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Contents 8

COVER STORY

Purchasing Lubricants Based on Performance Learn the pros and cons of using a specification system to purchase lubricants, how to launch such a system and make it work, and how to handle exceptions. November-December 2013

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AS I SEE IT

OIL ANALYSIS

Demand ‘Reliability Readiness’ from Equipment Builders

6 Ways to Maximize Your Oil Analysis Software Value

Reliability should have shared responsibility. It must be fixed in the DNA of the machine as well as in the minds of operators and maintainers.

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FROM THE FIELD

How Lubricant Suppliers Impact Machine Reliability

Anatomy of an Oil Analysis Report

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LUBE-TIPS Our readers offer excellent advice on a host of lubrication-related issues, including safety tips for oil storage areas.

TURBINE LUBRICATION

Hydrodynamic Cleaning and Flushing of Turbine Oil Systems

In order to properly interpret an oil analysis report and make sense of all the test data, you must understand a few important principles.

CERTIFICATION NEWS

World-Class Reliability Starts with a Solid Foundation Technicians are the human foundation of any reliability-improvement program and should be respected and supported in their professional development.

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HYDRAULICS

Discover how the technology of hydrodynamic cleaning and flushing of oil systems can be an effective method of preparing new oil systems and restoring operated oil systems.

GREASES

Using a Grind Gage for In-Service Grease Analysis A quick and simple field test utilizing a fineness of grind gage can provide immediate results on the overall contamination of grease.

More

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LESSONS IN LUBRICATION

Plants often don’t take into account the effect that the lubricant supplier can have on machine reliability. If left unchecked, the results can be catastrophic.

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Selecting the proper oil analysis software and maximizing its features can provide a huge payback for the user through reduced machinery maintenance expenses.

Become an Expert through Certification

Getting certified and holding multiple certifications demonstrates that you take your career seriously and can be the key component to increasing your worth to your employer.

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BACK PAGE BASICS

How to Change Your Lubrication Culture Changing your facility’s lubrication culture may take time, patience and commitment, but the rewards will be well worth the effort.

Editorial Features

Departments

40 GET TO KNOW 52 NOW ON MACHINERYLUBRICATION.COM

14 PRODUCT NEWS 26 PRODUCT SUPERMARKET

32 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE 42 CROSSWORD PUZZLER 54 BOOKSTORE


Maintenance and Reliability

AS I SEE IT

JIM FITCH NORIA CORPORATION

Demand ‘RELIABILITY READINESS’ from Equipment BUILDERS When it comes to modern concepts in the field of lubrication and applied tribology, many users these days are far more sophisticated than those who are designing and building the machines they operate. This lack of sophistication by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) is very evident when you see what’s not included with the sale of new machinery. One could assume that what’s missing from the machine and its documentation is functionally missing from the knowledge and awareness of the engineers and builders of this equipment. Ignorance is not bliss. The same is true for complacency. Reliability needs to have shared responsibility. It must be fixed in the DNA of the machine as well as in the minds of operators and maintainers. It’s like a reliability chain; every link in the chain must be equally strong in order for the chain’s full length to bear the load. Machinery Lubrication magazine is primarily devoted to advanced concepts in lubrication from a user’s perspective, more specifically lubrication-enabled reliability. MAINTAINABILITY MACHINE DESIGN FEATURES

Users not only have a significant influence on machine reliability during operation but also by what is being done (or not done) by equipment builders to “ready” machines for optimum reliability. They want the machine’s design to have an implanted genetic code that enables reliability. Users define what’s expected from OEMs and the machines they deliver. Of course, meeting the minimum required operating performance is a basic need of every machine, but prolonged sustainability of that performance is also important. This is not simply a matter of quality manufacturing to a design specification in order to avoid defects. From the standpoint of reliability, it’s more about including design features that have little to do with the machine’s functional performance. At first, this may seem unnecessary and wasteful, but when viewed over a timespan of several years, these “extra features” could translate to huge financial benefits. In sum, OEMs can achieve machine reliability in the following ways (used collectively):

• Design for functional robustness (functional design, material selection, lab and field testing) • Design for optimum maintainability by the user (ease and effectiveness) • Quality manufacturing to reduce defects and other anomalies (e.g., Six Sigma) • Provide a documented equipment maintenance plan (EMP) (see sidebar on page 3) • Training and education of field-service technicians, operators and maintainers to execute the EMP

Developing Reliability Readiness Investments in machine reliability should be purposeful. Certainly, there will be costs and even risks associated with reliability initiatives. You aren’t trying to maximize reliability but rather optimize it in the context of the user organization. OEMs must be keenly aware of how their machines will be deployed, the operating environment and the minimum needs for reliability. Ideally, they should follow these steps:

STABILIZED LUBRICANT HEALTH

CONTAMINATION CONTROL

N/A

Avoids lubricant distress from contamination and low lubricant levels

Reduces the severity of contaminant ingression (dirt, water, process chemicals, etc.)

Reduces leakage-induced starvation

N/A

Reduces excessive heat, churning and contaminant-induced grease degradation

Reduces the ingress of certain contaminants including heat, water and dirt

May reduce leakage, starvation and overlubrication issues

CORRECT LUBRICANT

ADEQUATE AND SUSTAINED LUBRICANT SUPPLY

Seals and Leakage Use of labyrinth and other premium seal technologies Proper selection and installation of bearing seals and shields

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Machinery

Lubrication PUBLISHER Mike Ramsey - mramsey@noria.com GROUP PUBLISHER Brett O’Kelley - bokelley@noria.com

Topics for a Machine Lubrication Manual

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Jason Sowards - jsowards@noria.com SENIOR EDITOR Jim Fitch - jfitch@noria.com

• Detailed and illustrated lubrication procedures (oil change, grease change, grease addition, oil top-up, etc.)

TECHNICAL WRITERS Jeremy Wright - jwright@noria.com Wes Cash - wcash@noria.com Bennett Fitch - bfitch@noria.com Loren Green - lgreen@noria.com

• Detailed and illustrated flushing procedures and listing of suitable fluids for flushing • Oil change interval/regrease interval • List of all lube points

CREATIVE DIRECTOR Ryan Kiker - rkiker@noria.com

• Recommended lubricants (performance specification) for all lube points and operating conditions (speeds, loads, etc.)

GRAPHIC ARTISTS Julia Backus - jbackus@noria.com Terry Kellam - tkellam@noria.com Josh Couch - jcouch@noria.com Patrick Clark - pclark@noria.com

• Brand/type cross-reference for all lubricants • Equipment storage protection practices/products, including the use of fogging agents, shaft extension sprays, breathers and vapor-phase rust inhibitors • Contamination control guidelines including target cleanliness/dryness needs

ADVERTISING SALES Tim Davidson - tdavidson@noria.com 800-597-5460, ext. 224

• Run-in procedures for gears and similar equipment • Seal compatibility information for system lubricants and other fluids

MEDIA PRODUCTION MANAGER Ally Katz - akatz@noria.com

• Frequency and procedural information for all necessary PMs and inspections • Comprehensive oil analysis and other condition-based maintenance guidelines

1. Determine the overall machine criticality. This process weighs both the probability of failure and the consequences of failure. For more information on quantifying machine criticality, see http://www.machinerylubrication.com/ Read/29346/machinery-criticality-analysis. 2. Rank the most likely failure modes. This is often done using failure modes effects analysis (FMEA). If you don’t know how the machine is likely to fail, you won’t know how to control it. Criticality defines the risk, while FMEA reveals the de-risking opportunities that bring focus and strategy to reliability. 3. Based on criticality and FMEA, develop the specific attributes of the optimum reference state (ORS). As described previously in Machinery Lubrication magazine, the ORS is defined as the prescribed state of machine configuration, operating conditions and maintenance activities required to achieve and sustain specific reliability objectives. In the context of this article, the ORS defines the need for equipment modifications and accessories that optimize the state of lubrication.

While this is the critical beginning of the reliability life cycle, there are many stages that follow to the end of the machine’s life. These stages are described at http://www.machinerylubrication. com/Read/2471/reliability-engineers-holistic-physicians-of-machine-care. Again, this article addresses only the first design stage.

Designing for Maintainability Maintainability is typically defined as the ease, economy, safety and accuracy with which the necessary maintenance of a machine can be effectively undertaken. When machines are designed and built for optimized maintainability, many benefits are realized including: • Increased reliability • Lower overall costs of enabling reliability • Decreased time to complete maintenance tasks • Fewer maintenance errors • Reduced maintenance injuries • Less training required to perform tasks • Improved troubleshooting effectiveness In seeking lubrication-enabled reliability (LER),

CORRESPONDENCE You may address articles, case studies, special requests and other correspondence to: Editor-in-chief MACHINERY LUBRICATION Noria Corporation 1328 E. 43rd Court • Tulsa, Oklahoma 74105 Phone: 918-749-1400 Fax: 918-746-0925 Email address: jsowards@noria.com

MACHINERY LUBRICATION Volume 13 - Issue 6 November-December 2013 (USPS 021-695) is published bimonthly by Noria Corporation, 1328 E. 43rd Court, Tulsa, OK 74105-4124. Periodicals postage paid at Tulsa, OK and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes and form 3579 to MACHINERY LUBRICATION, P.O. BOX 47702, Plymouth, MN 55447-0401. Canada Post International Publications Mail Product (Canadian Distribution) Publications Mail Agreement #40612608. Send returns (Canada) to BleuChip International, P.O. Box 25542, London, Ontario, N6C 6B2. SUBSCRIBER SERVICES: The publisher reserves the right to accept or reject any subscription. Send subscription orders, change of address and all subscription-related correspondence to: Noria Corporation, P.O. Box 47702, Plymouth, MN 55447. 800-869-6882 or Fax: 866-658-6156. Copyright © 2013 Noria Corporation. Noria, Machinery Lubrication and associated logos are trademarks of Noria Corporation. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part in any form or medium without express written permission of Noria Corporation is prohibited. Machinery Lubrication is an independently produced publication of Noria Corporation. Noria Corporation reserves the right, with respect to submissions, to revise, republish and authorize its readers to use the tips and articles submitted for personal and commercial use. The opinions of those interviewed and those who write articles for this magazine are not necessarily shared by Noria Corporation. CONTENT NOTICE: The recommendations and information provided in Machinery Lubrication and its related information properties do not purport to address all of the safety concerns that may exist. It is the responsibility of the user to follow appropriate safety and health practices. Further, Noria does not make any representations, warranties, express or implied, regarding the accuracy, completeness or suitability of the information or recommendations provided herewith. Noria shall not be liable for any injuries, loss of profits, business, goodwill, data, interruption of business, nor for incidental or consequential merchantability or fitness of purpose, or damages related to the use of information or recommendations provided.

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Every link in the chain must be equally strong in order for the chain’s full length to bear the load. www.machinerylubrication.com

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AS I SEE IT

the vast majority of the opportunity comes from paying close attention to the “Big Four.” These are vital attributes to the optimum reference state needed to achieve lubrication excellence. The “Big Four” individually and collectively influence the state of lubrication and are largely controllable by machinery maintainers, especially if a machine is designed and built for optimum maintainability. The “Big Four” are: MAINTAINABILITY MACHINE DESIGN FEATURES

CORRECT LUBRICANT

1. Correct lubricant in use (meets reliability objectives) 2. Stabilized lubricant health (physical and chemical properties) 3. Contamination control 4. Adequate and sustained lubricant level/supply

STABILIZED LUBRICANT HEALTH

CONTAMINATION CONTROL

ADEQUATE AND SUSTAINED LUBRICANT SUPPLY

General Lubrication System Maintainability Optimum selection/use of a lubrication device (spray, mist, circulation, grease, bath, etc.)

N/A

May help stabilize lubricant health

May help reduce the ingress and removal of contaminants

Enables consistent and sufficient supply of healthy and clean lubricant

Lubricant type identification labels

Type on machine matches type on lubricant package

Lower risk of mixed, incompatible lubricants

N/A

N/A

Fully swept (purged) drain sump bottoms

N/A

Reduced residual, degraded oil (previous oil) from last oil change

Water, sediment and other low-lying contaminants are swept out during drains (minimal fishbowl effect)

N/A

Return-line diffusers and tank baffles

N/A

Reduced aeration prolongs oil life

Reduced oil aeration and foaming, enables more efficient and rapid contaminant settling

Fewer oil starvation issues related to aeration and foam

Heat exchangers/coolers

Ensures adequate viscosity to enable required film strength in frictional zones

Keeps oil at a stable temperature for optimum service life and reduces premature additive depletion (dropout, oxidation, etc.)

Reduces the risks of heat contamination effects on additive depletion and base oil oxidation

Ensures proper fluid flow at cold ambient temperatures

Use of engine prelube systems

N/A

N/A

N/A

Reduces engine dry-starts causing momentary starvation

Pressure, flow and temperature sensors

N/A

May indicate lubricantdamaging conditions

May indicate heat contamination

May signal oil flow alarm causing starvation

Inspection Hardware Maintainability Bottom sediment and water (BS&W) sight glass

Oil color

Oil color, clarity, sediment, sludge

Sediment, water emulsions, free water, glycol (antifreeze), biomass, varnish

N/A

Bull’s-eye 3-D oil level gauges

Oil color

Oil color, clarity, varnish

Water emulsions, oil color, aeration, foam

Oil level, aeration, foam

Correct oil level markings

N/A

N/A

N/A

Visual confirmation of correct oil level

N/A

Visual inspection for bathtub rings, floating debris, foam, aeration, emulsions, corrosion, varnish

Visual inspection for bathtub rings, floating debris, foam, aeration, emulsions, corrosion, varnish

Helps detect foam/aeration-induced oil starvation risks

Pressure differential gauges on filters (including engine oil filters)

N/A

Gauges help ensure filters are working properly, potentially prolonging lubricant service life

Gauges help ensure filters are working properly to control the concentration of contaminants

Well-filtered lubricants are less likely to cause excessive wear on seals, which can cause leakage and starvation issues

Expanded-metal guards and view windows for easy inspection

N/A

N/A

Visible inspection of potential contaminant ingression sites

Visible inspection of leakage areas and lubricant-delivery methods

Easy-open inspection hatches/ports

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MAINTAINABILITY MACHINE DESIGN FEATURES

CORRECT LUBRICANT

STABILIZED LUBRICANT HEALTH

CONTAMINATION CONTROL

ADEQUATE AND SUSTAINED LUBRICANT SUPPLY

Properly selected and located primary and secondary live-zone oil sampling valves

More accurate oil analysis confirms the right lubricant is in use

More accurate oil analysis confirms the health of the lubricant

More accurate oil analysis detects and quantifies the presence of a range of contaminants

More accurate oil analysis can detect air entrainment issues and thermal degradation/wear conditions

Proper installation of magnetic wear debris inspection plugs

May reveal inadequate film strength from wrong oil in machine frictional zones

May reveal inadequate film strength in machine frictional zones from degraded lubricant (additives, viscosity, etc.)

May reveal inadequate film strength in machine frictional zones from contaminated lubricant

May reveal inadequate film strength in machine frictional zones from lubricant starvation

Online oil analysis sensors

Sensors can confirm the use of the right lubricant

Sensors can detect degrading lubricant properties

Sensors can report the concentration

N/A

Minimal use of funnels, contaminated fill ports, etc.; contamination control from flushing and filtration

Simplified oil change and control of oil level

Oil Analysis

Contamination Control Maintainability Quick-connects for adding or draining oil, periodic portable filtration and flushing requirements

N/A

Contamination control prolongs lubricant life

Quality headspace management (breathers, headspace purge, dehydration, etc.)

N/A

Reduced contaminant ingression extends oil service life

Reduced water, dirt and process contaminants

N/A

N/A

Contamination control prolongs lubricant life

Faster and more effective removal of damaging contaminants

Reduced risk of contaminant-induced internal and external lubricant leakage causing starvation issues

Suitable performance, quality and location of filters

While it may seem to be an oversimplification to reduce lubrication excellence to just four basic objectives, as a practical matter, not much else is required. See the tables on pages 2, 4 and 5 to learn how machine maintainability can be applied in the context of the Big Four.

Role of Buyers/Purchasing Before buying new machinery, an engineering specification should be carefully and thoroughly developed. Engineers charged with writing these specifications should be educated on modern concepts in machinery lubrication. Simply working as an engineer or having an engineering degree alone does not qualify. Instead, training by leading consultants and instructors is strongly advised. Training should be followed by certification compliant to ISO 18436-4 and similar standards. Noria recommends that engineering specifications for new equipment only be written by professionals with Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level II and III certification credentials. A specification should address many, if not all, of the maintainability features shown in the preceding tables. It must also address hardware and design features that are not permitted. These might include ring oilers, drip oilers, screen filters, snorkel vents, high-watt-density tank heaters, long pump suction lines, etc.

Consider having the specification carefully reviewed by an outside lubrication consultant, especially for the most reliabilitycritical machines. Remember that the cost of retrofitting needed maintainability hardware will be many times the cost of the same hardware when installed at the factory (as part of the original bill-of-material). Conversely, buying machines stripped to the bones in an attempt to reduce costs is almost always false economy. The astute reliability professional views new equipment in terms of the cost of ownership, not simply the cost of purchase. Most important is the overall machine reliability, which includes repair costs but also equipment utilization (uptime), maintainability (PMs, inspections, etc.), safety and other factors. All of these should drive the business decision to invest in reliability readiness.

About the Author Jim Fitch has a wealth of “in the trenches� experience in lubrication, oil analysis, tribology and machinery failure investigations. Over the past two decades, he has presented hundreds of courses on these subjects. Jim has published more than 200 technical articles, papers and publications. He serves as a U.S. delegate to the ISO tribology and oil analysis working group. Since 2002, he has been director and board member of the International Council for Machinery Lubrication. He is the CEO and a co-founder of Noria Corporation. Contact Jim at jfitch@noria.com. www.machinerylubrication.com

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Lubrication Programs

FROM THE FIELD

JEREMY WRIGHT | NORIA CORPORATION

How LUBRICANT SUPPLIERS Impact Machine RELIABILITY

Plants often do not take into account the effect that the lubricant supplier can have on machine reliability. If left unchecked, the results can be catastrophic. You might be surprised what you can learn from a quick visit to your lubricant supplier. Does your supplier know your reliability and lubrication goals? How can suppliers help you succeed if they have no idea that you are playing for the same team? Supplier audits are a small part of Noria’s service offerings. In this article, I will share a few key tips that have been learned over the years so you can be better informed when visiting your supplier. I like to use a simple checklist when conducting a supplier audit. It helps remind me to be vigilant on key practices and physical attributes that are associated with the optimum reference state of handling lubricants. I usually start with an overview of the storage facility and how lubricants are handled. The first observation should be related to the identification of lubricant-handling equipment. Are all lines and tanks clearly marked for a specific lubricant? If not, the likelihood of cross-contamination becomes significantly higher. The warehouse should also be in good condition. It must be free of spilled oil, settled water and dust. The building should be enclosed and, if possible, climate-controlled. All products should be in sealed containers, stored indoors away from direct sunlight and not allowed to collect rain water on the top edge. The inventory in the warehouse should be rotated so that the oldest containers are being used first, while the newest containers are sent to the back. Remember that the cleaner, cooler and drier the lubricant is

5 Tips for Dealing with Your Lubricant Supplier 1. Audit your oil supplier routinely. 2. Establish clear parameters and work with suppliers to help them achieve the improvements that are necessary. 3. Expect the lubricant supplier to conform to new, higherquality expectations. 4. Include mill mechanics and lube technicians in the process. 5. Provide training to reinforce the necessity and benefit of the new measures. 6|

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kept (even when in the sealed drum), the longer it will last. If you can witness the handling and transferring of lubricants during your supplier visit, watch of lubrication professionals for instances of cross-contaminanever visit their lubricant tion. Make sure that all transport supplier, according to a lines are product-dedicated or at recent survey at Machineryleast flushed well between uses. Lubrication.com For bulk incoming transfers, check if samples are taken to verify compliance for both properties and performance. These samples should be kept on record for at least six months. Also, see if you can find current seals on all meters showing calibrations within the last year. In the packaging area of the plant, you will want to make certain that at a minimum the supplier is filtering the incoming oil through a 60-mesh screen. Again, confirm that meters and scales are up to date on their calibration. Inspect the condition of the drums prior to being filled. Are they reconditioned? If so, what processes do they have in place to prevent clean oil from being put into a dirty drum? Ensure that the empty drum inventory is stored appropriately as well. Every particle that contaminates the drum from this point will have an effect on your program. You will either have to remove it through filtration or suffer the consequences of particle contamination in your machine. Keep in mind that the cleaner the supplier can keep the oil, the less time, energy and money you will have to spend later in its life cycle to get it to an acceptable level for your machines. Your lubrication knowledge will be a tremendous asset when visiting your supplier. If you are not confident in your knowledge, just remember “clean, cool and dry.” Look at everything with this in mind and ask yourself if the lubricant is being kept as clean, cool and dry as possible. You then will have your answer as to how well your supplier is helping you achieve your reliability initiatives.

About the Author Jeremy Wright is vice president of technical services for Noria Corporation. He serves as a senior technical consultant for Lubrication Program Development projects and as a senior instructor for Noria’s Fundamentals of Machinery Lubrication and Advanced Machinery Lubrication training. He is a certified maintenance reliability professional through the Society for Maintenance and Reliability Professionals, and holds Machine Lubricant Analyst Level III and Machine Lubrication Technician Level II certifications through the International Council for Machinery Lubrication. Contact Jeremy at jwright@noria.com.


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COVER STORY

November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


Purchasing Lubricants Based on Performance BY THOMAS L. L ANTZ , L ANTZ CONSULTING SERVICES

Lubricants initially arrive in industrial plants usually via one of two methods: 1. New equipment generally comes with a “lubricant list” from the equipment supplier with a few recommendations for each application. Brand names are typically listed, a selection is made and, if it works satisfactorily, it is chosen. 2. Maintenance personnel express concern to a supplier or a competitor about a lubricant’s performance, and a change is made. There are other ways lubricants are acquired, but in each case, maintenance personnel don’t know why a product does or does not work; they simply accept the outside expert’s opinion. In these situations, maintenance workers may not realize there are several products in the plant with different brand names but similar characteristics. They may be unknowingly contributing to the proliferation of products in the plant. Without understanding what makes the products work, the maintenance person may be reluctant to consolidate. In this case, there is little encouragement for competition and no reason for any oil company to lower its prices. Naturally, maintenance personnel want their equipment to have the highest quality lubricants but at a reasonable price. How can this be accomplished? Jim Fitch’s “Hazards of Changing Lubricant Brands” article in the November-December 2013 issue of Machinery Lubrication put the maintenance person’s concerns in perspective. The article brought to mind a system that was developed and used for many years at a U.S. steel company. In order to address the concerns discussed in Fitch’s article, the company established a system whereby lubricants and hydraulic fluids were purchased by performance specifications. If a product worked in an application satisfactorily, it was tested to determine which ASTM tests (or others) it would pass that were relevant to the application. A spec-

ification was then written around those test results that could be placed out for bid by the purchasing department. If a lower bid was received, the competitor was asked to submit a sample to an independent lab to verify a few very important requirements. If successful, the lowest bidder was awarded the business for a specific period. Lubricants are unique in that objective lab tests are available to the user that will predict field performance. Very few maintenance products have this advantage. This article will outline the pros and cons of using a specification system, how to launch such a system and make it work, and how to handle exceptions. If a company’s lubricant purchases are substantial and could benefit from a 10- to 15-percent reduction in costs, this system may offer an advantage while assuring only the highest quality lubricants are used in the equipment.

What is a Performance Specification? Every lubricant and hydraulic fluid has a detailed list of tests that must be passed at the oil company before it is released for shipment. The experts at the oil company know how the fluid must perform in your equipment. Several organizations (ASTM, SAE, etc.) have devised lab tests that will measure various aspects of this performance. For instance, because viscosity and viscosity index are very important in most lubricants, numerous tests have been devised and agreed upon by industry experts to measure these parameters. Figure 1 provides a list of some of the more common tests for oil and grease. Once a list of important performance specifications is compiled for a given product such as a gear oil, any successful product must be tested to determine the numbers or evaluation for each test. Compatibility is always a concern when switching products. The steel company’s solution was to give the competing supplier the www.machinerylubrication.com

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COVER STORY

TEST NO.

NAME

APPLICATION

GREASE TESTS D-2596

4-Ball EP

Measures film strength of base oil

D-2266

4-Ball Wear

Measures wear resistance of greases

D-1742

Oil Separation

Measures tendency of grease base oil to separate from soap

D-4048

Copper Corrosion

Measures grease tendency to corrode copper, bronze and brass

D-942

Oxidation Stability

Measures grease tendency to combine with oxygen

D-217

Penetration

Measures the stiffness of grease

D-1831

Roll Stability

Measures resistance of grease to change stiffness after working

D-4049

Water Sprayoff

Measures resistance of grease to resist heavy water spray

D-2509

Timken Test

Measures film strength of base oil in grease

D-445

Viscosity

Measures an oil’s resistance to flow (indicator of film strength)

D-2270

Viscosity Index

Measures change of viscosity with temperature

D-92

Flash and Fire Points

Indicates dilution by volatile fluids

D-97

Pour Point

Lowest usable temperature without heating

D-130

Copper Corrosion

Indicates corrosive action of an oil on copper, bronze or brass

D-2711

Demulsibility

Measures the ability of an oil to separate from water

D-4172

4-Ball Wear

Measures wear prevention ability of a lubricant

D-3604

Elastomer Compatibility

Measures effect of a lubricant on elastomers at static conditions

D-892

Foam Resistance

Measures the tendency of a lubricant to foam in systems

OIL TESTS

Figure 1. Common tests for oil and grease

responsibility of assuring that its product would mix properly with the incumbent product. Any problems in this area were the responsibility of the new supplier. Removal and disposal of the contaminated tank contents were also part of their job. Of course, this rarely needed to be done. Figure 2 is a typical performance specification for a gear oil. A complete written specification from which the summary sheet is derived is too extensive to be reproduced here. A comprehensive set of summary sheets for several types of oil and grease may be obtained by contacting the author at tomlantz1@yahoo.com. 10 |

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How a Performance Specification is Written While the above information offers details on how to assemble the essential data, writing the specification is more involved. Plant personnel often see lubricants as their domain. They issue requisitions to the purchasing department and expect all the details to be taken care of, including the issuing of a purchase order to the supplier of the plant’s choice. The purchasing department often will talk to competitors about supplying a comparable product. This is a common source of conflict between the plant and the purchasing department. Both groups should have input into these decisions. The steel company’s solution to this problem was to form a committee composed of both plant and purchasing personnel who worked on the specification together. The procedures for qualifying new suppliers and the bidding process were agreed on by both parties and strictly followed. Each plant in the corporation was represented on the committee, and all parties kept a three-ring binder of all the specifications. Even after the specifications were written, meetings were held periodically to consider any new information acquired, problems encountered that might be due to a product or changes that a supplier thought was necessary. The science of lubricant testing is constantly evolving, and staying up to date is imperative. The steel company also learned that most oil suppliers take great pride in their quality control, and problems that initially were attributed to the oil company often were the result of something the plant had done or an equipment malfunction.

Importance of Code Numbers In order to wean everyone in the maintenance department away from brand names, it is imperative to establish a coding system. Every performance specification written may have a name, but it also needs a number. The steel company’s system involved all maintenance products (gears, bearings, couplings, lubricants, etc.) and thus required long numbers, but the last three digits were unique to a specific product. For lubricants and hydraulic fluids, those three digits acquired the title “maintenance code” or MC number. All drums, in-plant tanks, supplier paperwork and written specifications had to have these code numbers. Although the drums and paperwork from a supplier might have brand names on them, the MC number had to appear as well. There are four basic reasons for this strict adherence to code numbers: 1. To prevent maintenance personnel from thinking in terms of brand names. 2. To simplify computer systems that record the lubricants to be used in a given piece of equipment. If a change must be made, a new brand name is brought in under the existing code and no change in the computer is required. 3. Survey sheets and routing lists used by the lubrication technician would require constant updating if brand names were used. MC numbers eliminate this problem.


LUBRICANT SPECIFICATION PRODUCT: EXTREME PRESSURE LUBE OIL

MAINTENANCE CODE NUMBER: MC - 43, 51, 87, 21, 93, 71 & 31

Test No.

Description

Test Limits

Comments

D-2270

Viscosity Index

Minimum=85

D-445

Viscosity

See Figure 3

D-92

Flash and Fire Points

D-97

Pour Point

See Figure 3

D-189

Conradson Carbon

Should contain no more than 2.5% residue

D-130

Copper Corrosion

No worse than Class1-b

D-874

Sulphated Ash

Matter of record

D-892

Foam Characteristics

Less than a trace after 10 minutes

D-665

Rust Prevention

No rust after 24 hours

D-2711

Demulsibility

See Figure 3

D-1298

API Gravity

Matter of record

D-1500

Color

Matter of record

D-3604

Elastomer Compatibility

Weight change +2% -1%; Volume change +5% -2%

D-4172

4-Ball Wear

Limit is 0.35 mm with 40 kg load

ISO 4606

ISO Cleanliness

Cleaner than 21/18 on delivery

D-2893

Oxidation Test

Viscosity increase less than 5%

D-664

Neutralization Number

Not to exceed 1.0

D-2782

Timken Test

Pass 60-pound load

D-2783

4-Ball EP

Weld=250 kg; LWI=45 kg

FZG

Gear Tooth Wear

9 stages; wear less than 10 mg

3 hours at 212°F

Procedure A

312 Hours (13 days) at 100°C

Figure 2. A typical performance specification for a gear oil

4. Tanks permanently installed in the plant may have the MC number stenciled on them if there is little chance a change will be required.

Vendor Relationships One of the main reasons for the specification system is to prevent “cozy” relationships between vendors and plant personnel. When this situation occurs, prices tend to rise whether quality rises or not. Conflicts then occur between plant personnel and the purchasing department, as the latter attempts to stabilize prices. Using the specification system allows an “arm’s length” relationship. Looking primarily at the test results promotes objectivity. Of course, quality consistency, dependable deliveries and knowledgeable service are considered as well. No one likes vendors who provide inconsistent quality, unreliable deliveries or spotty service.

Adjusting Specifications The performance specification should be considered a “living” document. It must be periodically adjusted to reflect new knowledge. Once written, the specification may become outdated by new

developments in the field. New tests may be devised that assess a parameter better than previous versions. The consensus of opinion among industry experts might also change regarding which parameters are important or which test provides the best measurement. Therefore, vendors are encouraged to offer suggestions on ways to improve the specifications. Their input can be valuable.

Exceptions It does not pay to employ performance specifications on low volume items. Below a certain dollar amount, the use of specifications is a waste of time. Simply find something that works and use it if the cost is not excessive. However, in a multi-plant organization, small quantities in several plants can add up to enough money to make using a specification worthwhile. Every situation is different, and good judgment must be used. One of the questions that might be asked when considering the use of specifications is: “Do we need to consolidate our products?” According to the Pareto principle (80/20 rule), 80 percent of the lubricant volume in a plant should be concentrated in 20 percent of the individual products. Take a survey of the products and the www.machinerylubrication.com

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COVER STORY

ISO VG

Viscosity Limits (cSt @ 40° C)

Viscosity Limits (SSU @ 100° F)

Pour Point °F (Maximum ASTM D-97)

Demulsibility % Water in Oil (Maximum)

Characteristics Total mL Free Water (Minimum)

ASTM D-2711 mL Emulsion (Maximum)

MC-43

68

61.2-74.8

284-347

-15° F (-26° C)

1

80

2

MC-51

150

135-165

625-764

-10° F (-23° C)

1

80

2

MC-87

220

198-242

917-1121

-10° F (-23° C)

1

80

2

MC-21

320

288-352

1334-1631

0° F (-17.8° C)

1

80

2

MC-93

460

414-506

1918-2344

0° F (-17.8° C)

1

80

4

MC-71

680

612-748

2834-3465

10° F (-12° C)

1

80

4

MC-31

1000

900-1100

4169-5095

20° F (-6.7° C)

1

80

4

Maintenance Code No.

Figure 3. Examples of maintenance codes assigned for various lubricant tests

volume used of each. If the results do not conform to the 80/20 rule, your plant might be a candidate for lubricant consolidation. In other words, if relatively equal volumes of many products are in use, duplication might exist.

Benefits and Disciplines of the Specification System The most obvious benefit of the specification system is lower prices. This can be easily seen. What goes unseen is the high-quality

products you obtain while forcing oil companies to compete. However, by instituting a specification system, plant maintenance people are compelled to learn what works and why. This may be a challenge in some plants. The willingness to perform testing is critical. You do not need to have an onsite laboratory, but you must find a quality offsite lab. While a few tests can be performed onsite with inexpensive equipment, most require expensive equipment and a qualified technician. A few ways to reduce these costs are discussed below. These two disciplines — learning what works and why, and the willingness to conduct testing — are essential.

Intangible Benefits When you have a “system” in place for purchasing lubricants, vendors tend to be more careful with your products’ quality. Knowing that you test and won’t hesitate to complain or have a bad load pumped out at their expense will keep everyone honest. Also, those vendors who live by “sharp” practices or high costs don’t even bother to solicit your business. My personal experience has proven this to me repeatedly.

Testing As mentioned previously, it is recommended to randomly test every truckload of bulk oil and drum shipments. The steel company did this because of the large volumes purchased. Tests are generally priced individually, and some are expensive. To lower costs, the steel company selected a few critical tests for each load and assumed the rest were OK. However, this may have been overkill. You could take a sample, label it and store it in case of future problems. As confidence in a vendor grows, this would be an acceptable practice. 12 |

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Remember, buying lubricants by performance specifications puts lubrication on a professional base. Vendors would rather deal with people who understand lubricants and what makes them work. When the user’s understanding increases, the vendor may see the need to increase his or her own knowledge. In the last 20 years, various organizations have devised certification tests to evaluate vendor and user knowledge in the lubrication field. This effort has vastly improved the knowledge of everyone involved. Now vendors know that if a problem occurs, they will receive a rational hearing rather than a screaming, emotional response. Vendors become more service-oriented and better problem-solvers instead of mere order-takers. At the same time, customers become better problem solvers when they have records that show the important parameters have not changed. They must probe deeper to see if the problem might have been caused by something they did or did not do. Finally, by concentrating on performance specifications, total fluid management (TFM) will take on a whole new dimension. If you choose to go this route, no longer will you be at the complete mercy of the TFM manager. The knowledge gained by focusing on

the lubricant specifications will enable you to ask all the important questions and insist on critical reports.

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PRODUCT NEWS

METALWORKING FLUID The new ArrowCool line of metalworking fluids from Chem Arrow features bio-stability, low foam and high lubricity. The low-foam technology used to formulate the fluids eliminates the need of anti-foam additives. Unlike traditional metalworking fluids that have a service life of approximately 6 months, the new ArrowCool fluids can be used for several years, reducing the costs associated with purchasing replacement fluids and disposing of used coolant. The fluids have also been enhanced to meet the latest environmental restrictions. Chem Arrow www.chemarrow.com 626-358-2255

FOOD-GRADE GREASE Interflon’s Food Grease HD00 is a semi-fluid lubricant for industrial gearboxes and machine components using automatic oil and grease lubrication. Based on MicPol technology, the heavy-duty grease is NSF H-1 accredited for use within the food industry and can also be utilized as a solvent-free corrosion inhibitor. The grease is suitable for extreme high-pressure applications, dusty and wet environments, and high temperatures. During field tests, it has shown an improvement in wear protection as well as a reduction in energy consumption. Interflon www.interflon.com 877-346-5823

DRAIN PLUG TOOL The Drain Plug Pro is a new tool for easily removing oil drain plugs. By keeping hands and fingers away from possibly hot draining oil, the onesize-fits-all tool makes the oil changing process a more efficient, cleaner and safer operation. It attaches to any steel component, including an oil pan, to hold and keep the drain plug free from contaminants as oil is draining while also serving as a reminder that the drain plug is still out. The tool’s integrated magnets allow particles attached to the drain plug to be removed. OTC Tools www.otctools.com 800-533-6127

FLUID DISPENSING/METERING PUMP The PDS-100 from Fluid Metering Inc. is a programmable fluid metering and dispensing system that integrates valveless pump technology with precision, programmable drive motor control. The pump head internals are made from chemically resistant, sapphire-hard ceramics, which are ideal for dispensing a broad range of fluids, including silicone lubricants. The PDS-100 is available in both single and dual pump head configurations. The displacement and speed of each pump head can be individually controlled. Duplex configurations can also provide two-channel dispensing, effectively doubling production capacity. Fluid Metering Inc. www.fmipump.com 800-223-3388

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METAL CONDITIONER Everrev is an anti-friction metal conditioner formulated to improve the performance of gas and diesel engines as well as hydraulics and most metal-to-metal transmissions. It treats ferrous-based metals through a molecular change within the metal surfaces. The chemical reaction forms a smoother and denser surface without residual buildup or change in the tolerances of working parts. It is activated by heat and pressure, and is carried by motor oil, transmission oil, hydraulic fluid and greases to friction points, reducing heat and wear. Everrev www.everrev.com 386-295-4343

ATOMIZING SPRAY NOZZLES Exair’s new external mix spray nozzles atomize fluids in a range of spray patterns for a wide variety of uses, especially where a high volume of liquid is needed. The atomizing nozzles combine liquid and compressed air to create a coating of liquid that can be easily adjusted to meet the needs of the application. Air and liquid flow are controlled independently, while corrosion resistance and durability are provided by the stainless-steel construction. The adjustable nozzles are available in a variety of flow patterns. Exair Corp. www.exair.com 800-903-9247

SINGLE-POINT AUTOMATIC LUBRICATORS HYDRAULIC TESTER The SDMKR reversible flow device from Stauff was developed for rapid and accurate monitoring of hydraulic components and systems. It provides simultaneous measurement of flow, pressure and temperature. Each tester includes a flow meter with a visual display and a built-in thermometer, as well as a loading valve. The loading valve makes it possible to safely increase the working pressure gradually and continuously for a realistic simulation of normal machine operation. The portable flow device can be installed in both pressure and return lines. Stauff www.stauffusa.com 201-444-7800

SKF’s new System 24 LAGD Series single-point automatic lubricators were created to deliver the proper preset amount of lubricant needed for bearings in machinery across industries. The gas-driven feed versions can perform reliably on a 24-hour basis without manual intervention and can resolve issues typically associated with hard-to-access or potentially hazardous lubrication points. Each lubricator features flexible, user-adjustable dispense settings and transparent lubricant containers. The lubricators also integrate tool-free activation and are available in two sizes (60 and 125 milliliters). SKF www.skf.com 267-436-6000

www.machinerylubrication.com

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November - December 2013

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ML

LUBE-TIPS

The “Lube-Tips” section of Machinery Lubrication magazine features innovative ideas submitted by our readers. Additional tips can be found in our Lube-Tips email newsletter. If you have a tip to share, email it to us at editor@noria. com. To receive the Lube-Tips newsletter, subscribe now at www.MachineryLubrication.com/page/subscriptions.

Advice for Oil Sampling Before taking a large number of oil samples using pre-labeled bottles, mark the bottle caps with enough information to enable quick recognition of which bottle you need to pull out for sample points. This procedure enables you to go directly to the correct sample bottle without having to search through the entire box looking at labels to find the right one. It also saves a lot of time and helps eliminate using the wrong bottle.

Magnet on a Dipstick for Quick Inspection For better visual inspection of an oil’s color, paint a magnet white and permanently attach it to the dipstick of a reservoir. If particles become stuck to the magnet, you know further investigation is required.

Prevent Sample Bottle Collapse When you are sampling using a vacuum-type pump, hot oil or exceptionally viscous oil can result in the plastic sample bottle collapsing, making it difficult if not impossible to pull sufficient vacuum to draw out the oil sample. To prevent this, get a short piece of clear, rigid PVC pipe with an internal diameter that closely matches the outer diameter of the plastic sample bottle. Slide this over the 16 |

November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com

outside of the bottle before drawing a vacuum with the hand pump. The rigid plastic sleeve prevents the bottle’s collapse, and the clear plastic enables the sampler to see when the bottle is full. The fit or gap between the sleeve’s inner diameter and the sample bottle’s outer diameter does not need to be snug. However, the larger the gap, the less effective the sleeve is in preventing the bottle’s collapse.

Post Your Oil Cleanliness Trends Place a trend chart of ongoing oil cleanliness for all to see on the front of all major reservoirs. Any change in the trend (up or down) can promote questions and actions within the maintenance team. Remember, cleanliness control is the responsibility of everyone, and having a visual representation of cleanliness prominently mounted will promote improved housekeeping by keeping reservoirs and equipment clean and sealed.

Safety Tips for Oil Storage Areas Consider the following safety tips for your oil storage areas: • Fire extinguishers should be located strategically throughout the lube room. They should also be inspected and tested on a regular basis. • All spills should be cleaned up promptly. • Used rags and absorbents should be placed in approved containers immediately after use. The container should be emptied at the end of each shift. • Good ventilation is required in the lube room to vent hazardous fumes such as those related to solvents. • Solvents should rest on a grounded surface to prevent sparks from static electricity.

Improving Oil Change Procedures While quick-connect couplings may be considered best practice, if they are not in the maintenance budget, you might try the following method to help keep a gearbox drain plug clean during an oil change. After capturing particles from the magnetic plug to examine later, clean and dry the plug, then place it in a zip-lock bag. Label the bag with a magic marker. If the gearbox case is ferrous, stick the bag on the case near the filling point. If the case is not ferrous, tie the bag with a strap or similar fastener near the fill point to remind you to put in the plug before filling the gearbox with oil. This will keep the drain plug clean, prevent it from getting lost and remind you to replace it before filling with fresh oil.


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TURBINE LUBRICATION BY WOJCIECH M AJKA AND TOMAS K LIMA , ECOL , POLAND

Hydrodynamic Cleaning and

Flushing of Turbine Oil Systems

O

One of the most important but underestimated factors impacting the operation of turbines (both steam and gas) and other machinery is the condition of the oil, especially its “mechanical” cleanliness (presence of solid particles). Although the need for appropriate oil care is commonly accepted among power plants with regular maintenance practices, the cleanliness of the oil system interiors (piping, tanks, coolers, etc.) remains an issue. Problems caused by dirty oil systems in machinery such as turbo-generators, turbo-compressors, turbo-pumps and other large-scale oil systems (hydraulics, large stationary diesel engines, etc.) are quite common. The most reasonable and responsible maintenance strategy is to maintain the proper condition of the oil and oil system based on a correctly applied oil analysis program, determining not only basic oil parameters but also answering questions regarding the

potential of varnish formation and other aging-related properties along with the general oil and component condition. Temporarily controlling the system’s interior is also advised (using endoscopy, visual inspection of friction nodes, control of used filter elements within their exchange process, etc.). Of Dirt in an oil system course, the lubricant quality matters as well. Unfortunately, from time to time, plants experience significant problems related to lubrication. A big part of these problems is associated with the purity of the oil. While many industry experts speak about Benefits of Hydrodynamic Cleaning the role of oil contamination, the issue of achieving purity of both the oil and oil system is often and Flushing of Oil Systems neglected or not discussed in detail. Hydrodynamic cleaning and flushing with oil at turbulent flow So what can you do when severe deposits, sludge, rates offers many advantages, such as: varnish or rust formation occurs in an oil system, or • Long-term system and oil purity when a newly assembled oil system is corroded or • Retention of the natural protective oxide layer on the inner contaminated with chemical preservatives or walls of the pipeline system machining debris? What can be done with large quan• Reduced quantities of flushing oil tities of wear debris inside an oil system after severe • Reduced wear of lubricated parts and extended mean time seizure and breakdown of a bearing? between repairs • Significant increase in oil durability (reduced quantities of For trouble-free operation, contaminants must be replacement oil) removed from the oil system. However, in extreme • Higher equipment availability cases, the level and type of impurities may exceed the • Significant reduction of fi lter insert consumption separation capability of the system filters and threaten • No turbine outages due to dirt in the oil system future equipment operation, resulting in loss of • Reduced total operation costs production. The standard maintenance approach then

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TURBINE LUBRICATION

is not enough. Immediate cleaning of the entire interior of the oil system with subsequent turbulent flushing should be performed. Often, if the oil doesn’t meet specific requirements, oil replacement (exchange) is also required. Because proper cleaning of an oil system is not easy within an overhaul process or when assembling a new system, a variety of technologies and strategies have been used, such as mechanical cleaning with ramrods, chemical cleaning (with solvents, oil additives, etc.), steam blowing or utilizing different oil flushing procedures. In dirty oil systems, most of these practices do not produce the desired results within a reasonable amount of time and money. Frequently, positive results do not last long but diminish, resulting in the need for additional cleaning. With the cost of operating dirty lubrication systems in turbines far too significant to neglect, more efficient solutions have been developed. One effective method of preparing new oil systems and restoring operated oil systems for future reliable operation involves the technology of hydrodynamic cleaning and flushing of oil systems. This alternative to obsolete or inefficient methods has become a preferred choice of many original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and power-generation repair companies.

The Problem of Dirty Oil Systems One of the most expensive and underestimated problems associated with the use of machinery is the inadequate cleanliness of the oil system. It results in low oil cleanliness, thus leading to most maintenance problems and to related extra expenses (production outages, repairs, penalties and loss of customers). Impurities can enter the oil system during assembly, upon execution of overhauls or simply from the immediate surroundings. They also are created during operation due to oil degradation and corrosion processes. In process machinery, compressed gas often carries different impurities and can interact with the base oil or oil additives while entering the oil system through wet seal glands. These contaminants accumulate in the oil system interiors, creating different deposits. Impurities are the main cause of premature wear and can lead to equipment breakdown. The most vulnerable parts include bearings, hydraulic actuators and controllers, gear-

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November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com

boxes, drive-shaft seals, pumps, oil coolers, filters and reservoirs. The most common impurities are metal debris from machining, welding slag, sealants or other materials used during assembly or repairs, oil system corrosion products (mainly rust), solid impurities, wear metal particles, and water from oil coolers or steam gland leaks and from ambient humidity. Impurities sometimes A dirty oil pipeline (sludge and include gases (e.g., light corrosion in the return line) hydrocarbons or ammonia) and cooling liquids. Other troublesome impurities involve oil degradation products from aging and thermal stress, which create insoluble chemical compounds that are responsible for varnish and sludge formation.

An oil cooler covered by sludge from oil-aging products


Impurities also lead to increased consumption of filter cartridges. During operation, these impurities are carried by oil to lubricated components, depositing on the inner walls of pipelines, coolers, tanks and other elements.

Particles in the oil that can be damaging to lubricated components may be very different in size, depending on the cleanliness requirements given by the component manufacturer. However, the dangerous size normally is smaller than the human eye can see (less than 40 microns). In practice, a machine consists of many components (e.g., bearings, sealing glands, hydraulics, etc.), so the purity of the oil and the system should meet the requirements of the most demanding component. In a typical turbine system, hydraulics require the highest oil cleanliness and the smallest average size of dangerous particles.

Is Flushing Always Enough?

Magnetic ferrous particles attached to magnets from an oil system

The presence of water accelerates the creation of corrosion inside the system. The current trend is to build oil systems from stainless steel. However, some parts that can corrode rapidly (armature, tanks, etc.) may still be made of carbon steel. In older systems, which are made mostly of carbon steel, the problem of corrosion is significant. These systems are prone to corrode quickly, especially in parts that are not permanently filled with oil (gravity return lines, tank roofs, etc.), due to water condensation on these surfaces. With oil such a key component of any mechanical device, problems related to the lubricant often turn into problems with the machinery. In most cases, impurities in the oil mean interruptions in machinery operation.

Most available standards, recommendations and industry practices place a lot of attention on the flushing process before startup of the system. While turbulent flushing of dangerous-sized contaminants will prepare an oil system for safe operation, only a well-designed flushing procedure will be effective. In many cases, even the most turbulent flows will not remove well-attached/sticky deposits from the system walls. When flushing a system in which such deposits are present, reaching the required oil cleanliness can be difficult. Indeed, achieving reasonable oil cleanliness can take a long time. In addition, during initial startup and regular operation of a turbine when conditions are quite different than when flushing (system vibrations from machinery, high temperatures, different flow velocities, shocks from pump starts, valves opening, etc.), it is common for new particles to detach from remaining (after flushing) dirt from the system walls. Diminishing oil cleanliness is then usually observed. This type of situation is most often visible when severe deposits are present in the system, especially varnish, sludge and rust. Some of the mentioned impurities cannot be cleaned by means of turbulent flushing only. Prior to flushing, thorough cleaning of the system should be performed.

Hydrodynamic Cleaning Technology

Practical Applications Hydrodynamic cleaning and flushing of oil systems is quickly becoming a preferred choice of OEMs and maintenance/repair companies. Since 1994, more than 450 different turbine oil systems have been serviced with this technology, including newly commissioned and refurbished machinery ranging from: • Turbo-generators (steam and gas turbines) • Process turbo-compressors and blowers (hydrocarbons, synthesis gas, hydrogen, air, ammonia, etc.) • Boiler feed pumps with hydrokinetic couplings and gearboxes • Large industrial diesel engines (including auxiliary power supply in nuclear power plants) • Large marine diesel engines • Large hydraulic and lubricating oil systems in steelworks and rolling mills • Central lube oil distribution systems in plants

Cleaning an oil system is not an easy process. Many irregular and rough surfaces made of metal, narrow spaces, recesses between flanges, etc., demand lots of effort and expertise to detach any deposits in order to remove them from the system with turbulent flushing. Hydrodynamic cleaning with high-pressure water jets and subsequent high-velocity oil flushing of systems offers a viable alternative to other frequently insufficient and obsolete methods. This cleaning and flushing technology can be an effective method of preparing new oil systems and restoring operated systems regardless of their size and complexity. The technology includes three phases: hydrodynamic cleaning using water at very high pressure, flushing of the system with oil at high (turbulent) flow rates and with full-flow absolute filtration, and post-assembly bypass oil filtration prior to equipment startup. www.machinerylubrication.com

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TURBINE LUBRICATION

The core of this technology involves cleaning all the inner surfaces of the oil system with high-pressure water jets utilizing suitable nozzles, immediate drying and application of a protective turbine oil spray to the dried surfaces, followed by flushing with continuously filtered oil at sufficient pressure and flow rates.

Step 1: Hydroblasting During hydroblasting, the inner surfaces of the system are blasted with high-pressure water in order to detach soft deposits (loose wear debris, sand and dust grains, products of the oil-aging process, sludge, biological deposits, resins, asphalts,

greases and corrosion-protective layers), as well as hard deposits like corrosion products, rust, welding slag, varnish residue and machining residue that is partially attached to the surface. The following activities are carried out in the course of the cleaning process:

An oil pipeline after hydroblasting

• High-pressure water hydroblasting of all the interiors of pipelines and other elements of the oil system (coolers, reservoirs, bearing stands, etc.) using suitable equipment (elastic lances, nozzles, water guns, etc.). • Immediate drying of cleaned surfaces using filtered, compressed air. • Application of anti-corrosive protection on dried surfaces (spraying with lubricating turbine oil) until flushing occurs.

The hydroblasting process

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• Protection of open flanges from environmental dust and dirt until the flushing process takes place. This advanced technology allows disassembly of only necessary small parts of the oil system (pumps, valves, fittings, coolers, etc.). The goal of hydroblasting is to ensure all of the system’s interiors are free of corrosion, sludge, varnish and other deposits.


www ww www.machinerylubrication.com w.mach machine ineryl rylubr ubrica icatio tionn.com com

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TURBINE LUBRICATION

remain in the system for further use. A separate batch of flushing oil is not needed. The flushing process continues until the predetermined purity criteria are reached in each location of the system. During this time, the oil temperature and direction of its flow are changed in order to move out remaining impurities. Effective flushing of the oil system is based on the following three factors: 1. Flow rates at all pipeline sections should be sufficient to invoke turbulence. The process of drying an oil system (left) and application of a turbine oil spray as anti-corrosive protection

The pressurized water mechanically removes/detaches such deposits from the inner surfaces of the oil system and carries them outside the system by means of a water stream. The water used for cleaning is sweet, potable water or decarbonized water from the power plant, so the risk of system contamination by any chemicals is eliminated. Future flushing is then possible by oil that will be further operated in the turbine.

2. The oil cleanliness class measured in various locations of the system should be better than required by the turbine manufacturer (e.g., 17/15/13 according to ISO 4406). The oil’s purity is measured during the flushing process using appropriate instruments and according to a predetermined schedule. Cleanliness requirements can also be set higher upon request. 3. No solid particles greater than 150 microns are deposited on the 100-micron mesh strainers installed in strategic locations throughout the system. Smaller particle sizes may also be warranted. Depending on the customer’s requirements, the oil

Turbulent flushing with full-flow absolute filtration

Hydroblasting of an oil system

Immediate drying of the cleaned surfaces using filtered, compressed air and applying a protective layer of turbine oil (spray) prevent against secondary corrosion of the cleaned oil system. The system remains completely dry after the hydrodynamic cleaning phase, thus eliminating the risk of water ingression into the oil during flushing.

purity criteria can be more stringent. However, in most cases, the typical result is much better than a cleanliness class of 14/13/10.

Step 3: Bypass Oil Filtering Before and During System Startup In order to remove post-assembly impurities introduced after flushing, bypass oil filtration in the main oil reservoir is performed before and during the system startup. The duration and filtration criteria are adapted to the specific operational requirements.

Step 2: Flushing with Filtered Oil at High Flow Rates During this step, all impurities that remain in the system after hydroblasting are removed while ensuring the appropriate purity of the oil in the system. The system is flushed using special filtration and pumping units with turbulent flows at rates ranging from 13,000 to 20,000 liters per minute. These units have appropriate operating parameters and are connected to the oil system with hoses, manifolds, bearings, servo-motors and other flow-restricting elements. Flushing is performed using fresh turbine oil, which will 24

November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com

A flushing skid in operation

Bypasses on a turbine bearing of a large steam turbine


Offline oil re-filtration before startup

Manifolds and temporary connections on a small steam turbine

Safe and Effective The technology of hydrodynamic cleaning and flushing with oil at turbulent flow rates provides a highly effective method for the renewal of dirty and corroded systems to “like new� condition while also being suitable for newly assembled oil systems. Hydroblasting not only disinfects the system from aging products, old oil, protective layers or other chemicals that might contaminate fresh oil, but also shortens the future flushing process because most impurities are removed by water. The

small amount of contaminants that remain in the system are then easy to flush out. In addition, hydroblasting is quite useful before an oil exchange and permits deep investigation of the oil system by endoscope prior to flushing. Flushing after hydroblasting is fast and efficient, allowing a completion date to be set and a schedule to be maintained with no extra time needed for prolonged flushing. With this technology, proactive maintenance based on oil analysis can be implemented. The method is entirely safe for the natural environment, as pure water is the cleaning medium, and the wastewater contains only impurities detached from the inner system surfaces along with trace quantities of oil washed from the system. Long-term warranties in regards to the system cleanliness are also a possibility.

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PRODUCT SUPERMARKET

Y2K FilterPak - Ideal for flushing small gearbox lube oil systems and hydraulic fluids to control moisture and particulate contamination. Use wherever compressed air is available. Diamond-plate aluminum approx. weight 44 lbs. Y2K Fluid Power

GARZO Model 108B controllers maintain oil levels in engines and compressor crankcases to prevent equipment damage and save oil. The standard valve assembly works with atmospheric tanks or up to 15 psig oil supply pressures.

RULER View™ provides the full picture of a fluid’s antioxidant health, is a window into lubricant health and a critical part of an effective condition-monitoring program, allowing better decision-making.

www.y2kfluidpower.com/ featuredproduct.html 888-925-8882 ken.nicholas@y2kfluidpower.com

GARZO, Inc.

Fluitec International

www.garzoproducts.com/108.html 713-466-8679 tmpafford@garzoproducts.com

www.fluitec.com 201-946-4584 marketing@fluitec.com

Distributor Inquiries Welcomed! Sublime Water Descaler is safe, biodegradable, environmentally friendly and changes color from yellow to purple when spent. U.S. Navy Approved & NSF A3 Registered. Private labeling available.

Because viscosity measurement should be simple, CANNON is excited to introduce the SimpleVIS™ portable viscometer. Everything is included to get you started, minus your sample and solvent. Contact us for more information.

Summit Industrial Products

Cannon Instrument Company

New Clear View oil reservoirs are lightweight, durable, and economical. Polycarbonate endplates have a slim profile and broad chemical compatibility. Capacities from 2 ½ ounces to 1 gallon. Many styles, all made in the USA.

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www.cannoninstrument.com 800-676-6232 sales@cannoninstrument.com

www.oilrite.com 920-682-6173 sales@oilrite.com

DuPont™ Krytox® Fluorinated Greases and Oils are chemically inert, insoluble in common solvents. Temperature range -103º to 800 º F. Compatible with plastics, rubber, ceramics and metals. Nonflammable, oxygen compatible, no silicones or hydrocarbons. H-1/H-2 food grades available.

Lightweight, rugged, carbon fiber reinforced, powerful 3 Channel Simultaneous Vibration Analyzer, Shock Pulse for bearing analysis, laser tachometer with temperature, electronic stethoscope, balancing, laser alignment, and much more.

Miller-Stephenson Chemical Company, Inc.

www.miller-stephenson.com 203-743-4447

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Oil-Rite Corporation

SPM Instrument Inc.

New! RHT FG-68 NSF H1 Food Grade Refrigeration Compressor lubricant will improve system efficiency and productivity. It will meet the stringent requirements of closed-loop ammonia refrigeration systems in the food service industry.

www.leonovabyspm.com 800-505-5636 Info@spminstrument.com

800-749-5823 www.klsummit.com

Summit Industrial Products


One Eye Industries for all your magnetic and industrial ďŹ ltration needs. Our ďŹ ltration solutions have applications in all industries. We manufacture an extensive product line utilizing new magnet technology. One Eye Industries, Inc.

www.oneeyeindustries.com 877-888-8727 info@oneeyeindustries.com

Manage your fluids to target ISO cleanliness levels with the integrated/ cost-effective LUBE ROOM from Fluidall. Dedicated pump and dual filtration per tank with closed-loop circulation and auto tap or quick disconnect dispensing. Fluidall LLC

www.fluidall.com 800-849-0591 pete@fluidall.com

This DVD includes instructive videos and animations to give viewers a better understanding of electric motor bearings and how to lubricate them properly. Noria Corporation

store.noria.com 800-597-5460 www.machinerylubrication.com

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GREASES BY WES CASH AND RICK JAMES, NORIA CORPORATION

Grind for In-Service Gage Grease Analysis Using a

O

Oil analysis is commonly used across industry not only to analyze oil health but also machine health. Recently, advances have been made in grease analysis. With the increasing demand for machines to operate fault-free, it has become even more critical to understand what is occurring inside of them. Although technologies such as vibration, thermography and motor-current analysis can offer early signs of machine failure, analyzing in-service oil and grease can help refine your detection ability. By periodically sampling the oil in a machine, you can obtain information about its health. The same is true for grease-lubricated components. With 90 percent of bearing applications being grease lubricated, it makes sense to apply the same methodology for analyzing the lubricant in these cases.

test other properties of the grease and its constituents. Some of these tests can be expensive and may take several days before results are received. This has created a need to analyze in-service grease in the field and obtain instant feedback on condition, contamination and wear debris content. A study published by SKF indicates that roughly 70 percent of bearing failures are due to contamination. Another study by NSF found that contamination caused nearly 50 percent of bearings to fail. By applying the Pareto principle (the 80/20 rule), you can see that addressing contamination in bearings should prevent some if not most failures. Accessories such as shields and bearing isolators can be added to make bearings last longer, but you must be able to analyze the amount of contaminants in the lubricant to know how clean or dirty they are. Field tests for oil analysis are readily available for almost any property you want to test, including acid number, viscosity, water content, etc. While there are some field tests for greases, they are primarily limited to rough estimations of consistency and oil content. Whether in the field or lab, few practical methods of analyzing particle concentration exist for in-service grease. In fact, there are only three methods available: microscopic analysis (FTM 3005.4), scratched acrylic plates (ASTM D1404) and fineness-of-grind gages (Hegman gages). This article will discuss the fineness-of-grind gage as a practical tool for both lab and field applications.

Gage Design Freshly purged grease should be collected and analyzed for wear debris and contaminants.

The value of grease sampling has been recognized and is now even an ASTM standard (D7718-11). This standard describes a method for taking a representative grease sample from an in-service bearing. While this is the first step in grease sampling, the second phase involves conducting tests on the sample. Several laboratories can perform grease analysis and check for contamination, changes in viscosity or consistency, as well as 28

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The gage’s design features a large block of steel (typically stainless or chromium plated) and tapered grooves or “raceways” machined into the surface. One groove may range from a depth of 0 to 250 microns, with a second groove from 0 to 50 microns. A wiper blade is fabricated from the same material as the block. It draws the sample across the block’s surface for analysis. The wiper blade and the surface of the block are milled as smooth as possible to allow for zero clearance between them during the testing process. After many uses, the wiper may lose its profile and may need to be retooled.


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GREASES

Applications Early applications of these gages were seen in the pharmaceutical and paint industries, which had issues determining the fineness of particles in suspension. For example, in the paint industry, the earliest method for inspecting dispersion quality involved obtaining a small sample of the product to test for particle fineness. Testing in this manner had its drawbacks because it required considerable experience and agreement between testers to predict the final product quality. To assist testers in determining dispersion quality, the North Standards were developed. These were actual pigment dispersions covering a broad range of grind quality. A sample was checked by comparing it to the selected standard on a glass plate.

The grease sample is deposited at the deep end of the gage block.

The wiper is pulled down the length of the block with even pressure.

so that it can be distributed evenly over the length of the block. Hold the wiper blade perpendicular to the block and pull the blade down the length of the channels with a smooth, even stroke. Once the grease has been spread down the channels, hold the block at an angle to a light source to check for particle concentration and type.

In order to eliminate the dependence on standard samples, the Hegman grind gage was developed in 1938. It is now used in a variety of fields, including the food, pharmaceutical, pigments, plastics and paint industries. In all of these applications, Hegman gages (sometimes referred to as grind gages or grindometers) are utilized to produce, store and apply dispersion products.

Using the Gage To use the gage, start by placing the device on a flat surface. This will allow even pressure to be applied on the wiper blade during the testing process. Spread the grease to be tested on the deep end of the channel and be sure to use enough grease

The wiper blade is used to wipe the sample down the block.

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The raceways are examined for evidence of contamination.

Skid marks left in used grease indicate hard contaminants.


Not only does this field test provide a way to quantify particle concentration in grease, but it also offers a crude indication of particle size. When the test has been completed, inspect the channels for streaks left behind. Where the streaks begin relative to the depth of the channel will give you an estimation of the particle size. Hard particles will leave behind In a recent experistreaks in the grease and can be ment, two tests were given a rough size estimation based upon where they appear conducted: one with on the scale. new grease applied directly from a grease gun and another test with in-service grease taken from a wheel bearing. When the results were compared, a few differences were observed, including the amount of streaks found in the samples. The new grease spread evenly down both channels with little to no streaks, indicating no hard particles in the grease. On the other hand, the used grease sample showed obvious signs of hard contaminants.

the grease in the bearing. However, dry, old grease that is simply scraped from the shaft/seal interface will have more ambient contamination (airborne particles), making it harder to obtain any current information about the state of the bearing. This type of grease is historical data from the bearing and doesn’t represent what is happening currently.

Cutting wear particles (top) are generally indicative of hard, solid contaminants. A spherical wear particle is typically seen from fatigue cracks in rolling-element bearings.

This magnified sample particle appears to be a metal chunk possibly caused by overloading and poor lubrication.

Be sure to conduct this test on new grease to find out what its “streak” profile looks like in the raceways. Keep in mind that some solid additives such as graphite, moly, etc., may appear in both new and used grease samples and should be accounted for when evaluating a sample’s total contamination. As the demand increases for machines to operate without failure for longer and longer periods, the need for accurate information on the operating condition of these machine parts will continue to become more important. This simple test should not be used to replace laboratory testing but rather to supplement it and provide more immediate information.

References Doubleday, D. & Barkman, A. (1950). Reading the Hegman Grind Gage. Paint, Oil and Chemical Review. This is an example of a hard particle found in a grease sample.

Although knowing the size and concentration of particles suspended in grease is beneficial, this test can be taken a step further to analyze the particles and identify the contaminants. By looking at the particles under a microscope, you can begin to distinguish environmental contaminants from wear debris originating in the bearing/race/cage assembly. These findings can then be used to determine wear patterns and modes as well as give feedback on any contamination control devices being utilized. This test offers the most information on grease that has been directly purged from the bearing’s core. If the grease can be sampled, either through a grease purge trap or a grease sampling device, it will provide direct information on the current state of

Lafferty, G.J. & Gross, H.M. Application of the Hegman Gage to Medicinal Particle Fineness in Ointments. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Vol. XLIV, No. 4.

About the Authors Wes Cash is a technical consultant with Noria Corporation. He is a mechanical engineer who holds a Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) Level II certification and a Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level I certification through the International Council for Machinery Lubrication (ICML). Contact Wes at wcash@noria.com. Rick James is an industrial services technician with Noria Corporation. He holds a Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level I certification and a Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) Level I certification through the International Council for Machinery Lubrication (ICML). Contact Rick at rjames@noria.com. www.machinerylubrication.com

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TEST your KNOWLEDGE This month, Machinery Lubrication continues its “Test Your Knowledge” section in which we focus on a group of questions from Noria’s Practice Exam for Level I Machine Lubrication Technician and Machine Lubricant Analyst. The answers are located at the bottom of this page. The complete 126-question practice test with expanded answers is available at store.noria.com.

1. Adhesive wear can be described as: A) The adhesion of wear debris to a layer of varnish B) The adhesion of a layer of oil to the metal surface C) The transfer of silicon particles from one metal surface to another D) The transfer of metal from one surface to another through a localized welding process E) None of the above

2. Oil samples from an off-line (kidney-loop) filtration circuit should be taken: A) B) C) D) E)

Downstream of the pump, upstream of the filter Downstream of the reservoir, upstream of the pump (before the pump) Downstream of the filter From the sump From the drain plug

3. Compatibility of different greases: A) Is only a minor issue and often can be ignored B) Is a major issue that is dependent on the thickener used C) Is independent of the thickeners used D) Can be linked to the age of the grease involved E) Is dependent only on the base oil used

3. B Compatibility of different greases is a serious issue that mainly depends on the thickener type. In general, most grease thickeners are incompatible, so extreme caution is required when switching from one grease type to another. 2. A This is to assess the actual condition of the oil before it gets filtered. Answers: 1. D Other names for adhesive wear include galling, scuffing, seizing and severe sliding. Adhesive wear normally occurs during machine starts, loss of film strength and overload/overspeed conditions. Proper lubricant selection is essential to control this wear mode.

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OIL ANALYSIS

6

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BY CARY F ORGERON, A NALYSTS INC.

Ways to Maximize Your OilSoftware Analysis Value

Organizations have used oil analysis for decades to identify lubrication problems that could require equipment repair or even shut down an entire line of heavy machinery. Although the technique for sample collection remains predominantly unchanged, technology has revolutionized the information available once the sample is analyzed. Improved technology, however, can mean a sea of data, which may be overwhelming to even the most business-savvy customer. There are many oil analysis software programs that promise to process complicated data, interpret results and offer recommendations. Additionally, beyond traditional sample analysis, software programs now offer systems for managing maintenance schedules, advanced data graphing and data-mining applications. Not surprisingly, today’s plant engineers and fleet managers have several options when selecting software to manage their oil analysis needs. Choosing the proper software and maximizing its features can provide a huge payback for the user through reduced machinery maintenance expenses. For more than 50 years, oil analysis has been used to help diagnose the internal condition of oil-wetted components. Original testing methods focused on visual inspection coupled with a simple smell test. First used in the railroad industry in 1946, laboratory analysts detected problems in diesel engines through evaluation of metals in used oils. By 1955, the United States Naval Bureau of Weapons had adopted oil analysis procedures to predict aircraft component failure. Testing and evaluation practices have evolved dramatically over the last five decades, making oil analysis one of the most effective predictive maintenance technologies available. Monumental changes have taken place within the laboratory in the areas of sample evaluation and more importantly in how the data is reported and managed. As recently as 10 years ago, customers collected an oil sample, hand-wrote information on a label and mailed the sample to the laboratory via traditional mail services. Two or three weeks later, the customer would receive a hard copy of the laboratory report in the mail. Today, improved instrumentation, streamlined delivery

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services and enhanced technology put comprehensive results in a customer’s hand within 24 hours. This shortened result cycle is essential in the identification of critical samples and can prevent expensive equipment repairs and costly downtime. Additional benefits of a properly executed oil analysis program include reduced lubricant costs, decreased energy consumption, enhanced equipment efficacy, improved production, and reduced risk of injury and environmental damage.

Technology Enhancements As research and technology have advanced over the years, progress in lubricant testing has kept pace. The following are some of the key areas of technology enhancement in the oil analysis industry:

Information Delivery Once limited to a single hard copy of a distinct sample, customers can now review results online, download reports and


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OIL ANALYSIS

share them with colleagues. The delivery cycle has also been condensed from several weeks to within 24 hours. “I can do oil analysis 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year,” says industry expert and consultant John Underwood. “I used to have to wait for weeks for the paper to show up in the mail two weeks after I submitted the sample.”

cians to use the Internet to input comprehensive data about each oil sample. This improvement has reduced the risk of incorrect information gleaned from hand-written forms as well as increased the amount of information technicians can provide to laboratories about each sample.

Sample Identification

Current oil analysis software programs offer improved reporting capabilities that extend far beyond the examination of a single sample. In addition to maintenance program management tools, software developments have enabled cross-comparison of makes, models and lubricant types within the asset population. Maintenance administrators can manage equipment information online and provide it to laboratory experts, which in turn enables data-mining capabilities that can identify critical trends. Graphing tools can also give a visual representation of the results.

Within the last decade, technology has allowed field techni-

Enhanced Functionality

Selecting an Oil Analysis Software Program Choosing a laboratory and technology partner for your predictive maintenance program is not a decision to be taken lightly. Rather, it is important for this strategic evaluation to consider several essential factors: Online labeling offers the ability to print pre-registered sample labels for quick and proper processing.

Third-Party Status By selecting an independent lab, customers are assured non-biased information from an organization that encourages total access and utilization of all the data and management tools available. Brand-specific laboratories may be experts on their own products, but they may not be trained on a variety of equipment or lubricants. While independent sources are always fee-based, these organizations offer the most state-of-the-art technology and services available. The bottom line is that it’s your data, and you should have access to as much information as possible.

Professionals Behind the Software While technology is ever evolving, the importance of expert human involvement cannot be overstated. Search for a lab with depth of knowledge and experience as well as important industry credentials.

Ability to Proactively Manage Equipment Look for a system that allows you to proactively manage equipment records, including location, name or identification, make, model and lubricant information.

User Administration Tools Not every member of a team needs access to every piece of information. The best soft36

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can learn to navigate software programs and take full advantage of their services and benefits. “Training is critical to helping users understand what the programs can do to make their jobs easier and more effective,” Underwood says. Many programs provide training via workshops, online videos, webinars, onsite training, newsletters or downloadable PDFs. Encourage your team to utilize these educational modalities. As users become comfortable with the basics, they can add to their learning based on their role or the company’s needs. For example, lubrication technicians can learn more about sampling techniques and data input, while engineers can explore more technical graphing tools. If Dashboards provide users with easy-to-understand graphs regarding the software program offers ongoing sampling program performance. customer service, don’t hesitate to ware programs allow maximum flexibility, enabling mangers to contact the hotline for product-specific guidance. self-administer and control customized permissions. Choose a system that lets administrators add and delete users, establish Utilize Program Management Tools Customizable features make managing an oil analysis and manage groups of users, and grant individualized access permissions. Other beneficial tools include customizable views program easier and more effective than ever. Beyond tracking and layouts, which put the most useful and important informa- and storing results, modern systems help users record maintenance events such as sampling dates, usage hours and time in tion right where you need it when you need it most. service. You can also create customized alarms to routinely Varied Data-Mining Capabilities collect samples on a prescribed basis. Whether your mainteOne of the most recent and helpful technological develop- nance practices require collection every 500 hours or every ments is customized graphing and result capability. Gone are quarter, these predictive samplings can prevent condition-based the days of pouring over spreadsheets searching for tenden- situations that may signal imminent failure. Also, look for scalcies and clues. Trend graphs utilize user-defined criteria to able programs that adjust to your individual needs. provide a visual representation of general wear, contamination and other common problems. Comparison graphing Ensure Information is Complete The adage “garbage in, garbage out” never rang more true allows users to compare specific pieces of equipment against like machines or an entire population of equipment. Providing than when collecting a lubricant sample. complicated information in an easy-to-understand format, these reports deliver useful information for maintenance and purchasing decisions.

6 Tips for Getting the Most from Your Oil Analysis Software The return on your oil analysis program depends greatly on what you put into it. Industry research indicates that most maintenance programs achieve only 10 percent of the benefits available from oil analysis. User adoption of a more technological marketplace has been slow, and many fear information overload. However, by employing a few key strategies, you can maximize your oil analysis software for maximum results.

Conduct Training At its most basic level, training can consist of the proper technique for sampling. Even with just simple computer skills, users

Equipment management functions enable users to fully register critical information about each piece of equipment. www.machinerylubrication.com

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OIL ANALYSIS

“Technology cannot make up for a bad sample,” Underwood warns. Incomplete or illegible information can lead to data-entry errors and limited testing that yields suboptimal reporting. Once restricted to whatever information could be scribbled on a small label, the latest software programs allow maintenance technicians to input critical information, including equipment (make, model, identification number, location, etc.), hours of operation, maintenance activities, drain interval and more. While incomplete information doesn’t affect the test results, it significantly impacts the analyst’s ability to draw conclusions or detect trends. Therefore, it is essential that users provide

repetitive, information-rich and credible samples to ensure quality and meaningful reports. When more data points are given during the sampling process, laboratory analysts can deliver more comprehensive reports. With consistent and complete sample information, labs can ensure normalization of results based on the organization’s result history.

Take Advantage of Data Mining

A highly technical area of computer science, data mining extracts information from a set of data and transforms it into understandable and actionable information. In oil analysis, this process uses data management and complex metrics to detect abnormalities in single samples or groups of samples. While laboratory experts excel in extracting comprehensive information from a sample, end users may find it difficult to put technical information into practical terms. The average manager typically isn’t interested in particle counts or the presence of iron or metals in a single piece of equipment. However, the ability to recognize trends across a population of equipment can signal a bigger problem that could result in lost revenue from downtime or expensive repairs. According to Underwood, data mining is particularly helpful when managing fleets. “The ability to compare units and equivComparison graphing offers a visual comparison of equipment alent services helps companies determine performance against a population of data, allowing plant personnel to determine which makes and models are best suited for each site. what the best product on the market is for their particular business,” he says. It is important to note that data mining is not the end user’s responsibility but rather an important and integrated component of any effective software program.

Use Graphical Comparisons

Graphing sample conditions enables users to easily spot trends in specific units, equipment types, makes or models.

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Graphs and other visual representations highlight the severity of non-conforming data far better than tables and spreadsheets. Keep in mind that if a report isn’t readable, it won’t get read. “A picture is worth a thousand words,” Underwood says. “People understand a graphical data presentation much more readily than a bunch of numbers, so it is a critical component to any software program.” Users should be able to select different graphing styles (line, bar, area, spider, etc.) based on preference and need. Especially helpful in comparing a pre-defined set of


parameters, graphs can use data normalization to identify wear rates and predict equipment failures. Beyond looking at a single piece of equipment or sample, graphs can provide a cross-comparison that allows users to compare units regardless of make, model or other specifications. Graphs also present a visual picture of a single piece of equipment when compared to the entire population of machinery. While graphing tools should be easy to use, getting the most out of this new technology may require additional training.

From Page 42

Collaborate and Communicate Managing a plant or fleet and its maintenance program is a collaborative effort requiring a team of technicians, engineers, administrators and manufacturers. Communication between team members, especially in a critical situation, is vital. Today’s software programs allow administrators to authorize which users can view information, manage equipment and more. It’s even possible to share information with equipment and lubricant manufacturers, leveraging all available resources for maximum results. By establishing alerts, messaging, preferences and access for all essential team members, administrators can create a highly specialized network of shared information.

Maximizing Your Maintenance Budget

About the Author Cary Forgeron is the national field service manager for Analysts Inc. He has more than 10 years of experience in developing oil sampling programs for end users to meet their organization’s maintenance and reliability goals. Contact Cary at cforgeron@analystsinc.com.

In this extremely competitive era of reduced profit margins, companies are forced to squeeze the most out of their maintenance budgets. People, equipment and systems are expected to do more with fewer resources. Information technology is necessary for any organization’s preventative maintenance program. With increased access to information, oil analysis software companies are helping maintenance managers spot trends, compare equipment and identify dangerous problems before they happen. Yet only 10 percent of users maximize their software programs. Ongoing training will help managers and administrators make the most of the ever-changing tools available. Through the use of program management tools, proper sample registration, data-mining tools, graphical interpretations and data sharing, organizations can ensure the longevity of their equipment and a more robust bottom line. Technology will continue to advance, providing additional tools to the analysts, manufacturers, service providers and end users. How effectively that technology is leveraged will determine the ultimate success of the company. www.machinerylubrication.com

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GET TO KNOW

Suncoke’s Lisch Developing World-Class Lubrication Program Throughout his career, Brandon Lisch has held a number of positions, such as industrial cleaner, scaffold erector/inspector, maintenance mechanic and lead lubrication technician. Now as a predictive maintenance (PdM) technician for Suncoke Energy, he is developing a world-class lubrication program. Lisch’s facility in Middletown, Ohio, has been making strides in changing its culture in terms of lubrication best practices. This includes building a lubricant storage facility, training, 5-S principles, equipment modifications, a color-coding system and standard operating procedures. Suncoke is also exploring options for an in-house oil laboratory to complement its lubrication program.

Name: Brandon Lisch Age: 28 Title: Predictive Maintenance Technician

Years of Service: 2 years Company: Suncoke Energy Location: Middletown, Ohio

Q: What types of training have you taken to get to your current position? A: I have had training in precision maintenance, PdM technology, lubrication best practices, root-cause analysis, troubleshooting and precision alignment. Q: What professional certifications have you attained? A: In terms of lubrication, I currently hold the following certifications from the International Council for Machinery Lubrication (ICML): Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) Level I and Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level I, II and III. I also hold multiple certifications in different predictive maintenance technologies. Q: Are you planning to obtain additional training or achieve higher certifications? A: I plan to increase my knowledge in every predictive maintenance technology to the maximum certification level allotted in each field. I feel that doing so will benefit both me and my 40 |

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company, since each technology complements the other in relevance to the P-F curve. Faults or early discrepancies within machinery can be identified, monitored and flagged with better accuracy. Q: What’s a normal work day like for you? A: My average work day first consists of performing preventive and predictive maintenance tasks. Once those tasks are finished, I continue to develop the predictive maintenance programs and projects to help increase the reliability of the facility. From time to time, I troubleshoot issues in the field and perform root-cause analysis. Q: What is the amount and range of equipment that you help service through lubrication/oil analysis tasks? A: I service all of our facility’s equipment, ranging from our oven machinery to our belt conveyors. I also handle all lubrication tasks that are of a precision nature, including pulling oil samples. We conduct condition-based oil changes, so proper sampling practices must be followed accurately to evaluate the health of our machinery and lubricants. I also perform the lubrication on all of our electric motors and high-speed bearings using airborne ultrasonic technology to apply lubricant with precision. Q: What have been some of the biggest project successes in which you’ve played a part?


A: The biggest success has been the development of the PdM programs, including the lubrication program here at Suncoke Energy Middletown Operations. The strides the company has made and the full support of reliability are helping make these programs flourish. At the rate of development, it will not be long before Suncoke is named a world-class facility. That is the overall goal for us all. Q: How does your company view machinery lubrication in terms of importance and overall business strategy? A: Machinery lubrication is one of the most important, if not the most important, aspect in machine reliability. All other proactive activities performed would be in vain if the lubrication aspect of the machinery is neglected or improperly performed. Lubricants are the lifeblood of a machine. Suncoke fully supports this statement and understands the value of implementing this program to better serve our customer, community and the environment with the reduction of unexpected failures. Q: What do you see as some of the more important trends taking place in the lubrication and oil analysis field? A: The most important trend I see is the increase in lubrication knowledge. Industries are steering away from the “grease monkey” persona and beginning to believe in the skilled lubrication professional. It has been proven time after time that a fully developed lubrication program is one of the keys to success when it comes to machine reliability. Strides in these fields are taking the lubrication profession to a new level. Q: What has made your company decide to put more emphasis on machinery lubrication? A: In the coke-producing industry, the dust from the process is extremely harmful to our equipment. Coke is a carbon-based product that has a hardness ranking of 10 on the Mohs scale. Intrusion of coke dust or any foreign particle into an asset could be detrimental to our equipment and operation. Proactive measures like the prevention of ingression by following lubrication best practices is more economical than being in a reactive mode and replacing machinery due to an unexpected failure caused by improper lubrication practices.

How You Can Be Featured in the Next ‘Get to Know’ Section Would you like to be featured in the next “Get to Know” section or know someone who should be profiled in an upcoming issue of Machinery Lubrication magazine? Nominate yourself or fellow lubrication professionals by emailing a photo and contact information to editor@noria.com.

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CROSSWORD PUZZLER Get a Printable Version of This Puzzle Online at: MachineryLubrication.com/puzzle

Get the solution on page 39

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Oil Analysis

LESSONS IN LUBRICATION

BENNETT FITCH | NORIA CORPORATION

ANATOMY of an Oil Analysis REPORT

This is the fifth part of a series of “anatomy” lessons within Machinery Lubrication. In this issue, a specific device or object will not be dissected but rather the content provided in a typical oil analysis report, including how to interpret the data and other findings. These interpretations may decide either the cost or avoidance of machine failure and downtime. Interpreting an oil analysis report can be overwhelming to the untrained eye. Oil analysis isn’t cheap, and neither is the equipment on which it reveals information. Every year, industrial plants pay millions of dollars for commercial laboratories to perform analysis on used and new oil samples. Unfortunately, a majority of the plant

What to Look for When Reviewing an Oil Analysis Report 1.

Read and check the data on the oil type and machine type for accuracy.

2. Verify that reference data is shown for new oil conditions and that trend data is at an understood frequency (preferably consistent). 3. Check the measured viscosity. 4.

Verify elemental wear data and compare to reference and trended data. Use a wear debris atlas to match elements to their possible source.

5.

Check the elemental additive data and compare to reference and trended data. Use a wear debris atlas to match elements to their possible source.

6. Verify elemental contamination data along with particle counts and compare with reference and trended data. Use a wear debris atlas to match elements to their possible source. 7.

Check moisture/water levels and compare to reference and trended data.

Interpreting an oil analysis report can be overwhelming to the untrained eye. layman’s terms. However, since the laboratory has never seen the machine or know its full history, these recommended actions are mostly generic and not precisely tailored to your individual circumstances. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the plant personnel who receive the lab report to take the proper action based on all known facts about the machine, the environment and recent lubrication tasks performed.

Why Perform Oil Analysis An obvious reason to perform oil analysis is to understand the condition of the oil, but it is also intended to help bring to light the condition of the machine from which the oil sample was taken. There are three main categories of oil analysis: fluid properties, contamination and wear debris.

Fluid Properties This type of oil analysis focuses on identifying the oil’s current physical and chemical state as well as on defining its remaining useful life (RUL). It is designed to answer questions such as:

8. Verify the acid number and base number and compare to reference and trended data.

• Does the sample match the specified oil identification?

9.

• Is it the correct oil to use?

Check other analyzed data such as FTIR oxidation levels, flash point, demulsibility, analytical ferrography, etc.

10. Compare any groups of data that are trending toward unacceptable levels and make justifications based on these trends. 11. Compare written results and recommendations with known information on the oil and machine, such as recent changes in environmental or operational conditions or recent oil changes/filtration. 12. Review alarm limits and make adjustments based on the new information.

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personnel who receive these lab reports do not understand the basics of how to interpret them. Typically, an oil analysis report comes with a written summary section that attempts to put the results and recommendations in

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• Are the right additives active? • Have additives been depleted? • Has the viscosity shifted from the expected viscosity? If so, why? • What is the oil’s RUL?

Contamination By detecting the presence of destructive contaminants and


Seeing Oil Like Never Before! Introducing the New ™

Built-in oil sampling port

Access point for quick syringe sampling and hand-held instrument tests

Probe detects abnormal corrosion and varnish conditions

3-D sight glass enables quick inspection for water emulsions, foam, sediment and bubbly oil Nut allows for easy sight glass rotation (to inspect magnetic rod) or removal (for cleaning)

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Machine Reliability Gets a Boost! The new Condition Monitoring Pod™ is a multi-parameter inspection device that modernizes and expands the power of daily one-minute inspections. An oil sampling valve, magnetic plug, corrosion/varnish inspection probe, and a quick lubricant access point provide the ultimate in versatility. Most bull’s-eye level gauges can confirm oil volume but can’t help identify the root causes and symptoms of machine failure. This revolutionary inspection tool bolsters reliability through quick access to multiple field lubricant tests and displays instant feedback on the condition of the lubricant and its operating environment.

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November - December 2013

| 45


LESSONS IN LUBRICATION

narrowing down their probable sources (internal or external), oil analysis can help answer questions such as: • Is the oil clean? • What types of contaminants are in the oil?

asked to the patient. Likewise, with oil analysis, careful oil samples are taken, and elaborate machines yield the test results. Laboratory personnel interpret the data to the best of their ability, but without crucial details about the machine, a diagnosis or prognosis can potentially be inaccurate. Some of these important details include:

• Where are contaminants originating?

• The machine’s environmental conditions (extreme temperatures, high humidity, high vibration, etc.)

• Are there signs of other types of lubricants?

• The originating component (steam turbine, pump, etc.), make, model and oil type currently in use

• Is there any indication of internal leakage?

Wear Debris

• The permanent component ID and exact sample port location

This form of oil analysis is about determining the presence and identification of particles produced as a result of mechanical wear, corrosion or other machine surface degradation. It answers a number of questions relating to wear, including:

• Proper sampling procedures to confirm a consistently representative sample • Occurrences of oil changes or makeup oil added, as well as the quantity of makeup oil since the last oil change

• Is the machine degrading abnormally?

• Whether filter carts have been in use between oil samples

• Is wear debris produced?

• Total operating time on the sampled component since it was purchased or overhauled

• From which internal component is the wear likely originating? • What is the wear mode and cause?

• Total runtime on the oil since the last change

• How severe is the wear condition? Ultimately, you need to know if any actions should be taken to keep the machine healthy and to extend the life of the oil. Oil analysis for machines can be compared to blood analysis for the human body. When a doctor pulls a blood sample, he puts it through a lineup of analysis machines, carefully studies the results and reports his conclusions based on his education, research and detailed questions

• Any other unusual or noteworthy activity involving the machine that could influence changes to the lubricant

Oil Analysis Tests For a standard piece of equipment undergoing the normal recommended oil analysis, the test slate would consist of “routine” tests. Alternatively, if additional testing is needed to answer advanced ques-

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tions, these would be considered “exception” tests. Routine tests vary based on the originating component and environmental conditions but should almost always include tests for viscosity, elemental (spectrometric) analysis, moisture levels, particle counts, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and acid number. Other tests that are based on the originating equipment include analytical ferrography, ferrous density, demulsibility and base number testing.

Limits for changes in the viscosity depend on the type of lubricant being analyzed but most often have a marginal limit of approximately 10 percent and a critical limit of approximately 20 percent higher or lower than the intended viscosity.

Acid Number/Base Number

The table above shows how tests are utilized in each of the three main oil analysis categories.

Acid number and base number tests are similar but are used to interpret different lubricant and contaminant-related questions. In an oil analysis test, the acid number is the concentration of acid in the oil, while the base number is the reserve of alkalinity in the oil. Results are expressed in terms of the volume of potassium hydroxide in milligrams required to neutralize the acids in one gram of oil. Acid number testing is primarily performed on non-crankcase oils, while base number testing is mainly for over-based crankcase oils. An acid number that is too high or too low may be the result of oil oxidation, the presence of an incorrect lubricant or additive depletion. A base number that is too low can indicate high engine blow-by conditions (fuel, soot, etc.), the presence of an incorrect lubricant, internal leakage contamination (glycol) or oil oxidation from extended oil drain intervals and/or extreme heat.

Viscosity

FTIR

Several methods are used to measure viscosity, which is reported in terms of kinematic or absolute viscosity. While most industrial lubricants classify viscosity in terms of ISO standardized viscosity grades (ISO 3448), this does not imply that all lubricants with an ISO VG 320, for example, are exactly 320 centistokes (cSt). According to the ISO standard, each lubricant is considered to be a particular viscosity grade as long as it falls within 10 percent of the viscosity midpoint (typically that of the ISO VG number). Viscosity is a lubricant’s most important characteristic. Monitoring the oil’s viscosity is critical because any changes can lead to a host of other problems, such as oxidation, glycol ingression or thermal stressors. Too high or too low viscosity readings may be due to the presence of an incorrect lubricant, mechanical shearing of the oil and/or the viscosity index improver, oil oxidation, antifreeze contamination, or an influence from fuel, refrigerant or solvent contamination.

FTIR is a quick and sophisticated method for determining several oil parameters including contamination from fuel, water, glycol and soot; oil degradation products like oxides, nitrates and sulfates; as well as the presence of additives such as zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and phenols. The FTIR instrument

OIL ANALYSIS CATEGORY

TESTS

Fluid Properties

Viscosity, Acid/Base Number, FTIR, Elemental Analysis

Contamination

Particle Counting, Moisture Analysis, Elemental Analysis

Wear Debris

Ferrous Density, FTIR, Elemental Analysis

32% of lubrication professionals would not understand how to interpret an oil analysis report from a commercial laboratory, based on a recent poll at MachineryLubrication.com www.machinerylubrication.com

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LESSONS IN LUBRICATION

OIL PARAMETER

1750

Oxidation (for mineral oils)

3540

Oxidation (for organic ester)

815

Oxidation (for phosphate ester)

1150

Sulfation (possibly from high-sulfur fuel contamination)

1630

Nitration (typically with natural gas engines)

3625

Water ingression (for organic ester)

3400

Water ingression (for mineral oils)

2000

Soot (combustion chamber blow-by contamination)

880, 3400, 1040, 1080

Glycol ingression

800

Diesel fuel ingression

Moisture content within an oil sample is commonly measured with the Karl Fischer titration test. This test reports results in parts per million (ppm), although data is often shown in percentages. It can find water in all three forms: dissolved, emulsified and free. The crackle test and hot-plate test are non-instrument moisture tests for screening before the Karl Fischer method is used. Possible reasons for a moisture reading being too high or too low would include water ingression from open hatches or breathers, internal condensation during temperature swings or seal leaks.

750

Gasoline fuel ingression

Interpreting Oil Analysis Reports

795-815

Jet fuel ingression

3650

Phenol inhibitors additive depletion

980

ZDDP anti-wear/antioxidant additive depletion

The first thing to check on an oil analysis report is the information about the customer, originating piece of equipment and lubricant (see Section A of the sample report on page 49). Including these details is the customer’s responsibility. Without this information, the effectiveness of the report will be diminished. Knowing which piece of equipment the oil was sampled from affects the ability to identify potential sources of the measured parameters,

recognizes each of these characteristics by monitoring the shift in infrared absorbance at specific or a range of wavenumbers. Many of the observed parameters may not be conclusive, so often these results are coupled with other tests and used more as supporting evidence. Parameters identified by shifts in specific wavenumbers are shown in the table above.

Elemental Analysis

Moisture Analysis

ELEMENT

POSSIBLE SOURCES

Aluminum

Pistons, bearings, pumps, thrust washers

Antimony

Bearings, grease

Barium

Rust and oxidation inhibitor additives, grease

Boron

Anti-corrosion additives in coolant, dust, water

Elemental analysis works on the principles of atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), which is sometimes called wear metal analysis. This technology is designed to detect the concentration of wear metals, contaminants or additive elements within the oil. The two most common types of atomic emission spectroscopy are rotating disc electrode (RDE) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). Both of these methods have limitations in analyzing particle sizes, with RDE limited to particles less than 8 to 10 microns and ICP limited to particles less than 3 microns. Nevertheless, they are useful for providing trend data. Possible sources of many common elements are shown in the table on the right. The best way to monitor this type of data is to first determine what is expected to be in the oil. An effective oil analysis report will provide reference data for the new oil so any amounts of additive elements can be easily distinguished from those of contaminants. Also, because many types of elements should be expected at some level (even contaminants in certain environments), it is better to analyze trends rather than focus on any specific measurement of elemental analysis data.

Calcium

Detergent/dispersant additives

Particle Counting Particle counting measures the size and quantity of particles in 48 |

the oil. Many techniques can be used to assess this data, which is typically reported based on ISO 4406:99. This standard designates three numbers separated by a forward slash providing a range number that correlates to the particle counts of particles greater than 4, 6 and 14 microns. To view an illustration of how different particle counts are assigned specific ISO codes, visit http://www. machinerylubrication.com/Read/29525/sample-new-oil.

WAVENUMBER

November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com

Chromium

Piston rings in internal combustion engines

Copper

Bearings, brass/bronze alloys, bushings, thrust washers

Iron

Shafts, rolling-element bearings, cylinders, gears, piston rings

Lead

Bearings, fuel additives, anti-wear additives

Lithium

Grease, additives

Magnesium

Transmissions, detergent additives

Molybdenum

Piston rings, electric motors, extreme-pressure additives

Nickel

Bearings, valve train, turbine blades

Phosphorus

Anti-wear additives, extreme-pressure gear additives

Potassium

Coolant additives

Silver

Bearing cages (plating), gear teeth, shafts

Silicon

Dust/dirt, defoamant additives

Sodium

Detergent or coolant additives

Tin

Journal bearings, bearing cages, solder

Titanium

Bearing hub, compressor blades

Zinc

Neoprene seals, grease, anti-wear additives


Ref. Fluid Life

especially wear particles. For example, the originating piece of equipment can help associate reported wear particles with certain internal components. The lubricant information can provide a baseline for several parameters, such as the expected viscosity grade, active additives and acid/base number levels. These details may seem straightforward but are often forgotten or illegible on the oil sample identification label or request form. The next section (Section B) of the oil analysis report to examine is the elemental analysis or FTIR breakdown. This data can help identify contamination, wear metals and additives present within the oil. These parameters are reported in parts per million (ppm). Nevertheless, this does not mean a contamination particle, for example, can only be indicated by sodium, potassium or silicon spikes. In the example above, the rise in silicon and aluminum could potentially indicate dust/dirt contamination as

the root cause. One likely explanation for these spikes is that as dirt (silicon) enters the oil from an external source, three-body abrasion occurs within the machine, causing wear debris including aluminum, iron and nickel to increase. With a better understanding of the metallurgy within the system’s components, any spikes in wear metals can be better associated, allowing a proper conclusion as to which internal components are experiencing wear. Keep in mind that for trend analysis, it is important that samples are taken at an appropriate and uninterrupted frequency. With elemental data related to contaminants and wear metals, alarms are set for upward trends in the data. For elemental data pertaining to additives, alarms are set for downward trends. Having a baseline of new lubricant reference data is critical in assessing which additives are expected and at what levels. These baselines are www.machinerylubrication.com

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LESSONS IN LUBRICATION

then established to help determine any significant reduction in specific additives. Another section of the oil analysis report presents previously identified sample information from the customer such as oil manufacturer, brand, viscosity grade and in-service time, as well as if an oil change has been performed. This is important data that can provide an explanation for what could be false positives in alarming data changes. The “physical tests” section of a report offers details on viscosity at both 40 degrees C and 100 degrees C, along with the viscosity index and percentage of water. For common industrial oils, the viscosity measurement at 40 degrees C is usually given, since this correlates to the oil’s ISO viscosity grade. If the viscosity index must also be calculated, such as for engine oil, then these additional viscosity measurements will be identified. The viscosity for engine crankcase oils is typically reported at 100 degrees C. Water contamination, which commonly is measured by the Karl Fischer test, is presented in percentages or ppm. While some systems are expected to have high levels of water (more than 10,000 ppm or 10 percent), the typical alarm limits for most equipment are between 50 to 300 ppm. The “additional tests” section shows two final tests: acid number (AN) and particle size distribution (aka, particle count).

When analyzing the acid number, you should have both a reference value and the ability to trend from past analysis. The acid number often will jump considerably at some point. This may be your best indicator for when the oil is oxidizing rapidly and should be changed. The last section of the oil analysis report generally provides written results for each of the final few test samples along with recommendations for required actions. Typically, these recommendations are entered manually by laboratory personnel and based on information provided by the customer and the data collected in the lab. If there is an explanation for the data that stems from something not explicitly stated by the customer, the results must be reinterpreted by those familiar with the machine’s history of environmental and operating conditions. Understanding the information given here is critical. Remember, there is always an explanation for each exceeded limit, and the root cause should be investigated. In addition to the raw data shown throughout the oil analysis report, graphs can help illustrate notable trends in the data. Below is an example of trended data points from analyzed data, with the water test having the most notable unfavorable spike. Along with the trend data, graphs should show typical averages, warning (marginal) limits and alarm (critical) limits. These limits

Graphs in an oil analysis report can help illustrate notable trends in the data. (Ref. Fluid Life)

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SELECTING OIL ANALYSIS TESTS BY APPLICATION Hydraulics

Air and Gas Compressors

Chillers and Refrigeration

Transmissions, Final Drives, Differentials

Industrial Gear Oils

Steam Turbine Oils

Gas Turbine Oils

EHC Fluids***

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R

R E(5a) -

R R

R R -

R R -

R R -

R R -

R R -

R R -

R R -

R R -

R -

R R

R -

R R

R R

R -

R -

R R

R R

R -

-

-

R -

R R

R -

R R*

-

R -

R -

-

E(2b,5d)

-

7. Glycol-ASTM Test 8. Ferrous Density 9. Analytical Ferrography 10. RPVOT

-

-

E(14b)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

E(1) E(8,14 a)

E(1) E(8,14a)

R E(8,14 a)

R E(8,14 a)

R E(8,14a)

R E(8,14a)

R E(8,14a)

R E(8,14a)

E(1) E(8,14a)

E(1) E(8,14a)

R E(8,14a)

-

-

-

-

R

-

-

-

R

R

-

11. Crackle 12. Water by KF 13. Water Separability

R E(11) R

R E(11) -

R E(11) -

R E(11) -

R** E(11)** R**

R E(11) -

R E(11) -

R E(11) -

R E(11) R

-

R E(11) -

14. Elemental Analysis a. Wear Metals b. K, Na, B, Si c. Additives

R, E(1) R R

R, E(1) R R

R R R

R, E(1) R R

R, E(1) R R

R, E(1) R R

R R R

R, E(1) R R

R, E(1) R R

R R R

R,E(1) R R

Test or Procedure 1. Particle Count 2. Viscosity a. 40º C b. 100º C 3. AN 4. BN 5. FTIR a. Ox/Nit/Sul b. Hindered Phen c. ZDDP d. Fuel Dil./Soot 6. Flash Point

Paper Machine Oils

Motor and Pump Bearings

Diesel and Gas Engines

R

R

R R -

*Gas compressors only ** Air compressors only ***For phosphate ester fluids, consult the fluid supplier and/or turbine manufacturer. R = Routine testing E = Exception test keyed to a positive result from the test in parentheses

should be modified depending on the type of data collected, the type of lubricant and the machine’s known operating conditions. Standard alarm limits will be set by the oil analysis laboratory. However, if there is any reason to adjust these limits higher or lower, they should be identified properly. Examples of limits that should be lowered would be those for highly critical assets or assets that are consistently healthy. A small spike in data would be cause to run an exception test or an immediate second sample for analysis. In such cases, a second sample would ensure the data received is representative of the oil conditions and not simply a

human error in sampling or analysis. If exception tests are needed, the chart above shows which tests would be appropriate when a given routine test limit has been exceeded.

About the Author Bennett Fitch is a technical consultant with Noria Corporation. He is a mechanical engineer who holds a Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level II certification and a Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) Level II certification through the International Council for Machinery Lubrication (ICML). Contact Bennett at bfitch@noria.com.

www.machinerylubrication.com

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NOW ON

ML

MachineryLubrication.com

Find more great articles and content from Machinery Lubrication magazine online. From Web exclusives and industry news to videos, white papers, buyer’s guides and more, everything that relates to machinery lubrication is available now on MachineryLubrication.com.

The Importance of Machine Criticality Criticality is very much a part of making informed decisions on scheduling, whether it be a simple sight-glass inspection or as complex as a turbine rebuild. Critical equipment most definitely should be checked more often than non-critical equipment. These assets deserve the focus of your limited time, money and energy. Of course, it is important to know how you define an asset as critical. Discover how to determine the criticality of an asset by reading this article on the ML site.

By the Numbers

80%

of lubrication professionals do not have a grease analysis program at their plant, according to a recent survey at MachineryLubrication.com

An Introduction to the Principles of Lubrication This video explains the importance and methods of mechanical lubrication for various equipment. In order to use lubricants correctly, you need to know some of the key terms describing their specific characteristics, such as viscosity, viscosity index, pour point, flash point and fire point. Access this 4-minute, 2-second video at www.MachineryLubrication.com.

Advantages of Synthetic Base Oils

Understanding the Re-refining Process Re-refining is a process employed to refurbish used oil and return it to a high-quality base oil. In the United States, approximately 40 percent of used oil is captured and recycled in some manner, while 60 percent is lost. Nearly 14 percent of the captured and recycled oil is re-refined. Read this article on the ML site to understand the various processes used by re-refiners to remove contaminants, water, spent additives and any of the original remaining additives from the used oil.

How to Repack, Grease and Adjust Car Wheel Bearings This video demonstrates the proper way to repack, grease and adjust vehicle wheel bearings. Watch as a brake caliper on a car is removed by compressing the caliper piston in order to release hydraulic pressure. Access this 2-minute, 51-second video at www.MachineryLubrication.com. 52 |

November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com

Petroleum-based mineral oils function very well as lubricants in 90 percent of industrial applications. They are cost-effective and provide a reasonable service life if used properly. However, they have some limitations. Synthetic base oils are expensive because of the processing involved in creating these pure chemical base oils. Their use must justify the additional cost. In other words, there should be a financial benefit to using them. Find this article on the ML site to learn the two main advantages of using synthetic base oils.

Featured White Papers MachineryLubrication.com is the place to turn for white papers on a host of lubrication-related topics. Here’s a sampling of the latest white papers that are currently available for download: •

Reliable Hydraulic System Operation Through Proper Fluid Selection and Maintenance

A Practical Guide to Pulley Alignment

A New Solution for Used Oil Particle Analysis

Innovative Solutions to Address Lube Varnish in Hydrogen Seals

Recent Advances in Food-Grade Greases

Using Wireless Headphones with Bluetooth for the CSI 2140

Check out the full list of white papers by visiting www.MachineryLubrication.com and clicking on the “White Papers” link.


BOOK STORE

Welcome to Machinery Lubrication’s Bookstore, designed to spotlight lubrication-related books. For a complete listing of books of interest to lubrication professionals, check out the Bookstore at store.noria.com.

Oil Analysis Basics – Second Edition Publisher: Noria Corporation

The new second edition includes more detailed information on oil sampling, filtration and contaminant removal, base oils and additives, water-in-oil contamination and removal, ASTM standards, glycol testing, flash point tests, and 14 additional oil analysis tests.

Lubrication Fundamentals – Second Edition Authors: D.M. Pirro and A.A. Wessol

This newly revised and expanded reference book emphasizes the need for lubrication and careful lubricant selection. Thoroughly updated and rewritten, the second edition of Lubrication Fundamentals discusses product basics, machine elements that require lubrication, methods of application, lubrication, lubricant storage and handling, lubricant conservation and much more.

Lubrication Basics for Machinery Operators Training Video Format: DVD Publisher: Noria Corporation

Train your team on the basics of lubrication and how to recognize early signs of lubrication-related problems with this convenient video training DVD. Your operators will learn the basics of operator-based

lubrication inspections and gain the knowledge to ensure that routine inspections and top-offs are performed with precision and accuracy.

Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants – Third Edition Authors: R.M. Mortier, M.F. Fox and S.T. Orszulik

This updated and revised third edition describes the chemical components that contribute to the formulation of liquid lubricants and includes a discussion of lubricant technology for specific applications. It is of particular relevance for those in industry who are involved with lubricant additives, formulation and testing, as well as those who are concerned with the use and specification of lubricants.

Lubrication Awareness Poster Set Publisher: Noria Corporation

This set of five posters effectively uses humorous illustrations and bulleted tips and pointers to communicate critical lubrication advice. Posters included in the set are Home Sweet Home, Keep Our Machines Clean, Overgreasing Doesn’t Pay, Use the Correct Oil and Watch Your Aim.

Handbook of Lubrication and Tribology – Volume II: Theory and Design – Second Edition Author: Robert W. Bruce

Sponsored by the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers, this handbook incorporates up-todate, peer-reviewed information for tackling tribological problems and improving lubricants and tribological systems. It demonstrates how the principles of tribology can address cost savings, energy conservation and environmental protection.

For descriptions, complete table of contents and excerpts from these and other lubrication-related books, and to order online, visit: store.noria.com or call 1-800-597-5460, ext. 204. 54

November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com


ML

CERTIFICATION NEWS

World-Class RELIABILITY STARTS with a Solid

FOUNDATION

BY SUZY JAMIESON, ICML

When it comes to developing, implementing and sustaining a reliability-improvement program, long-term success ultimately depends on a solid foundation. Indeed, it is the foundation that will determine whether the current initiative will be just another

fad or actually achieve the results you have set out to accomplish. It is also important to know the elements that are in place will withstand the test of time and weather the storms that will inevitably come your way. Sometimes we overlook the obvious. As a society, we invest considerable time and energy aiming for great Benefits of ICML Certification heights yet often forget that crucial ingredient for making sure we do not Quality certification programs not only can provide standards and guidelines for profesfall flat on our faces once we have sional recognition but also a multitude of benefits for individuals, organizations and industry. reached the top. In other words, you For Individuals have to crawl before you can walk. No Earning an ICML certification acknowledges your expertise in machinery lubrication matter how great an idea seems in and/or oil analysis to troubleshoot and ensure reliability of lubricated equipment. The lubritheory, it is a long, uncertain journey cation and oil analysis community, your employer, clients and peers will recognize your from design to actual results, especially ICML credential as a symbol of the skills and knowledge you’ve gained through experience. ICML certification shows that you are a professional with the ability to successfully utilize for anything worthwhile. machinery lubrication and/or oil analysis for your organization or client. As with most other things in life, you As an ICML-certified professional, you also receive the following benefits: must start at the bottom. In the case of • Industry recognition of your knowledge and proficiency in machinery lubrication reliability programs, this means the and/or oil analysis techniques. hands-on personnel, the shop-floor • Logos and a certificate to enable you to identify your ICML-certified status to staff or the technicians. They are the colleagues or clients. human foundation of any reliability-imFor Employers and Organizations provement program. Without them, Through certification, organizations can maximize their return on investment in oil their buy-in and a solid foundation of analysis. ICML certification delivers the following benefits: • A standardized method of determining training needs and measuring results technical skills, no amount of reliability • A reliable benchmark for hiring, promoting and career planning theory, philosophy or trendy gadgetry • Employee recognition and rewards that validate their expertise will make the program stand when it is • Improved employee ability to ensure machine reliability shaken — and it will be shaken. After all, • Quality assurance for outsourced oil analysis and lubrication services as any maintenance and reliability For Industry professional knows, things do not Certification brings much-needed credentials to an up-and-coming lubrication and oil always go according to plan. analysis community. Benefits to the community include: Be sure to value and respect the tech• Respect for oil analysis and lubrication professions nicians and the crucial role they play in • Increased professionalism within the community the outcome of any plant reliability-im-

56 |

November b -D December b 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com hi l b i i


provement program. It is in your best interest to recognize the direct impact they have on the culture change. Respecting and supporting them in their professional development and teaching them not only what they should or need to be doing but also why will make all the difference. Common sense and mutual respect can go a long way, even in our plants. Give technicians a solid start by providing them with the proper tools they need to succeed. This means ensuring they have

Recognize that the technicians are ultimately the foundation of your reliabilityimprovement program. the appropriate job description and pre-established procedures that are clearly taught and monitored through proper supervision. The importance of skills development cannot be overemphasized. This will require technical training for tradesmen as well as

operators, followed by an audit of their skill set, i.e., competency testing in the technologies they will utilize when monitoring the condition of your assets. As you develop technicians to be future leaders within your program, new mentors will emerge. Empowering them with career potential and recognition of their worth and contributions to the overall health of the plant’s reliability and availability will instill the pride everyone deserves in his or her professional role. Suddenly you will find yourself with in-house experts eager to make a difference. The intangible benefits you will see are the same as those experienced and documented by many worldclass operations. The crucial first step is to understand where you are currently. Establish your starting point, not only in relation to your practices and your team’s skill level (be it in lubrication, for example, or other areas), but also where you aim to be, such as a benchmarked worldclass parameter. Knowledge of the steps needed to get where you want to go is an obvious necessity, as is knowing where your limited resources are best spent — and everyone has limited resources. Ultimately, wherever your higher return-on-investment opportunity lies, that is where your focus should be. To learn more about ICML’s certification programs, please visit www.lubecouncil.org.

Need to train your team, but it’s always been too expensive? More and more companies are realizing the value of bringing training onsite. The benefits are obvious and rewarding: • Tailored curriculum to address your company’s needs • Learning in a more personable and familiar environment • Confidential issues and solutions may be discussed freely • Flexible course scheduling • A unified learning experience

Lubrication is the lifeblood of your machinery. Bring us onsite or to the facility of your choice for private team training. www.noria.com

(918) 392-5033 www.machinerylubrication.com

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November - December 2013

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CERTIFICATION NEWS

RECENT RECIPIENTS OF ICML CERTIFICATIONS The International Council for Machinery Lubrication (lCML) would like to congratulate professionals worldwide who have recently achieved certified status through ICML’s certification programs. ICML offers certification in the areas of oil analysis and machinery lubrication. The following is a list of recently certified professionals in the area of machinery lubrication who have attained their status as a certified Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA), Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) or Laboratory Lubricant Analyst (LLA). Ron Francis, MLT I Sheldon Brown, MLT I Williard Popplestone, MLT I

A.W. Chesterton Mark Guenther, MLT II AES David Rossler, MLA I Anthony Woods, MLA II Gregory Lilley, MLA II Heather Mawhinney, MLA II Kevin Perrin, MLA II Allied Reliability Melissa Woodward, MLT I Alto Parana Gonzalo Gatti, MLA II Juan Fortuny, MLT I AMRRI Bobby Kennedy, MLT I Apache Corp. Matthew O’Brien, MLT I Atlas Pradeep Nair, MLA II Axiall Corp. Chester Guidry, MLT I Daniel Miller, MLT I Donnie McDonald, MLT I Henry Verbick, MLT I Jace Dickerson, MLT I Jeffrey Eastwood, MLT I Kyle Bowman, MLT I Lionel Bonin, MLT I Seth Cannon, MLT I Taylor Richard, MLT I Todd Haydel, MLT I BACTS Pablo Savall, MLT I Baxter Healthcare Carlos Falu-Vazquez, MLA I Bayer CropScience Jeffrey Levin, MLT I Boehringer Ingelheim Gary Helmink, MLA I John Adams, MLT I Bunge Carlos Oliveira, MLT I Edivaldo Junior, MLT I Joel Fernandes, MLT I Josinaldo de Melo, MLT I Ricardo Romao, MLT I Bureau of Reclamation Keith Cooper, MLT I

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Cargill Doug Leischner, MLT I Tanner Rix, MLT I

Ethicon LLC Joel Delgado, MLT I Julio Rodriguez, MLT I

Holcim Michael Fink, MLA I Tyler Reed, MLT I

Catalyst Paper Brian Lundberg, MLT I

Excell B Enterprises Palanisamy Duraisaamy, MLT II

Hyundai Sung-Ho Hong, MLT I

Ceng LLC Brian Koscielniak, MLA II Central Motor Wheel of America Hal Hastings, MLT I Ron Mosley, MLT I Chevron Md. Alam, MLA II Minhaj Ahmad, MLA II Mohammad Chowdhury, MLA II Sadeaque Ul Islam, MLA II Chicago Bridge and Iron Co. Charles Ray, MLT I Marcus Duhe, MLT I Cirra Consultants Charly George, MLA II City of Largo Garry Rice, MLA I CPS Energy Ryan Mcdonnell, MLT I Croda Chemicals Shantanu Das, MLA III DaimlerChrysler Michael Leggett, MLT I Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal Andrew Marshall, MLA I DTZ Barton Dewey, MLT I Chris Hanna, MLT I Donald Haapapuro, MLT I Eamon Reilly, MLT I Jason Jensen, MLT I Kyle Maack, MLT I Paul Manock, MLT I Scott Erickson, MLT I Stephanie Wyum, MLT I Tyler Roberts, MLT I Duke-Energy Ryan McKillip, MLA I E&J Gallo Winery Everett Young, MLT I Eastman Chemical Travis Bledsoe, MLT I EcoElectrica Julio Colon, MLT I

November - December 2013 | www.machinerylubrication.com

Fate Gastón Argañaraz, MLT I

Industrial Oils Unlimited Kyle Kress, MLA II & MLT I

FilterMag Inc. Randy Yount, MLA I

Interflon Gerd Hulsmann, MLA II

Flint Hills Resources Mike Davis, MLA I

JD Irving Jacques Theriault, MLT I

Florida Power & Light Michael Schilling, MLA II

Jimah O&M Kathiresan Maniam, MLT I

Fuchs Alexander Franke, MLT I

Johnson Controls Richard McKenzie Jr., MLA I Harley Register, MLT I

G&G Sales Hank Gilley, MLA I & MLT I General Mills Ben Rosenbauer, MLT I Chak Man Chan, MLT I Joe Pequignot, MLT I Wade Falconberry, MLT I Georgia-Pacific Aaron Swoyer, MLT I Andrew Overton, MLT I Chad Marcell, MLT I Corey Marcell, MLT I Daniel Massie, MLT I Glenn Noack, MLT I James Marcusen, MLT I Joel Krause, MLT I Joshua Nackers, MLT I Julie Longtin, MLT I Mark Wnuk, MLT I Mike Maciejewski, MLT I Mitch Sokolski, MLT I Peter Stengl, MLT I Randy Malcore, MLT I Ron Wilde, MLT I Steven Chada, MLT I Glencore Josef Dopsa, MLA I Barnard Jimenez, MLT I

Jones Engineering Arthur McCarthy, MLA II Kaiser Aluminum Rich Hoy, MLT I Katech Jonghyuck Park, MLT I Korea Midland Power Co. Jae-Gun Hwang, MLT I La Plata Cogeneración Adrián Lella, MLA I Laboratorio Dr. Lantos Gabriel Lucchiari, MLT II

Juan Figueroa, MLT I

Lubrication Engineers Inc. Gary Jacobs, MLT I Steven Hays, MLT I Steven Petrehn, MLT I Adam Serwinski, MLT II McCain Foods Jonathan Allen, MLT I Joshua Lesniak, MLT I Michael Monteith, MLT I Michelin Al Arnette, MLT I MillerCoors Brewing Co. Carroll Wyant, MLT II Monition Robert Webster, MLA II Mosaic Co. Sean Greenlee, MLA I Billy Gunter, MLT I MRG Laboratories Lisa Williams, LLA I Richard Wurzbach, MLA II NAES Corp. Mike Walker, MLA I New Gold Inc. Clinton Burton, MLA I Noria Corporation Gerald Putt, MLA I & MLT II Loren Green, MLT II

Lagan Cement David O’Rourke, MLA II Stephen Beirne, MLA II Lartex SRL Roberto Zapata, MLT I Laurentide Controls Magali Jarry, MLA II Lilly del Caribe Jorge Arroyo, MLA I Juan Marquez, MLA I Samuel Barreto, MLA I

Glucovil Sebastián Lombardi, MLT II Green Country Energy LLC Lee Garell, MLT I Hankook Yangseok Son, MLA II Harley Davidson Motor Co. Gregory Coligan, MLT I

Need to take an exam? ICML regularly holds exam sessions throughout the United States and the world. Upcoming dates and locations for ICML exams can be found at www.lubecouncil.org.

ICML Certifications LLA I = Laboratory Lubricant Analyst Level I MLA I = Machine Lubricant Analyst Level I MLA II = Machine Lubricant Analyst Level II MLA III = Machine Lubricant Analyst Level III MLT I = Machine Lubrication Technician Level I MLT II = Machine Lubrication Technician Level II


NV Energy Kasey Davis, MLT I

Pattison Sand Co. Steven Janes, MLT I

MLT I David Story, MLA I & MLT I Jamie Marquis, MLA I & MLT I Kenneth Roberts II, MLA I Alan Lindner, MLT I James Vencill, MLT I Mark Stone, MLT I Robert Garcia, MLT I Troy White, MLT I

Petro-Canada Neil Buchanan, MLA III

Samsung Techwin Co. Seongjun Kim, MLT I

Petrolabs Rajinder Negi, MLT I Venkata Suresh Pedasingu, MLT I

Sappi Seth Washburn, MLT I

Oil Filtration Systems John Bonner, MLA I Pall Corp. Ki Kook Yoon, MLT I Young Min Lee, MLT I

Petroleum Development Mohammad Uddin, MLA II Prüftechnik Canada Benoit Marcotte, MLT II Reliability Technology Services Stephen Pianka, MLT I Rock Tenn Co. Barry Smith, MLA I & MLT I Brian Mounce, MLA I &

Sarawak Energy Berhad Nurfaizal Wahi, MLT I Schaeffler Group Seemant Joshi, MLA I Schreiber Foods Brent Page, MLT I Bret Morris, MLT I Chad Williams, MLT I Gerard Curti, MLT I Joe Anderson, MLT I Josh Behrendt, MLT I Kenneth Kanc, MLT I

Kenneth Puckett, MLT I Larry Orethun, MLT I Raymond Grissom, MLT I Richard Reeves, MLT I Steven Foster, MLT I Travis Berney, MLT I

Shell Jong Lok, MLA I SIL Claudinei Gabriel Gabriel, MLT I Sinto Inc. Daniel Laflamme, MLA II Skanska Jaime Torres Huamani, MLT I SKF Paul Doherty, MLT I Southern Gardens Citrus Brendon Russ, MLA II Sugar Australia Pty. Gary Burgess, MLA I Jai Cavka, MLA I Paul Roddy, MLA I Sun Up Co.

Sang Chul Park, MLT I Suk Yoong Jung, MLT I

Tractors India Saugata Roy, MLA I

SunCoke Energy Jack McCoy, MLT I

Transportadora de Gas del Sur Diego Ramborger, MLA II Julián Zottola, MLA II

T.E. Laboratories Edward Elder, MLA II Tamko Building Products Michael Hoover, MLT I

Universidad del Turabo Juan Marquez, MLA I

Tampa Electric Teal Trombetta, MLT I

US Lubricants David Kemps , MLT I Kyle Redjinski, MLT I

Tata Steel Ajit Verma, MLT I

Vedanta Aluminum Ipsita Hota, MLA I

TECO Westinghouse Motor Co. David Wilson, MLA I

Weyerhaeuser Paul Watson, MLA I

Tekfor Christopher Lawrence, MLT I

Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corp. Crettion Taylor, MLT I

Total Austral Gastón Delgado, MLT I Nicolas Gatto, MLT I

YCRT Juan May, MLA I Manuel Gerez, MLA I Raúl Choque, MLA I

Total Lubrication Management Co. Lloyd Funchess, MLT I Michael Dougay, MLT I

Yemen LNG Co. Venkatesan Narayanan, MLA II

Global Training Calendar November 2013 ADVANCED MACHINERY LUBRICATION Daegu, South Korea • November 11-14, 2013

PRACTICAL OIL ANALYSIS Tampico, Mexico • November 12-14, 2013

PRACTICAL OIL ANALYSIS Bangalore, India • November 14-16, 2013

FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINERY LUBRICATION Raipur/Vizag, India • November 17-19, 2013

ADVANCED MACHINERY LUBRICATION Montreal, Quebec Canada • November 19-21, 2013 OIL ANALYSIS/MACHINERY LUBRICATION I Bangkok, Thailand • November 19-22, 2013

HOW TO INTERPRET A LUBRICANT ANALYSIS REPORT

FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINERY LUBRICATION

Bogota, Columbia • November 20-22, 2013

December 2013 FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINERY LUBRICATION

León, Mexico • December 10-12, 2013

HOW TO INTERPRET A LUBRICANT ANALYSIS REPORT Santiago, Chile • December 10-12, 2013

Phoenix, AZ, United States • December 3-5, 2013

PRACTICAL OIL ANALYSIS Phoenix, AZ, United States • December 3-5, 2013

FUNDAMENTALS OF MACHINERY LUBRICATION Trinidad and Tobago • December 3-5, 2013

HOW TO INTERPRET A LUBRICANT ANALYSIS REPORT Lima, Peru • December 3-5, 2013

ICML certification testing is available after most of the courses listed. Please visit www.lubecouncil.org for more information on certification and test dates.

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HYDRAULICS BY R ANCE HERREN, IFPS

Become an

I

Expert through Certification

In today’s highly competitive manufacturing and service environment, machine and equipment uptime is critical. More often than not, it is a determinant of a company’s success and survivability. Downtime is the death knell of profitability. Perhaps the most important people in this metric are the mechanics and technicians. The wide range of skills required from the individual to keep a machine operational or to get it running after a breakdown is significant. This person must have an understanding of mechanics, hydraulics, pneumatics, and increasingly, electric and electronic controls. That is a tall order by any standard. Some of the best engineers are those who have an extensive background or started their careers in troubleshooting and repair. They have seen what works, what doesn’t and what to do about it. They have a keen understanding of what it means to design and package an energy-efficient and safe system for minimal maintenance, reduced downtime and repair with the

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fewest tools. They understand firsthand the need for and the value of proper and thorough documentation. In other words, the engineer designs, the test technician tests and troubleshoots, and the mechanic fixes. All of these skill sets are critical. In the context of the overall success of the project, none is exclusive or more important than the other. Experts must be knowledgeable in the many aspects of fluid power: hydraulic, pneumatic, and basic electric and electronic controls. Becoming a well-rounded fluid power expert does not end at a particular destination; it is a continuing, career-long journey. It requires the self-challenge to constantly seek out the opportunity to learn by engaging others with more or different knowledge and skills than your own. It demands stepping outside of your comfort zone and taking on the challenges that others may avoid. It involves extra time and effort that perhaps you would rather spend doing something else. You must read from textbooks, fluid power periodicals and component manufacturer catalogs to gain knowledge of the types of hydraulic and pneumatic hardware in the marketplace, how they work and how they do not. To gain additional knowledge, consider taking a community-college course or attending a technical seminar in a discipline


where your skills are weak. It doesn’t matter if you have been in the industry six months or 30 years. To advance your career and become that well-rounded fluid power expert, you must have some skin in the game. To keep pace with the broad and ever-changing needs of industry, the International Fluid Power Society (IFPS) provides many specific and complementary certifications to demonstrate core and advanced competencies. And though some of the content from one certification to another is necessarily overlapping, each offering is targeted to meet the particular needs of the individual and to establish his or her qualifications. Getting certified and holding multiple certifications demonstrates that you take your career seriously and can be the key component to increasing your worth to your employer. So, what exactly is a fluid power expert? It is the individual who can satisfactorily address the particular need at that moment and one who also has a demonstrable, broad base of knowledge. If you are wellrounded in multiple aspects of fluid power, prove it. Take the time and make the effort to get certified in all of those areas. Then that expert can and will be you. Lastly, are you an employer or manager asking yourself, “What can I get out of certification?” You can assure your customers that your employees possess an industry-wide accepted level of competence and that your mechanics, technicians and engineers have the skills necessary to perform their tasks confidently, efficiently, reliably and safely. It shows you encourage employee pride and are willing to invest in the development of their careers. Tell the world that as a business owner or manager, you care about the image your company and employees put forth and how it reflects on the larger fluid power, manufacturing and service communities. So now you might be thinking, “OK, but why should I spend all of this money in training and certifying my employees and risk them leaving and going to the competition?” Well, I have some bad news for you. When it comes to the talent pool, the fluid power industry is in a crisis. The number of individuals coming into and staying in the industry compared with those leaving or retiring is strikingly disproportionate. If you don’t invest in the development of your employees, including in training and certification, you are inadvertently promoting the industry’s demise

— and maybe even your own company’s downfall. At some point, it will not be a matter of if you lose that employee but when. In the words of motivational speaker and sales coach Zig Ziglar: “The only thing worse than training an employee and having them leave is not training and having them stay.” On the subject of employee training and development, no truer words have ever been spoken. For more information on IFPS certifications, visit www.ifps.org or call 800-308-6005.

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Lubrication Programs

BACK PAGE BASICS

LOREN GREEN | NORIA CORPORATION

How to

CHANGE YOUR Lubrication CULTURE

EFFORT/ORGANIZATIONAL RESISTANCE

In many of the training courses Noria provides, we discuss how a culture change is required in most cases to achieve a world-class lubrication program. This is by far the most difficult part of the process. The assessment is easy. A technical consultant walks through your plant or facility and looks for opportunities. Most often the low-hanging fruit is obvious and simply overlooked by plant personnel because it has become part of the standard scenery. With a fresh set of eyes specifically looking for these opportunities, they are generally not too difficult to find. Frequently, the facilities being assessed are operating in an “unconscious incompetence” stage, as shown in the diagram below. This simply means that the workforce is doing the wrong things and isn’t even aware that they are wrong. After training or an assessment is conducted, the facility moves to the second stage. Personnel at the plant are no longer ignorant of the right way to do business. Eyes have been opened, and innocence has been lost. Now they can pursue the optimum reference state (ORS) of lubrication excellence.

This is where things get difficult. Knowing the right things to do and actually doing them are obviously not the same thing. This is known as the knowing-doing gap. So now that you know what is right and wrong, how do you get that “culture shock” to take place? During my career in the U.S. Navy, I was told repeatedly that an organization takes on the traits of its leadership. In other words, what the boss wants, generally the boss gets. If it is important to the boss, it is going to be important to the rest of the organization as well. Therefore, the easiest way to achieve a culture change is to get the boss onboard. Sometimes it is not always easy. You may have to be the champion of change and fight in the trenches alone. The following tips can help you affect the change you are seeking. First, use the Pareto principle or the 80/20 rule. You may have been taught the 80/20 rule in terms of 20 percent of the workers do 80 percent of the work, but at Noria we apply it to contamination. Twenty percent of the causes of failure are responsible for 80 percent of the occurrences of failure. By and large the greatest percentage of damage to equipment is due to particulate contamination. So if particles are the largest source of contamination, this prioritizes how you should Conscious Competence invest your time and efforts. Particles can get into machines in Drivers: Culture Shock a few ways. They may be built in, • Crisis ingressed or generated. The cost of Drivers: • Profitability • Measurement • Aspiration excluding contaminants is less than • Peer Pressure 10 percent of what it will cost you • Sustained Management once they are allowed to ingress into Support Loss of Conscious • Success your fluid (see http://www.machinIncompetence Innocence er ylubrication.com/Read/28574/ justifying-cost-of-excluding-a-gramof-dirt-). If you want to get your boss onboard, you will need to put this in Unconscious Unconscious terms of cost savings. There are several Ignorance Incompetence Competence is Bliss case studies that show the cost beneOld Business as Usual New Business as Usual fits of filtration, breathers, keeping shaft seals in good shape, etc. These TIME

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Looking for new strategies to increase operational efficiency? Searching for the moving target that drives leaner production while increasing safety and long-term profitability? Noria has your solution. Noria’s Lubrication Program Development is delivering bottom-line results for others just like you. We begin with a holistic survey of your facility viewed through the lens of

“vendor neutrality.” This model of unbiased recommendation offers an enterprise-wide value proposition with concrete returns in operational excellence and profitability. We’d love to tour your facility and show you why companies around the globe consult Noria for world-class service in lubricationenabled reliability!

Contact One of Our Experts Today! www.noria.com

800.597.5460

lpdservices@noria.com


BACK PAGE BASICS

studies address the savings in lubricants, bearings, downtime and many other areas that you can use to form a sound argument. Secondly, you must get other team members onboard. In my experience, explaining the “why” is the most effective method to accomplish this. Why are we doing this? Talking about saving the organization money may or may not be your best approach. Detailing the benefits of keeping the oil clean, cool and dry in terms of reduced downtime and workload may help. I recently conducted a training course where one of the students was skeptical of the advantages of oil analysis. He was a fan of vibration analysis and thermography but questioned the benefits of oil analysis. I explained that in order for vibration and thermography technologies to be used, you must either have

67%

of lubrication professionals say their facility has attempted to change its lubrication culture, based on a recent poll at MachineryLubrication.com

explain the “why” of oil analysis, he began to come around and see the benefits. This leads us from the “conscious incompetence” stage to the “conscious competence” stage. Now you know the proper procedures, quantities, frequencies, etc., and are putting this information to use. This is when the magic happens and the organization begins to change. You as the champion have made an impression, and the staff is following your example. When you start seeing evidence of this transformation taking place, you should take a moment to congratulate yourself and your team. Many organizations don’t make it this far. Keep striving to make improvements and eventually you will reach the fourth and final stage, “unconscious competence.” In this stage, personnel perform procedures correctly and aren’t even sure why. When asked why things are done a certain way, they might answer, “I don’t know; we’ve always done it that way.” Better yet, perhaps they can explain why everything is done the way it is. If so, you are well on your way to having a world-class lubrication program.

About the Author

vibration or a higher than normal temperature condition. On the other hand, with a good oil analysis program, you can detect potential issues before they get to the point of registering on either vibration or thermography equipment. The ideal situation is to match all of these technologies. After taking the time to

Loren Green is a technical consultant with Noria Corporation, focusing on machinery lubrication and maintenance in support of Noria’s Lubrication Program Development (LPD). He is a mechanical engineer who holds a Machine Lubrication Technician (MLT) Level II certification and a Machine Lubricant Analyst (MLA) Level II certification through the International Council for Machinery Lubrication (ICML). Contact Loren at lgreen@noria.com.

Machinery Lubrication Statement of Ownership 2013

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Publication Title: Machinery Lubrication Publication Number: 021-695 Filing Date: October 24, 2013 Issue Frequency: Bi-monthly Number of Issues Published Annually: 6 Annual Subscription Price: Free to qualified subscribers Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: Noria Corporation, 1328 E. 43rd Ct., Tulsa, OK 74105 8. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters or General Business Office of Publisher: Noria Corporation, 1328 E. 43rd Ct., Tulsa, OK 74105 9. Full Names and Complete Mailing Addresses of Publisher, Editor, and Managing Editor: Publisher: Mike Ramsey, Noria Corporation, 1328 E. 43rd Ct., Tulsa, OK 74105 Editor: Jason Sowards, Noria Corporation, 1328 E. 43rd Ct., Tulsa, OK 74105 Managing Editor: Jason Sowards, Noria Corporation, 1328 E. 43rd Ct., Tulsa, OK 74105 10. Owner (If the publication is owned by a corporation, give the name and address of the corporation immediately followed by the names and addresses of all stockholders owning or holding 1 percent or more of the total amount of stock.) Owner: Noria Corporation, 1328 E. 43rd Ct., Tulsa, OK 74105 11. Known Bondholders, Mortgagees, and Other Security Holders Owning or Holding 1 Percent or More of Total Amount of Bonds, Mortgages, or Other Securities: None 12. Tax Status (For completion by nonprofit organizations authorized to mail at nonprofit rates): Has Not Changed During Preceding 12 Months 13. Publication Title: Machinery Lubrication 14. Issue Date for Circulation Data Below: SEP/OCT 2013 15. Extent and Nature of Circulation: To disseminate information to members Average No. Copies Each Issue During Preceding 12 Months a. Total Number of Copies (Net press run): 28,615 b. Legitimate Paid and/or Requested Distribution (By Mail and Outside the Mail) (1) Outside County Paid/ Requested Mail Subscriptions stated on PS Form 3541: 21,427 (2) In-County Paid/ Requested Mail Subscriptions stated on PS Form 3541: 0 (3) Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, Counter Sales, and Other Paid or Requested Distribution Outside USPS®: 0 (4) Requested Copies Distributed by Other Mail Classes Through the USPS (e.g., First-Class Mail®): 0 c. Total Paid and/or Requested

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Circulation: 21,427 d. Nonrequested Distribution (By Mail and Outside the Mail) (1) Outside County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541: 6,639 (2) In-County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541: 0 (3) Nonrequested Copies Distributed Through the USPS by Other Classes of Mail: 0 (4) Nonrequested Copies Distributed Outside the Mail: 183 e. Total Nonrequested Distribution: 6,822 f. Total Distribution: 28,249 g. Copies not Distributed: 365 h. Total: 28,614 i. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation 76% 16. No. Copies of Single Issue Published Nearest to Filing Date a. Total Number of Copies (Net press run): 31,165 b. Legitimate Paid and/or Requested Distribution (By Mail and Outside the Mail) (1) Outside County Paid/ Requested Mail Subscriptions stated on PS Form 3541: 24,568 (2) In-County Paid/ Requested Mail Subscriptions stated on PS Form 3541: 0 (3) Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, Counter Sales, and Other Paid or Requested Distribution Outside USPS®: 0 (4) Requested Copies Distributed by Other Mail Classes Through the USPS (e.g., First-Class Mail®): 0 c. Total Paid and/or Requested Circulation: 24,568 d. Nonrequested Distribution (By Mail and Outside the Mail) (1) Outside County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541: 6,133 (2) In-County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541: 0 (3) Nonrequested Copies Distributed Through the USPS by Other Classes of Mail: 0 (4) Nonrequested Copies Distributed Outside the Mail: 100 e. Total Nonrequested Distribution: 6,233 f. Total Distribution: 30,80 g. Copies not Distributed: 364 h. Total: 31,165 i. Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation: 80% 17. Total circulation includes electronic copies. Report circulation on PS Form 3526-X worksheet. 18. Publication of Statement of Ownership for a Requester Publication is required and will be printed in the NOV/DEC 2013 issue of this publication. 19. Signature and Title of Editor, Publisher, Business Manager, or Owner: Mike Ramsey, October 24, 2013. I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes false or misleading information on this form or who omits material or information requested on the form may be subject to criminal sanctions (including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil sanctions (including civil penalties).



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