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N R & T R No 2 • 2004

News from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden

Glass in Roads? page 4

Editorial notes Nordic Road & Transport Research is a joint publication of six public road and transport research organisations in the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. The main objective of the publication is to disseminate research results and news from the institutions, especially to researchers and decision makers. Each institution is responsible for the selection and presentation of the material from its own scope of activities. Nordic Road & Transport Research is published three times a year. It is regularly sent out, free of charge, to recipients selected by the six joint publishers. Free sample copies are also sent out on special request. Reproduction and quotation of the texts are allowed if reference is made to the author and source. However, legislation regulates and restricts the right to reproduce the illustrations. Please contact the respective publishing institution for information. Advertising is not accepted. Correspondence about the contents of the publication: Please write to the author or to the respective publishing organisation. Requests for back issues, and notification of address changes: Readers outside the Nordic countries: please write to the Editor-inchief at the VTI in Sweden. Readers in the Nordic countries: please contact the publishing institution of your country. Addresses: see back cover. The Editorial Board consists of the following representatives of the publishing institutions Editor-in-Chief Tarja Magnusson, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute Denmark Helen Hasz-Singh, Danish Road Institute Finland Kari Mäkelä, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Building and Transport Iceland Hreinn Haraldsson, Public Roads Administration Norway Thorbjørn Chr. Risan, Norwegian Public Roads Administration Harald Aas, Institute of Transport Economics Production: Johnny Dahlgren Grafisk Produktion AB Place of publication: Linköping, Sweden Issue: 3,500 ISSN 1101-5179 Cover photo: Lise Bjulf, Danish Road Institute


N R & T R Volyme 16 • No. 2 • september 2004

Danish Road Directorate (DRD) Danish Road Institute (DRI) The Road Directorate, which is a part of The Ministry of Transport, Denmark, is responsible for development and management of the national highways and for servicing and facilitating traffic on the network. As part of this responsibility, the Directorate conducts R&D, the aim of which is to contribute to efficient road management and to the safe use of the network. The materials research component is carried out by the Danish Road Institute.

Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Building and Transport VTT Building and Transport, employing a staff of 530, is one of the eight research units of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), with a total staff of 3,000. VTT Building and Transport covers all fields of transport and road engineering. The unit is active in international research and has a prominent role on the national level.

Public Roads Administration (PRA), Iceland The duty of PRA is to provide society with a road system according to its needs and to offer service aiming at safe, unobstructed traffic. The number of employees is about 340. Applied research concerning road construction, maintenance and traffic and safety is to some extent performed or directed by the PRA. The authority with its Research and Development division is responsible for road research in Iceland.

Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA) The Norwegian Public Roads Administration is one of the administrative agencies under the Ministry of Transport and Communications in Norway. The NPRA is responsible for the development and management of public roads and road traffic, as well as the Vehicle Department. This responsibility includes research and development of all areas related to road transport, and the application of R&D products.

Institute of Transport Economics (TØI), Norway The Institute of Transport Economics is the national institution for transport research and development in Norway. The main objectives of the Institute are to carry out applied research and promote the application and use of results through consultative assistance to public authorities, the transport industry and others. The Institute is an independent research foundation employing about one hundred persons.

The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) is responsible for research and development in road construction, maintenance, road traffic and transport, railroads, rail transport, vehicles, road user behaviour, traffic safety and the environment. The Institute is state-owned and has a total of 180 employees.


CONTENTS Glass in Roads? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Danish Road Directorate (DRD)

Danish-Dutch Co-Operation on Road Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Danish Road Directorate (DRD)

New Research in Noise Reducing Pavements . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Danish Road Directorate (DRD)

The Handbook of Traffic Safety Measures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Institute of Transport Economics (TØI)

Sleepiness behind the Wheel – Knowledge and Action . . .12 Institute of Transport Economics (TØI)

Crash Tests with Heavy Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)

New Driving Simulator in the Service of Traffic Safety . . . .16 Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)

Increasing Intelligence in Supply Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Building and Transport

Annotated reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20




Glass in Roads? Article specially written for Nordic Road & Transport Research by Senior Researcher Finn Thøgersen, who can be contacted at or +45 46 30 70 00.

In connection with Danish waste collection schemes, an excess of some 15,000 tonnes of glass arises each year which cannot be recycled by melting down for the production of new glass. This excess consists mainly of coloured glass. The situation is similar to that in other north European countries, where there also is an excess of collected, coloured glass (especially due to import of wine). It is not environmentally and economically viable to export the glass to e.g. South European countries. There is therefore a need to find alternative uses for the collected glass. The purpose of the project “Reuse of coloured glass fragments for the manufacture of concrete, tiles and for road construction” was to establish the possibilities of using the coloured glass (glass cullet) as building material. This article describes possible uses in road construction, but it should be mentioned that the focus was put on other interesting uses for crushed glass during the course of the project. The most promising were as filler material for concre4


Today more coloured glass waste is collected than is possible to reuse in the production of new glass in Denmark. The Danish Road Institute has participated in a project financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, with the aim of examining various alternative uses of glass waste. Even though it may not be expected that broken glass can be used as a road construction material, it is in fact possible, if the pieces are crushed sufficiently. The glass can be used as asphalt aggregate, material for base layers, filter gravel or filling. te production and as an addition agent when producing tiles. In both cases the glass has to be cleaned first and then crushed/ground finely and the cost and technical properties must be compared to the traditionally used natural materials. Mapping

In the first phase of the project, a literature study has been carried out of current experiences in using crushed glass in the building material industry. Reuse of glass cullet for road construction started in the late sixties in the United States. Two major uses have been found, namely as asphalt aggregate and as unbound material in base layers and fill. Mixing into asphalt is obviously the most tested and “high-class” form of reuse. In USA and UK several asphalt companies sell a product called Glasphalt, i.e. a base layer material where part of the aggregate is substituted with finely ground glass sand. Experience points towards the fact that in unbound bearing layers up to 20 per

cent crushed glass can be used without a change of technical properties compared to the use of 100 per cent natural material. The glass must be crushed to a maximum particle size of 5–10 mm. Crushed glass can also be used as fill material, either mixed with natural aggregate or by use as non-bearing fill in pure form. When sufficiently crushed (less than 4–8 mm), the glass can be handled without risk of cutting oneself, since the proportion of flat, sharp particles will become very small and the sharp edges are ground away. The biggest problem in connection with reuse of glass is presumably the factor of steady supply, i.e. it may be difficult to obtain a constant delivery of uniform glass material. Pilot tests

The next phase of the project was to carry out a number of laboratory tests to determine some technical properties of glass cullet from Danish collection schemes. The results could be largely compared to



Figure 1: Grain size distributions for crushed glass.

and confirmed by foreign results, since Danish glass waste should not differ from glass in other countries. The Danish Road Institute received 200 kg of glass for testing, which was crushed to max. 16 mm, but otherwise untreated, i.e. neither sorted nor washed. A number of traditional tests were carried out on this material to characterise the material for use in road construction, i.e. sieving analysis, compaction, wearing tests etc. The tests were carried out in general on two different fractions: 0–4 mm and 0–16 mm. The particle size distribution for crushed glass is the most important parameter, since this has influence on most other technical properties. Figure 1 shows the particle size distribution for the two fractions examined compared to examples of sieving curves for crushed glass from the United States. It applies to both Danish fractions that the particle size distribution corresponds well to the American curves, at least when the differences in maximum sizes are taken into account. The curves also show that the material is relatively equigranular (steep grain size curve) with a filler content less than 2 per cent. The bearing capacity of the glass cullet was examined by means of CBR tests. Values around 5 per cent were found for

both fractions, indicating poor bearing capacity. The low results are undoubtedly due to the equigranular nature. Used in its pure form, glass is not stable for trafficking. Potential

The laboratory testing concentrated on uses in unbound layers, since use as asphalt aggregate was ruled out from the beginning as not being economically viable in Denmark. Use in asphalt presupposes stable deliveries of uniform quality at a competitive price. It is doubtful, whether the asphalt companies are interested in handling yet another additional raw material. Based on the laboratory tests carried out, it seems that crushed glass, when sufficiently crushed, can fulfil the Danish requirements for subbase material. The poor stability of the crushed glass can be the greatest hindrance of its use in pure form. Use as non-bearing fill material is evaluated as not causing technical problems. When sufficiently crushed, glass can be placed and compacted sufficiently even as 100 per cent aggregate. As fill, where a certain bearing capacity is required, the low CBR value can create a problem. Mixing with other types of aggregate can undoubtedly improve the situation.


A possible use for crushed glass could be as filter gravel, which is used around drainage pipes, etc. The glass is expected to be extremely well suited as draining material, due to its equigranular structure with low fines content. In literature, many references are found to the good draining properties of glass cullet. The sieving curves for the two glass fractions do however not absolutely fulfil the limits for filter gravel stated in the Danish Road Standards. The annual amount of excess glass in Denmark is approx. 15,000 tonnes and this is a relatively small quantity compared to the large amounts used in road construction. This could be an advantage, since it would be relatively easy to make use of the entire amount in road construction or as fill material. On the other hand, a small amount could be a disadvantage, since it is hardly worthwhile to make up systems for various general uses for a material of such limited volume. Reports (Danish with English summary) for the two project phases can be downloaded from the homepage of the Danish Environmental Protection Agency (Miljøprojekt no. 819 and 889).



Danish-Dutch Co-Operation on Road Noise Article specially written for Nordic Road & Transport Research by Hans Jørgen Ertman Larsen, Head of Asphalt Department, or +45 46 30 70 00.

The Danish Road Directorate, the Danish Road Institute, is starting a three-year long co-operation with the Dutch Road and Hydraulic Engineering Institute of the Directorate General of Public Works and Water Management (DWW ) on research for millions in the field of noise reducing pavements. The article gives an overview of the technical content of the project.

This means that the surface of the roads should be constructed in such a way that as little noise as possible is generated and the road pavements at the same time are even, with good drainage and sufficient friction all the year round. Strategic co-operation

DRI’s initiatives have also been directed towards new methods to describe and measure the noise properties of a road. In

from road pavements, tires and car motors as well as noise screening. The project, Noise Innovation Program (IPG) is being carried out by the Dutch Road Laboratory, Directoraat – Generaal Rijswaterstaat (DWW). The program, which is expected to cost 55 million. Euro, should be completed by 2007 and the Dutch government has already set aside 200 million Euro to implement the results of the project. The DRI has made an agreement with DWW to carry out joint research on noise reducing pavements for 1.2 million Euro during the next three years. The amount will be financed in such a way that DWW pays DRI up to 85 per cent, and the DRI finances the remainder. This article gives an overview of the content of the IPG programme and of the Danish-Dutch co-operation programme.

The Danish Road Directorate (DRD) has decided to focus on road traffic noise, which is considered an increasing problem by The Dutch Programme neighbours to the road network. On the state The aim of the Dutch road network, the DRD Figure 1: Overview of the Dutch IPG research program for road traffic noise. programme (IPG) is to will reconsider its surreduce road traffic this connection, the noise properties of face strategy and give a higher priority to noise on all fronts. Figure 1 shows how road pavements should be measured on the noise properties of road surfaces in the research and development programthe most common types of road paveorder to contribute to a continued reducme is organised based on how it is expecments on the Danish State road network. tion of the nuisance of noise along the ted to reduce noise. The programme does By means of a strategic co-operation with state road network. The DRD is also prenot start from scratch, but is based on asphalt contractors, road owners and the pared to contribute in a reduction of noise existing knowledge in the different areas. Environmental Protection Agency it is from road traffic in the remainder of the The programme is expected to result the aim to develop new noise reducing road sector. in a considerable reduction in road traffic pavements and to establish a classificaOn the basis of this, the Danish Road noise for the main road network in tion system for the noise properties of Institute (DRI) has started a number of Holland. Aims have been set for the road pavements. research and development projects to reduction of noise from road pavements In Holland there is corresponding focus support this strategy. It is the aim of the and tires and aims to improve noise baron road traffic noise. In September 2003, DRI that pavements cause as little noise rier efficency both on short term and on an extensive research and development as possible for the sake of the neighbours what the Dutch call medium term. Figure project was started, which includes noise and yet are safe to use for the road users. 6



Figure 2: Goals for the noise reduction. Short term corresponds to year 2007, and medium long term to 2008-2013.

2 states the aims, which are based on an average composition of traffic, consisting of 80 per cent light vehicles and 20 per cent heavy vehicles with speed of 110 and 85 km/h, respectively. The reduction is defined relatively in relation to the present situation with the existing tire/vehicle population and a road surface consisting of a dense asphalt wearing course of medium age. The effect from noise barriers is measured on the basis of a conventional noise barrier. Short term is defined as the status after four years after the start of the IPG programme, whereas medium term is defined as five to ten years after commencement of the project. Simultaneously with the start of this R&D programme, DWW is in the situation that its working force must be reduced by approx. 20 per cent within the next few years. This has resulted in the fact that DWW has requested a co-operation with colleagues within the Forum of European Highway Research Laboratories (FEHRL), who are also focussing on noise. The DRD, DRI is therefore the first to have signed a co-operation agreement with DWW. Figure 3 shows the situation, where director Luuk Bosch, DWW, and the Head of the Institute Jørgen Christensen, DRI, sign the agreement, while DWW project leader Ruud Nijland watches. The co-operation programme has been given the name “DRIDWW Noise Abatement Programme”.

should carry out R&D activities together and exchange results. The two parties are convinced that this will result in mutual benefit in the fields of: • reduction of road traffic noise in Denmark and Holland • knowledge sharing between FEHRL’s member countries • optimum use of expertise and facilities • benchmarking. Importance is placed on making use of each others’ expertise and special equipment. The following specialities at DWW can be noted: • CPX measurements – measurement of road traffic noise with a specially constructed trailer

• two layer drainage asphalt used on motorways • detailed knowledge of ravelling. DRI’s specialised abilities in connection with the co-operation are: • microscopy of thin and plane sections of asphalt • test sections with thin noise reducing pavements • acoustic knowledge on clogging of drainage asphalt. 27 February 2004 was the day when the final co-operation agreement was signed. In the agreement it is stated that before 15 June, detailed plans for the DRI-DWW Noise Abatement Programme should be prepared. The programme will

DRI-DWW Noise Abatement Programme

The purpose of the co-operation is to make it possible to support research and development activities on road traffic noise of common interest to the two parties. It is the intention that the partners

Signing the DRI-DWW Noise Abatement Programme: head of DRI Jörgen Christensen, director of DWW Luuk Bosch, and IPG projekt manager Rud Nijland.




consist of the following seven projects, which all will be carried out under DRI project management:

SILVIA project). Based on noise measurements and durability testing in the laboratory it is the aim to further develop thin, noise-reducing, long-life pavements.

• Ravelling

A major part of this project will be to determine the causes of why ravelling occurs. One of the main questions in this connection is to determine where the failure in the pavement occurs, i.e. whether it is the bitumen which is the cause or whether it is an adhesion failure and therefore caused by the aggregates or whether there are possible other causes. Microscopy of thin and plane sections of pavements with ravelling are expected to give an answer. Based on the results it is aimed to be able to produce new asphalt pavements, which have an increased durability. • Clogging

The purpose of this project is to find answers to the acoustic consequences of clogging of porous asphalt. The acoustic effect should be measured on actual road pavements, test pavements and samples in the laboratory. Also here it is expected that thin and plane section techniques will be able to clarify, how drainage asphalt clogs. The result is expected to be that the acoustic lifetime of porous asphalts can be increased by developing a modified process for cleaning of the surface. • Thin noise reducing long-life pavements

In both countries it is necessary to develop an alternative to porous asphalt in the form of thin, noise-reducing, long-life pavements. In Denmark such test pavements have been constructed (for ex.

• Modified bitumen

DRI’s knowledge and experience should give a basis to study the influence of using a modified binder on the durability of porous pavements. The structural properties of a pavement should be compared to the acoustic effect. Based on a literature study and laboratory tests, full scale tests should be carried out on existing roads.

initiatives, such as noise barriers and façade insulation. • Knowledge sharing between DRIDWW and other FEHRL member countries

In co-operation with DRI and DWW, it has been arranged that a continuous knowledge sharing within this R&D area will take place. Furthermore, other FEHRL member countries are invited to give advice and criticism to the DRIDWW Noise Abatement Programme. FEHRL member countries should also benefit from the results of the Danish/Dutch co-operation.

• CPX measurements

As a first phase, DWW will during 2004 send the noise trailer to Denmark to measure Danish standard pavements and test pavements – porous asphalt as well as thin, noise-reducing pavements. DRI will prepare a list of stretches to be measured in co-operation with the asphalt industry in Denmark. DRI will be in charge of the data treatment of these measurements and for corresponding measurements to be carried out in Holland and Germany. • Cost-benefit

The DRD has carried out a road traffic noise analysis in connection with the forthcoming Ring Motorway M3, which includes a cost-benefit analysis. The result of this analysis will be put at the disposal of DWW at a later point in time. DWW is planning to carry out a costbenefit analysis on Dutch test stretches with noise-reducing pavements, porous asphalt as well as thin, noise-reducing pavements. The analysis should also include a comparison with other noise-reducing


Seen with Danish eyes, the co-operation comes at a good time in relation to the present Government’s road traffic noise strategy, where several points include noise reducing pavements. Furthermore, the knowledge, which will be generated by the co-operation, should be useful to ensure the best possible use of the 100 million DKK which the partners in the political Traffic Agreement recently have set aside for noise reduction along the State road network. A part of this amount should be used for development and testing of noise reducing pavements. As mentioned in the article, it is the aim of the DRD that Danish road pavements cause as little noise as possible for the sake of the neighbours of the road and also ensure that it is safe for traffic users. It is the aim of the DRI to demonstrate that it is the leading Danish knowledge centre in the area of noise reducing pavements.

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N R & T R

New Research in Noise Reducing Pavements Test sections with thin open layers in Copenhagen.

Article specially written for Nordic Road & Transport Research by Senior Researcher Hans Bendtsen and Senior Researcher Bent Andersen, Danish Road Directorate, Danish Road Institute. E-mail: and, phone: +45 46 30 70 00.

The new Danish research programme on developing thin open layers as noise reducing pavements is presented in this article. It is a part of the EU project called SILVIA. The pavement types, project hypotheses and measurement programme are highlighted. There is a great need to develop effective noise reducing tools that are durable, safe and cost-effective. The noise can be reduced either at source, under propagation or at the receiver. An effective way to reduce noise and avoid annoyance is to reduce the emission at source. The rolling noise is generated when the tires are rolling on the pavements. The type and

structure of the road pavement is very important for the determination of level of the noise emitted. Different types of porous pavements are used as noise reducing pavements [1]. In relation to noise, twin-layer porous pavements seem so far to be a promising tool to reduce noise on urban roads. A study has shown that twin-layer porous pavements are a very cost effective tool to reduce noise, but this type of pavement is more costly to construct and maintain than ordinary pavements (which do not reduce noise). Therefore, there is a need to develop and test other cheaper types of noise reducing pavements that can be applied on urban roads (as well as on highways). Pavements that in construction and maintenance cost are competitive to “ordinary” pavement types, and at the same time have a noise reducing capacity, even though they might not be as good as twin-lay porous pavements. The European SILVIA project

In August 2002, the European SILVIA


project was started. The title of the project is “Sustainable Road Surfaces for Traffic Noise Control”. One of the objectives of SILVIA is to evaluate and specify road construction and maintenance techniques that would achieve satisfactory durability of acoustic performances of noise reducing road surfaces while complying with other requirements of sustainability i.e., safety, pollution, fuel consumption, structural durability and costs. The SILVIA project is partly financed by EU and partly by national sources. Fifteen partners from research institutes, universities, public institutions and private companies from eleven European countries including Denmark, Norway and Sweden are working together in this comprehensive three year project. SILVIA.DK

The research in work package 4 of the SILVIA project is focused on investigation on existing and testing of new noise reducing pavement materials, technologies and maintenance methods to produ9


ce guidelines on how to design, build and maintain sustainable noise reducing road surfaces that retain their good acoustic performance over time. As a part of SILVIA, it have been decided to carry out a subproject in Denmark, where the goal is to develop and test open thin layers as noise reducing pavements under Nordic conditions (without studded tires). As a nickname this Danish project is called “SILVIA.DK”. In order to carry out SILVIA.DK, a Danish project group has been established. Experts from research institutes, public institutions as well as the road pavement industry have been invited to be part of the working group. The municipalities of Copenhagen, Randers and Aarhus participate in the project. They provide test roads for the project and finance the construction of the test pavements.

open) with a (built-in) Marshall air void of approx. 8–14 per cent • Split Mastics Asphalt (SMA) with a (built-in) Marshall air void of approx. 4–8 per cent • a thin layer constructed as a combination pavement (TP k ). On the existing road surface a thick layer of polymer modified bitumen emulsion is laid out. On top of this, a very open pavement (like porous asphalt) with a (built-in) Marshall air void of approx. 14 per cent or even more is applied. The bitumen layer “boils up” in the air voids of the pavement leaving only the upper part of the structure open. This reduces the built-in air void of the pavement because the pores of the pavement are filled with bitumen.

Pavement design

The project is designed in order to test the following hypotheses for urban roads: • open thin layers have a noise reducing capacity compared to dense asphalt concrete • the noise reducing capacity of open thin layers is less than the noise reducing capacity of twin-layer porous pavements • the open thin layers with the most open surface structure have the best noise reducing capacity • open thin layers keep the noise reducing effect over the structural lifetime of the pavements • open thin layers have the same structural lifetime as ordinary dense pavements • roads in urban areas with open thin layers have the same traffic safety level as dense asphalt concrete • there are no special problems with winter maintenance on open thin layers compared to dense asphalt concrete • the rolling resistance and by that the energy consumption of the vehicles is the same on open thin layers as on dense asphalt concrete. Detailed investigations and a measurement programme will be designed in order to be able to test these hypotheses. The SILVIA project only lasts for 3 years. This determines that it will only be possible to test these hypotheses over a period covering the first two years of the lifetime of the test pavements. If the

The noise reducing effect of porous pavements comes basically from a reduction of the noise generated by air pumping. When fine graded porous pavements with a smooth surface are used, this also reduces the noise generated by vibration of the tires. Porous pavements are open in the entire thickness of the layer with connected cavities. As a contrast to this, open pavements are open only in the upper part of the pavement with cavities having a depth of less than the maximum size of the aggregate used for the pavement. The basic concept of using open pavements for noise reduction is to create a pavement structure, with as big cavities at the surface of the pavement as possible, in order to reduce to some extent the noise generated from the air pumping effect, and at the same time ensuring a smooth surface by using small aggregate with a maximum size of 6 mm, so the noise generated by the vibrations of the tires will not be increased. Such a noise reducing open pavement can be thin, as the mechanisms determining the noise generation are only dependent on the surface structure of the pavement. Reference pavements constructed as dense asphalt concrete (AC) with 8 and 11 mm aggregate are used. Three different types of thin open pavements are included in the project: • open graded asphalt concrete (AC10


results are positive it is the hope of the project group, that it will be possible to find economic resources to continue the project, in principle over the whole lifetime of the pavements tested. Measurement programme

The measurement programme has been developed in order to obtain results that can highlight the hypotheses and in the end confirm or reject the hypotheses. The programme has a comprehensive approach and is planned to cover: • noise • structural behaviour of the pavements including laser measurements of texture • durability • traffic safety • energy consumption. The first noise measurements were performed in the winter 2003/2004. The preliminary results indicate that when the thin open pavements were six months old, a noise reduction of 2–3 dB has been measured for passenger cars in relation to the dense AC11 reference surface with a reference speed of 60 km/h for the traffic. References 1. Bendtsen, Hans; Larsen, Lars Ellebjerg; Greibe Poul. Udvikling af støjreducerende vejbelægninger til bygader. Statusrapport efter 3 års målinger. (Development of noise reducing road surfaces for urban roads. Status report after three years of measurements. In Danish with extensive English summary. Report 4, 2002. Danish Transport Research Institute. 2. Dutch experience with thin layers as noise reducing pavements. Notes from a study tour. SILVIADTF.ATKINS-004-01-WP4-07.05.03Notes study tour Netherlands.

Further information can be found on the SILVIA The SILVIA homepage: and in the project description for the SILVIA.DK project: Thin Layer Test Pavements in Denmark -Project Description. SILVIA-DTF-ATKINS005-03-WP4-01.10.03- Thin Layer Test in Denmark.



The Handbook of Road Safety Measures Road safety can be improved. This book tells you how to do it. It is a catalogue of more than 100 road safety measures whose effect have been evaluated and quantified in studies made all over the world. The results of more than 1,700 road safety evaluation studies are summarised in this book. It covers the whole spectrum of road safety measures, ranging from highway engineering and traffic control, through vehicle design, driver training, public information campaigns and police enforcement. Audience

Managers, decision makers and researchers involved in road safety. Those working in related fields, eg epidemiology, evaluations research, methodology and cost benefit analysis.


PART I Introduction. Background and Guide to Readers, Literature Survey and Meta-analysis, Factors Contributing to Road Accidents, Basic Concepts of Road Safety Research, Assessing the Quality of Evaluation studies, The Contribution of Research to Road Safety Policy-Making. PART II General-Purpose Policy Instruments. PART III Specific Traffic Safety Measures. Road Design and Road Furniture, Road Maintenance, Traffic Control, Vehicle Design and Protective Devices, Vehicle and Garage Inspection, Driver Training and Regulation of Professional Drivers, Public Education and Information, Police Enforcement and Sanctions. PART IV Vocabulary and Index.

Bibliographic & ordering information

Edited by Rune Elvik, Institute of Transport Economics, and Truls Vaa, Institute of Transport Economics Hardbound, ISBN: 0-08-044091-6, 700 pages, publication date: 2004 Imprint: ELSEVIER Price: USD 155, EUR 155 Buy online with a credit card in the Elsevier Science & Technology Bookstore: 40916

The results of more than 1,700 road safety evaluation studies are summarised in this book.




Sleepiness behind the Wheel – Knowledge and Action Author: Susanne Nordbakke

Driver fatigue or falling asleep is recognized to be among the most important causative factors in road crashes, next to alcohol, speeding and inattention. A Norwegian survey among private and professional drivers indicate that drivers in general have a good knowledge of the risk of falling asleep at the wheel, and the most important measure to prevent it: To stop the car and take a nap. In spite of all their knowledge, most of the drivers continue driving when recognizing sleepiness while driving. The professional drivers argue that time schedules and pressure from the management are important factors for ignoring their sleepiness. A campaign to increase drivers’ knowledge about this issue was launched in the spring 2004 by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration. In order to evaluate drivers’ knowledge on fatigue and falling asleep at the wheel before the campaign, a survey was conducted both among private drivers and professional drivers in the autumn of 2003. Background

For drivers to take the necessary measures (both beforehand and while driving) to prevent oneself from falling asleep while driving, it is important that they have knowledge of what measures that are effective. In addition, it is important for drivers to know what factors that may cause fatigue and sleepiness while driving, so they can take the necessary precautions before (especially before a long12

er car trip) and during driving. The project distinguishes between factors that are selfinflicted or personal (such as too little sleep and medication) and factors concerning the road and traffic environment (such as monotonous road environment, darkness and heavy traffic).

Research questions

This study has examined the following questions regarding drivers’ experience, knowledge and conduct in relation to sleepiness and falling asleep behind the wheel (when not noted, the questions comprise both private and professional drivers): - to what extent have drivers experienced falling asleep while driving? What are the contributing factors to falling asleep behind the wheel? - what are the drivers’ knowledge of measures both before and during a trip which are effective to prevent themselves from falling asleep? - what are the drivers’ understanding of the problem with sleepiness and falling asleep while driving? - are the drivers aware of the factors that contribute to sleepiness behind the wheel? Do the drivers know the risk of driving after taking certain medicinal drugs? - are the drivers acquainted with the general legislation that regulate driving when feeling tired or fatigued? How well do the professional drivers that are submitted to the regulations of hours of service, know these regulations? - do the drivers act according to their knowledge? And if not, what are the reasons for acting differently?

- two separate questionnaire surveys were carried out among private drivers and professional drivers in the autumn of 2003 - 2,783 private drivers were randomly selected from a sample base consisting of pre-recruited persons having volunteered for future internet surveys. 54 per cent completed the questionnaire - the professional drivers were recruited from the member register of the Norwegian Transport Workers' Union. A total of 2,854 members were selected, 72 per cent were bus drivers and 28 per cent were truck drivers. 1,169 drivers completed the questionnaire (yielding a response rate of 41 %).

Falling asleep – experience

The study indicates that sleepiness and falling asleep is a widespread phenomenon. Among the private drivers, 44,8 per cent have experienced falling asleep while driving one time or another and 11,1 per cent experienced this during the last year. As previous research also has shown, there are among private drivers far more men than women who have experienced falling asleep. This is largely to be explained by difference in driving distance. It is a well-known fact that men in general drive more than women. When it comes to predictors of falling asleep, age has a small, but significant effect. The probability of falling asleep is significantly higher for the youngest and oldest age categories. 14,5 per cent of the drivers between 18 and 25 years and 12,5 per cent between 56 and 61 years have experienced falling asleep during the last year. Furthermore, the probability of fal-



Among the private drivers in Norway, 44,8 percent have experienced falling asleep while driving one time or another and 11,1 percent experienced this during the last year.

ling asleep increases with higher work load and with work at irregular hours (afternoon/evening/night work). Somewhat surprising is the result that indicates that professional drivers to a lesser degree have experienced falling asleep some time (36 %) behind the wheel than private drivers (44,8 %). Considering the total length of driving (professional drivers tend to drive more than private drivers), one should expect the opposite. One explanation of this is that there might have been a certain degree of selfselection in the survey among private drivers, which, in turn, may have caused a larger share that have experienced falling asleep among private drivers in the sample than in the population as a whole. Thus, comparing the shares that have

experienced falling asleep during the last year, may give a more accurate picture of the differences between private drivers and professional drivers when it comes to falling asleep when driving. These results indicate that the probability to fall asleep is somewhat higher among both the professional drivers in general (13,2 %) and among truck drivers alone (15,9 %) than among private drivers (11 %), though it is only the difference between truck drivers and private drivers that is significant. The probability to fall asleep among professional drivers decreases with higher age and with more work experience (when considering the experience with falling asleep while driving during last year), a result that indicates that driving experience and, most likely, experience with sleepiness or/and falling asleep


while driving improves the professional drivers’ conduct (i.e. taking the right measures to prevent sleep) regarding sleepiness and fatigue behind the wheel. Understanding of the risk and the consequences

When it comes to knowledge of the risk of falling asleep, the drivers were confronted with several statements concerning characteristics of drivers who fall asleep (age, sex, physical condition, sleeping problems) in addition to a statement that falling asleep can happen to anyone. Based on the drivers’ evaluation of these statements, it seems to be a general agreement among them, both private and professionals, that falling asleep can happen to anyone. In addition, they seem 13


to have good knowledge of the actual risk of falling asleep while driving. The private drivers and the professional drivers respectively assume that an average of 40 and 36 drivers out of a hundred drivers have experienced falling asleep while driving. Calculated in per cent these numbers make up shares that are close to the actual proportions found in this study. Hence, the knowledge of the actual risk of falling asleep among drivers seems to be quite good. Even though the drivers seem to acknowledge falling asleep as an important cause in road accidents, few drivers seem aware of the severity of sleep-related accidents. It is a fact that sleep-related accidents are more severe than other accidents. Even though the knowledge about this is somewhat better among the professional drivers than the private drivers (30 % of the private drivers and 50 % of the professional drivers agree with this), their knowledge is far from sufficient. Lack of this knowledge may prevent the drivers from taking sleepiness and fatigue while driving seriously, but considering their knowledge of the risk of falling asleep and assuming that drivers are aware that falling asleep might have some sort of consequence independent of severity, one should anyhow expect them to try to avoid falling asleep while driving by some kind of action. Measures – knowledge and conduct

The most common cause of sleepiness is insufficient sleep, and most of the drivers seem aware of the significance of sleep in general. Not enough sleep over a period of time (3–4 days) and too much wakefulness are the main personal factors that drivers consider to increase the probability to fall asleep while driving. In addition, most drivers agree with the fact that “24 hours without sleep equals a blood alcohol level of 0.1 per cent when it comes to driving capabilities”. The drivers consider a good night’s sleep before a longer car trip to be somewhat less important than sufficient sleep over a longer period, though research has proven that a good night’s sleep is of considerable importance in regard to a person’s condition the next day. This might be one factor in the explanation of why 14

few drivers actually get enough sleep the night before a longer drive. More knowledge about this among drivers seems important. As for the use of medicines that may influence driving skills (marked with a red warning triangle), this seems to represent only a minor problem as few drivers use such medication. In addition, there is a general agreement among the drivers, both private and professional, that the use of medicines with a warning increases the risk of falling asleep while driving. It is, however, somewhat disturbing that a small part (25 %) of the few that use such medication, also use it when driving. In spite of the drivers’ general knowledge about the significance of sleep, few drivers act in accordance with this knowledge. Few drivers do actually get sufficient sleep for a longer period of time before a longer drive, and only few drivers stop to take a nap when feeling tired and fatigued while driving. Taking a nap is proven to be the only effective measure when feeling tired to prevent oneself from falling asleep while driving, and is also by the drivers (both private and professional) considered to be one of the most effective measures. More often the drivers take measures (when feeling tired while driving) that they consider to be less effective, like different measures taken in the car (opening up the window, putting on music, singing/talking to themselves etc.) without stopping. The only measure which is taken that corresponds with their knowledge or opinion of what is effective is to stop and get out of the car. Quite a few have reported this kind of conduct when feeling tired while driving. This measure, however, seems to have only a temporary effect on sleepiness. In spite of all the drivers’ knowledge of the risk and of the significance of sleep/taking a nap, most of the drivers continue driving when recognising sleepiness while driving. The professional drivers argue that time schedules and pressure from the management are important factors for ignoring symptoms of fatigue and sleepiness while driving. Social factors have a contributing role for the private drivers as well, who often argue that appointments and the wish to come home at a reasonable hour are the

reasons for continuing driving while fatigue or sleepy. Additional arguments among the private drivers are related to the distance of driving – either if it is a short drive or a short distance left to the point of arrival. Such arguments are of less importance among the professionals. In sum, there seems to be little correspondence between knowledge and action when it comes to measures to prevent sleepiness and falling asleep, both before and during driving. It must be pointed out that, in general, the professionals to a larger degree take action when feeling tired behind the wheel compared to the private drivers – both in regard to measures before the drive (getting enough sleep the night before a longer drive) and in regard to measures during a drive (continue driving or not and/or take a nap or not). That the professionals are subjected to the regulation of hours of service might be one explanation of this. The fact that professional drivers are more aware of the consequences related to sleep-related accidents than private drivers, might be another. Conclusion

In spite of the drivers’ knowledge of the risk of falling asleep and of the effective countermeasures, most of them continue driving when recognising sleepiness while behind the wheel. This might indicate that driver fatigue and sleepiness is not taken seriously enough and that the drivers overestimate their own capabilities, but it might also be a matter of lack of knowledge of when to act on their sleepiness behind the wheel. But different social factors also have an effect on how drivers act upon their sleepiness – which in turn might represent another explanation of why drivers do not act in accordance with their knowledge. Title: Driver fatigue and falling asleep - experience, knowledge and action among private drivers and professional drivers Authors: Susanne Nordbakke Series: Report no 706/2004 Language: Norwegian English summary available at:



Crash Tests with Heavy Vehicles During the past year, the VTI Crash Safety Laboratory has been aiming for a possibility to expand its accredited test facility with the availability to perform crash tests involving heavy vehicles. Besides being a general technical achievement for the laboratory, the primary target is to be able to perform approval tests of guardrails and bridge parapets according to EN1317-2 for containment classes H1 and H2, i.e. vehicles up to 13,000 kg at speeds up to 70 km/h. For bridge constructions, a concrete beam 54 meters long, 1 meter of height and 0,6 meters wide has been cast below ground. Attached to this are prefabricated concrete beams representing the actual bridge construction. Although still under installation, the first commercial tests are scheduled to begin October 2004.

upgrades regarding speed and weight of vehicle. The electronic guidance system will ensure that the vehicle follows a control cable, if needed it is also possible to generate minor corrections of vehicle course. A security system will detect and control the vehicle’s brakes in case of malfunction and also handle vehicle after impact.

more than 170 successful crash tests of similar roadside safety features over the past 10 years. Two independent propulsions systems also raise interesting thoughts about arranging car to car crashes with both cars running. This, together with the previous facilities outdoors and indoors, aims towards a busy but interesting future for the Crash Safety Laboratory of VTI.

A unique system

The propulsion system is the only of its kind in the Nordic countries, and in most of Europe. It will certainly position VTI as one of the leading roadside safety features test facilities, adding an extra dimension to the knowledge gained from

For more information contact: Håkan Andersson, Jan Wenäll, Tommy Pettersson,

The equipment

The new pulling hydraulic equipment, which is now under construction, has a traction force of about 45 kN. It is basically a hydraulic marine winch, to which a medium sized hydraulic pump with hydraulic accumulators has been attached to gain the necessary speed. The current capacity is to accelerate a 13,000 kg vehicle to 70 km/h over a distance of 120 meters. Accuracy is expected to be in the range of ±0,5 km/h. The construction is planned for future

The propulsion system at the VTI crash testing facility is unparallelled.



New Driving Simulator in the Service of Traffic Safety The new driving simulator of VTI, Simulator III, was inaugurated in April 2004 after intensive development work extending over several years. The features that make the driving simulator unique are its rapid acceleration and its sophisticated linear movement facility. Below the cab there is a dedicated vibrating table to simulate irregularities in the carriageway, and this gives driving an even more realistic feel. As regards the facilities offered by today’s technology, the vehicle dynamics are in the front line. Simulator III is constructed around a real vehicle cab and features an advanced moving base system. The surroundings are simulated and displayed to the driver on three main screens and three rear view mirrors. The aggregate technical system gives a very realistic driving experience. 16

Its modular construction enables the various subsystems to be adapted to the needs of each individual test. Through a cab exchange system, the driving simulator can be used for both cars and trucks. In future it will also be possible for it to be used to simulate rail traffic. Simulator III is an independent resource and is available to all researchers. A test facility for everything – from behaviour to vehicle technology

The driving simulator has a broad field of application, ranging from studies of driver behaviour, man-machine interface, the effects of fatigue and alcohol and active safety systems, to projects dealing with environmental issues, road and landscape design and tunnel design. Drivers with functional impairments, new subsystems in vehicles, and the effects of noise, vibration and climate on fatigue and driving performance, are

other examples of what can be studied in the simulator. One area of great topical interest is the way new technology, for instance the use of mobile phones and collision warning systems, affects driving. VTI has carried out this type of test in a simulator - for reasons of safety, it could not have been performed in a real traffic environment. The VTI simulators have also been used in designing the North and South Link Roads in Stockholm to determine the siting of road signs and the aesthetic design of the road. History of simulators

The concept of a driving simulator was considered as early as the 1970s. Extensive safety research was in progress at that time, with the focus on vehicle dynamics, where stability issues were important. A simulator that was correct from the standpoint of vehicle dynamics could be used to study how the different



vehicle parameters affected stability. At that time, simulators were mainly used in aviation, primarily in training pilots to use the cockpit instruments. In a driving simulator, the driver does not depend on the instruments to the same extent. Here, the surroundings and the dynamic forces are more important. It was therefore soon realised that the driving simulator required advanced motion simulation, a detailed model of vehicle dynamics and a detailed visual description of the road environment. The first driving simulator of VTI which was launched in 1984 was a trail blazer of its type. However, the technology available at that time, judged by today’s standards, was quite limited. Now, 20 years later, VTI has commenced operations with its third driving simulator.

be exposed to equivalent situations. This is difficult to achieve in a real traffic environment, since weather, light and traffic vary all the time. In the driving simulator, the traffic situation to be studied can be recreated as often as required, in an effective, risk free and cost effective way. One scenario may involve driving through the countryside and being suddenly confronted by a large animal running out in front of the car. Another scenario may take place in an urban environment with dense traffic, with cars unexpectedly crossing the carriageway. A certain scenario can also be recreated under different conditions, for instance how being pressed for time affects driving. Better performance and greater flexibility

Studies on scientific grounds

In scientific studies concerning driver behaviour, a number of test subjects must

The new driving simulator has a sophisticated motion system that provides considerably higher performance than previo-


us generations. A newly developed system for linear motion creates less friction and enables both higher accelerations and smoother movements. The top section of the simulator which carries the chassis and the screens can be turned 90 degrees. In this way, the linear motion can simulate both lateral and longitudinal forces relative to the direction of travel of the vehicle. In experiments where the lateral position of the vehicle is an important variable, the linear motion can be used to simulate lateral forces and to provide the driver with better feedback. In experiments comprising numerous acceleration and braking manoeuvres, the linear motion can instead be used to improve the way in which these are transmitted to the driver. For more information contact Staffan Nordmark,



Increasing Intelligence in Supply Chains Article specially written for Nordic Road & Transport Research by Antti Permala.

New business opportunities can be created by integrating active, communicative packages with the logistic chain. An intelligent package is a package that monitors its own condition, makes intelligent conclusions and communicates wirelessly in the supply chain. The original function of packaging was to protect the product. Today, however, packages have to meet increasingly rigorous requirements. Due to the requirements of the authorities and consumers, packages need to contain precise product and safety information. In the future, packages will become an increasingly important medium of communication. Manufacturers will also want to trace their products more accurately and pack shorter series (or smaller quantities) for different user groups, language areas, etc. Future packages will thus be much more multifunctional, informative and demanddriven than they are at present. VTT launched a project named “Active, communicative packaging systems� at the beginning of the year 2002. The main purpose is to develop and integrate Active, Communicative Packaging with an effective logistical system for sensitive, demanding products. VTT’s competitive edge is the combination of wireless technology, sensor knowhow and supply chain knowhow. Intelligent coding, wireless communications and data networks are the technologies applied. Objective

The overall objective is the development and integration of an intelligent measurement and control system for the transport supply chain. The system is based on an active package and automated and inter18

Figure 1. Layout of the system and interfaces.

active communication. The developed system is able to monitor the location of the package and to indicate its condition such as temperature, humidity, acceleration or electric discharge (EMI/ESD). The intelligent package enables better control of the logistics, management of exceptions, analysis of information and automation. The basic part of the system is the package, which contains the measuring system, processor, memory and wireless communication. The package (such as pallet or roller cage) is able to perform measurements, transmit the data, operate independently and manage the sensors. In addition to the package, a transport unit or warehouse module is needed. This module transmits and saves data and also keeps a record of the packages. The package communicates with Bluetooth at the transport unit or warehouse level. The transport unit communicates with GSM/ GPRS technology to a control centre. The package sends a message to the control centre if alarm limits (e.g. temperature is not within given limits) are exceeded. The transport unit does not necessarily have a constant GSM connection avai-

lable. Because of this, processing capacity and memory capacity are required for both the package and the transport unit. This guarantees that the information is stored until the communication link is once again available and the data is transmitted (Figure 1). Benefits

The system enables better control of the supply chain because the location of the package is better known and in the differing conditions one can quickly intervene. In case of problems the responsibilities can be identified more clearly. The system makes it possible that the commodities can be monitored at a totally new level and produces significant cost savings due to reduced human labour and increased control. Telematics architecture for package and supply chain

The vision for freight transport telematics architecture describes the freight transport target that should be reached after the issues defined in the architecture have



been accounted for • real time information about the location, contents and conditions of identified shipments, goods items, parcels and transport vehicles can be collected in a controlled manner. • the collected information can be combined with planning information and refined appropriately to be used during various parts of the process and distributed efficiently and and in good time to actors. • by collecting, refining and distributing information efficiently organisations can boost their goods transport logistics processes, lower their operational costs and improve their portfolio of logistics services. Logistics process from the package’s point of view

The intelligent package can be used to control the process, for example information about the arriving package into a terminal (ETA estimated time of arrival) and to manage the deviations. Central parts of the logistics concepts are: • vehicle information systems which are based on the CAN bus and different connected "boxes". The focus is the control of the information of the truck (consumption, the driven distance etc.) • fleet management which culminates in transport control systems and big transport companies • control of the freight; the supply chain and the viewpoints of the delivery sender and receiver. Electronics industry

The intelligent logistics outline that is developed in the project is adapted by studying the product deliveries of the companies that operate in the value network of the electronics industry. Different logistic chains have been examined with a pilot-device – for potential ESD risks, among others. The functionality of the new materials and packing concepts has also been examined with the companies developing and delivering packing materials and solutions. Food industry

In the transport of foods different small

Figure 2. Example of desired output. Kiihtyvyys=Acceleration, Kosteus=Humidity, Kosteus keskiarvo= Humidity average.

units such as roller cages, plastic boxes (Transbox, bread boxes etc. producerspecific boxes), pallets and other boxes are used. The acute target for development is the automatic identification of the units and products based either on a barcode or on the RFID techniques. In food transport the monitoring of conditions is needed for example for the follow-up of temperature and humidity. Furthermore, the traceability of products in the supply chain is important if there are mistakes in production or transport conditions which necessitate manufacturers to withdraw their products. The concept is seen as a possibility but is not suitable as a general solution for all transport but rather for special cases. The same thoughts which hold true for services and track&trace also hold true for the intelligent package. So long as nothing exceptional takes place no real-time reporting is needed.

BlueTooth is a short distance radio link that has been originally designed to replace the cables between the devices. Furthermore, there is a plan for a connection to the Web from the system controller. The starting point in the planning the specification has been good tolerance of environments, simple structure, low power consumption and cheap price. Demo has the following features: • the start is manually performed • the user can choose the continuing or an alarm follow-up • the program depicts the results as graphs • simulated temperature and acceleration, furthermore simulated location information with GPS • if there is no connection, usage is of the Datalogger type. Figure 2 gives an example of a test measurement. The graph gives the temperature, humidity and ESD values for the transport chain of circuits.

Demo/Pilot device Next steps

The first demo equipment was built consisting of the following parts; the iPAQ pocket PC which simulates the package device, Laptop PC as a vehicle device and Desktop PC as a device for transport control. The connection between iPAQ and Laptop is carried out in Bluetooth and between Laptop and Desktop with GPRS.


Next steps include a prototype device and attachment of real sensors into the prototype and improvement of concept and device together with end users and integrators. For the year 2005 a pilot project is planned with electronics or food industries, including logistics service provides. 19

Annotated reports from Danish Road Directorate (DRD)

Noise Reducing Pavements on Copenhagen Ringroad 3 – A Technical and Economical Analysis A technical and economical analysis of the noise reducing pavements on Copenhagen Ringroad 3 has been carried out. The technical analysis summarises and describes the knowledge on both known and new noise reducing pavements available or under development on the European market. The technical analysis is the basis for the estimate of the additional expenditure for construction and operation of noise reducing pavements and their life expectancy. In turn, this estimate is the basis for an economi-

cal assessment/comparison of dense, noise reducing pavements that do not require special winter service and noise reducing open pavements (porous asphalt) in which the expenses for special winter service have been included. On the basis of the technical and economical analyses it is considered that the greatest economical advantage with the least risk can be achieved by choosing a dense, noise reducing pavement with a noise reduction of 2 dB.

Title: Noise Reducing Pavements on Copenhagen Ringroad 3. A Technical and Economical Analysis Author: Carsten B. Nielsen, Series: External report 19 Language: Danish

The Evenness of the Danish State Roads and the Speed of Cars The evenness of the Danish state roads is generally good, so the drivers experience the roads as comfortable and safe to drive on at the permissible speeds. The interactions between evenness, the vehicle and speed are important factors in the analysis of the road users' comfort and safety on a road network and must become a part of the analytical tools which are used in connection with measurements of the evenness of roads. It is especially important that these parameters are included in an analysis of the road users' comfort, if the permitted speeds are increased for certain vehicle classes or certain road stretches. Since

the evenness of roads changes with time, it is important to check whether the set of rules which form the basis of the demands and specifications for the evenness of roads, to a sufficient degree take these changes into account. It is also of great importance that the equipment used to measure the surface of the roads makes it possible to carry out the necessary analyses. During the last 10 to 15 years, equipment for measurement of the surface of road pavements has gone through an enormous development. The use of optical measurement equipment has replaced mechanical equipment used previously

and thus given new possibilities to analyse the condition of a road surface better than before. In the Danish Road Standards it has been stated for several decades that measurements from a Viagraph and a Bumpmeter should decide the evenness of roads. Even in the most recent revision of Tender & Construction Precepts for hot-mix asphalt the viagraph number is used, whereas in the revision of the Road Standards for construction and maintenance of roads and paths the International Roughness Index (IRI) is introduced as an aim for evenness. Since these measuring methods which are used in Denmark to determine the evenness of road pavements have been used for many years, it is natural to ask whether they are really representative for what the driver experiences. This External Note 18 describes the present methods of analysing the evenness of road pavements and the factors which affect the comfort of the driver in relation to the type and speed of the vehicle.

Title: The Evenness of the Danish State Roads and the Speed of Cars Author: Bjarne Schmidt, Series: External Note 18 Language: Danish



Annotated reports from Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Building and Transport

The Potential for Traffic Enforcement in Finland About 400 persons are killed in traffic accidents in Finland annually. A traffic safety goal of not more than 250 fatalities has been set for 2010. Among other things, achievement of this goal also requires intensification of traffic enforcement. The way the volume of traffic enforcement, selectivity, methods and technology should be developed during this decade was estimated in a research project at VTT. According to the results of the study, the most effective way to reduce traffic fatalities in Finland by enforcement is to develop and intensify the use of speed cameras. There is a potential for decreasing annual road traffic fatalities by 35–65 (9–16 %). Intensifying enforcement of the use of safety belts and enforcement of drunken driving regulations could each drop the incidence by over 10 (3%) fatalities annually. It has to be noticed that drunken driving regulations are

already intensively enforced in Finland. The number of annual breath tests is equal to about 40 per cent of the driver population. There is more potential for intensifying the enforcement of seat belt use. It should be enforced especially in passenger cars. The development of the methods and technology of traffic enforcement was also examined in the project. The use of machine vision and wireless data transmission is becoming more widespread among technical surveillance equipment. Manufacturers provide a solution for practically all conventional enforcement needs such as enforcement of red light violations, speed enforcement, turning violations, use of bus lanes and monitoring of stolen vehicles by means of automatic license plate identification. However, we noticed that the use of open systems that would allow several providers access to the speed/surveillance camera data, would definitely lower the

costs of surveillance and thus allow a much higher number of surveillance posts to be used. The recording and the notification of violations should be automated as far as possible. It is advisable to use image pattern recognition in speed enforcement. The computer shoud be able to transsmit the recorded speed violation data autmatically to the office system.

Title: Assessment of the potential for enhancement police enforcement Authors: Rita Rathmayer, Veli.Pekka Kallberg, Katri Koskinen, Tapani Mäkinen, Jouko Viitanen Series: Publications 49/2004 Language: Finnish with English abstract

Freezing Used to Support a Railway Tunnel on Bothnia Line, Sweden The railway tunnel on the Swedish Bothnia Line, on the western shore of the Gulf of Bothnia, was the largest artificially frozen structure in the Nordic countries. The tunnel that was completed in 2003 was temporarily strengthened by freezing. Although a challenging and unconventional construction method, freezing turned out to be the best approach for this particular site from a technical and economical point of view. The preliminary design for bidding was carried out by Golder Associates Ltd on the order of Banverket (Swedish National Railway Administration). Construction planning for the freezing of the Stranneberg tunnel, located five kilometres from Örnsköldsvik towards Umea, was started in November 2001. Freezing took place in the summer of 2002, and tunnel blasting in the autumn of the same year. The tunnel (100 metres long, 10 metres high and 10 metres wide) required more than 5,000 cubic metres of soft soil and weak rock mass to be frozen. Freezing work on the tunnel line was star-

ted in early 2002 with the drilling of freezing holes, and the tunnel broke through the frozen stretch in December 2002. Lemcon Ltd carried overall responsibility for the tunnelling, and VTT was responsible for ground freezing design. The final lining of the tunnel was completed in the spring of 2003, after which the soil was allowed to melt. In the planning phase, the progress of freezing was evaluated, stability and displacement analyses were made, measurements for monitoring tunnel construction were designed, the locations of the pipelines for freezing were planned, and monitoring results were checked. Design calculations were carried out using software Temp/W for thermal and software PLAXIS for geotechnical analysis. The strength and deformation characteristics of frozen soils, besides preliminary testing by the Technical University of Lulea, were also determined. Laboratory tests for the design were carried out in the frost laboratory at VTT. The railway tunnel was constructed at


a depth of 20 metres in the soft ground of organic clay at Stranneberg. Open excavation was not accepted for the tunnel construction, because the deposition of excavated soil might have caused environmental problems. Owing to the large dimensions of the cross section, strengthening the tunnel soil by freezing was considered to be the technically best and safest approach.

LEMCON Ltd Construction Manager Jouko Viitala Phone: +358 9 1599 645, +358 40 538 1768 E-mail: VTT Building and Transport Senior Research Scientist, Dr. Seppo Saarelainen Phone: +358 9 456 4895, +358 40 060 5492 E-mail:


Annotated Annotated reports reports from from Institute of Transport Economics (TĂ˜I)

Transport Telematics and the Protection of Privacy Transport telematics is assumed to contribute to goal achievement in the transport sector in Norway. The actual implementation depends on acceptance in the general public and the legal framework, notably the Personal Data Act of 2000. This report concludes that the public is not very concerned with the protection of privacy in general. Increased efficiency in the transport sector is highly valued. Telematics that might curb the freedom to act - like speed cameras - have minimal acceptance and arguments like "the surveillance society" are put forward.

Commercial use of telematics is often regulated by contracts between the parties. The condition for processing information in accordance with the Personal Data Act is hereby fulfilled. The result might be extensive processing of information. It is the responsibility of government to evaluate the total amount and its effects. The transport authorities should therefore develop codes of conduct for implementing transport telematics and informatics taking the protection of privacy into account.

Title: Transport Telematics and the Protection of Privacy Author: Inger-Anne Ravlum Report no: 703/2004 Language: Norwegian English Summary:

Interchange in Public Transport It is neither possible nor rational to develop a public transport service whereby everyone can travel from door to door without having to change buses during their journey. Such a service would offer low frequency and a large number of parallel routes. Individual public transport users must therefore be prepared to change buses. Thus it is necessary to develop good interchanges in order to produce the best possible levels of frequency and cost effectiveness. The resistance to changing buses in the Oslo region is relatively high. The disadvantage for having to change buses without having to wait (direct change) is valued at NOK 3.65 per journey (approx 0,5 Euro). Waiting 10 minutes between two buses is regarded as a disadvantage corresponding to about NOK 17 ( 2,3 Euro). If the waiting time is reduced to 5 minutes, the disadvantage is reduced to around NOK 10. Title: Interchange in Public transport in the Osloregion Author: Ă…se Nossum Report no: 707/2004 Language: Norwegian English sumary:


The resistance to changing buses in the Oslo region is relatively high among the passengers.


Annotated reports from Institute of Transport Economics (TØI)

2003 Norwegian Air Travel Survey This report gives results from the 2003 Norwegian Air Travel Survey. Information from 110,064 passengers on domestic and international scheduled flights, and international charter flights, were collected and analysed. Results show that approximately 1.7 million Norwegians made one or more domestic flights in 2003, and some 1.1 million people made at least one journey abroad

by air. Leisure travel constitutes almost half (48 per cent) of domestic travel, and 56 per cent of international scheduled air travel. The corresponding figures in 1998 were 39 and 40 per cent respectively. These changes are caused by a strong increase in the number of leisure trips owing to price reductions, and a decrease in the number of business trips.

Title: 2003 Norwegian Air Travel Survey Authors: Jon Martin Denstadli, Arne Rideng og Sverre Strand Report no: 713/2004 Language: Norwegian English summary:

Safe Public Transport The extent of feeling unsafe when using public transport is relatively high. Around 50 per cent of public transport users have felt unsafe in connection with a journey by public transport. Even though the vast majority have only experienced a lack of safety from time to time, this can lead people to use public transport less than they would wish to, and they then either go by car or limit their travels. In order to reduce the extent of feeling unsafe on journeys by public transport it may be necessary to implement measu-

res. The measures should be in a "whole journey" perspective. Public transport users experience feeling unsafe both on the way to and from the bus stop, at the bus stop, and on the vehicle itself. It is therefore necessary that the different authorities, departments and companies which are responsible for the different elements of the journey should work together so that public transport users can feel that their journey is safe from start to finish.

Title: Safe public transport. Public transport users’ experiences of using public transport and measures to increase safety. Summary report Author: Ingunn Stangeby Report no: 704/2004 Language: Swedish English summary:

Annotated reports from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI

Traffic Management for a Sustainable Environment Road traffic is the most important source of many air pollutants in Sweden. Environmental Quality Standards which prescribe acceptable air quality have been, or will be, introduced within the current decade. Due to the environmental influence of road traffic there is a significant possibility to use traffic management measures in order to reduce the negative environmental effects of traffic. Efficient design of such measures demands models and methods for estimation of the resulting air quality. This report presents the state of the art in environmentally based traffic management. The work includes a description of

the environmental consequences of road traffic and coming air quality standards. Furthermore, models for estimation of the environmental impact of traffic are presented along with examples of possible traffic management measures for a sustainable environment. Today’s air quality estimation systems are used mostly in pollution level control applications. Air quality based traffic management may need a more detailed description of traffic related pollutants. Moreover, it is not clear what opportunities there are for achieving a lower negative environmental impact through traffic management in Sweden. Finally, the


question of how to choose between a possible improvement of the environment and other costs needs further investigation.

Title: Traffic management for a sustainable environment Author: Andreas Tapani Series: VTI meddelande 954 Language: Swedish with English summary The report is also available as a pdf file on under Reports.


Annotated Annotated reports reports from from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI

Mobile Phone Use while Driving The purpose of these studies was to give a picture of drivers’ use of mobile phones while driving and more specifically their attitudes to the use of mobile phones while driving and the types of routines and behaviour practised when using mobile phones. In addition, the purpose was to get some idea of the number of traffic accidents, along with injuries and deaths, which were caused by drivers using their mobile phones. The number of mobile phone users has increased heavily and has accelerated in the last ten years. This increase is reflected in drivers’ use of mobile phones while driving. Results from the Swedish Traffic Safety Survey show that 73 per cent of all drivers had access to a mobile phone in 2001. These drivers accounted for 85 per cent of all yearly mileage. Of the mobile phones, 75 per cent were hand-held without any extra add-on equipment. Handheld mobile phones were most common among younger and older drivers. 30 per cent of all drivers with mobile phones used them daily while driving. The average number of drivers’ incoming or outgoing calls while driving

was, according to results from the questionnaire survey, 1.1 per day. A significant number of drivers reported that they often or almost always stopped their car when they were going to use their mobile phone. As a rule, the driver generally took some kind of safety precaution in conjunction with a mobile phone call. Women stated that they used safety measures more often than men and older drivers more often than younger drivers. The use of mobile phones affected driving in different ways. Drivers missed exits, failed to observe traffic signals, and forgot to adjust their speed to the speed limit. Incidents or near collisions with other vehicles or objects, or driving off the road, were not unusual when mobile phones were used while driving. The respondents considered hands-free equipment to be significantly less risky to use than hand-held mobile phones. A third of the respondents favoured a law against use of mobile phones while driving, regardless of the type of mobile phone equipment. Half of all respondents thought that use of hand-held mobile phones should be forbidden during driving.

The common answer was that the potential accident risk rate associated with use of hand-held mobile phones was much higher than that for hands-free equipment. The dominant reason for the driver to have a mobile phone in the car was the security of always being able to contact or be contacted by someone else. According to our estimates, 100,000 drivers each year use the mobile phones to contact the police or call an ambulance after an accident. According to our theoretical estimates, approximately 10–20 people die in traffic accidents each year as a consequence of drivers’ use of mobile phones while driving.

Title: Mobile phone use while driving. Conclusions from four investigations Authors: Hans Thulin and Susanne Gustafsson Series: VTI rapport 490A Language: English The report is also available as a pdf file on under Reports.

The visual qualities of the landscape are often used as a preservation argument in community planning and their consideration is prescribed in several Acts. The visual qualities of the landscape are mainly considered from an aesthetic standpoint, however. The present study emphasises the importance of taking into account the historical dimension also. The aim of this study has been to develop a method that can describe the historical visual dimension in the cultural environment of today. The method is called the Historical Landscape Visualisation Method. The method is partly based on other methods that describe the landscape. Such methods often include the comparison of information from historical maps or photographs with the current situation. These methods have some limitations, 24


Historical Landscape Visualisation Method

however. The maps for instance give a bird’s eye view of the landscape, and the photographs are often of limited age. What is new in the Historical Landscape Visualisation Method is that it uses not only photographs but also paintings produced before the advent of photography, and tests the credibility of the paintings. In order to investigate the value of paintings as historical sources,

the information they give has been compared with historical maps which are reasonably contemporaneous with the painting. If the landscape painting is considered to be of good historical value, an analysis is carried out based upon a comparison between the painting and the current landscape viewed from the exact location as of the painter. Title: Historical Landscape Visualisation Method. Development of a tool to describe the historical visual dimension in today’s cultural environment Author: Hans Antonson Series: VTI meddelande 925 Language: Swedish with English summary The report is also available as a pdf file on under Reports.


Annotated reports from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI

Elastohydrodynamic Aspects of the Tyre-Pavement Contact while Aquaplanning The objective of the work presented in this report has been to develop a numerical method for the investigation of water-lubricated soft elastohydrodynamic (EHD) situations as it relates to the problem of car tyre aquaplaning. Aquaplaning occurs when a vehicle rides on the water and completely loses contact with the road, putting drivers in immediate danger of sliding off the road. The factors that most contribute to aquaplaning are vehicle speed, vehicle weight, water depth, tyre size, tread depth, tread pattern, and water composition. The tyre used in the calculation is a P.I.A.R.C. test tyre. An outline of the smooth P.I.A.R.C. tyre was taken from a construction drawing. Due to the nonavailability of precise information on this tyre the theoretical model is that of a generic radial ply tyre with the correct dimensions. Two different elastic material models of the car tyre were considered, with an increasing degree of complexity. Numerical results were produced for 20, 40, 60, 120, and 200 km/h. No fluid films separating the surfaces were detected in

Example of the complete finite element model. Stress distribution in the refined section.

the range of the above velocities. In the range of velocities from 20 to 200 km/h the contact shapes and pressures were almost exactly identical with dry static contact. As a matter of fact, the velocity has to be around 1.6 103 m/s for the first full film regime to be achieved. This conclusion is valid for both elastic models. Prediction of the EHD fluid layer thickness by the classical theory of lubrication also shows that the effects of viscous flow are very small, even though the film thickness for the isoviscous and incompressible case is somewhat overestimated.

The physics of water films is completely different from the physics of films formed by lubricating oils. Due to its dense molecular structure, water undergoes no or very little compression even under extreme pressures. Pure water is a very bad lubricant and is indeed very rarely used in highly loaded concentrated situations. This is believed to be the major reason why no separating fluid films were detected in the pure viscous water aquaplaning. Another mechanism that can contribute to loss of grip already on a slightly wet road can be described as boundary lubrication. Boundary lubrication is a field of knowledge that combines tribology, chemistry and material science.

Titel: Elastohydrodynamic aspects of the tyre-pavement contact while aquaplaning Authors: Peter Andrén and Alexei Jolkin Series: VTI rapport 483A Language: English The report is also available as a pdf file on under Reports.

Traffic Safety Measures and Observance of the Law The effect on traffic safety of full observance of the laws concerning existing speed limits, the use of seat belt and driver sobriety has been estimated. The observance of the law regarding the three measures varies. The observance of the speed limits is low and the observance of sobriety is high. Reduced observance of the speed limits results in little change for the worse in the traffic safety situation, but driving while intoxicated causes a dramatic increase in risk. The law observance of the speed limits is the largest problem which results in 150–200 fatalities annually. The other two observance problems concern 50–100 fatalities annually. The report does not show how the observance of the

laws can be increased. There exist, however, interlock systems for the measures as a complement to increased surveillance by the police and/or increased sanctions. The risk of being killed is more than doubled through the lack of observance. A very high observance of the three laws reduces the number of fatalities in traffic by at least 50 per cent. What is interesting is that the observance of the law is not randomly distributed over the three measures. Both drivers who observe all three laws and drivers who do not observe any of the laws are over-represented in traffic. It is also important that decreased speeds strengthen the other two traffic safety measures. The estimation of the


effect of alcohol on safety is very uncertain as the alcohol limit is different in different countries.

Title: Traffic safety measures and observance of the law. Speed adaptation, usage of seat belt and sober drivers Author: Göran Nilsson Series: VTI meddelande 951 Language: Swedish with English summary The report is also available as a pdf file on under Reports.


Annotated Annotated reports reports from from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI

Serious Breakdowns in the Track Infrastructure – Calculation of Effects on Rail Traffic so small that all planned train movements can be carried out. In a lot of circumstances, however, delays are so extensive that rolling stock assignment is affected and trains must be cancelled. Alternatively, the potential capacity may become so low that all planned train movements cannot be carried out. When faults or damages occur to the signalling system, the highest permitted speed is sometimes reduced to 40 km/h. This may also occur when the bearing strength of the permanent way is reduced or when the track is in a bad condition. PHOTO: ÅKE KARLSSON, GÖTEBORG

The track infrastructure installations of the railway transport system are at times subjected to stresses which give rise to such serious faults or damages that traffic must be stopped, or cause such serious disturbances that trains must be cancelled. Examples are falls of overhead contact lines, fire in interlocking systems or flooding of the track bed. It is obviously impossible to create a system where such situations never occur, but an attempt can be made to allocate operational and maintenance work in such a way that the probability of such occurrences is reduced to a minimum on those track installations where the impact in the form of comprehensive traffic disturbances is greatest. Extensive damage to the interlocking system of the rail transport system causes comprehensive disturbances. One example of such damage which gave rise to serious consequences is when the interlocking system at Järna station burned down in 2000. A microsimulation

tool for rail traffic, RailSys, which had been developed in Germany, was used to simulate the consequences of the fire. Simulations were also made for rail traffic flows both higher and lower than those that applied after the fire. Lowering of the highest permitted speed through a track infrastructure installation is one example of the reduction in potential capacity. The delays which then occur can in some situations be recouped through somewhat higher speeds on other parts of the system. Sometimes this is not possible, but the delays which nevertheless occur may be

Title: Serious breakdowns in the track infrastructure – Calculation of effects on rail traffic Author: Mats Wiklund Series: VTI meddelande 959 Language: Swedish with English summary The report is also available as a pdf file on under Reports.

Towards Marginal Cost Pricing of Maritime Transport Pricing based on marginal costs for maritime transports has been intensively discussed and investigated lately, but have not to any larger extent brought the problems of implementation in themselves closer to a solution. One reason for this is the lack of data necessary for marginal cost estimations. The report deals with marginal cost pricing in theory and empirical research and reviews how availability of data and institutional conditions affect the possibilities for implementation of marginal cost based pricing. Besides the open sea, ports, fairways, pilot services and ice-breaking are the main maritime infrastructure compo-


nents. Marginal costs of maritime transport can be divided into the following groups: emissions to water and air, accidents, and costs related to infrastructure usage. The first marginal cost type is the occurrence of negative external effects to third-men outside the transport system. The marginal costs from infrastructure use are related to the parts that invest, maintain, and provide the services in themselves as well as to the users. The latter part is affected by restrictions in capacity, which can affect the user costs of the services. This report considers all these marginal cost components, except emission to air.

Title: Towards marginal cost pricing of maritime transport Author: Carl Magnus Berglund and Robert Ericsson Series: VTI meddelande 956 Language: Swedish with English summary The report is also available as a pdf file on under Reports.


Annotated reports from the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI

Evaluation of the Moose Dummy Mooses II with a View to Consumer Guidance the strength and design of the front of the vehicle above the bonnet. To be able to evaluate the “moose safety” of different car models, VTI has developed a full scale moose dummy. The dummy is made of rubber and has, in contradiction to its precursors, legs that give the dummy a realistic movement during the crash. A number of crash tests have been made to evaluate the qualities of the dummy. It is concluded in the report that the dummy not only behaves as expected but also is very sturdy and withstands repeated impacts at high

speed. The results are reproducible under equivalent conditions, which is a very important aspect in all types of crash testing. The purpose of these test series has been to test the moose dummy rather than the vehicles. In despite of this a method is developed to measure and calculate the “survival space” based on the static deformation after the collision. Through that it is concluded that there are major differences between different makes of a car. The choice of car seems to be just as important as reducing speed on roads where moose can be expected. At a speed just above 70 km/h some car models still have plenty of space for the occupants whereas others are considerably compressed.


Four out of five who die after colliding with game in Sweden have hit a moose. The moose appears suddenly and unexpectedly, the driver has little chance to swerve or even break. The long legs of the moose catch the bumper and knock the heavy animal over the bonnet and into the windscreen. What happens next depends mainly on the make of the car and the impact speed. The driver chooses the speed but there is no consumer guidance that gives advice on the “moose safety” of a car model. The typical moose accident where someone dies or is seriously injured occurs at a public road with the speed limit 90 km/h. The driver is more often than in other accidents sober but has little or no time to react. Primarily the head, neck, chest and arms get injured, both by the moose and intruding parts from the roof and windscreen. A cloud of shattered glass both from the windscreen and sidewindows hits the car occupants. Since the moose often penetrates well into the coupe and in addition crushes the roof and windshield towards the occupants, seat belt and airbag make only a marginal improvement, if any. The important factors for the outcome of the accident are

Title. Evaluation of the Moose Dummy Mooses II with a View to Consumer Guidance Author: Ylva Matstoms Series: VTI meddelande 955 Language: Swedish with English summary The report is also available as a pdf file on under Reports.

Child Safety in Cars – Socio-Economic Differences The aim of the study was to identify relationships between no use/misuse of safety belt or child restraints and socio-economic aspects. The conclusions from the study will provide a basis for the future development of information and campaigns to increase the correct use of restraints. In general, the results showed that the level of misuse among young children was lower than among older children. Approximately 90 per cent of the children in the youngest age group always used the safety belt, while only 74 per cent of children aged 4–9 years did so. The most common circumstance, when the safety belts were not used by older children, was when the travel distance was short. Overall, the parents who regularly or

occasionally neglected to use the safety belts themselves were more likely to allow their children to travel without safety belts. Furthermore, parents who were more liberal concerning traffic violations were also more likely to allow their children to travel without using a safety belt. When all age groups were examined, the results did not indicate relationships between the children’s usage of safety belts and any of the following variables: number of inhabitants, highest level of education in the household, household annual gross income, household number of children younger than 10, choice of child’s placement in the car, number of seats in the family car, age of the family car, driver’s sex, marital status, informa-


tion received by the parents, parental knowledge about rules and recommendations, and acceptance regarding traffic violations.

Title: Child safety in cars – Socioeconomic differences. Literature review and questionnaire survey Authors: Anna Anund, Åsa Forsman, Gunilla Sörensen and Susanne Gustafsson Series: VTI rapport 496 Language: Swedish with English summary The report is also available as a pdf file on under Reports.


Questions concerning the content of the articles, or orders for the publications referred to, should be directed to the publishing institution, see addresses below. REQUEST FOR BACK ISSUES, AND NOTIFICATION OF ADDRESS CHANGES. Readers outside the Nordic countries: see Swedish address. Readers in the Nordic countries: see addresses below. Web site:

Denmark Helen Hasz-Singh Danish Road Institute P.O. Box 235 DK-4000 Roskilde Phone: +45 46 30 70 00 Fax: +45 46 30 71 05 E-mail: Web site:

Norway Harald Aas Institute of Transport Economics (TØI) P.O. Box 6110 Etterstad N-0602 Oslo Phone: +47 22 57 38 00 Fax: +47 22 57 02 90 E-mail: Web site:

Finland Kari Mäkelä VTT Building and Transport P.O. Box 1800 FIN-02044 VTT Phone: +358 9 45 64 586 Fax: +358 9 46 48 50 E-mail: Web site:

Norway Thorbjørn Chr. Risan Norwegian Public Roads Administration P.O. Box 8142 Dep N-0033 Oslo Phone: +47 73 95 46 48 Fax: +47 73 95 46 31 E-mail: Web site:

Iceland Hreinn Haraldsson Public Road Administration Borgartún 7 IS-105 Reykjavik Phone: +354 563 1400 Fax: +354 562 2332 E-mail: Web site:

Sweden Tarja Magnusson Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) SE-581 95 Linköping Phone: +46 13 20 42 15 Fax: +46 13 14 14 36 E-mail: Web site:

Nordic Road and Transport Research 2-2004  

A joint publication with the latest research findings of six public research organisations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

Nordic Road and Transport Research 2-2004  

A joint publication with the latest research findings of six public research organisations in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.