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Maria Esther Ventosa Torres Maria Fernanda Sanudo Morales Norma Leticia Galvan Villarreal Tutor: Alejandro Rodriguez

“Look deep into nature, and then you will understand everything better.“ ALBERT EINSTEIN.

C O N T E N T s A. CASE FOR INNOVATION Introduction Site Analysis Research B. DESIGN APPROACH Wind Tunnel Analysis Site Parameters C. PROJECT DEVELOPMENT Algorithm Iterations d. final proposal Urban Proposal Program Typology Circulations Main Components Sustainability e. Conclusion


c a s e f o r i n n o v a t i o n



Create a mixed-use recreational space that aims to unify and integrate contrasting sites through an attractive program for students and reignite the university area of Tecnol贸gico de Monterrey.

C O N C E P T AIR FLOW is an urban and architectural design project to improve the Tec comunity in Monterrey, N. L, M茅xico. Due to the extreme weather, the main purpose of the project is to integrate the area by creating microclimates at a urban and individual level, with the main objective of creating a confort zone for the users. Through the Wind Tunnel Analysis, we studied the behavior of the winds in the site in order to manipulate its direction to our favor.

After an extensive analysis, it was concluded that what was an area of life ​​ and security, is currently unsafe, uncomfortable, visually unappealing, disorganized with heavy traffic, no connections, and most importantly: no pedestrian sidewalks.

S i t e


Area of intervention Prevailing winds (SE) Sun path

s w o t

r e s e a r c h

1 2

WHAT IS AERODYNAMICS? AERODYNAMICS is the study of forces and motion of air, particularly when it interacts with solid objects.


To understand aerodynamics, we have to understand how air flows around a body moving through it. Initially the air is undisturbed and as it passes through a mass, it divides to the left and right (e.g., a bicycle) , or above and below (e.g., an airplane wing), forcing its way through. The air presses on the body as the body forces its way through, and the component of this pressure that faces aft is called pressure drag.



The shape of an object affects the resistance of the air, so when we talk about an “aerodynamic shape� is a form that hardly disturbs the air flow. As seen in the chart above, the different shapes, having all the same frontal area, show different effects on drag. For example, a round shape has roughly 24 times the drag of a TrueAero shape of the same frontal area. so, shape matters a lot.

r e s e a r c h


Laminar Flow


Turbulent Flow

Laminar flow around a curve shape is more aerodyanamic because air flows easily without obstruction, there are no cross currents perpendicular to the direction of flow, nor whirl or swirls of fluids. On the other hand, rectangular shapes create turbulent flow, which is a less orderly flow regime, characterized by eddies or small packets of fluid particles which result in lateral mixing. In nonscientific terms laminar flow is “smooth”, while turbulent flow is “rough”.


variables to consider

Aerodynamic force arises because of two causes: The normal force due to the pressure on the surface of the body. The shear force due to the viscosity of the gas, also known as skin friction. The net aerodynamic force over the body is given as a result to the pressure and shear forces integrated over the total exposed area of the body.

When an airfoil (or a wing) is moving relative to the air it generates an aerodynamic force, in a rearward direction at an angle with the direction of relative motion. This aerodynamic force is commonly resolved into two components: drag is the force component parallel to the direction of relative motion, lift is the force component perpendicular to the direction of relative motion. IIn addition to these two forces, the body may experience an aerodynamic moment also, the value of which depends on the point chosen for calculation.


angle of attack angle of attack

The critical angle of attack is the angle which produces the maximum lift coefficient. Below the critical angle, as the angle of attack increases, the coefficient of lift increases. At the same time, above the critical angle of attack, as angle of attack increases, the air begins to flow less smoothly over the upper surface of the airfoil and begins to separate from the upper surface. The angle of attack must not exceed 45ยบ.


angle of attack


angle of attack



r e s e a r c h bernoulli s principle

BERNOULLI´S PRINCIPLE is an important principle involving the

movement of a fluid through a pressure difference: an increase in the speed of the fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid’s potential energy.

decreased preassure

decreased PRESSURE preassure


d e s i g n a p p r o a c h

w i n d t u n n e l a n a l y s i s According to the Kรถppen Climate Classification, Monterrey is classified as:

Bsh- Semiarid

Rainfall is between 50% and 100% of the average annual temperature multiplied by twenty four. Vegetation is scarce. Known in some regions as dry Mediterranean, in many cases, a transitional climate between Csa (Mediterranean) and BW (desert).






25 -30 m/s 15-20 m/s 10-15 m/s 5 m/s

Monterrey is known for its hot weather in summer reaching 40 °C (104 °F) or more for its three consecutive months of unbereable climate, being one of the warmest major cities in Mexico.

One of it´s most critical days is when the equinox occurs on March 21st. As a result of this weather condition and the lack of confort places where the citizens can hang out and have a pleasant time. We took this analysis as our starting point for the parametric design process for a multisuse recreational space.

21st march

25 -30 m/s 15-20 m/s 10-15 m/s 5 m/s

s i t e

p a r a m e t e r s pressure When the wind acts on a surface, generates pressure that varies in velocity and direction.



wind parameters

Less 45ยบ for wind direction


Pressure acting on a surface perpendicular to it.


Leeward: toward which the wind is blowing Windward: facing the wind The impact force in the front and back of the body reacts with a relation of 1:6, being the frontal area the most affected.

MORE wind


MORE impact

LESS impact

MORE momentum

LESS momentum

MORE height

MORE wind



LESS wind

MORE pressure

LESS height

LESS wind LESS presurre

MORE heght

LESS height

MORE wind

LESS wind

MORE impact

LESS impact

MORE distortion

LESS distortion


p r o j e c t d e v e l o p m e n t

A L G O R I T H M In order to develop a project which is capable of creating microclimates at an urban and human scale, the following 6 steps were taken for the creation of a mix use development.



Vasari´s image show the speed of the wind as follows: yellow at 2025 m/s, red at 15-20 m/s, purple at 10 -15 m/s and blue at 5-10 m/s. T The speed of the wind is comfortable for any user at 25 m/s, so we took this speed as the lower height to create open spaces, yellow zones, and the blue zones as the maximum elevation possible.


To split the 3 great masses, points of the regions with greater comfort are taken and joined by lines. The lines that go across the volumes in the same angle as the wind (156 Âş and of the shorter lenght) are taken to split the volumes. This creates new paths for the wind to flow and turn the blue zones into yellow.


According to the direction of the wind surrounding the volumes, windward and leeward, we create a deformation in every volume that reacts to its own conditions (wind optimization). This way the masses become stylized to allow the wind flow throughout the area and direct it in order to create indoor environmental quality as well.

4 5

Mass are split by zones: leaving 2 levels to commercial area and 2, 3, 4 to residential depending on the height of the building.


Finally the floors, the walls, the mullions, and the ramps where designed for the project.

The bodies are split again in order to increase the aumount of natural ventilation inside the building, by positioning the central opening of the building in the same direction of the angle.of incidence of the wind.







i t e r a t i o n s Mass was placed in the zones where the speed of the air was higher in order to increase it´s flow.

The bodies were split by an angle of 156Âş, which represent the direction of the wind.

Due to the big scale and to avoid having a closed volume, they were splitted again in relationship to the orientation of the wind.

Ramps and talus were used to integrate the site with the context.


f i n a l p r o p o s a l

u r b a n

p r o p o s a l

p r o g r a m

BUS STATION Comercial Area: restaurants, merchandise stores and supplies, exhibition galleries. Residential Area: apartments for students and young families. Green areas Undergound parking Bicycle path

T Y P O L O G Y Bus station Residental Commerce Wind

floor plans

bus station

65% mass 35% green areas Apartments - 150-250m2 Commercial premises - 25-30m2 Bus Station - 4,000m2

Apartment plan

comercial plan




structure-beams with a circular profile (60cm of diameter, main structural element) roof-precasted concrete roof mullions-horizontal elements that form the division between window units glass-high performance windows for residential area slabs- concrete slabs for residential area Glass- high performance windows for commercial area ramps and embankment- main element for integration of buildings with the site Horizontal circulation- precast concrete floors. Connection between buildings and context Grass - Bermuda grass Piezoelectric floor- path that generates electrical energy from mechanical pressure. Parking- two levels of underground parking


Structure Structural Elements:

structural wall DIMENSION: 20 cm

circular beam of steel DIAMETER= 60 cm steel beam HEIGHT= 50 cm

Isolated footings DIMENSIONS: 4 X 4 M HEIGHT: depends on the soil properties

Due to the structural framework created between the circular beams and the structural work the whole building structure functions and it’s able to support itself.

1 B

S U S T A I N A B I L I T Y cross ventilation

air enters on one side of the building, and leaves on the opposite side.


N Low Zero





running energy

S costs


Low maintenance probably lower initial

and cost.

Ventilation in buildings has three main purposes: 1. To maintain a minimum air quality (1 – 2 ac/h) 2. To remove heat (or other pollutant) (2 – 15 ac/h) 3. To provide perceptible air movement to enhance thermal comfort ( 0.5 – 2 m/s)


reflecting pool

key points

Wind speed and direction is very variable. Openings must be controllable to cover the wide range of required ventilation rates and the wide range of wind speeds. The more the opening area is distributed, the more likely it is that there will be a pressure difference between openings to drive the flow – i.e. many small openings are better than one large opening. For cross-ventilation, bear in mind that the leeward space will have air that has picked up heat or pollution from the windward space. This may limit the depth of plan for cross-ventilation.

In the project cross ventilation is applied, by 2 systems, which are used according to the facades relationship to the entrance of the wind. The windows arrangement was done according to the main principle of hot and cold Air: Cold air= goes down Hot air= goes up Entrance window = low Exit window = High


If the entrance of the wind is from the inner part of the building the following windows are used.



If the entrance of the wind is from the outer part of the building the following windows are used.



high performance windows

High-performance windows can greatly reduce energy consumption and, thus, heating and cooling costs. Multiple glazing Panes of glass, with an air or gas-filled space in the middle, insulate much better than a single pane of glass. Greater energy efficiency, increased impact resistance, and sound insulation. low-e glass Special coating reflect infrared light. Keeping heat inside in winter and outside in summer. They also reflect damaging ultraviolet light, which helps protect interior furnishings from fading. Gas Fills Some energy-efficient windows have argon, krypton, or other gases between the panes. These odorless, non-toxic gases insulate. Warm Edge Spacers A spacer keeps a window’s glass panes the correct distance apart. Today’s warm edge spacers—made of steel, foam, fiberglass, or vinyl—reduce heat flow and prevent condensation.


piezoelectric floors

Piezoelectricity is electrical energy produced from mechanical pressure (including motions such as walking). When pressure is applied to an object, a negative charge is produced on the expanded side and a positive charge on the compressed side. Once the pressure is relieved, electrical current flows across the material.

A single footstep causes pressure when the foot hits the floor. When the flooring is engineered with piezoelectric technology, the electrical charge produced by that pressure is captured by floor sensors, converted to an electrical charge, then stored and used as a power source. One footstep can only provide enough electrical current to light two 60watt bulbs for one second, but the greater the number of people walking across the piezoelectric floor, the greater amounts of power produced. AIR FLOW will provide outdoor piezoelectric floors, on the bicylce path and the two levels of underground parking, in order to reduce the amount of energy use for electrical systems.


c o n c l u s i o n

After an extensive analysis and study of the winds, we dare to say our project is successful because our main objective, creating interior and exterior microclimates, was accomplished. Through an analysis of the wind with Vasari´s Wind Tunnel Analysis on the site, we saw a significant change in the zone; the blue areas became red or yellow meaning a good change of wind speed at a urban level and gives the residents and visitors a pleaseant time. before


Thus the following was concluded: The wind must not be blocked, should be allowed to flow freely . The angle of attack is the first thing to consider obtaining good wind flows. The wind does not bounce, is redirected.

AIR FLOW with its large green areas, reflecting pools, and mixed-use buildings, integrate, relate, and provides life to the university area of the Tec de Monterrey.