranks 568th on the list. Sergey Galitsky, who owns one of Russia’s biggest supermarket chains Magnit, comes next with $3.5 billion. The third richest Armenian is Eduardo Ernekian, a descendent of Armenian emigrants from Argentina. His estimated net worth is reported to be $1.6 billion. Meanwhile Carolyn Rafaelyan, the founding owner of the jewellery line Ani and Alex, appears to be the richest jeweller with $1 billion. This year’s ranking is topped by the Amazon founder and chairman, Jeff Bezos, whose estimated net assets are in the range of $131 billion.

104th commemoration of the Armenian Genocide to take place in Times Square MassisPost -- A culturally unique performance will be presented by popular Armenian diasporan singer Elie Berberian as the 104th commemoration of the Armenian Genocide is memorialized in the heart of New York City on Sunday, April 28, 2019 from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. The program, which will take place in Times Square, will feature prominent politicians who tirelessly advocate for Genocide commemoration while championing the Republic of Armenia, in addition to human rights activists, academics and artists. During his tribute, Berberian will sing the infamous Charles Aznavour song “Ils sont tombés” (They Fell), to pay homage to the memory of the martyrs, as well as the late singer who passed away late last year. “Aznavour is the biggest legend in the history of Armenian artists and I want his words about the Genocide and his memory to project from the centre of the world, in New York’s Times Square,” said Berberian. The historical event will also feature the poetry of the renowned Hovhannes Shiraz, “Intz Gue Moranam” (I Forget Myself) set to music by Majag Toshikian. Berberian seeks to “immortalize Shiraz’s divine words.” The third song, “Hayer Miatzek” (Armenians Unite), by Gusan Haykazun, “is a diasporan message to send to all Armenians to remain a united front,” according to Berberian. He cites the message of peace and love in the song. “Even though many years have passed since the Armenian Genocide, it does not stop me from remembering it and instead it gives me more drive,” said Berberian. “We are paying tribute to the ultimate cause that concerns every Armenian in his or her heart.” The commemoration will be led by the masters of ceremonies Armen McOmber, Esq. and Nvair Beyerian, who will guide the program as the Armenian Diaspora continues its unyielding efforts to remember, to honour and to educate the world about this catastrophic event in Armenian history that took place in 1915 and claimed the lives of almost 2 million Armenians — a piece of history that goes unrecognized to this day by the Turkish government. “We must remain diligent, not only to demand Genocide recognition, but to share our story with the world so they can learn from our tragedy and our burden,” said Beylerian. “The mechanisms that led to ripping our people’s roots from our land and nearly annihilating the Armenian people from this earth have been used by other perpetrators over and over again. Denial of Genocide is complicity. It sows the seeds for cyclical evil.” 42  


Armenian American Museum announces $8.1 million at inaugural telethon MassisPost -- The Armenian American Museum announced $8,138,986 at its inaugural Telethon, a major milestone that puts the historic project one step closer to its highly anticipated groundbreaking celebration. Thousands of community members and supporters from across the country and around the world tuned in to the six-hour telethon on February 17, 2019. The widely watched television event featured informative video segments and interviews with community leaders, organizations, and special guests as well as check presentations by generous supporters. “We are so grateful for the unprecedented outpouring of support from our community for the Armenian American Museum,” stated Museum Executive Chairman Berdj Karapetian. “We are inspired by our community’s generous contributions that will help us reach the next major milestone for the project with the groundbreaking celebration.” The telethon finale featured a $1 million joint check presentation by the ten cultural, philanthropic, and religious non-profit organizations who serve on the Armenian American Museum Board of Trustees. The Board of Trustees include representatives from the Armenian Catholic Eparchy, Armenian Cultural Foundation, Armenian Evangelical Union of North America, Armenian General Benevolent Union Western District, Armenian Missionary Association of America, Armenian Relief Society Western USA, Nor Or Charitable Foundation, Nor Serount Cultural Association, Western Diocese of the Armenian Church of North America, and Western Prelacy of the Armenian Apostolic Church. Proceeds from the telethon went towards the Armenian American Museum Groundbreaking Campaign. The campaign’s goal is to raise an estimated $12 million by early 2020 to begin construction on the project. The museum has raised $8.1 million through its cumulative fundraising efforts and is approaching the campaign’s fundraising goal. The telethon was hosted by Arshalous Darbinyan, Artavazd Amiryan, Svetlana Bosnoyan, and Manoug Seraydarian. Major sponsors included Vartan & Janet Barsoumian, Rafik & Helly Khatchaturian, California Eye Centre Optometry Dr. Harout Khanjian, and Keghon & Alexia Kevonian. The campaign continues and the community is invited to contribute to the historic project. Donations can be made by phone at 1-800-655-9554 or online at www.GiveAAM.org.

About the Armenian American Museum The Armenian American Museum and Cultural Centre of California is a developing project in Glendale, CA with a mission to promote understanding and appreciation of America’s ethnic and cultural diversity by sharing the Armenian American experience. The Museum will serve as a cultural campus that enriches the community, educates the public on the Armenian American story, and empowers individuals to embrace cultural diversity and speak out against prejudice. The governance of the museum is entrusted to ten Armenian American cultural, philanthropic, and religious non-profit institutions including the Armenian Catholic Eparchy, Armenian Cultural Foundation, Armenian Evangelical Union of North America, Armenian General Benevolent Union Western District, Armenian Missionary Association of America, Armenian Relief Society Western USA, Nor Or Charitable Foundation, Nor Serount Cultural Association, Western Diocese of the Armenian Church of North America, and Western Prelacy of the Armenian Apostolic Church. 43  


Armenians honoured by Sociedade Rosas de Ouro at São Paulo Carnival Estacaoarmenia.com.br -- Sociedade Rosas de Ouro (Golden Roses) has paid a beautiful tribute to the Armenian people at São Paulo Brazil Carnival 2019. The theme of the performance was “Viva Hayastan” with a colourful costume show. The samba school performed in the early hours of Sunday, March 3, at the Sambódromo do Anhembi in São Paulo. 500 Armenian community members participated in the procession. The parade was divided into 5 themes: Paradise, Armenian Heroes, Christianity, Culture and Plaza de Armenia. The show started by addressing the Armenian Genocide, referring to the martyrs who were killed in the desert and the rebirth of the Armenians, followed by the colours of the flag representing the bird Grunk, symbolic of Armenia. The first float, “Splendour of Paradise in the Plains of Ararat”, referenced Adam and Eve and Noah’s Ark (which, according to the legend, docked at Mount Ararat). The second float, “Cradle of Fascinating Warriors”, carried gigantic golden sculptures of King Tigranes the Great as well as Assyrian, Persian, Greek, Roman, and great Armenian warriors. The third float, “The Christian Faith Illuminating the Armenian People”, showed the Armenian saints and apostles and history of Christianity in Armenia. The fourth float carrying Mayr Hayastan (Mother Armenia) titled “Armenian Art – Inheritance of Your Children”, represented Armenian culture and referenced some of its great figures such as Charles Aznavour. Also it featured Mesrob Mashdots, creator of the Armenian alphabet. In conclusion, Sociedade Rosas de Ouro successfully presented the beauty of Armenia and its culture with a spectacular show.

The Guardian on Armenian cross-stones: Azerbaijan and greatest cultural genocide of 21st century NEWS.am -- The 21st century’s most extensive campaign of cultural cleansing to date may not have happened in Syria, but in largely ignored part of the Transcaucasian plateau, The Guardian reported. According to a report published in the art journal Hyperallergic in February, the Azerbaijani government has, over the past 30 years, been engaging in a systematic erasure of the country’s historic Armenian heritage. This destruction of cultural and religious artifacts exceeds Islamic State’s dynamiting of Palmyra, according to the report’s authors, Simon Maghakyan and Sarah Pickman. Maghakyan, a Denver-based analyst, activist and lecturer in political science, labels it “the greatest cultural genocide of the 21st century.” He grew up with stories about his father visiting a beautiful, mysterious place called Djulfa. Located in the Azerbaijani enclave of Nakhichevan, on the banks of the Araxes River, it was the site of a medieval necropolis, the largest ancient Armenian cemetery in the world. Visitors through the centuries, from Alexandre de Rhodes to William Ouseley, had noted the remote location’s splendour. At its height, the graveyard counted around 10,000 khachkars, or cross-stones, the earliest dating back to the 6th century. Unique to Armenian burial traditions, these distinctive tall steles of pinkish red and yellow stone feature crosses, figurative scenes and symbols, and highly decorative relief patterning. “By the time the Soviets formalised the autonomous regions of Nagorno-Karabakh and Nakhichevan in 1920, after decades of plunder, less than 3,000 khachkars remained,” The Guardian wrote. “Subsequent episodic vandalism led UNESCO in 2000 to order that the monuments be preserved.” 44  


Azerbaijani propaganda attempt backfires in most humiliating way Armenpress -- Yet another Azerbaijani state sanctioned attempt of propaganda has backfired in the most embarrassing way possible. The Azerbaijani embassy in Iran hosted a photo exhibition regarding the Khojaly events, but one of the photo exhibits on the wall didn’t have anything to do with Khojaly – it was a more than 100 year old photo depicting a dying Armenian woman during the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire. Apparently the Azerbaijanis were so much in a hurry to collect unrelated photographs depicting death that they didn’t even know what they are doing. This bizarre gaffe once more shows that the Azerbaijani government is carrying out a state-level fake propaganda on the Khojaly events, but this time their hasty attempt to choose a photo that would mislead the visitors ended in embarrassment. Seems like they simply wanted a photograph depicting distress, pain, death or any kind of misfortune regardless from what era. The story was revealed by an Iranian media outlet, placing Azerbaijani Ambassador to Iran Buniad Huseynov in an embarrassing situation. According to Iran-based Araks Armenian weekly, the Iranian Azariha online platform debunked and voiced about the incident by studying the photo. “An unusual incident has taken place during this year’s photo exhibition organized in Tehran, that was organized by the Baku embassy and which was attended by the country’s ambassador and several former Iranian diplomats who have served in Baku. What’s unusual is that several photos exhibited at this gallery are stolen photos, which actually date back to the times of the Armenian Genocide committed by the Ottoman Empire, which the government of Baku has presented to be Khojaly victims,” the Iranian media outlet said in an article entitled “The Lying Shepherd”. Azariha added that a photo depicting a dead woman in a dry desert has been included in the exhibition, whereas Khojaly is located in a semi-mountainous cold and snow-covered area between Aghdam and Askeran. “Studies of the photo showed that it depicts the forced deportation of Armenians to Syria, Aleppo in the Ottoman Empire: the photo has been taken from the US Library of Congress,” Azariha said.

European Parliament votes to suspend Turkey’s EU membership bid DW -- The European Parliament has voted to formally suspend EU accession talks with Turkey, citing severe political and democratic backsliding under President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. Lawmakers passed the symbolic non-binding resolution with 370 votes in favour and 109 against, with 143 abstentions. “The European Parliament remains seriously concerned about Turkey’s poor track record in upholding human rights, the rule of law, media freedom and the fight against corruption, as well as its all-powerful presidential system,” the Strasbourg-based body said in a statement late Wednesday. EU governments would have to vote by majority to end Turkey’s EU accession bid, which would cut some funding programs. Kati Piri, a socialist Dutch lawmaker and EU rapporteur on Turkey, said repeated European calls for Ankara to respect fundamental rights have “fallen on deaf ears.” “On top of the severe human rights violations, the dismantling of the rule of law and the fact that Turkey holds the world record for the number of journalists in jail, the recently amended constitution consolidates Erdogan’s authoritarianism,” Piri told the plenary. Turkey’s 15-year EU accession bid has long been stalled, even before Ankara’s severe crackdown on dissent in the wake of the failed coup attempt in 2016. In a statement, the Turkish Foreign Ministry rejected the European Parliament vote as “one-sided” and “baseless.” 45  


Armenian Patriarch of Istanbul Mesrob Mutafyan dies at 62 MassisPost -- The Armenian Patriarch of Istanbul Mesrob Mutafyan II passed away in Istanbul on March 8. He was 62 years old. Patriarch Mutafyan has been under treatment for a long time at Yedikule Surp Pirgiç Hospital. He had been incapacitated since 2008 with an early onset of dementia. Born Minas Mutafyan in Istanbul in 1956, he was ordained in 1979 following studies in Germany and the United States. Patriarch Mutafyan graduated from the American High School in Kornwestheim near Stuttgart, Germany. From 1974 to 1979 he studied philosophy and sociology in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. On 13 May 1979, he was ordained to priesthood and was commissioned pastor of Kinaliada, one of the Prince Islands in the Sea of Marmara in Istanbul with a small Armenian community. Between 1979 and 1981 he continued his theological studies in Jerusalem. On 21 September 1986 Mesrob Mutafyan was elevated to the rank of a Bishop in Etchmiadzin, Armenia. From 1982 to 1990 he coordinated the ecumenical relationships of the Patriarchate. He attended the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas (Angelicum) in Rome, Italy in 1988‒1989. In 1993 he was elevated to the rank of archbishop to serve the diocese of Prince Islands. From 1997 Mutafyan acted as the vicar general of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople. Following the death of Patriarch Karekin II Kazanjian of Constantinople, Mesrob Mutafyan was elected locum tenens on 16 March 1998 to serve as the temporary leader of the Church until an election is held. Even though the Turkish local authorities demanded Archbishop of Üsküdar Sahan Sivaciyan, the retired longest-serving archbishop, should succeed, Mesrob Mutafyan was finally elected the 84th Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople on 14 October 1998 and could take office. During his apostolic journey to Turkey, Pope Benedict XVI visited also the Surp Asdvadzadzin Patriarchal Church in Kumkapi, Istanbul, where he attended a religious ceremony and held later talks with Patriarch Mesrob II on 30 November 2006. He was also a member of the Elijah Interfaith Institute Board of World Religious Leaders. In 2008 Archbishop Aram Atesyan was appointed the locum tenens to fulfill Mutafyans duties as the acting patriarch. Garo Paylan, a member of the Armenian community and a legislator in Turkey’s parliament, said on Twitter: “Patriarch Mutafyan will remain in our minds as a memorable spiritual leader.” The funeral service for the late Armenian Patriarch of Istanbul Mesrob Mutafyan will be held on March 17 at the time of Sunday service (10 a.m.) at the St. Mary Armenian Church in Istanbul’s Kumkapı neighbourhood in Fatih district. Patriarch Mutafyan will be later buried at the Şişli Armenian cemetery in an area designated for patriarchs. Many church officials from Armenia, Lebanon, Jerusalem, Vatican and Turkey’s churches, along with representatives of diplomatic missions, are expected to attend the funeral-ceremony commemorating the archbishop. Preparations for the election of a new patriarch for Turkey are expected to begin after a 40-day mourning period.

Armenian St. Giragos church being restored in Turkey NEWS.am -- Armenian St. Giragos church, which was damaged during the clashes between Turks and Kurds in 2015, will be restored. According to Haberler website, regional head of Turkey’s funds Metin Evsen said the Armenian churches are being restored, and the renovation of St. Giragos church will be over soon. St. Giragos church was built in 1376. 46  


Turkish nationalist mayor demolishes Armenian writer Yeghishe Charents’ house in Kars NEWS.am -- Armenian writer Yeghishe Charents’ house, which has been preserved for many years in Kars, Turkey, has been unexpectedly torn down. The Armenian News-NEWS.am correspondent reported from Kars that the demolition of this house was a surprise to the locals, too. According to the rumours being spread in Kars, the nationalist mayor of the city had hurriedly ordered the flattening of this house in response to the events that had occurred in Khojaly village, in Nagorno-Karabakh (Artsakh), in February 1992. Local government elections will be conducted in Turkey in one month, but the incumbent mayor of Kars has no chances to be re-elected, so he decided at the last moment to have Charents’ house destroyed. But in its official statement on the demolition of this house, the Kars city hall noted that, supposedly, drug addicts assembled in that house, and therefore there was a need to tear it down. Yeghishe Charents’ house was an important site primarily for Armenian tourists visiting Kars.

Istanbul Armenian church vandalized with hate graffiti MassisPost -- Another Armenian church in Istanbul, Turkey has been vandalized with anti-Armenian graffiti, the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople said on Facebook. Unknown perpetrators have spray painted hate graffiti in English and Arabic on the exterior wall of the Surp Hreshdagabet Armenian Church in the neighbourhood of Balat. The local council members reported Archbishop Aram Ateshian on the case of vandalism. The council also informed the security authorities on the incident. This is not the first incident in which Armenian institutions have been the target of graffiti and vandalism in Istanbul in recent years. Recently, the walls of the Armenian Surb Astvatsatsin Church in Istanbul’s Zeinlink district were vandalized with hate graffiti. In April 2018 photos of graffiti reading “This homeland is ours” spray-painted on the exterior wall of the Armenian Surp Takavor Church and a pile of trash dumped in front of the church’s door began circulating on social media and various Turkish news outlets. In 2016, the exterior walls of the Bomonti Mkhitarian Armenian School of Istanbul were vandalized with antiArmenian graffiti reading “One night we suddenly will be in Karabakh.” 47  


In Memoriam: Patriarch Mesrob Mutafyan (1956‒2019) A decade-long goodbye for a journey cut short By Dr. Hratch Tchilingirian University of Oxford

Patriarch Mesrob Mutafyan was one of the most courageous, principled and forward looking church leaders in the contemporary history of the Armenian Church. His youth, charisma, strong pastoral and administrative leadership were assets that the community in Turkey needed at the time of his election as Patriarch. However, his decadelong illness made it impossible to fulfil the hopes of the expected new era in the life of the Armenian community in Turkey. Physically a towering figure, even as he resembled a biblical character, his thinking was fully in step with the times, creative and purposeful. Above all, as a priest and hierarch, he was a deeply spiritual person and tried to live what he preached. He became an inspiring role model for multitudes of young people for whom he dedicated serious time and energy with the love of an elder brother. For Patriarch Mesrob, Christian faith and Armenian culture and language were inseparably intertwined—like body and soul. Unlike many high ranking clergymen, his sermons were almost entirely focused on the Gospel message and its relevance to Armenians today. His Eastern message to the Armenian people on the occasion of the Jubilee of Christianity in Armenia in 2001, was indicative: “Although you have not personally seen the miraculous Resurrection of the Saviour, re-confess and strengthen your faith in the witness of the first Illuminators, St. Thaddeus and St. Bartholomew and the other Apostles. Anchor unshakably your spiritual life in the preaching, character and exemplary life of our Patron Saint, Gregory the Illuminator, and the multitudes of other Christ-loving holy fathers.” When in August 1999 a devastating earthquake hit Turkey’s Marmara region, killing almost 20,000 people, injuring more than 27,000 people and leaving hundreds of thousands homeless, Patriarch Mesrob was one of the first leaders behind the immediate organization of relief work. Within hours after the earthquake, he mobilized the Armenian community and sent rescue teams to the affected areas to help the victims. Aid distribution continued for months. This enormous effort was organized despite far-right Nationalist Action Party Health Minister Osman Durmus’ notorious decision to reject rescuers and aid from Armenia, Greece, and Romania. In a touching move, Mutafyan adopted three Armenian orphans whose parents were killed in the earthquake—one of them a 12-year-old girl whose left leg was amputated. He assured them that they will be taken care of until they graduate from university. Two of the eminent patriarchs that Mutafyan admired for their indelible leadership and prolific scholarship were Hovhaness IXth Golod (1715‒1741) and the formidable Malachia Ormanyan (1896‒1908). But most influential in his life was the saintly Patriarch Shnork Kalustian (1963‒1990), his spiritual father and a constant inspiration for the ideal religious life. Mutafyan’s appreciation and taste for aesthetic details brought a certain degree of sophistication to the Patriarchal office and regalia, yet he remained faithful to church tradition and the rich history of the Patriarchate, which was established in 1461. The assassination of Hrant Dink in January 2007 had a shocking effect on Mutafyan, as he too started to receive more frequent death threats. In June of that year, he went to Ankara to meet with the Chief of the General Staff, General Yaşar Büyükanıt, the top military man in Turkey, a rather unusual visit for a religious leader, but indicative of the tortuous relationship of the church and the community with the Turkish state. When asked why Mutafyan wished to meet with the military head rather than the Prime Minister, he said there were allegations that 48  


Hrant Dink was assassinated by the security forces and, therefore, he wanted to ask the army chief “the necessary question: What would you advise the Armenians? What should we do?” In that fateful year, he was involved in a serious car accident from which he did not fully recover. Along with the anxieties caused by death threats, his health gradually deteriorated for mysterious reasons. In the summer of 2008, the Holy Saviour Armenian Hospital in Istanbul (Ս. Փրկիչ Ազգային Հիւանդանոց) officially announced that the Patriarch is afflicted with Alzheimer’s disease. Eight years later, in October 2016, the Clergy Council of the Patriarchate officially retired him through a canonical procedure, but the Turkish government did not recognize it and insisted that Mutafyan is the Patriarch as long as he is alive. For over a decade until his death on 8th March 2019, he remained in vegetative state in the hospital, away from public view and unable to carry out his patriarchal duties. He is survived by his mother Diramayr Mari Mutafyan and his sisters. Archbishop Mesrob Mutafyan was elected 84th Patriarch of “Istanbul and All of Turkey” on 14 October 1998, at the young age of 42, after months of state interference in the election process. The election took place only after the Governor of Istanbul sent the required approval of the government, which permitted the Armenian community in Turkey to proceed. The 79 lay and 10 clergy delegates of the General Assembly of the Armenian Church Community officially represented 15,811 church members from Istanbul, Kayseri, Diyarbakir, Iskenderun, Kirikhan and Vakifkoy. While historically known as the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople—and still referred to as such in Armenian (Պատրիարքութիւն Հայոց Կոստանդնուպոլսոյ)—the reference to the ancient capital of Byzantium is a taboo and considered a politically charged term. Indeed, a few months before his election, a Turkish television accused Archbishop Mesrob of committing “a crime” by placing a wreath at the funeral of his predecessor with the Armenian inscription: “Patriarchate of Constantinople”. Likewise, the Greek Patriarch, who is recognised as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople by the Orthodox world, is referred to in Turkey and by officialdom as the “Patriarch of Fener”, after the neighbourhood where the patriarchal headquarters are located. It must be noted that both Patriarchates do not have legal status, which means they cannot engage in legal transactions. Ninety-six years after the establishment of the Turkish Republic, the Turkish state continues to refuse to recognise them as legal personalities. At the time of his election, the Turkish state had implicitly made its displeasure with Archbishop Mesrob Mutafyan’s candidacy known. In addition to his audacious public pronouncements as the Chancellor of the Patriarchate, during previous Patriarchal elections in 1990 and 1998, the charismatic bishop had led the campaign for a “people’s choice”, rather than supporting the candidate favoured by the Turkish government. The mobilisation during these elections became the catalyst for the community to become active again and engage with the government and politics. Mutafyan mobilized a group of young and progressive Armenians and engaged them in community affairs. Among them was Hrant Dink, who became a spokesperson of the Patriarchate in the early 1990s and from where the idea for Agos germinated. The hunger to speak out and the desire to address the “existential” problems surrounding the Armenian Church and community institutions in general, sparked the creation of the bilingual weekly newspaper in April 1996. Patriarch Mesrob was invariably criticized by the media in Armenia and the Diaspora for statements he had made or policies he had adopted. Fierce criticism were levelled at him from Istanbul to Etchmiadzin and to various circles in the Diaspora, especially when he was publically critical of the Catholicos or when he championed the cause of the Melkonian School in Cyprus, or when he spoke, for domestic reasons in Turkey, against the recognition of the Genocide by foreign parliaments. One Armenian party newspaper preposterously warned that Mutafyan is exporting “his eccentricities to other communities with unchecked imperial ambitions.” Most notably, in June 1998, Mutafyan made headlines for commenting on the French National Assembly’s affirmation of the Armenian Genocide. “The Armenian community in Turkey finds itself between two fires,” he said. “The state of Armenia, the Armenian Diaspora and the Turkish government, all three have different views and opinions… when these three shoot at each other, we are right in the middle,” he said with frustration. Leading an extremely vulnerable community required understanding, diplomacy, patience and judgment. Surely, Mutafyan did not satisfy everyone—Armenia, Diaspora or Turkey—but he had said from the outset of his tenure that his responsibility is to place the interests of his flock and community above all other considerations. In the early 2000s, Patriarch Mesrob and Hrant Dink had bitter disagreements, especially over the critical issue of as to who should represent the Armenian community before the government. Many at times the dispute over policy and procedure played out in the media. Nevertheless, their essential problems and issues vis a vis the Turkish 49  


state and society were the same: state-instituted discrimination of minorities and erosion of their rights. In his eulogy at Hrant Dink’s funeral, Patriarch Mesrob lamented the “enmity against the Armenians” created in society and said efforts to eliminate such characterizations should “begin with our school textbooks and our schools to change the attitude, mentality, and practices that are behind the perception of Armenians as enemies, so that our government and people accept us not as foreigners and potential enemies but as citizens of the Republic of Turkey, who have lived for thousands of years on this soil.” Long before Hrant Dink’s entrance into public life, in the late 1980s there were steady public campaigns through the media and the courts against a number of clergymen—the religious leadership of the community— among them Bishop Mesrob, when he was the outspoken young Chancellor of the Patriarchate. He was falsely accused of supporting, predictably, “terrorist acts against Turks” in sensationalist newspaper headlines. Among a host of preposterous court cases brought against him in the same period, one is notable. In 1987 Mutafyan appeared in a Turkish Criminal Court in Istanbul to face charges for violating the country’s statutes on the preservation of historical buildings. A state prosecutor had charged him of being guilty of covering the leaking roof of a balcony of the Armenian Patriarchate with rubber-based tiles (“eternite”). The prosecutor asked the court to sentence Mutafyan to two to five year prison term for the offense. A confidential report, revealed during Hrant Dink’s trial, showed that Mutafyan was under surveillance by the police and intelligence services “for his Armenian nationalist inclinations”—as labelled by the state agencies. Upon his election as Patriarch, Mutafyan was able to develop a modus vivendi with the state, even as he demanded respect for the rights of the church and community with tact and discretion. During a visit to Ankara in 2001, he assured the Chairman of the Grand National Assembly that “the interests of the Turkish Armenians are in line with the interests of the State and the place where the problems of the Community are ought to be discussed is the [Parliament].” Among the critical challenges Patriarch Mesrob faced at his election was the lack of adequately trained and sufficient number of priests to staff Istanbul’s 33 Armenian churches. Over the years he successfully recruited a cadre of young candidates, trained and ordained them to the priesthood. Many of them continue to serve the Patriarchate until today. Minas Mutafyan, his baptismal name, was born in Istanbul in 1956. Upon completing his elementary education at the local Essayan Armenian School, he attended a British secondary school in Istanbul and later the American High School in Stuttgart, Germany. He graduated with Bachelors in sociology and philosophy from the University of Memphis, Tennessee. He was ordained a priest in May 1979 by his spiritual mentor Patriarch Shnork Kalustian. Mutafyan continued his graduate studies in Old Testament and archaeology at the Hebrew University and the American Biblical Institute in Jerusalem. In September 1986 he was consecrated a bishop by Catholicos Vazken I in Etchmiadzin. While continuing his post graduate studies, he served the pastoral and spiritual needs of the community though various churches in Istanbul and the Princes’ Islands and held high level positions within the Patriarchate. Being Patriarch of Turkey is not an envious position. The Armenian community, the religious and lay leadership in Turkey have to constantly juggle their ethnic and state loyalties. “Every Armenian in Turkey grows up with three elements in his personality: being a Turkish citizen, then his heritage as an Armenian, and then his faith as a Christian in a country which is overwhelmingly—99 percent—Moslem,” Mutafyan had explained in an interview. The elections of church and charity trusts are major “political” issue for the Turkish government. It is one of the controlling mechanisms of the state by which it manages the affairs of the minorities and ensures loyalty. Since 2013, the government has not allowed minorities to hold new elections. Previously, even participation in elections outside Turkey were not allowed. For instance, in 1995, Ankara forbade lay delegates from Istanbul to participate in elections for a new Catholicos in Armenia. A year earlier, the government had ordered the Patriarchate to disband its Council of lay advisors. In the coming months it remains to be seen as to how the Turkish government will handle the election of Mutafyan’s successor. Predictably, the election process will face the customary state-imposed restrictions and administrative hurdles, which will be exacerbated by the personality clashes and ambitions of the high ranking clergymen at the Patriarchate. Turkish law mandates Mutafyan’s successor to be a Turkish citizen or at least born in Turkey, preferably one who has completed the mandatory Turkish military service, which limits the list of eligible candidates to only a few. None have the calibre and gravitas of Patriarch Mesrob Mutafyan. Enormous challenges are ahead of the Church and community in Turkey. 50  


America has no right to tell Armenia not to send a humanitarian squad to Syria By Harut Sassounian Publisher, The California Courier

The US government recently created a new and unnecessary controversy, this time with the Republic of Armenia. It all started when the Armenian government decided to send a non-combat humanitarian squad of 83 doctors, sappers, and other servicemen to Syria to provide assistance to the important, but dwindling Armenian community in Aleppo. Armenia had previously sent four airlifts of humanitarian assistance to the Syrian people. A Russian cargo plane flew the Armenian squad to Aleppo on February 8. Apparently, this small role played by Russia was enough to provoke the ire of the cold-warriors in Washington. On February 13, the US Embassy in Armenia released an announcement by the State Department criticizing the dispatch of the Armenian humanitarian squad to Syria. “We do not support any engagement with Syrian military forces, whether that engagement is to provide assistance to civilians or is military in nature. Nor do we support any cooperation between Armenia and Russia for this mission,” stated the State Department. This statement antagonized not only the Armenian government, but also the population of Armenia which the United States has been trying to win over in recent years. More importantly, this provocative US statement irritated the large Armenian-American community. The Armenian squad’s involvement in Syria was based on several factors: 1) Syria’s Arabs had played a critical role by providing a life-saving refuge to the remnants of the Armenian Genocide, including this writer’s grandparents. It is only fitting that the Armenian government and all Armenians reciprocate to Syria’s goodwill by coming to the rescue of the destitute local Armenians and Syrians in general. 2) The Armenian government has sent the humanitarian squad based on an inter-state agreement signed by Armenia and Syria in 2001. Therefore, this action is not only of a humanitarian nature, but also complies with requirements of international law. 3) The United States, on the other hand, has dispatched its Air Force and soldiers to Syria without the approval of the Syrian government, thus violating all relevant international laws. This illegal action is not committed by Armenia, but by the United States. 4) The Trump Administration and particularly hawkish National Security Advisor John Bolton have been striving to distance Armenia from Russia and draw it closer to the American sphere of influence. Regrettably, criticizing the Armenian government’s humanitarian aid to its compatriots in Syria does not endear the United States to Armenians. Just the opposite, it antagonizes Armenians worldwide. The US position simply reflects a poor knowledge of the realities in the Middle East by Trump officials. It makes no sense to try to compel Armenia to desist from sending a humanitarian squad to Syria, knowing full well that such pressure will be rejected, making the American government look weak and ineffective. US officials should have the wisdom to know when to exert their influence and when not to. In this particular case, pressuring Armenia was counter-productive; it only served to strengthen the influence of Russia. Fortunately, such a minor issue will not undermine the friendly relationship between the United States and Armenia. Armenians understand that the US displeasure is more directed towards Russia and Iran than to Armenia itself. The US government is well aware that Armenian troops have participated in international peacekeeping missions, such as Afghanistan, Iraq, Kosovo and Lebanon. 5) The United States government has lost its moral authority to lecture Armenians on any subject given the fact that successive US Presidents in recent decades have refused to utter the term Armenian Genocide under pressure from the despotic Turkish regime. The Armenian Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Anna Naghdalyan reacted to the State Department’s statement by declaring that “throughout the Syrian conflict the plight of civilians, minorities, including the sizable SyrianArmenian community has consistently been a priority concern for the Armenian people worldwide. The Armenian public opinion strongly reflects deep compassion and concern for the sufferings of civilians and the devastation of the country. We speak about a country which has had an indispensable contribution for the survival of the Armenian nation in the wake of the Armenian Genocide.” Naghdalyan also stated that the deployment of the humanitarian mission to Syria is intended to support the Armenian community in Aleppo. “It is a purely relief mission guided by International Humanitarian Law and [Armenia] coordinates its work with the relief agencies and international partners present on the ground.” 51  


Going a step further, on February 12, Armenia’s Defence Minister Davit Tonoyan announced that the humanitarian mission did not exclude the possibility of deploying combat troops in Syria in the future. However, the Armenian Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan quickly rejected that possibility, stating that “we have no such plans.” Americans, Russians, and everyone else should understand that the Armenian government will pursue its national interests regardless of the wishes of other nations. No amount of pressure will deter Armenians from their own objectives.

Azerbaijan’s destruction of Armenian monuments exceeds ISIS crimes By Harut Sassounian Publisher, The California Courier

“A groundbreaking forensic report tracks Azerbaijan’s destruction of 89 medieval churches, 5,480 intricate cross-stones, and 22,700 tombstones,” is the subtitle of an incredible article by Simon Maghakyan and Sarah Pickman, published in the Hyperallergic Newsletter last week. The article is titled: “A regime conceals its erasure of indigenous Armenian culture.” In April 2011, when the US Ambassador to Azerbaijan wanted to visit Nakhichevan, an Armenian territory classified by the Soviets as an “autonomous republic” of Azerbaijan, to verify the destruction of thousands of historical medieval Armenian khachkars (cross-stones), he was blocked by Azeri officials who told him that reports of their destruction was fake news. Under Azeri oppression, the longstanding Armenian community of Nakhichevan had dwindled to zero! Not content with ethnic-cleansing, the Azeris proceeded to eliminate all traces of Armenian monuments, claiming that no Armenians had ever lived in Nakhichevan. “In December 2005, an Iranian border patrol alerted the Prelate of Northern Iran’s Armenian Church that the vast Djulfa cemetery, visible across the border in Azerbaijan, was under military attack. Bishop Nshan Topouzian and his driver rushed to videotape over 100 Azerbaijani soldiers, armed with sledgehammers, dump trucks and cranes destroying the cemetery’s remaining 2,000 khachkars; over 1,000 had already been purged in 1998 and 2002,” reported Maghakyan and Pickman. The flattened land, where the khachkars stood for centuries, is now a military rifle range. The “demolition was the ‘grand finale’ of Azerbaijan’s eradication of Nakhichevan’s Armenian past,” wrote the two authors. Maghakyan and Pickman reported that “the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) employed remote sensing technologies in its pioneer investigation into cultural destruction. Their 2010 geospatial study concluded that ‘satellite evidence is consistent with reports by observers on the ground who have reported the destruction of Armenian artifacts in the Djulfa cemetery.’” “Absolutely false and slanderous information … [fabricated by] the Armenian lobby,” proclaimed Azerbaijan’s President Ilham Aliyev, who makes frequent threats against Armenia and distorts its history. The authors also quote from public decree No.5-03/S on December 6, 2005, by Nakhichevan’s “local autocrat” Vasif Talibov, a relative of Pres. Aliyev, “ordering a detailed inventory of Nakhichevan’s monuments. Three years later, the investigation was summed up in the bilingual English and Azerbaijani ‘Encyclopaedia of Nakhchivan Monuments,’ co-edited by Talibov himself. Missing from the 522-page ‘Encyclopaedia’ are the 89 medieval churches, 5,840 intricate khachkars, and 22,000 tombstones that [Armenian researcher Argam] Ayvazyan had meticulously documented. There is not so much as a footnote on the now-defunct Christian Armenian communities in the area ‒ Apostolic and Catholic alike. Nevertheless, the official Azerbaijani publication’s foreword explicitly reveals ‘Armenians’ as the reason for No. 5-03/S: ‘Thereafter the decision issued on 6 December 2005 … a passport was issued for each monument … Armenians demonstrating hostility against us not only have an injustice [sic] land claim from Nakhchivan, but also our historical monuments by giving biassed [sic] information to the international community. The held investigations once again prove that the land of Nakhchivan belonged to the Azerbaijan turks [sic]….’” Any Azerbaijani who dares to speak out in defence of Armenians is also attacked as an enemy of Azerbaijan. A courageous Azerbaijani writer, Akram Aylisli, paid a hefty price for telling the truth about the destruction of Armenian monuments in his hometown of Agulis (known today as Aylis). The well-known novelist was furious that the Azeri government was destroying Armenian churches. In his novel, “Stone Dreams,” the protagonist, an intellectual from Agulis, refers to memories of the town’s eight of the 12 medieval churches that had survived until the 1990’s, and protects a victim of anti-Armenian pogroms in Azerbaijan’s capital Baku. Pres. Aliyev revoked Ay52  


lisli’s pension and title of “People’s Writer.” His writings were removed from school curricula, his books were publicly burned, and his family members were fired from their jobs. He has been under de facto house arrest since the release of his novel. Aylisli protested the destruction of the Armenian churches in Agulis and resigned from his position as Member of Azerbaijan’s Parliament. He fearlessly sent a telegram to Pres. Heydar Aliyev in 1997, calling the destruction of the Armenian churches in Aylis an “act of vandalism being perpetrated through the involvement of armed forces and employment of anti-tank mines.” The two authors spoke with Russian journalist Shura Burtin who after interviewing Aylisli in 2013 travelled to Nakhichevan and reported that he didn’t see “a trace of the area’s glorious past.” Burtin concluded: “Not even ISIS could commit such an epic crime against humanity.” The authors reported that Aylisli’s 2018 non-fiction essay in Farewell, claimed “that a mosque built five years ago on the site of one of the destroyed churches has been boycotted by locals because ‘everyone in Aylis knows that prayers offered in a mosque built in the place of a church don’t reach the ears of Allah.’” Argam Ayvazyan, a native of Nakhichevan who spent decades photographing the local Armenian monuments before their destruction, was quoted by Maghakyan and Pickman as decrying the world’s silence: “Oil-rich Azerbaijan’s annihilation of Nakhichevan’s Armenian past make it worse than ISIS, yet UNESCO and most Westerners have looked away.” ISIS-demolished sites like Palmyra can be renovated, Ayvazyan argued, but “all that remain of Nakhichevan’s Armenian churches and cross-stones that survived earthquakes, caliphs, Tamerlane, and Stalin are my photographs.”

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Profile for Nor Serount Toronto

LOUSSAPATZ 16-03-2019 #1136  

Armenian News 11 Anniversary of 1st March 2008 Aliyev & Pashinian will meet again Pashinian: Necessary to Karabakh to be involve in talks Az...

LOUSSAPATZ 16-03-2019 #1136  

Armenian News 11 Anniversary of 1st March 2008 Aliyev & Pashinian will meet again Pashinian: Necessary to Karabakh to be involve in talks Az...

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