Page 1

AFRICA

DAYS

23-24 SEPTEMBER

31 panels, 169 papers, 239 participants, 36 nationalities, workshops, seminars, book presentations, films, exhibitions, food and entertainment

– WELCOME!

GENDER CHANGE CHALLENGES FOR AFRICA


The opinions expressed in this volume are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Nordic Africa Institute. This book is made available as a printed book, as an e-book and as a pdf-book under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) Licence. Further details regarding permitted usage can be found at www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 ISBN 978-91-7106-787-6 © 2016 The Nordic Africa Institute Cover photos: Top – Basketball in Mogadishu, photo by Tobin Jones AMISOM / AU UN IST, Public Domain. Middle – Kibirichia, Kenya, photo by Neil Palmer, CIAT, CC2.0 License. Bottom – Afgooye, Somalia, photo by Tobin Jones, AMISOM / AU UN IST, Public Domain


Content

We should all be Nordic Africans..................................................................4 Welcoming address by Iina Soiri

200 participants, 36 nationalities – and a million autumn leaves.....................5 Welcoming address by the NAD 2016 Organising Team

Assumptions and desires on gender in Africa................................................ 6 Q & A with keynote speaker Maria Eriksson Baaz

Sexual rights – constitution vs traditions..................................................... 8 Q & A with keynote speaker Kopano Ratele

Conference program................................................................................. 10 With maps of Uppsala and the conference venue

Changes, people and land in East Africa...................................................... 12 A film and poster exhibition by REAL, Resiliance in East African Landscapes

Dealing with waste................................................................................... 12 A book presentation by two former NAI researchers

Women and men – labour and leisure......................................................... 13 A photo exhibition by Jorge Coelho Ferreira

Women, peace and security – case study on South Sudan............................ 15 Pre-conference high-level panel by NAI and CMI

How to communicate research on Africa.....................................................16 Workshop by NARN, the Nordic Africa Research Network

Housework, commodification and ‘Mother Africa’....................................... 17 Special session with Deborah Bryceson and Pekka Peltola

Presentations of panels and papers............................................................18 Starting with a list of all panels and panel organisers

List of participants.................................................................................. 156 Including their affiliations and emails


4 | Nordic Africa Days 2016

We should all be Nordic Africans

G

ender equality is one of the cornerstones of Nordic societies. For many years the Nordic countries have held top positions in reports and lists comparing gender equality on a global scale. Meanwhile, in the last two decades, the progress in gender equality in Africa has made headlines and challenged even the stable Nordic lead in statistics, not least when it comes to women’s political representation. ”We should all be feminists”, declared Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, who visited us at the Nordic Africa Institute for our 50th anniversary in 2012. Her words inspired a coalition of Swedish publishers, trade unions and political organisations to jointly finance and distribute a Swedish edition of her TED talk to all 16 year old school children in Sweden. In total, more than 100,000 copies of the book were handed out for free in Swedish schools. So in the friendly contest of gender equality, the Nordic and African countries are indeed soul mates! So what could be a more fitting theme for the Nordic Africa Days than Gender and Change: Global Challenges for Africa? The Nordic Africa Days, organized biannually since 1999, is a prime forum for academic exchange, as well as a platform for fruitful policy dialogue between scholars, policy-makers and practitioners from all over the world. I particularly welcome our participants from the 17 African countries that are represented during these three days.

This year we will have 31 panels have been proposed, a majority of them organised by African scholars. That’s a new record over the almost two decades that we have been arranging the Nordic Africa Days. We also thank the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Sida, for its generous financial support which Chima has made it possible for some of handedmanda’s book was out to more than our African guests to come here 100,000 Swedish chi ldren. to Uppsala for this event. Africa has undergone rapid economic growth, yet social and human development has been increasingly unequal between and within its countries. According to the World Bank’s World Development Report 2012, income growth by itself does not deliver greater gender equality. For this we depend largely on how markets, formal and informal institutions and households function and interact. The varying topics of our panels represent this complexity and diversity. Yet, we as academic scholars would not be true to ourselves, if we didn’t challenge the very concepts of gender, femininity and masculinity. And this is exactly what Maria Eriksson Baaz, researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute and co-author of an award winning book on sexual violence, aims to do. In her key note speech she will encourage us who produce knowledge about gendered subjects in Africa to engage in self-critical discussions on our own assumptions and desires. Our second key note Kopano Ratele, professor at the University of South Africa, puts forward the role of men. He points at the need to critically review and change the patriarchal traditions and contest the current ideas of men and masculinities in African society. Finally, The Nordic Africa Days is also one of the biggest social gathering of Africa experts and scholars in the Nordic region. So let us use these three days to mingle and meet, argue and agree, learn and laugh together – and do not forget to visit our flagship library at the Africa House in the Botanical Garden. Welcome, Dear Nordic Africans! Iina Soiri, Director of the Nordic Africa Institute


Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September | 5

200 PARTICIPANTS,

36 NATIONALITIES – AND A MILLION AUTUMN LEAVES

W

elcome to the Nordic Africa Days 2016! We are excited to have so many prominent scholars from all over the world joining us for colorful and lively discussions, to match the gaudy multicolored autumn here in Uppsala. According to our latest count there will in this year’s conference be more than 200 participants who by their affiliations represent no less than 36 countries, including 17 African. The Nordic Africa Days 2016 is made possible through funding first and foremost from the Governments of Sweden, Finland and Ice-

land who are the core financiers of the Nordic Africa Institute. Additionally, funding from the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency Sida has been granted to support participation for 10 researchers based in Africa. We would also like to extend our sincere appreciation and gratitude to Uppsala University for generously letting us use the Blåsenhus premises as venue for this event – for the second time around. We wish you all fascinating, intensive and inspiring days in Uppsala! The NAD 2016 Organising Team

Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues

Cristiano Lanzano Annika Franklin

Atakilte Beyene Tania Berger


6 | Nordic Africa Days 2016

nad 2016 | key note speaker Researcher Maria Eriksson Baaz

ASSUMPTIONS

AND DESIRES ON GENDER IN AFRICA comment on tw

itter:

@MariaEBaaz #GenderAfric a #NAD2016

Maria Eriksson Baaz is one of the keynote speakers at the Nordic Africa Days. She will offer critical reflections on how researchers’ theoretical and political positions shape what they see ‒ and what their blind spots are.


Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September | 7

Q&A

We posed four questions to Maria Eriksson Baaz, researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute and Gothenburg University

Your speech is titled Assumptions and desires on gender in Africa. How should we understand this? I think most scholars – whether the topic is gender or not – subscribe to the idea that knowledge is never neutral or objective. And this has been particularly acknowledged in feminist and gender research, which emphasises the need for researchers to position themselves and be reflexive. Yet I would say that much of the research done in this field focuses on how our positioning in terms of colour, class, gender, etc, shapes our work. And I will also talk about that. But the main point I want to make here is that we rarely engage in critical discussions about how our various theoretical and political positions, and the desires attached to them, shape what we see and do not see in research. That also includes my own work and myself. Is this something especially true of gender research in Africa? There are of course various positions and my division into a policy oriented mainstream feminist approach on the one hand, and a post-structuralist-inspired approach on the other, is a huge simplification. We are all to some extent shaped by the dominant ideas of gender and war. Still, I think that the various positions that we take shape our research. In that regard there is not much difference in relation to research on Africa. The same divisions can be discerned in relation to gender and conflict elsewhere. At the same time, there is something specific, since research on Africa is shaped by various, mostly problematic, assumptions that there is something different about how gender works in Africa. Also, the more post-structuralist position is perhaps more often accused of relying on a particular ‘Western’ theorisation and understanding of gender – something which I will also discuss. What do you mean by a policy-oriented mainstream research approach, and how is it different from a post-structuralist approach? In very simple terms, the assumptions and desires embedded in the more policy-oriented mainstream app-

roach can be seen in the frequent equation between gender and women, and in a limited engagement with issues of masculinities. It is also based on a more stable and essentialist notion of men and women, with men being seen as perpetrators and war-makers and women as victims and peacemakers. Maintaining such distinctions by highlighting women’s roles as both peacemakers and victims is also seen as essential in order to promote women’s interests. And that naturally, as I argue, has consequences for the stories and conclusions reached in such research. It leads, for instance, to difficulties or a certain reluctance to see and recognise men as victims of war and violence. But it also leads to a somewhat uncritical approach to women’s stories of victimhood. So is the other position truer or more correct then? Is that what you suggest? No, that is not at all what I suggest. Post-structuralist scholarship ‒ to which I subscribe myself ‒ is limited by our guiding assumptions. In simple terms, such positions are based on an idea that it is the assumed difference between men and women that is problematic and upholds gender inequalities. For instance, the connection between women and victimhood and men as perpetrators is here seen as problematic in that it again always situates men in a position of power. So this kind of research is driven by a wish to problematise such commonly accepted ‘truths’ about gender and war and instead show that women can also be violent and that men are also victims of war. As a result, such research risks, for instance, having an uncritical position in relation to men’s stories of victimhood. I will provide various examples of that from my own research. So I do not argue that one position is better than the other. My hope is simply that we engage in more self-critical discussion about how our various assumptions and desires shape the stories we tell ‒ it is these types of discussions I hope to encourage.


8 | Nordic Africa Days 2016

comment on twitter:

@KopanoRatele #SexualRights #NAD2016

SEXUAL RIGHTS – constitution versus tradition South Africa’s post-apartheid constitution was one of the first in the world to outlaw discrimination based on sexual orientation, and South Africa is to date the only country in Africa to legalise samesex marriage. But many of the LGBTQi rights are still very much on paper only, says Kopano Ratele, who is one of the key note speakers at the Nordic Africa Days.

Photo: Pumla Gobodo Madikizela

nad 2016 | key note speaker Professor Kopano Ratele


Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September | 9

Q&A

We posed four questions to Kopano Ratele, Professor in Social and Health Sciences at the University of South Africa

Post-apartheid South Africa constitutionally protects the right to sexual orientation. How much of this is on paper only, does it really work in practice?

Are there any concrete examples in South Africa of old traditions regarding sexuality being challenged and then changed?

Many of these rights are still on paper, no doubt. The rights also depend too much on who you are, how much money you have and where you live. The experiences of sexual freedom for queer people differ according to geography, culture, race and, most significantly, economic status. If you are a black woman living in a poor area such as an informal settlement, your vulnerability to violation is much higher than a black women living in the First World areas of South Africa, such as the Bo-Kaap in Cape Town. This differentiation in how much practical protection South Africans are able to have also signals the intersection of sexual rights and other rights like education, expression and a dignified life.

An example of a sexuality and gender-related tradition that is being questioned is what is called ukuthwala. Ukuthwala, an Nguni word, literally means to carry off. It refers to when a woman is carried off to be married. What this has meant is that a woman can be abducted and married against her will. Many women and social activists have been vehemently opposed to this practice. The government is being forced to intervene and ban the custom. But there are crucial nuances regarding custom that it would be remiss not to highlight. Some women and men have argued that the problems about the practice arise from the fact it has been bastardised. They say that ukuthwala was an option for a young man who was prevented from marrying or did not have enough cows to do so. They say this was basically eloping so as to force parents to consent to the union. They say that a woman had to consent to eloping. Given the evidence that some older men are abducting girls and young women to marry them without their consent, this practice should be criminalised, and this is happening. The tide is running against the custom. Sometimes, of course, the consent is given by the girl's parents who are forced, due to poverty or other reasons, to marry off their daughter. It may mean that parents will be criminalised too. This points to a need for other interventions to discourage parents from supporting practices that harm their children.

Has the special history of South Africa contributed to the passage of rather progressive laws, like samesex marriage, after the end of apartheid? Ironically, the terrible history of South Africa has helped. But other countries with nasty histories have not had progressive legislation. Hence, more crucially, what has helped is the kind of people who were central to the negotiated settlement and the drafting of the constitution. They contributed to ensuring that progressive provisions made it into the constitution. You always need idealistic and ethical people like that. However, we should not forget the agitation of various civil society groups who pushed for laws that recognised their rights. I am referring here to divergent groups like LGBTQi groups and traditional leaders. It was not only the right to sexual orientation that made it into the constitution, but also rights to tradition and culture. Because of that South Africa finds itself today in ongoing contestation about how, for example, a traditionalist man or woman is enabled to live in peace with a queer woman or man. Better still, there are fights, more usually discursive fights but too often erupting in violence, in which South Africans are trying to find a way to understand that some lesbian women do want and can be part of tradition. Or vice versa ‒ the struggles are getting us to understand that a man who is deeply conservative culturally may also want to be recognised as sexually nonconforming.

So what does it take to make changes happen? It takes social mobilisation. It takes a public that is active, and this is not a problem in South Africa. It takes a media that is aware of what it takes to make a new society, which is certainly not a problem, as South Africa has the noisiest and most open media. It takes a better government, one which is responsive, informed, transparent, efficient and not corrupt. While parts of the current national government show these qualities, it seems that other parts are on the take, morally bankrupt, directionless and without a clear vision. On the local level, in rural and urban areas, we need chiefs and mayors who are idealist, with talent to translates their ideals into public life. ď Ž


10 10 || Nordic NordicAfrica AfricaDays Days2016 2016

Conference Program thursday 22 september

saturday 24 september

16.00 - 18.00

Pre-registration for NAD-participants The office of the Nordic Africa Institute

16.00 - 18.00

Women, Peace and Security – Case Study on South Sudan High-level Pre-conference panel. Venue: the office of the Nordic Africa Institute

15 See page 18

18.00 - 19.00

Welcome reception and mingle The library of the Nordic Africa Institute The Nordic Africa Institute, NAI, is the venue for the preconference panel and welcome reception on Friday. It is situated in the Botanical Garden, some 100 meters northwest of Blåsenhus, the main conference venue.

9.00 - 11.00

Parallel panel sessions Panels number 3, 5, 6, 15, 19, 26, 30, 32, 33 and 36

11.00 - 11.30

Coffee Break

11.30 - 13.00

Key note lecture 2: Assumptions and Desires in Scholarship on Gender in Africa Maria Eriksson Baaz, researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute

See page 64

13.00 - 14.00

Lunch Break

14.00 - 16.00

Parallel panel sessions Panels number 3, 16, 19, 26, 28, 30, 31, 32, 33 and 36

16.00

Conference closure See you again at NAD 2018!

friday 23 september 08.00 - 09.00 Registration At the conference venue Blåsenhus 09.00 - 11.00

Parallel panel sessions Panels number 1, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13, 14 and 17

11.00 - 11.15

Coffee Break

11.15 - 12.45

Key note lecture 1: Challenging Traditions, Changing Masculinities Kopano Ratale, University of South Africa Venue: Blåsenhus, downstairs lecture halls

See page 8

12.45 - 13.45

Lunch Break

13.15 - 13.30

Dealing with Waste NAI-alumni researchers Onyanta Adama and Chidi Nzeadibe present their new book. Venue: Blåsenhus, Main Entrance Hall

See page 12

13.45 - 15.45

Parallel panel sessions Panels number 1,2, 4, 9, 20, 21, 22, 24 and 37

15.45 - 16.00

Coffee Break

16.00 - 18.00

Parallel panel sessions Panels number 2, 4, 9, 21, 22, 24 and 27

16.00 - 18.00

How to communicate research on Africa Open workshop arranged by NARN, the Nordic Africa Research Network. Venue: Blåsenhus 12:128

16 See page 14

16.00 - 18.00

See page 16 17

19.00 - 22.00

Housework, Commodification and ’Mother Africa’ – Domestic Labor in Africa 1900-2015 Special session, with Deborah Bryceson and Pekka Peltola. Venue: Blåsenhus 11:128 Conference Dinner Uppsala Concert and Congress Hall (UKK)

Uppsala konsert och kongress, UKK, the Concert and Congress Hall, is the venue for the conference dinner on Friday evening. It is located at Vaksala torg, about 1,7 kilometers from Blåsenhus, see number 7 on the map on the opposite page.

Ludidi’s Lucidities

Mpho Ludidi is a South African singer-songwriter residing in Uppsala since 2014. His music reflects the Xhosa and Zulu folk music with extracts from blues, jazz, gospel and soul. At the conference dinner on Friday he will be playing for us a selection of his compositions with a sound inspired by his upbringing in South Africa.


Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September | 11

Map of the city and the conference venue 6

7

1

2

1

3

2 3

4

4 5 6 7

5

House No 13

Domkyrkan. The Cathedral. Carolina Rediviva. The University Library. Slottet. The Castle. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. The Nordic Africa Institute. Blåsenhus. The Conference Venue. Uppsala konsert och kongress. The Concert and Congress Hall. Centralstationen. The Central Station.

House No 12

House No 11

Plantskolegränd / Botanical Garden

Entrance

House No 14

Registration Entrance

Main Entrance Hall

Entrance

Entrance Von Kraemers allé

Lunch / coffee station

Blåsenhus is the main conference venue for the Nordic Africa Days. The main entrance is from a street called von Kraemers Allé 1 (see number 5 on the Uppsala city map above). There is also a back entrance from Plantskolegränd / the Botanical Garden. Blåsenhus is a complex of different houses connected to each other. All panel sessions will take place in house number 12, (marked with green on the venue map).

House No 21


12 | Nordic Africa Days 2016

CHANGES, PEOPLE & LAND FILM AND POSTER

EXHIBITION am-5 pm 23-24 September, 10trance Hall En ain M , us nh Blåse

Pastoral pathways in Samburu, Kenya

Water level change at Lake Baringo, Kenya

IN EAST AFRICA

In Eastern Africa, like in many other parts of the world, social and environmental changes are occurring at unprecedented rates and amplitudes. Climate variations, increasing populations, new patterns of land tenure, urbanisation and weak governance are causing and exacerbating environmental problems. REAL, Resilience in East African Landscapes, is a research and training network within the EU-funded Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions program. REAL links together 20 researchers from different universities, and with different disciplinary backgrounds. They have set out to investigate landscape changes and social and cultural transformations in Kenya and Tanzania. For the Nordic Africa Days, the REAL network has prepared an exhibition displaying a documentary film, poster presentations and snapshots that cast light on various aspects of socio-ecological transformations in East Africa. The exhibition will be open during both Friday and Saturday. A representative from REAL will be there to give guidance and answer questions.

Water harvesting for agroindustrial developments at Lake Naivasha, Rift Valley, Kenya

FORMER NAI-RESEARCHERS

NOW DEALING

WITH WASTE

The failure of formal solid waste management systems in many African cities has paved the way for an informal sector. In a new book, Dealing With Waste (Africa World Press 2016), edited by two NAI-alumni researchers, Onyanta Adama and Chidi Nzeadibe, 17 researchers with different African perspectives, make an attempt to capture the complexity of this informal sector. The two waste researchers’ will present their book during the lunch break on Friday.

New irrigation technology in Kisangesangeni, Moshi, Tanzania

BOOK PRESENTA TION Friday 23 Se ptember, 13:15-13:30 Blåsenhus, M ain Entrance Ha ll


Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September | 13 Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September | 13

WOMEN AND MEN LABOUR AND LEISURE

Jorge Coelho Ferreira is a photographer particularly interested in Lusophone Afri ca. For over a decade, he has been focusing his work on la ndscapes and daily lives, favo ring the documentary approach. Come see his work at the Main Entrance Hall of BlĂĽsenhus, th e photo exhibition is open all day, both Friday and Saturd ay.


14 | Nordic Africa Days 2016

Our Library

COME VISIT US Our library is situated in the Botanical Garden. We are open on Friday 23 September, 11 am - 2 pm. gg in tn ot Dr

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The Nordic Africa Institute’s Library has one of Europe’s largest collections of literature on contemporary Africa within the fields of social science. The library is targeted to researchers, students and the public in the Nordic region.

en väg Villa

THE BOTANICAL GARDEN No

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THE LIBRARY HOLDS More than 80,000 books and reports More than 400 journals Official documents, statistics and censuses Modern African fiction Maps and a large pamphlet collection Music and film

YES WE HAVE BOOKS AT SPECIAL CONFERENCE PRICES!

These are some of the many book titles you will find for sale at discounted prices at the Nordic Africa Institute’s book shop in the main entrance hall. We’re open both conference days, Friday and Staurday, from 10 am to 4 pm.


Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September | 15

Juba, South Sudan, July 2015. Police officers of the UN Mission in South Sudan (UNMISS) playing with displaced children at a protected site for civilians.

comment on twitt

er:

#SouthSudan #NAD2016

UN Photo/JC McIlwaine

WOMEN, PEACE & SECURITY

– CASE STUDY ON SOUTH SUDAN

W

omen’s role in peacebuilding is gradually changing across the world. UN Resolution 1325 calls for increased participation of women in peace operations and mediations. What efforts were made to include women in conflict resolution efforts in South Sudan? What efforts are made to undertake gendered analysis of the drivers of conflict? What links are there between the formal process and informal peace making efforts by women in civil society? How can women’s participation in peacemaking and reconciliation be sustainably assured? These are some of the timely questions to be discussed in a high-level panel on Thursday 22 September at the Nordic Africa Institute. time:

Thursday 22 September, 2016, 16:00-18:00 venue: The Nordic Africa Institute, Villavägen 6, Uppsala Registration: Latest 16 Sept to julia.falkerby@nai.uu.se More info at www.nai.uu.se/nad-2016/south-sudan

Participants: • Suzan Wasuk Sokiri, Member of parliament, South Sudan • Izeduwa Derex-Briggs, UN Women @DerexBriggs • Louise Olsson, Folke Bernadotte Academy @LouiseKOlsson • Edmund Yakani, Ebony Centre, South Sudan (to be confirmed) @EbonyCenter • Redie Bereketeab, The Nordic Africa Institute @NordicAfrica • Antonia Potter Prentice, Crisis Management Initiative (CMI) @CMIoffice This event is co-arranged by the Crisis Management Initiative (CMI) and the Nordic Africa Institute (NAI)


16 | Nordic Africa Days 2016

Victor Adetula Head of Research Nordic Africa Institute

Henrik Alfredsson Research Communicator Nordic Africa Institute

Amanda Hammar Professor African Studies Copenhagen University

Nils Resare Journalist Blank Spot Project

Annika Östman Journalist Vetenskapsradion Swedish National Radio

HOW TO COMMUNICATE

RESEARCH ON AFRICA

In a time when research on Africa is more relevant than ever, we researchers need to shape up our communication skills and put our research to work. This workshop will highlight ways to ensure that your research findings can contribute to an evidence based debate of developments on the African continent. ”When talking about research, two things seem increasingly important: the first is the growing need to demonstrate the social and economic benefits of one's research and the second is the need to communicate that research more widely - both to academic and non academic audiences. Traditionally, journals provided the means through which – after hypotheses were carefully tested – researchers could share the results of their work and prove their worth. But the internet, and the many diverse networks it has created, has changed the way many researchers disseminate findings,

and increasingly, talk about the research process itself.” This quote from the blog of the British national daily newspaper The Guardian frames in essence the questions we will be discussing in this workshop, which is open for everyone. The panelists Nils Resare is one of the founders of Blank Spot Project (BSP), an independent and crowdfunded network aiming to support and conduct high quality journalism. BSP includes leading journalists from Africa, Middle East, Balkan and Russia.

This workshop is presented by NARN, the Nordic Africa Research Network. NARN aims to facilitate and enhance communication and cooperation between individuals and institutions working with research and education on Africa in the Nordic countries. Read more at www.narn.se

Annika Östman is a journalist at Vetenskapsradion, the Science Department of the OPE Swedish NaWORKS N HOP tional Radio. Blåsenhu s She has been Friday 23 12:128 S reporting on 16:00-18:0ept, 0 Africa with a special focus on medicine. Victor Adetula is Head of Research at the Nordic Africa Institute. His research focuses on democracy and governance, peace and conflict, Africa’s international relations, political economy of Africa, Europe-Africa relations, and international development assistance. Henrik Alfredsson is a research communicator at the Nordic Africa Institute whose objective it is to reach out with knowledge of Africa to scholars, policy makers, politicians, media, students and the general public. The panelists will share their experiences and give examples of how to facilitate communication. There will also be ample opportunities to discuss one’s own experiences and share with others. The workshop will be moderated by Amanda Hammar, Professor at the Centre of African Studies at Copenhagen University.


Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September | 17

Photo: Dominic Chavez, World Bank, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

SPECIAL SESSION s 12:228 Blåsenhu 3 Sept, Friday 2 :00 16:00-18

HOUSEWORK, COMMODIFICATION AND

‘MOTHER AFRICA’ – DOMESTIC LABOUR IN AFRICA 1900-2015

T

hroughout African history, domestic labour time, directed at meeting the basic needs of family members, dwarfs any other labour time allocation. Yet, it has received scant historical documentation. Domestic labour, or ‘housework’, is usually conflated with ‘women’s work’. It encompasses childcare, cooking, washing, cleaning, and general household maintenance. The evolution of domestic labour relations reveals the interplay of forced, obligatory and volitional labour within African households. During colonialism, rural women were often cast in the role of ‘Mother Africa’, serving as de facto heads of households. This session, led by Professor Deborah Bryceson, traces how and why this pattern has altered. Chair: Pekka Peltola, NAI Associate Dicussants: Isabel Casimiro, Researcher at the Centre of African Studies, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Philippe Marcadent, Chief of ILO’s Inclusive Labour Markets, Labour Relations and Working Conditions Branch, and Ilaria Buscaglia, Researcher at the Centre for Gender Studies, University of Rwanda.

This session is held by Deborah Fahy Bryceson, Affiliated Researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute and Honorary Fellow at the Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh .


List of panels 1. Gender and new forms of violence in Africa............................................................. 20

Victor Adetula

2. Gender and health in African contexts.................................................................... 25 Beth Maina Ahlberg and Anne Kubai 3. Thinking beyond colonial concepts of gender/sexuality...........................................29

Signe Arnfred

4. Leadership and innovation 2030: Gender empowerment for sustainable futures in Africa............................................ 32 J.M. Atibila and I. Tshabangu 5. Negotiation, contestation, collaboration: Sudanese women under the state’s Civilizational Project.........................................36 Lamya Badri 6. Agrarian questions and large-scale land investments in Africa: What lessons for the SDG?..................................................................................... 39 Atakilte Beyene 7. African spring?...................................................................................................... 43 Jesper Bjarnesen 8. Equal rights but not quite: subalterns’ experiences and perceptions of gender equality policies and programs in Africa.................................46 Ilaria Buscaglia and Asasira Simon Rwabyoma 9. African women’s movements designing visions for change.......................................49 Antje Daniel and Rirhandu Mageza-Barthel 10. Gender at the cutting edge: ICTs, social media and social change in East Africa..........54 Ylva Ekström and Hilda Arntsen 12. The quest for fair political participation and representation: African women in national Parliaments..................................................................58 Veronica Federico 13. Women and nation building in Portuguese speaking African countries: Contributions for a theoretical reflexion................................................................. 62 Patrícia Godinho Gomes and Isabel Maria Casimiro 14. Gender, sexuality and violence during and after humanitarian crises.........................66 Rachel Gordon 15. The ebola epidemic in West Africa: Caregivers’ disease and game changer................. 70

Geir Gunnlaugsson

16. Gender research and gender-responsive methodologies.......................................... 73

Erla Hlín Hjálmarsdóttir and Pétur Waldorff

17. Gender socialization in rural South Africa................................................................76 Dipane Hlalele


19. Social media and mobile communications: Gender identities in Sub-Saharan Africa in transition...............................................79 Lusike Lynete Mukhongo and Joyce Omwoha 20. The other side of masculinity and mass violence: Examining non-combatant, conflict-affected men in Africa......................................83 Rose Løvgren 21. Chronic violence and non-conventional armed conflict in Africa: Unlocking complex dimensions of human security...................................................87 Sylvester B. Maphosa 22. We must all be feminists: Confronting feminisms from African point of view..............91 Catarina Martins 24. Exploring gender relations and rural women's livelihoods in times of change: What's beyond the focus on “women's economic empowerment”?...........................95 Cecilia Navarra and Roberta Pellizzoli 26. Revisiting language and gender in African settings............................................... 101 Taiwo Oloruntoba-Oju 27. Including the voice of women in educational development..................................... 105

Suzanne Adhiambo Puhakka

28. Gender, sex and race in research and pedagogical practices with young people in and between Finland and South Africa: Transnational reflections on the politics of knowledge/praxis................................. 108 Tamara Shefer and Jeff Hearn 30. Poverty and gender in Sub-Saharan Africa............................................................ 111 Laura Stark 31. Legitimacy, family and political power in East Africa, ca 1800 to present................. 116 Rachel Taylor 32. Urban change and shifting gender dynamics in Africa............................................ 119 Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues, Annika Teppo and Patience Mususa 33. Serendipitous infrastructures: intended and unintended outcomes........................ 124 Eric Trovalla, Ulrika Trovalla, María José Zapata and Patrik Zapata 36. Health, politics and culture in Africa..................................................................... 129

Eren Zink

37. European mobility towards Africa: Power, identities and post-colonial encounters..................................................... 134 Lisa Åkesson and Carolina Cardoso

The inconsistency in the numbering of the panels is due to cancellations and rearrangements.


20 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 1

Gender and new forms of violence in Africa

A

frica is experiencing new forms of violence whose causes have become associated with globalization. Take for example, in Africa many ethnic and religious conflicts now occur more frequently as part of transnational relations. Similarly, human trafficking, cross-border robbery and other cross-border crimes are on the increase on the continent in addition to mineral resources-driven conflicts. While the various forms of violence across the continent have attracted considerable scholarly attention, the scholarship examining the links between gender and new forms of violence in Africa have not received adequate enlightened attention. For example, in many African countries information in the public domain about gender-related concerns in violent conflicts are limited to such matters like the effects of conflicts on women and children as the most vulnerable gender categories, youth restlessness and their vulnerability to manipulation by the politicians and other conflict entrepreneurs. While these are legitimate concerns that need to be addressed, there are other equally compelling issues in organized violence that affect men and women differently. Against a background that interprets the new forms of violence in Africa as dominant expressions of profound social transformations associated with the globalizing influence of capital, upsurge in “transnational communities� and the significant engagement of new social movements with networking across national frontiers, a panel of researchers, academics, development workers and policy analysts is proposed to examine the links between gender and new forms of violence in Africa.

Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 and 13:45-15:45 Venue: BlĂĽsenhus, house 12, room 128 Organiser: Victor Adetula, The Nordic Africa Institute, victor.adetula@nai.uu.se


Presentations of panels and papers | 21

panel 1 – paper 1

Un-learning patriarchy: New forms of violence and a gendered approach to regional reconciliation in the Great Lakes of Africa Author: Tim Murithi, University of the Free State, and Institute for Justice and Reconciliation, Cape Town, South Africa, tmurithi@ijr.org.za This paper will contribute to the discussion of how new forms of violence in Africa which occur across borders are challenging traditional notions and processes of ‘national reconciliation’. In particular, this paper will assess how incidences of gender-based violence across borders affect women and men differently. The strictures imposed by the persistence of territorial sovereignty complicates efforts to hold the perpetrators of these cross-border violations accountable for their actions. With reference to the Great Lakes Region of Africa, this paper will argue that in order to confront the culture of impunity which is fostered by these new forms of transnational violence, new thinking is required to conceptualise and frame more a gendered approach to ‘regional reconciliation’. In particular, the paper will interrogate how strategies and methodologies for ‘un-learning’ patriarchy can be deployed in regional reconciliation processes as a means of coming to terms with the violations of the past. In addition, the paper will seek to postulate a forward-looking and future-oriented approach to regional reconciliation, which is predicated on the operationalization of cross-border programmes and interventions to promote the ‘un-learning’ of hegemonic masculinities. The paper will conclude with some recommendations has to how such programmes can be designed and rolled out across Africa. Key words: Un-learning; patriarchy; regional reconciliation; Great Lakes region; hegemonic masculinities. panel 1 – paper 2

Relationships between overcrowding, child abuse, and domestic violence in Ejigbo, Lagos, Nigeria Author: Olaniyi Makinde, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland, omakinde@abo.fi The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between overcrowding, child abuse and different kinds of aggressive behavior among adolescents in the Lagos Metropolis area. Possible sex differences and differences due to religious affiliation are also investigated. 238 respondents filled in a questionnaire. The respondents

were teenagers with an age range from 12 to 20; 122 girls (mean age = 15.1 yrs, SD = 2.0) and 116 boys (mean age = 15.8 yrs, SD = 2.0). The respondents were from either their junior or senior secondary schools in Ejigbo or other surrounding cities (Isolo, Egbe, and Ago-Palace Lagos). Six scales were included as dependent variables: Adult Aggression, Sibling Aggression, Domestic Violence, Unavailability and Rationing, Parental Negativity, and Antisocial Behavior. Overcrowding, Sex, and Religion served as independent variables. According to MANOVA analyses, Overcrowding, Sex, and Religion all had significant effects on all dependent variables. However, multiple regression analyses revealed that Overcrowding tended to partial out the effects of Sex and Religion; thus, overcrowding appears to be the most important factor determining these negative outcomes. The results have implications for housing policies in Nigeria. Moreover, these results may also have implications for research and policy making in other nations and parts of the world. panel 1 – paper 3

Violence, patriarchy and neoliberalism in Tanzania Author: Vicensia Shule, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, vicensiashule@yahoo.com Violence is a common phenomenon in various discussions in public and private, from community, nation to international levels. Most studies have addressed issues related to gender violence particularly violence against women and few has established causal relationship between domestic and global led gender violence. This article investigates violence resulted from the influence of global capital accumulation systems such as land grabbling, homophobia, fundamentalism and sextortion and its relationship to violence happening at home/domestic terrain. Using Transformative Feminist Theory (TFT) the paper links patriarchy and neoliberalism to the reoccurring violence which has left many devastated particularly the marginalized groups. The main argument is, the violence seen at domestic level is a manifestation of national and global policies on capital and human development. Using Tanzania as a case study, it is evident that regardless of the state commitments to combat violence particularly gender violence and violence against women; most of the development policies pave way for violence entrenchment. Shifting from poverty reduction to economic growth, has stimulated violence across genders as such policies have not resolved the issue of resource allocation which is the most prominent trigger of violence. It prompts the necessity of exploring


22 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

» Shifting from poverty reduction to economic growth has stimulated violence across genders « Vicensia Shule, panel 1, paper 3

more how best to manage global socio-political and economic structures to eliminate violence for a peaceful coexistence. panel 1 – paper 4

Gender and new forms of violence in Africa Author: Rasha Ramzy, rasha.almashhad@gmail.com ”All women and girls have the fundamental right to live free of violence. This right is enshrined in international human rights and humanitarian law. And it lies at the heart of my UNiTE to End Violence against Women campaign” Ban Ki-moon The new concept of national security is not depending any more on secure borders only, but it is including human security achievement for both genders. The twentieth century has witnessed a quantum leap in efforts to promote human rights in general and women’s rights in particular. This shift is extended to include the status of women in times of peace and war alike. The status of women is no longer limited to protection from violence during all armed conflicts, but it also includes the elimination of discrimination as a form of violence against them while enhancing their role and strengthening their position in the community. This condition has become a key to achieving security and stability of the entire society down to spread peace and security. The 1st part shows the types of violence against women in African countries: physical & non-physical violence, political, sexual & social violence. The 2nd part describes the causes of violence in African countries: social & political & economic causes. It then analyses the results of violence behavior on communities such as discrimination based on gender. The 3rd. The economic benefits of violence against African women, Who earns benefits? Women or other actors. The 4th part suggests strategies to eliminate violence by creating an environment sensitive to gender that ensures the participation of active women. And the pro-

tection of African women rights in accordance with international & regional decisions and agreements on securing and protecting women from all forms of violence. In the conclusion the study trying to suggest scenarios to be a reference and serious breakthrough, to the concerned decision-makers and experts in development of plans and programs that commensurate with the priorities of achieving human security for African women. panel 1 – paper 5

Gender and terrorism in Cameroon: socio-history of the feminisation of terrorist violence Author: Candice Dielle Kengne Tagne, University of Dschang, Cameroon, candicedielle@yahoo.fr This communication aims at analysing feminine presence as actors (soldiers, hostage, and suicide bombers) of terrorism in Cameroon. The field of this study is the northern area of Cameroon where the total disorder of violence figures constructs women as passive and active actors of terrorism. They are used as weapons of massive destruction in Fotokol, Kolofata Maroua … women are not more only those who accompany, are victims of terrorism, but they massively act as bearers of explosive belts what leads to the ban of burqua as dressing style. Moreover, women in African and Cameroonian ways and customs are considered as those who give live and not those who destroyed it. This state of things justifies our reflexion on gender and terrorism. How to apprehend this feminisation of terrorist violence in Cameroon as a social fact? What is the level of men-women implication in this terrorist violence? Why the implication of women as life’s bearer has become death’s carrier? This contribution will show that the proliferation of feminine violence is consubstantial to globalisation and has a link with feminist movements. Women want to prove that they do not lack courage. This is why they are actors as soldiers in one camp and as terrorists


Presentations of panels and papers | 23

» Human trafficking has taken a new dimension in Nigeria with the emergence of a ‘baby factory’ « Peter Sesan Abraham, panel 1, paper 8

in the other. Then, by a “brain-washing” process, they want to die as martyrs. We will use qualitative and quantitative data taken from interviews, direct observations and reading to explain this phenomenon. Key words: Gender, terrorism, Cameroon, Women, violence. panel 1 – paper 6

Gender, conflict and sustainable development in Africa Author: Adebusuyi Isaac Adeniran, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria, adebusuyi@oauife.edu.ng While varying factors have been adduced as the precursors of varying conflicts plaguing Africa, a pivotal issue of concern amidst the imbroglio has been the unmitigated failing cleavage of most states on the continent. From North to South; East to West, the core problems with Africa have continued to revolve around control of political power; often used by the political elite; through undue appropriation of the national resources, for self-aggrandizement. Expectedly, women and children have remained at the receiving end of most of the conflicts while the men folk have continued to serve as active precipitators of related crisis. This panel presents a holistic review of different strands of conflict in Africa; from the seemingly rested political crises in Liberia, Sierra Leone, Egypt, Tunisia et cetera to the much more active political cum religious/ethnic struggles in Cote d’Ivoire, Nigeria, Sudan, Burundi, Somalia, Kenya, et cetera. Although conflict is discussed as a general notion, the emphasis in the panel will be on gender variability of related conflicts vis-à-vis the lived experiences of women, children (and men) involved in associated upheavals. For instance, the patterns of gender (or social) relation in various internally displaced persons (IDPs) camps across Africa and various surviving strategies being deplored by individuals will be explored in the panel. What measures of access do individuals have to educational, health and other social opportunities in such crisis infected environments? How are individu-

als integrated and prepared to commence new lives in various IDP camps and in other newly acquired spaces outside the official IDP camps and their usual abodes? These and related inquiries will drive various discussions in the panel. The outcomes of the panel discourse will be useful in situating the interpositions of gender, conflict and sustainable development in Africa within an appropriate epistemological context. panel 1 – paper 7

Crossing safe? The security and safety of women at the Aflao and Seme borders Authors: Tokunbo Seunfunmi Olutayo, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, kunbo@yahoo.ca/ma.olutayo.ui.edu. ng, and Abena Asefuaba Yalley, University of Ibadan Nigeria, abenayalley@yahoo.com.com Migration is recognized as a major defining global issue today with immense power for economic and social transformation for both migrants and receiving countries. The Economic Community of West Africa (ECOWAS) as a sub-regional union was formed to promote economic trade, national cooperation and monetary union for growth and development throughout West Africa. With growing immigration comes diversity that is both creating challenges that threaten human safety and security. Women account for more than 50% of travellers and 70% of traders at these borders. Thus, the full implications of safety and security at the borders on this vulnerable group cannot be over emphasized. The study therefore identified the migration challenges women face while crossing the Aflao and Seme borders in Ghana and Nigeria respectively; examined the security and safety of women at the two Borders; interrogated the role of security agencies in the protection of women; and explored its implications on national and regional security policies. Using both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, the study interviewed women travelers, traders crossing the border, traders at the borders, community residents, and community leaders, civil society groups working at the border and security agencies.


24 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

Results of the study revealed an enormous incidence of human rights abuse on women by security agents. Women faced gender based security challenges like sexual exploitation and abuse, theft, robbery, murder and physical assault. Also, there is an increased fear of crime and victimization, lack of trust in security officials and inefficiency of the security agencies to protect women. The ignorance of ECOWAS migration policies and failure of security agencies to effectively perform their duties has deteriorated the existing security challenges making it more complicated and problematic. Key Words: Women, Crime, Border, Security and Safety. panel 1 – paper 8

Impact of globalization on human trafficking in Africa: The emerging ’baby factory’ in Nigeria Author: Peter Sesan Abraham, National Open University of Nigeria, Plateau State, Nigeria, sesanpee@yahoo.com Interstates relations forbid nations to live in isolation if it must be known in the current era of globalisation. The involvement of women in organised crimes such as armed robbery, suicide bombing and particularly human trafficking has taking a new dimension in Nigeria with the emergence of ‘baby factory’ in the Southern part of Nigeria. Just like suicide bombers are prevalent in the northern part of Nigeria as a result of the activities of Boko Haram. In the past, women can enter places such as church, mosque, hotel, school premises unchecked but today the story is not the same. There is a link between the new crime and women. Historically, women were known to be agents of peace and contributors to economic development of communities and families. However, the situation is no longer the same again. This paper x-rays the cause of women involvement in human trafficking (baby factory) and other vices and its latent function of both the impact of globalisation and lack of good governance in Nigeria. This study adopts doctrinal approach where books, journals, reports and conventions were used. The paper also put forward the role of enabling laws in curbing human trafficking and its weakness in addressing the current menace of ‘baby factory’. The paper recommends that

the existing laws cannot effectively handle the emerging scenario therefore new law is needed to curb the crime. The paper also proffers recommendations for enhancing the existing instruments and frameworks in the security services that would foster interagency cooperation in combating ‘baby factory’ menace in Nigeria. It is sad to note women have been indicted of involving in these forms of criminality. panel 1 – paper 9

The gender dimensions of climate change-induced conflicts: the case of the Afar, Issa and Ittu (Agro) pastoralists of eastern Ethiopia Author: Bamlaku Tadesse, Haramaya University, Ethiopia, betayehu@gmail.com, bamlakutadesse@gmail.com Climate change and variability has impacted on a fundamental change on the socio-ecological structure of the (agro) pastoral communities of the region which in turn affects the change in land use patterns, livelihood systems and their coping mechanisms. The qualitative data required for the study were collected from community elders, community members, and administrative and political bodies at various levels through one-on-one interviews, focus group discussions and field observations. The quantitative data were also collected through household survey from the 128 households randomly drawn from the three districts of Meiso-Mullu, Meiso and Amibara. This research attempted to identify the impacts of climate change and its induced conflicts. The results revealed that the Climate change and variability have impacts on both women and men, but differently and has variation in their coping and adaptation strategies. The impacts are classified as monetary and none-monetary forms. The gendered aspects of coping and adaptation strategies have been weakened by the increasing nature of climate change-induced conflicts. The gradual decline in the (agro) pastoralist modes of livelihoods threatens the hopes of recovery as the crucial social capital is often irreversibly detached. It is this social capital that (agro) pastoralists can survive the various forms of vulnerabilities for long centuries. Key words: Climate change, conflict, resource competition, gender, and eastern Ethiopia. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 25

panel 2

Gender and health in African contexts

G

ender is the socially constructed meaning of the differences between females and males that allocates unequally, social power and privileges to women and men and shapes their identities and perceptions, interactional practices and the forms of institutions created. In this sense gender is a key determinant of health of women and men. Differences established between tend to attribute greater importance and value to ”masculine” characteristics but of course there are contextual variations in gender relations depending on legislation culture, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Gender norms and values may provoke practices and behaviours that may endanger or protect health. Gender violence is a major cause of women’s disability and death, but it takes culturally patterned forms such as honour killing in some areas, creation of abnormalities that then require to be corrected through surgical interventions. Among these are cosmetic surgeries and female genital mutilation (FGM). In situations of war and conflict, sexual coercion and rape is a phenomenon that takes a large toll on women’s health. In the related phenomena of forced migration and human trafficking, gender violence is an important element, whereby victims are not only exposed to sexual and psychological violence; but also often sustain injuries and are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV and AIDS, if they survive the perilous journeys across the seas and deserts.

Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 and 16:00-18:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 229 Organisers: Beth Maina Ahlberg and Anne Kubai, Uppsala University, Sweden, e-mail beth.maina.ahlberg@kbh.uu.se and anne.kubai@teol.uu.se


26 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 2 – paper 1

Professional priorities and public health for women arriving to Scandinavia from Somalia Author: Hannah Bradby, Uppsala University, Sweden, hannah.bradby@soc.uu.se There is lack of research regarding the health priorities of new arrivals to Europe in terms of their health status and their own priorities for health care (Bradby et al., 2015). Within maternity care research there is not only a preponderance of professional perspectives, but also a disproportionate focus on genital cutting, particularly with reference to Somali women in Sweden. This presentation considers the research on African migrant women’s health needs in Scandinavia to examine why particular health needs have been prioritised on the public health agenda to the exclusion of others. How processes of stigma and racialization have contributed to the absence of voice research will be addressed. panel 2 – paper 2

“Ritually bound and sold”: Understanding the role of religious beliefs and practices in human trafficking and bondage of African women to Europe Authors: Beth Maina Ahlberg, Uppsala University, Sweden, beth.maina.ahlberg@kbh.uu.se, and Anne Kubai, Uppsala University, Sweden, anne.kubai@teol. uu.se. Human trafficking is a growing global problem which links the origin and receiving countries. According to the UN Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Global report on Trafficking in persons Nigerian Victims were found in 16 countries in Western and central Europe, making up 11% of all victims detected. Citizens of Cameroon, Ghana, Guinea and Sierra Leone, have also been identified as victims of trafficking in many European countries. In many cases, young girls and women are recruited from villages and bound through African traditional religious rituals to human traffickers and madams who received them in the countries of destination and put them to work as prostitutes in the European sex industry. In some cases, African women victims of trafficking who are bound to prostitution are warned against trying to escape by threats of violence, curses or even death as well as threats to their families at home. They are usually kept in isolation, without travel documents or money and deceived into

believing that they owe an inflated debt for travel and living expenses. At the same time, they are expected to send money to their families back home in Africa. During the last five years, large numbers of women and girls from Africa South of the Sahara, are sent to Europe by their families with the hope that they would work and send money back home. These are among the thousands of trafficked persons who have perished in the high seas crossing from North Africa to Italy and Greece. Those who survive gradually move to different countries in Europe, and some of them end up in Sweden. Therefore, in addition to the discussion of the recruitment of women for trafficking purposes, in this presentation we shall examine the role that religion, particularly African traditional religion (as well as some Pentecostal churches) plays in the trafficking of African women and girls. This contribution is based on an on-going research project called ‘Captured in flight: experiences of violence among African women immigrants in Sweden’ funded by Brottsoffermyndigheten. Key words: Human trafficking, religious rituals, migration, prostitution, violence. panel 2 – paper 3

Communicating health in limited-media settings: Perceptions and experiences of Ugandan women Authors: Florence Namasinga, University of Oslo, Norway, florencn@gmail.com, and Aisha Sembatya Nakiwala, Makerere university, Uganda, isha@chuss.mak.ac.ug Over the years, African countries have focused public health efforts on making essential health information available to men and women to promote the health of the population. Health information has traditionally been communicated through the mass media, yet this still remains difficult in some areas owing to the inaccessibility to mass media. In 2002, Uganda began to depend on a community health worker programme called the village heath team (VHT) to increase access to healthcare and to essential health information in particular. Women participate highly in this programme. While the general performance of Uganda's VHT system is well documented in various studies, issues of communication of health information remain largely unaddressed. The aim of this paper is to examine the perceptions of women involved in the VHT system and accounts of their experiences of communicating about health in a limited-media setting in Uganda. As part of a broader study, a case study was conducted in Masaka district basing on participant obser-


Presentations of panels and papers | 27

vation, focus group discussions and respondent interviews with six women groups and nine district health administrators. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling in places that had village health teams. The findings revealed that health information was communicated through a network of community and local structures including schools, village meetings and community spectacles. This was reported to ease networking and sharing of informational and practical support that helped to enhance ability to negotiate barriers to health. Communication was also seen to speed up women's access and use of health services and to reduce the burden on the already overwhelmed healthcare system. However, women questioned the near exclusion of men from the Village Health Teams, insisting that it reinforced a system that puts the burden of health on women. panel 2 – paper 4

“I just sit all day, what can I do? I have nothing” A discourse analysis of women’s narratives concerning their experiences with obstetric fistula in Kassala state in Eastern Sudan Authors: Sarah Hamed, sarah.hamed@soc.uu.se, Beth Maina Ahlberg, beth.maina.ahlberg@kbh.uu.se, and Jill Trenhom, jill.trenholm@kbh.uu.se – all three from Uppsala University, Sweden Obstetric fistula is a communication between the vagina and the bladder and or the rectum causing urinary and or faecal incontinence. It is often associated with child marriage, socioeconomic and gender inequalities, which influence women’s decision-making power. The affected women are often stigmatized and isolated. However, previous studies have not focused on power relations that may put women at risk for obstetric fistula as well as how they affect their experiences. Additionally, obstetric fistula has not been studied sufficiently in Eastern Sudan: an area with a very high maternal mortality rate. The aim of the study was to explore the perceptions and experiences of women living with obstetric fistula in Eastern Sudan, in order to identify discourses that may contribute to the incidence of obstetric fistula and shape women’s experiences. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with nine women was conducted. Discourse analysis with a Foucauldian approach was used. Three discourses namely powerlessness, normalisation and resistance were identified.

Powerlessness indicated the existence of power relations between the women, their families, husbands and society regarding circumcision and marriage which influenced their status and experiences with obstetric fistula. Normalisation included an acceptance and internalisation of social norms as absolute truth. Subtle resistance discourse was observed as women tried to take a stand against social norms as well as harassment from the community connected to their fistula. Powerlessness, normalisation and reproduction of social and gender practices contribute to the development of obstetric fistula and the experiences of affected women. Historical, legal, political, economic and global discourses should be analysed to fully grasp the contextual effect when planning interventions to improve maternal health. panel 2 – paper 5

Exploring opportunities for enhancing adolescent girls transition pathways in Kenya Authors: Anne Wairimu Kamau, University of Nairobi, Kenya, anne.kamau@uonbi.ac.ke, and Beth Maina-Ahlberg, Uppsala University and Skaraborg Institute of Research and Development, Sweden, beth.ahlberg@vgregion.se Transition through life stages present individuals with mixed feelings of exciting and anxiety. This is the case for adolescents. Whereas the adolescent period is presented as being characterised by storm and stress, several scholars agree that adolescent transition does not have to be problematic. Although many adolescents’ transit into adulthood with no health challenges, this period presents challenges especially for girls. The challenges of transitions through adolescence often affect girls more than boys. Early sexual debut, teenage pregnancy and the related risks of contracting sexually related diseases remain a concern for boys and girls. Further, the resultant health and social challenges affect girls more than boys. Whereas the adolescents experience these challenges at the individual level, the issue about the kind of sexuality information and services that should be provided for them is still contested for ethical and moral reasons. Thus, whereas girls are expected to remain chaste and avoid sexual engagement before marriage, few mechanisms are in place to help them attain this goal. This paper revisits the issue of adolescent girls’ transition in Kenya. The paper examines the traditional and socio-cultural settings that created pathways for transition of girls through childhood into adulthood. It examines the present approaches that are used to


28 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

assist girls transit through adolescence. It furthers interrogates whether there are opportunities that could be explored and tapped to enhance pathways for adolescent girls transition in Kenya. These include peer social networks, institutionalised programmes and societal and community systems, including parental support. The paper is based on desk review and primary data obtained through research projects undertaken in Kenya among adolescents’ boys and girls. Key words: adolescence, adolescent sexuality, transition pathways, sexual health, Kenya. panel 2 – paper 6

Gender, intergenerational dynamics of ethnobotanical health knowledge and socio-spatial transformation Author: Anne Ouma, Umeå University, Sweden, Anneouma77@gmail.com The professional knowledge of the Traditional Birth Attendant (TBA), which is embedded in strong socio-cultural dimensions associated with fertility and childcare, is mainly transmitted from mother to daughter, but also from mother to son. A TBA combines within his/her profession other treatments for common ailments in the community. While gender is a factor in ethnobotanical health knowledge transmission, specific innate characteristics of an apprentice predominates the enabling factor for the ‘selected’ individual to acquire ethnobotanical health knowledge and later work within the community. Gendered and generational dimensions suggest that older and some younger female knowledge holders of ethnobotanical health knowledge and products re-emphasize the values of this gift and knowledge, where it increasingly meets neoliberal processes and engages with an alternative paradigm than the gift economy. A predominance of male knowledge holders in the urban spaces and places, increasingly define the diversification of the profession as a livelihood strategy. The profession emerges into a contested Intellectual Property rights/ Access and Benefit sharing arena, where socio spatial transformations in the region continue to modify the role of male and female TBAs from that of imparting service through a gift to an owned commodity. Based on empirical studies in the eastern Lake Victoria region, the paper discusses gender as an important dimension in intra and inter-generational ethnobotanical health knowledge transmission which is passed on between older and younger generations in different places, and in turn is influenced by dynamic and chan-

ging gender norms and gendered patterns of migration. Aspects of commercialization, commodification of this knowledge, changing health patterns, due to factors among others such as HIV/Aids are discussed. panel 2 – paper 7

Sites of resilience; Women survivors of wartime sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo Authors: Jill Trenholm, Uppsala University, Sweden, jill.trenholm@kbh.uu.se Pia Olsson, Martha Blomqvist, Ali Bitenga, Beth Maina Ahlberg This study is part of an ethnographic focus on the phenomena of war rape in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Its purpose was to explore and illuminate how women survivors of sexual violence navigate and negotiate surviving in the stigmatized margins of an already impoverished existence. The paper departs from a previous study where women expressed multiple losses and profound dispossession of identity and subsequent marginalization often with a child born of rape in tow. The findings are based on eleven qualitative indepth interviews with rural women of reproductive age recruited from a variety of organizations supporting women after sexual violation. Thematic analysis and Payne’s theoretical framework concerning sites of resilience guided the analysis. Findings indicated how the women exhibited agency, made proactive decisions and demonstrated resilience in severely compromised environments embedded in a larger oppressive complexity. Faith in God, limited health interventions that challenge cultural understandings around sexuality, indigenous healing, and strategic alliances i.e. aid organizations or survival sex, supported the women in managing their daily existence in the margins. These survival strategies are identified as sites of resilience and provide vital contextual knowledge for planning effective interventions. Findings suggest that strengthening collaboration between existing networks such as the church, health care/services and indigenous knowledge/healing practices would extend the reach of health services, offering more sustainable holistic care, serving not only the needs of the violated individual but the entire traumatized community, whose function as a supportive collective is essential. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 29

panel 3

Thinking beyond colonial concepts of gender/sexuality

C

olonial notions of gender and sexuality are rooted in the Bible, with its expulsion of female desire (Eve from the Garden of Eden) and separation of sexuality from motherhood (Virgin Mary). A male/female hierarchical dichotomy of dominance/subordination is taken for granted, along with heterosexuality, marriage as a central institution, and patriliny as the kinship system par excellence. Feminist anthropology from the 1970s onwards has contested some of these notions. However, feminist views have also been taken as a point of departure for Gender-and-Development lines of thinking, where issues of formal political gender equality and women’s rights have taken centre stage, while sexuality is seen in terms of male domination/female vulnerability, with sex as a zone of risk and danger for women. Post- and decolonial scholars insist on a more radical critique, seeing ‘gender’ as well as ‘race’ as European constructions, introduced to the rest of the world in the process of colonization. Colonial relations of domination are justified by the invention of ‘race’ as a biological distinction, and gender power relations are introduced, while claimed to be natural and already there, rooted in biology and bodies. According to Oyèrónké Oyewùmí, “for females, colonization was a twofold process of racial inferiorization and gender subordination. The creation of ‘women’ as a category was one of the very first accomplishments of the colonial state.” In order better to understand dynamics of contemporary African lives, thinking beyond colonial concepts is needed. The panel invites studies which – rooted in empirical investigations – challenge conventional concepts of gender and sexuality.

Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 and 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 129 Organiser: Signe Arnfred, Roskilde University, Denmark, e-mail signe@ruc.dk


30 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

YES, WE DO POLICY ADVICE

NAI Policy Notes is a series of short briefs on policy issues relevant to Africa today, intended for strategists , analysts and decision makers in foreign policy, aid and development. They aim to inform public debate and to generate input into the sphere of policymaking. They are available for Open Access at our website www.nai.uu.se, to download or read online as e-books.

panel 3 – paper 1

‘Are you married to a Maasai?’ - Cultural encounters between Tanzanian teachers and self perceived gender equal Danes in Global Citizenship training Author: Lene Bull Christiansen, Roskilde University, Denmark, bull@ruc.dk Postcolonial feminist critiques of the representational practices around subaltern voices (e.g. Minh-ha, 1989; Mohanty, 1991; Spivak, 1988) have predominantly taken point of departure in Western representations of ‘the subaltern other’. Equally critiques of development practices, have depicted the power relations between North and South, with reference to the unequal distribution of representational power between North and South (e.g. Eriksson Baaz, 2005; Kapoor, 2004, 2008). This paper explores a more complicated representational dynamic – that is, the interplay between local Tanzanian teachers and Danes, who participate in Global Citizenship training during a 3 week ‘voluntourist’ (see Mostafanezhad, 2013) trip to Arusha Tanzania, with the Danish NGO Action Aid (Mellemfolkeligt Samvirke). The paper examines the gendered representations that emerge from these teaching sessions, and the positionalities that open op between the self perceptions of the Danish participants as ‘gender equal’ and the activist and academic accounts of Maasai culture produced by the teachers. panel 3 – paper 2

Young women in the “decolonizing project” in South Africa: from subaltern to intersectional feminism Author: Amanda Gouws, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa, Ag1@sun.ac.za The “born free” free generation of children, (born after 1994 when South Africa became a democracy) many of

whom are now students caught South Africa off guard when they started, with what is now called, the hashtag campaigns (#RhodesmustFall, #OpenStellenbosch, #FeesmustFall). At the forefront of the campaigns were many black women students who articulated their claims in a black consciousness/Fanonian discourse. They organized protest marches and sit ins and started to identify themselves as intersectional feminists. They are vocal and outspoken. This paper investigates these young women’s understanding of their identities as articulated in post-colonial conditions,whcih they argue are not post-colonial. For them the decolonization project in South Africa has failed and need to be resurrected. These women also champion the demands of ltbgi communities, putting sexual identities and female sexuality central. panel 3 – paper 3

Beyond patriarchy: Women's power and marginality among South African Nguni-speakers, 8th-19th century CE Author: Raevin Jimenez, Northwestern University, USA, rfjimenez@u.northwestern.edu Configurations of “patriarchy” have dominated reporting and analysis of southern African gender relations and marriage practices since the early 20th century. Scholarship on bridewealth, in particular, emphasizes the ways in which traditional marriage practices reproduce women within subordinate and marginal social roles. Using comparative historical linguistics, my research on the history of social reproduction among South African Nguni-speakers counters historical narratives of “patriarchy” to reveal complex gender relations that hinged more on generational age than physical sex. In my larger research, I argue that before ca. 10th century CE, Nguni-speakers did not organize socially or politically around gender in particularly salient ways. Gendered dimensions of unequal power relations originated in the household, but disadvantaged young men


Presentations of panels and papers | 31

» Nguni-speakers did not organize socially or politically around gender in particularly salient ways « Raevin Jimenez, panel 3, paper 3 as much as young women, as Nguni-speaking elders sought to establish new ways of reproducing young people into marriageable adults. This approach seeks to disaggregate static and naturalized categories like ‘husband’ and ‘wife’ (among other kin-based social roles) in order to determine the histories according to which Nguni-speakers constructed these roles. My work approaches Nguni gender history in two ways: by seeking to deconstruct colonial constructs of gender, and especially femininity, and by reconstructing word histories for gender dimensions of social life. In doing so, I seek to make transparent the ways in which the positionalities of western observers influenced interpretations of complex gender relations. At the same time, I draw on African feminist scholarship, and gender theory from comparative colonial literature (including Latin America, India, and Native America) in order to compose an intellectual framework that reveals my own interpretive approach. Finally, the evidence generated through comparative historical linguistics offers a unique lens into the distant past, posing stark contrasts to colonial conceptualizations of gender. The proposed paper will address the deconstruction of colonial gender concepts in southern Africa, new frameworks, and provide key examples from linguistic evidence of the ways in which this approach to gender history yields a valuable new narrative. panel 3 – paper 4

Speaking back to the black-and-white notions of race and gender Author: Mai Palmberg, Pargas, Finland, mai.palmberg@gmail.com

these ideologies is still on the agenda, and both researchers and journalists and other writers on social and economic relations still have a role as watchdogs against racism and gendered exploitation. Paradoxically, perhaps, I propose a simultaneous movement in another direction. I argue that the binary "us" and "them", in which race and gender have been tuned, needs to give way by a more complicated map of the groups and categories whose relations we want to analyse. Class needs to be revived, and new concepts introduced. While gender subordination of women continues and finds new forms in pseudo-religious violence, for example in Nigeria, there is a need and an opportunity to revisit gender's conventional categories of men and women, fixed for all time. In Africa since the 1990s there are several debates, which acknowledge the existence, historically and today, of different forms of sexual orientation. The debate also deconstructs the nationalist male role model. In some countries, like Uganda, the debate takes the form of a political struggle on unequal terms. In others, films are made which put the issues on the table. What is the role of scholars and intellectuals in the North? Self-critical retrospection has achieved an analysis of the link between imperialism/colonialism and representation forms of stereotypes, prejudices, denigration, and racism. To develop knowledge and change requires crosscontinental dialogue. Artists have a special role in this dialogue to give powerful, sometimes complex, comments of "speaking back", not only to colonialism and post-colonialism, but also to nationalist myths. In my presentation I will show some examples. 

Historically race and gender have been important parts of the colonial legitimising of power. Deconstructing

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32 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 4

Leadership and innovation 2030:

Gender empowerment for sustainable futures in Africa

T

his panel links women leadership and empowerment to innovation and sustainable development in Africa with six topics:

1. “Marginalisation of women and leadership failures in Africa: past and present”, discusses traditional gender roles and how male dominance has contributed to social and economic failings, particularly institutionalised corruption. We present evidence showing how changing roles and empowerment of women have influenced African politico-social scenes, leading to openness, accountability, transparency and good governance, and set the stage for panel papers on politics, education, entrepreneurship, and health. 2. “Changing dynamics of women in political leadership in Africa”, explores women empowerment and participation in politics at local, national and continental levels, and discusses their influence and impact on governance at state, AU, and sub-regional economic blocs such as ECOWAS, EAC, SADC, etc. 3. “Women leaders in entrepreneurship: financial independence and business sustainability”, analyses women’s roles in enterprise development, particularly SMEs, as drivers of economic growth in Africa, and discusses their future role in job creation and poverty alleviation. 4. “Women leadership in educational development in Africa”, critically looks at the changing trend of women as leaders of African Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs), including vice chancellors, deans, and registrars and discusses and discusses their future role in internationalisation of education, and private-public partnerships. 5. “Women leadership in health systems management in Africa”, presents findings on healthcare improvement in Africa as a result of changing gender roles, and how this could lead to significant improvement of SDGs Health Targets by 2030. 6. “Women leadership in human rights and social justice”, presents findings on women’s roles in Africa’s judicial and justice system, highlighting their roles as Justice Ministers and other positions in the criminal justice system, including International Court of Justice. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 and 16:00-18:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 130 Organisers: J.M.Atibila and I. Tshabangu, Leeds Trinity University, United Kingdom, j.m.atibila@codesa.co.uk


Presentations of panels and papers | 33

panel 4 – paper 1

Women leadership and empowerment for strengthening African healthcare systems towards sustainable growth and development Author: Joyce Addo-Atuah, Touro College of Pharmacy, New York, USA, Joyce.addo-atuah@touro.edu The relationship between population health and socioeconomic growth and development has been established by the World Health Organization’s Commission on Macroeconomics and Health and reflected in the United Nations’ global developmental frameworks in the context of global health-the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In the context of disproportionate burden of global communicable diseases, a rapidly increasing burden of noncommunicable diseases, sociopolitical instability, chronically-under-resourced healthcare systems and infrastructure, amidst gender disparities in access to education, economic capital, and the requisite knowledge, skills and tools to enable women make free and informed healthcare decisions for themselves and their families, empowering women is the answer for strengthening African healthcare systems. Healthcare system strengthening through promoting women leadership and empowerment is particularly needed in Africa as these would curb the unacceptably high fertility rates, the health consequences of poor sanitation and lack of access to clean water and adequate nutrition, which all contribute to further burden the already poor and weak healthcare system and put children and women at ever-increasing higher risk for poor health outcomes. In spite of all these challenges, lack of leadership capacity has been cited as being the most critical with respect to healthcare system strengthening in Africa. Rwanda is therefore a positive case study of how women leadership and empowerment can transform a healthcare system devastated by genocide into one that has registered more than a doubled life expectancy, a 66% decline in child mortality, a greater than 90% health insurance coverage and a data-proven associated fourfold increase in per capita GDP, all within the past two decades. According to the Rwandan Minister of Health Dr. Agnes Binagwaho, “Better health turns to better wealth,” since “a better health system means a healthy workforce and a healthy workforce means economic growth.”

panel 4 – paper 2

Women leadership in educational development in Africa Authors: C. S. Kpeglo and Lily Adu-Aboagye, both from University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana, registrar@uhas.edu.gh This paper presents women in educational development in Africa. The paper attempts to critically look at the changing trend of women as leaders of African Higher Educational Institutions (HEIS), including Vice Chancellors, Pro-Vice Chancellors, Registrars, Finance Directors and Librarians and discusses their future role in internationalisation of education. Leadership has been generally associated with male styles of behaviour, and perceptions that women cannot lead effectively at higher levels of organisations. The mental image of a leader held by most people is a male. A large part of the problem is the entrenched notion that men are more ‘natural’ leaders than women. This has created barriers to women occupying many leadership positions, including higher education institutions. However, there is a growing body of evidence to show how women in leadership positions have been contributing to changing countless inhibiting laws and policies that have undermined the existence and survival of women in now developed countries all over the world (Sena, 2016). Women tend to be more caring, and are better suited to and naturally drawn towards teaching duties and have transformed their societies especially in academia by their sheer resilience, commitment and dedication. It is not surprising therefore, that women have climbed the educational management structures to occupy key leadership positions in academic institutions in Africa. Drawing numerous examples from across Africa, the paper shows the incredible roles that women play in the educational development and growth in Africa. We call on African HEIs governors to develop policies that give women equality of opportunities in leading all sections of academic and research institutions to ensure transparency and effective leadership. Key words: Barriers, Equality, Leadership, Resilience, Transparency.


34 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 4 – paper 3

The role of women in post genocide conflict transformation in Rwanda: a case of women’s associations in Karongi District Authors: Albert Irambeshya, alirambe40@gmail.com, and Jean Baptiste Ndikubwimana, both from University of Rwanda In Rwanda, the 1994 Tutsi genocide is considered as a particular conflict that has killed more than one million people and innumerable material loss. The 1994 genocide has left the Rwandan society deeply divided where the survivors and the members of genocide perpetrators families were in a situation of hatred and suspicion. This situation was a major concern for the Government of Rwanda where it has initiated the program of unity and reconciliation. In order to be fully implemented, the unity and reconciliation among Rwandan, has required the involvement of different stakeholders including community based organizations, especially women associations. To restore peace and stability, the involvement of all Rwandans both men and women was a paramount importance. It is in this regard, women in Karongi District both genocide survivors and those from families of genocide perpetrators have shown their ability to play a big role in conflict transformation, by engaging themselves in constructive change initiatives that have allowed them to live aside their division and opt for a positive peace. This paper aims at analyzing the role played by women’s associations of Korongi District in post genocide conflicts transformation focusing mainly on factors that have made women in Karongi district to come to put an end to the climate of hatred and suspicion that prevailed among them and opted for the social cohesion and peaceful cohabitation which culminates into mutual assistance and cooperation. Key words: Conflict transformation and genocide. panel 4 – paper 4

control. After an endured occupation and withdrawal from colonizer Spain, open war and silence struggle, this forgotten land is under the rule of Morocco, for the last forty years. Its people, the Saharawi, were left to oblivion in the midst of a desert, where life can barely strive and their right to self-determination was written in the sand. In the midst of such human calamity, that the World decided to turn a blind eye, there is a strong seed of hope: women. With war came displacement, hardship and the utmost extreme conditions of livelihood. Most of the Saharawi population fled to encampments in Tindouf, Algerian soil, initially as temporary address, that soon turned out to be a 40-year-old test of resilience in one of the most treacherous environments of the planet: the Sahara Desert. While men left to fight in the trenches, women were left to run the camps and organise life. War brought them the opportunity to get involved in the independence struggle. And, besides the common prejudices, this Muslim-majority territory acknowledged women a prominent role in leading democratic processes, making economic decisions and managing all encampments needs. Women divorce without stigma attached, owning property and being the head of the family. Politically, they have been the voice, in all matters, regarding the claim for respect of human rights in the region. They are the core engine of encampments economy, excelling in administrating the humanitarian aid and creating entrepreneurship opportunities and synergies. They created the bricks used to build better shelters and kids learn in schools were women teach. When everything else has failed, they have led the fight through poetry and arts, educating the future generations on a sense of honour and resilience that not many other conflicts have seen. With this panel presentation we hope to enlighten the audience in the cornerstone role of women in state building and conflict management by presenting the example of Saharawi women in the Western Sahara question. panel 4 – paper 5

Flowers of the desert: State building in the feminine

Marginalisation of women and leadership failures in Africa: past and present

Author: Joana Mouta, Uppsala University, Sweden, joanamouta@sapo.pt

Authors: Icarbord Tshabangu, Leeds Trinity University, United Kingdom, i.tshabangu@leedstrinity.ac.uk, and John Atibila, Global Citizenship & Diaspora Network, CODESA, United Kingdom, j.m.atibila@codesa.co.uk

Western Sahara is known as the last non-self-governing, postcolonial territory in Africa. This territory has been under foreign dominion for centuries but it is a neighbour occupier that still lingers over the territory’s

Leadership has generally been associated with men and male traits of behaviour and as a consequence


Presentations of panels and papers | 35

the perception of a leader tend to be dominated by male stereotypes (Klenke, 1996). Broadbringe (2007) advanced a view that there is a gender difference in leadership and that women bring different qualities to leadership and management positions, which help organizations maintain a competitive advantage. Rosener’s (1990) study of female and male executives with similar backgrounds concluded that women tended to manage in different but effective ways than men. In the last 3 decades most of Africa has witnessed a steady rise in gender equity particularly in education, which has given rise to improved numbers of women accessing both lower and higher levels of education. Nevertheless, such progress has not fully translated into senior management and leadership positions where male dominance and discriminatory paternalistic ideologies still abound. This study posits that the generic marginalisation of women in Africa and the elitist exclusion of women in senior leadership cannot be seen in isolation but is closely tied to the socioeconomic leadership failures that have continued to plague the continent both in the past and in the present. Through an analytic review strategy, the study therefore examined the historical body of knowledge on women leadership, and the existing perceptions and traditions on gender roles and how male dominance may be a strong factor contributing to social and economic failings, particularly institutionalised corruption in neo colonial Africa. We present evidence showing how the empowerment of women could positively influence the African politico-social scenes, leading to more accountability, transparency and good governance. panel 4 – paper 6

Business succession strategies and sustainability of women owned family business in Kenya: Case of Meru County

ting how the societies are run. Among the transformations are those related to gender roles in participating in economic activities. Most cultures in the African setting had traditionally assigned economic activities to men while women were assigned family and domestic roles. However, under the new transformed society, women are becoming more economically empowered as they acquire education, work and even start and run their own enterprises. In the Kenyan setting, a number of government initiatives have been rolled out to support women based enterprises anchored on the premise of positioning these enterprises as key contributors to economic development. Most of the enterprises however start at the family level and are bound to face the challenges of family owned enterprises that may affect their long term viability and sustainability. An important concern for managers, policy makers and researchers in Enterpreneurship touches on the management of succession and how this may influence the viability of the enterprises after one generation has handed over to the next generation. While it may be easy to explain the situation for male dominated enterprises, given the cultural backgrounds facing most settings for the role of women in society, such may not be the case for women owned enterprises. The literature therefore needs to examine how women owned family enterprises manage succession and how this is likely to affect the sustainability of the enterprises. This paper examines women owned family business succession strategies in Meru County in Kenya. Specifically the paper assesses how four strategies influence enterprise sustainability: identification of the successor, building succession capacity, enacting family ties and managing the enterprise handover. The practical implications for policy are discussed and direction for future research in entrepreneurship suggested. Key Words: Women Owned Enterprises, Family Owned Businesses, Business Succession, Enterprise, Sustainability. ď Ž

Authors: James M.Kilika, Sarah Ameso and Philip Wambua Peter, all three from Kenyatta University, Kenya, kilikam3@yahoo.com, amesosarah@gmail.com, pfilipu2002@gmail.com Most economies of the countries of the world are undergoing socio-cultural transformations that are affec-

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36 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 5

Negotiation, contestation, collaboration:

Sudanese women under the State’s Civilizational Project

T

his panel has a thematic focus on gender relations in contemporary Sudan. It deals with the (a) positioning of Sudanese women vis a vis formal and informal justice and governance institutions (b) avenues for potential change and (c) the ways in which women negotiate, navigate and contest the prevailing gender order in the context of Sudan’s Civilizational Project. One of the papers looks at the women of rural setting of Doka where the lives of women are governed in large measure by customary laws and traditional authorities. The Civilizational Project, which has encouraged women’s participation in Islamic education and activites, has provided a space for better understanding of religious rules that govern women’s lives on matters of family law. Coupled with better opportunities in education, paid labour and involvement with CSOs, this has led to a shift in the gender relations and provided women with more resources to reject verdicts that are not in their best interest. This shift has yet to change the structure of the court however, which remains male-only, and which women perceive as geared at family integration, not justice. The second paper examines formal law reform processes and institutions in Sudan, and the extent to which they are effective in addressing the issue of violence against women. He identifies gaps in the current legal framework and proposes necessary reforms to bring laws and mechanisms in closer alignment with international human rights norms. The third paper focuses on the women affiliated with the Sudanese Islamist Movement and its political arm, the National Congress Party. These women populate state institutions and affiliated civil society bodies in large numbers, and do much of the day to day work of the Project. The paper discusses what the lives and work of the project’s “own women” tell us about its discourses, institutions and practices of the Project, and by extension those of the state. It draws on fieldwork conducted in 2015-2016 in Khartoum State and the predominantly agricultural state of Gezira, central Sudan. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 10 Organiser: J.Lamya Badri, Ahfad University for Women, Sudan and United Nation Population Fund, Sudan Country Office, Sudan, badrilamya@gmail.com


Presentations of panels and papers | 37

panel 5 – paper 1

Delivering salvation: The women of the Islamist movement and discourses and practices of Sudan’s civilizational project Author: Sara Abbas, Freie Universität Berlin, Germany, sara2abbas@gmail.com The Sudanese Islamist Movement (SIM), which traces its lineage to the Muslim Brotherhood, came to power in coup d’état in 1989. More than a quarter of a century later, the Islamists remain in power, despite having gone through significant transformation in the interim. The “Inqaz” (Salvation) period as it is known, has seen the pursuit by the state of a highly contested “Civilizational Project”: a set of discourses and practices aimed at producing a “moral,” “modern,” Muslim subject, with particular emphasis on women’s subjectivities. My paper focuses on the women affiliated with SIM and its political arm, the ruling National Congress Party (NCP). Allegiance to the NCP is a condition of membership in the SIM, an issue that at times gives rise to tensions not only between members but in the women’s own lives (and selves) as well. SIM’s women populate state institutions, party apparatus and affiliated civil society bodies, and do a significant share of the day to day work of the Project. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in 2016 primarily in the Wad Medani El-Kobra (Greater Wad Medani) locality of Gezira State in central Sudan, I examine the lives and work of SIM’s “own women,” and what they tell us about the discourses, institutions and practices of the Civilizational Project, and by extension those of the state. The highly gendered nature of the Project has not only contributed significantly to its longevity and success in weaving together state, party and movement, but has also produced significant changes in gender dynamics between men and women, though not always in line with stated goals. panel 5 – paper 2

With violence against women. The Sudan Personal Status Law for Muslims 1991 and its relationship with violence against women Author: Fatima Abdelkarim, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK, Teeena3@hotmail.com The right to equality and non-discrimination in the context of marriage and its dissolution under the Sudanese Personal Status Law For Muslims 1991 (SPSLFM), and its relationship with violence against

women in Sudan, is the fundamental issue that this paper aims to investigate. In particular, I raise the question whether the provisions relating to marriage and its dissolution set out in Islamic personal status law discriminate against women. Through a sociolegal approach, I explore the construction of gendered power relations through the Sudanese law, and the implications of it in relation to violence against women in Sudan. This paper will therefore seek to tackle the following two, interrelated research questions: To what extent does the right to marriage and its dissolution, and divorce on grounds of ill-treatment in the SPSLFM: • Contribute to the unequal configurations of power within the family? • Protect women from male violence? The paper argues that the unequal power relations between men and women and the vulnerability of women to male violence in the private and public spheres in Sudan cannot be separated from their rights to the conclusion of marriage, during marriage and the dissolution of marriage in the SPSLFM. More specifically, it will be shown that it is the dialectical relationship between these rights that renders the SPSLFM and the Sudanese legal system complicit in violence against women in the private sphere while at the same time playing a role in normalizing certain forms of violence against women in certain communities. panel 5 – paper 3

Reconciliation without justice: Traditional legal courts in Doka, East Sudan Author: Lamya Badri, United Nation Population Fund, Sudan Country Office, Sudan and Ahfad University for Women, Sudan, badrilamya@gmail.com The article investigates the impact of Islamization on customary law through the Traditional Reconciliation Court in Doka Village in East Gallabat state in East Sudan. Customary law has historically had great impact on Sudanese women’s situation with regard to marriage, divorce, custody and maintenance. The Traditional Reconciliation Courts has relied on plural legal sources, including customary law, common law and Islamic law. My findings suggest that during Islamist rule, these courts were connected to the state system in order to control it. The tribal authorities have been marginalized. The formalization of the courts has affected its role in defusing conflict and protect women. Instead of being a dynamic court reflexive to changing local dynamics and needs, the courts have become static; its main aim has been to hinder family


38 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

disintegration something which is a reflection of the state’s Islamic project emphasizing Muslim families as the foundation of the nation. At the same time, gender relations have changed in the area, partly because of new possibilities within education and partly because of International inventions. Based on two ethnographic fieldworks in Doka in 2012 and 2013, the article argues that there is a discrepancy between the courts’ decisions and women’s expectations and understanding of the courts’ role. Women have started to reject the courts’ verdicts. Despite the courts’ insistence on family integration even in cases of domestic violence and hardships within marriage, women decide to separate from their spouse despite the courts’ refusal to grant them a divorce. panel 5 – paper 4

Reforms on Sudanese criminal laws of the prosecution of violence against women (VAW) during armed conflicts Author: Sami Abdel-Halim Saeed, advosami@hotmail.com This paper argues that despite the fact that the national criminal act of Sudan is prosecuting rape, sexual enslavement and other forms of Violence against Women (VAW), the national legal system of prosecuting VAW in the armed conflict context in Sudan is not fitting the contemporary international legal jurisprudence. The definition of VAW has been developed somewhat in recent years. International legal instruments and best practices have developed so many conceptual principles on protecting women during the war times. The Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War, as its title implies, the convention governs the treatment of civilians during times of war. In relevant part, it asserts that “women shall be especially protected against any attack on their honour, in particular against rape, enforced prostitution, or any form of indecent assault.” Thus, for the first time in international law rape was considered to be an international crime, though its parameters at this time were ill-defined. Other parts of International Humanitarian Law (IHL), and International Human Rights Law (IHRL), especially international criminal system of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the In-

ternational Criminal Court (ICC) has broadened international protections of civilians of either gender, especially civilians of different ethnicities, from even unsystematic acts of depravity. In the year of 2003, a new armed insurgent group, calling itself the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and composed mainly of members of Darfur ethnic groups emerged and attacked government targets. Furthermore, and after the secession of South Sudan in 2011, a new Sudan People Liberation Army/ North insurgent group started military operation against the central government in South Kordofan and South Blue Nile. Abuses against women are an integral part of these armed conflicts and are too often neglected by all groups including the government. Rape and other forms of sexual violence are grave human rights violations; in the armed conflict in Sudan they are used primarily against women and girls. All parties to the conflict in Darfur are bound by the provisions of international humanitarian law (IHL) laid out in Common Article 3 to the Geneva Conventions, which applies ‘in the case of armed conflict not of an international character’. The Sudanese criminal system, including law enforce agencies and the judiciary, has not only failed in its duty to protect civilians against those violations as stated in the international law, it has also failed to enforce the existing domestic laws and bring to justice all those suspected to be responsible. Sudan’s criminal laws, including and not limited to, Criminal Act, Criminal Procedures Act, the Policing System, the Judiciary, Imprisonments Institutes, Legal Aid agencies, are not actively protect women against all forms of violence and abuses in the armed conflict environment of Sudan. In order to close gaps in the Sudan legal conceptualization of VAW, the criminal legislations should observe the international principles of the IHL. This paper is arguing that the existing criminal system of Sudan although it fully codified women as legally equal to men in the human community, but it did not unfairly single women out as a weaker gender in need of special protections, especially during the armed conflict times. The paper identifies gaps in the current legal framework and proposes necessary reforms to bring laws and mechanisms in closer alignment with international human rights norms to the extent which they are effective in addressing the issue of violence against women. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 39

panel 6

Agrarian questions and largescale land investments in Africa:

What lessons for the SDG?

A

griculture and other natural resources are the main means of livelihoods and source of employment for the majority of the rural people in Africa. The production systems are dominantly small-scaled and managed by households and communities, typically, as sedentary farming, pastoral and other extractive systems. Although these systems continue to be the major sources of food and employment, they also have problems such as failure to meet food and nutrition demands, vulnerability to external (environmental, economic and social) shocks, and weak integration to high-value markets. Hence, change and improvement in the management and structure of the agricultural and other land use systems, as well as in their broader economic and social condition are seen as necessary precondition for African development. Central in these is the land question where the governance regimes of the land continued to be key area of focus to both research and policy. The recent surge in foreign and domestic investments in land has also raised renewed interest into the prospects and impacts of private/corporate investments on African agriculture. Many African countries are endorsing a more liberal policies in their land and agricultural policies. The policy idea here is that such investments will facilitate both growth and modernization of the agricultural sector at large. The outcomes on these are mixed: while only some investments are performing well, many investments have failed. This panel aims to address both the unsettled nature of land rights across much of the land resources in the continent, especially on communal lands, on the one hand, and the implication of the current liberal land policies, on the other hand, in contemporary and future African development prospects. How are current agricultural land investment policies impacting the smallholder African farmers? What types of land governance regimes can help in modernizing the State in Africa? What are the major land-related questions for research and policy in light of the sustainable development goals, such as eradicating poverty and hunger in rural Africa? The purpose of this panel is to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners engaged in African natural resources governance to exchange ideas and information about their work. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: BlĂĽsenhus, house 12, room 4 Organisers: Atakilte Beyene, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, atakilte.beyene@nai.uu.se


40 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 6 – paper 1

Seeing like a transnational state – investigating the relevance of Scott’s simplified ‘ways of seeing’ to explain the failure of large scale agricultural investment in Tanzania to deliver expected outcomes Author: Linda Engström, Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, linda.engstrom@slu.se While reasons behind failure of development interventions to deliver expected outcomes have been subject to much scrutiny, the academic debate is still vivid. This paper will investigate the relevance of James Scott’s contribution to this debate through his book Seeing Like a State (1998). By categorizing scattered observations of ‘simplified ways of seeing’ in Scott’s book into simplification themes, this paper draws attention to a submerged dimension of simplification in Scott’s work, not just on his most evident contribution about homogenization and standardization, but on ‘simplified ways of seeing’. However, there is critique of his argument being outdated in times of modern state-hood, neoliberal development and strong corporate influence. This paper aims to explore his relevance in the light of this critique by relating the simplification themes to empirical data on a large scale agriculture investment in Tanzania. The paper compares the simplified narrative within the state-donor-investor nexus behind large scale agricultural investment as a development strategy and the planning of the investment, with empirical complexities which has stalled the progress of the investment. By drawing attention to a new dimension in Scott’s work, I argue that he is still highly relevant in the debate on failure of development intervention. panel 6 – paper 2

(Im)possible agricultural futures for Africa Author: Hans Holmén, Independent researcher Associate Professor in Social and Economic Geography, Sweden, hans.holmen@liu.se Sub-Saharan Africa´s persistent inability to feed itself from domestic sources is well documented. A common claim is that SSA’s agriculture ‘under-performs’ relative to its potential. Which this potential is, is a however highly uncertain. Suggestions about how to bridge the yield-gap range from small-scale to large-scale farming, and/or agro-ecological versus Green Revolution approaches. This polarization of then debate oversimplifies the matter and often appears to be

motivated more by ideology than concern for Africa. It is questionable whether either of them will solve the African food crisis. Too many aspects of a complex issue are commonly omitted. This paper calls for a more nuanced – and more comprehensive – approach to improve agricultural productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. panel 6 – paper 3

Local landscapes, global actors: Exploring gendered well-being through land use practices in north-eastern Madagascar Author: Jorge C. Llopis, University of Bern, Switzerland, jorge.llopis@cde.unibe.ch Endowed with a variety of natural resources alongside its globally-praised biodiversity, Madagascar has historically attracted the interest of external actors, whose influence upon socio-economic processes in the country is again on the surge. The north-eastern region of the island constitutes a prime example of how global dynamics have impacted an already complex social and ecological panorama at the local scale over time. While communities growing clove, vanilla and coffee are submitted to the unpredictable fluctuations on prices of these globally-traded commodities, forest-dependent populations have in recent decades experienced a shift in the way they access natural resources due to the implementation of two externally-funded biodiversity conservation schemes. By exploring how these dynamics affect local landuse decisions in two research sites holding both commonalities and particularities, this PhD research aims to illuminate how the well-being of local communities has been and is currently shaped by the services provided by an evolving mosaic of agroecosystems and relatively undisturbed ecosystems. Particular effort is put on understanding how these services are valued differently by gender, critically looking at the bequest value linking current economic and cultural practices with future generations. The south-eastern area of the recently created Makira Protected Area revealed the most difficult to manage within the conservation scheme, largely because local populations here rely on shifting cultivation to produce subsistence rice, which directly confronts with forest protection objectives. Furthermore, the increasing exploitation of precious mineral deposits in the area, while attracting the interplay of Chinese middlemen, also drives conflict between local communities and migrant artisanal miners. In the second research site, rural dwellers close to Masoala National Park’s western boundaries are experiencing severe infrastructural and


Presentations of panels and papers | 41

”Don’t worry, soon there will be coffee”

ecological limitations that pose mounting constraints to their traditional cash crops and irrigated rice cultivation practices, thus driving a renewed surge of human pressures upon the forest-frontier. panel 6 – paper 4

Social dynamics around access to natural resources in Mozambique: The case of Chimanimani National Reserve Author: Pekka Virtanen, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, pekka.k.virtanen@jyu.fi In sub-Saharan Africa many rural communities have lost access to natural resources that are crucial to live-

lihood due to various external interventions ranging from mining and biofuel production to creation of nature conservation areas. The impacts caused by such interventions have ranged from deportation to reduced access to resources, and have affected community members in different ways depending on their gender, age, wealth and social position. While land grabs for resource extraction industries have received most visibility, another major cause for resource alienation has been expansion of nature conservation areas - often with substantial external inducement - since the 1990s. While conservation initiatives are usually debated in terms of the intentions and interests of different stakeholders, my focus is on the practices they follow. According to Adler & Pouliot (2011), practices are patterned actions that are embodied in particular organised


42 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

contexts and, as such, are articulated into specific types of action, and are socially developed through learning and training. Thus they provide a means to investigate the social dynamics that emerge when selected policies of access are implemented. In the 1990s a new paradigm revolutionised nature conservation, which had relied on exclusion of human communities from conservation areas. According to the new community-based paradigm, benefits to local communities must be paramount, and such benefits can best be achieved by using private sector interventions (e.g. eco-tourism) to replace traditional consumptive use. But this involves a range of stakeholders with different, often incompatible practices. My case study is the Chimanimani National Reserve in Mozambique. I use data from my previous research from the late 1990s, complemented with secondary data (reports and studies) from the subsequent phase and new field data I have collected recently. panel 6 – paper 5

Making Sub-Saharan Africa’s Growth Inclusive and Green: The way forward Author: George Adu, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, george.adu@nai.uu.se Over the past decade, sub-Saharan Africa as a region has recorded significant growth in real GDP compare to other regions (economic blocks) of the world. The African continent ranks second to East Asia as the world’s fastest-growing content and is the home to six of the 10 fastest growing economies in the world. On top of this is the high level of optimism of maintaining stronger growth into the future. It remains a question whether this story is an all exciting one about Africa. Is the content truly growing its way out of poverty? It is well noted that part of the growth in Africa is dominated by commodity booms and consequent flow of foreign direct investment into the extractives industries. The implication from this is that the current growth may not be sustainable for at least two reasons. First, commodity driven growth is less inclusive due to the high capital intensive nature of the extractive industries. Second, resource extraction causes environmental disruptions which can have dare

implications on human health, livelihoods, ecology and climate. Sustaining current growth trends in Africa requires taking measures that makes growth inclusive and green. This panel discussion aims to draw experts from Africa and Nordic countries to propose measures to ensure inclusive and green growth in Africa. In particular, the discussions are aim to answer the following questions: i. How can African growth be made “contagious” so as to accelerate growth in many African countries and not just a few? How can we reduce cross-country income differences within Africa? Is regional integration the way forward? ii. How can we eliminate intra-country inequalities in the distribution of income and expand economic opportunities for all through the tenets of inclusive growth? How do we ensure that the young and the old, men and women, rural and urban are involved in the process driving growth and the benefits from growth? Is it through education, credit access, and infrastructure development, among others? iii. How can Africa maintain sustainable and high economic growth while at the same time protecting the environment and sustainable use of essential natural resources? How can we ensure smooth transition to green growth that will protect livelihoods, improve water access, energy and food security, promote sustainable use of natural resources and spur innovation, job creation and economic development? These discussions and policy proposals thereof will have significant influence on growth and environmental policy in Africa and other development regions of the world. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 43

panel 7

African spring?

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ince the popular uprising in Burkina Faso in September 2014, renewed attention has been directed towards public protests in Africa as a platform for political contestation and a potential source of further democratization and regime change. Following the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt in 2010-11, which have become symbols of an “Arab awakening” or “Arab spring”, hopes, wishes and speculations about a similar wave of regime change in other parts of the continent evoke images of an “African spring” of democratic reform and popular participation. In evoking the similarities between the northern African uprisings and recent events in Burkina Faso and Burundi in particular, several factors may be listed as prominent across these cases. Firstly, popular protests were organized primarily in capital cities with public squares as a central platform for congregation. Secondly, the primary demand of the protesters was for regime change and a respect for the constitution. Thirdly, social media such as Facebook and Twitter have been prominent in organizing and publicizing protests. Fourthly, the importance of young people taking a lead role in mobilization as well as in articulating the grievances of the population has been instructive. At the same time, popular protests in many African countries continue a longer historical trend of being met with state brutality, making the successful toppling of Burkinabe president Blaise Compaoré a remarkable exception rather than the catalyst for a region- or continent-wide “wave” of regime change. Raising the question of an African Spring, this panel invites reflections on both the expression and the relative absence of popular dissent in the face of semi-authoritarian regimes across the continent. Papers are encouraged to discuss the dynamics of case-specific political contestations in contexts where electoral politics and constitutional amendments play a crucial role in regime governmentality, reflecting specifically on the dynamics of mobilization and/ or oppression of dissent; the communication strategies of protesters, activists, as well as of the state in relation to public protests; the generational, gendered, and socioeconomic characteristics of those actors mobilizing dissent; and the extent to which the imagery of an “Arab” or an “African Spring” has been used explicitly by those involved, or those commenting on, specific instances of political mobilization. Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 228 Organisers: Jesper Bjarnesen, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, jesper.bjarnesen@nai.uu.se


44 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

WE ARE A GOVERNMENT AGENCY The Nordic Africa Institute is a center for research, documentation and information on Africa. It is jointly financed by the governments of Finland, Iceland and Sweden. panel 7 – paper 1

Fire for Fire’: Political competition and the dynamic of local electoral violence in Sierra Leone Authors: Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs, Folke Bernadotte Academy, Sweden, mimmi.soderbergkovac@fba.se, and Ibrahim Bangura, University of Sierra Leone, banguraI@yahoo.co.uk Why are some regions in a country more likely than others to see election-induced violence? In spite of recent promising scholarly developments, we still know little about the causes of such violence. In particular, few studies have explored these issues on a sub-national level, seeking to explain why some geographical localities are more violence-prone than others. The purpose of this paper is to address this research question. We do so through an in-depth case study of the district of Kono in Eastern Sierra Leone, a region where elections have been accompanied with high levels of violence throughout the post-war period, ranging from violent rallies and campaign meetings to attacks on both political candidates and voters. We argue that the reason is to be found in Kono’s position as a political swing state. In a country otherwise strongly governed by an overlapping ethnic and regional logic, Kono is ethnically diversified and political split, and may swing in either direction. This renders Kono a highly courted district by all political parties, contributing to raise the stakes of elections. Aspiring politicians approach the large number of young people – many of which are ex-combatants – who reside in Kono in the hope of profiting from the diamond mining business, and promise them short-term benefits in exchange for mobilising electoral support and carrying out attacks on their political opponents. Similarly, they make use of local chiefs who are dependent on political connections and economic resources to retain their influence. In this way, national and local interests collide in the establishment of mutually dependent relations that contribute to increase the risk of violence around elections in Kono. The findings have the potential to make an important contribution to both theory development and to

policy and practice aimed at preventing and managing election-induced violence in new democracies in developing states. panel 7 – paper 2

Including the subaltern in regime change in Burkina Faso: Reflections on a case study on students’ capacities and strategies from 2011-2016 Author: Heidi Bojsen, Roskilde University, Denmark, hbojsen@ruc.dk This paper will focus on the social movement Le movement des sans voix (http://msvburkina.blog4ever. com/) (MSV), which has worked with the Balai citoyen since 2013. Currently, at least two members of MSV a man and a woman, are holding central positions in the Balai citoyen. The paper discusses the members, still mainly students’ capacities and strategies to build bridges between literate educated social groups and illiterate underprivileged ‘subaltern’ social groups including how gender positions become part of or cut across obstacles and strategies. In doing so, the notion of ‘subaltern’ will also have to be discussed and situated in relation to the particular context of Burkina Faso. In the years 20092014, the MSV was involved in activities that served to assist urban farmers and other people threatened by eviction in unregulated circumstances. In addition to the heritage from Sankara and other conditions explores by Mazzochetti, Hilgers and others, these activities have formed their experience and mode of action and thus, how they act within or in relation to the Balai citoyen today. While traditional gender roles remain an important parameter, there are also examples of different strategies that succeed in circumventing those positions. In addition, the multilingual capacity of the social movements – and the ability of the students to communicate with different social authorities – prove to be useful assets in the ongoing process of assuring some sort of dialogue between illiterate, but far from ignorant or indifferent social groups, in both rural and urban areas on the one hand


Presentations of panels and papers | 45

and on the other, the literate, political and economic elites whose knowledge and reasoning are increasingly – but not consistently – disconnected from those of the majority of the population. panel 7 – paper 3

Guinea’s tumultuous transition (2006­ 2013); An analysis of framing strategies and crystallization dynamics in popular protest Author: Joschka Philipps, Centre for African Studies, Basel, Switzerland, joschka.philipps@unibas.ch From 2006 to 2013, Guinea­Conakry traversed an extraordinarily turbulent political period, with three different regimes and four acting presidents, and a plethora of strikes, rallies, riots and demonstrations, all of which turned Conakry’s streets into a primary site for political competition, popular demands and frustrations, as well as violent clashes between protesters and state forces. This paper inquires into the different framing strategies that political actors in Conakry used to mobilize support on different levels of political protest. The political opposition and labor unions, for instance, who represented the political movements vis­à­vis the government and the international community, tended to emphasize constitutional and electoral issues such as the restoration of the constitutional order, the constitution of the Independent National Electoral Commission (CENI) or electoral fraud. Politicians addressing their specific constituencies also introduced ethnic grievances, which are said to have played a crucial role in the process of popular upheavals. Finally, Conakry’s militant youth groups – so­called staffs, clans, and gangs that were instrumental in mobilizing Conakry’s urban underclass – focused in particular on broader concerns of corruption amongst the general political elite, on class inequality and injustice, and on their hopes to gain employment within a ‘new’ state apparatus. On the basis of ongoing empirical fieldwork in Conakry since 2009, the key question of this paper will be how these different imageries and framing strategies were translated from one level to the next, i.e. how they were mediated, and how such diversity and heterogeneity of different motives and actions finally crystallized into what is today referred to as Guinea’s

transition to democracy. Discussing the broader theoretical context of African Studies scholarship on social movements and protests, this paper situates this process beyond the analytical dichotomies of global vs. local and high vs. low politics. panel 7 – paper 4

Socializing Warlord Democrats: explaining violent discursive practices in postwar democratic politics Authors: Roxanna Sjöstedt, Lund University, Sweden, roxanna.sjostedt@svet.lu.se, Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs, Folke Bernadotte Academy, Sweden, mimmi.soderbergkovacs@fba.se, and Anders Themnér, Uppsala University, Sweden, anders.themner@pcr.uu.se Why is it that former leaders of armed groups that take part in electoral politics – so called Warlord Democrats (WDs)– sometimes (re) engage in belligerent discursive practices? Following the ending of a civil war, when state institutions are weak, the economy is in shambles and fears continue to permeate society, WDs often come to dominate electoral politics. Yet, we know very little about the consequences of their entry into postwar electoral politics. The purpose of this paper is to examine the micro-level dynamics that determine the individual decision-making processes of WDs. We do so through a comparative study of two WDs in two post-war countries – Julius Maada Bio in Sierra Leone and Prince Yormie Johnson in Liberia – that display interesting changes of behaviour across time and space. We argue that the answer is to be found in the process of socialization, that is, “the process through which actors adopt the norms and rules of a given community” (Checkel 2016, 1). WDs adopt and adjust to the norms and practices governing post-war electoral politics. However, the ending of a civil war rarely constitutes a clean break with the past. In addition to the conflicting values with individual in the transition from war to peace, most post-war societies are characterised by a multitude of conflicting norms being pursued by different global and local norm entrepreneurs. In this process, the final integration process is dependent of the WDs individual role recognition, learning process and the specific institutional setting. 

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46 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 8

Equal rights but not quite:

Subalterns’ experiences and perceptions of gender equality policies and programs in Africa

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everal African countries have embraced gender equality and gender mainstreaming as core principles in their national laws, policies and programs. Several non-government organizations are busy working in Africa in the same field, promoting women’s empowerment and, more recently, also men’s engagement. This, to a different extent according to the context considered, is usually said as having largely benefitted women, men, and the whole society, fostering general development and equality among citizens. However, not only are some women and men practically unable to exercise the formally given rights for different reasons (socio/cultural, economic, ethnic, among others) but new hierarchies and new forms of exclusion have been reinforced or created (sometimes intentionally, sometimes as a side effect) by the same programs and policies meant to support gender equality. While a lot of development assessment and quick consultancy work commissioned by government and non-government institutions focuses much on the concept of existing barriers to women’s empowerment, usually linked to pre-existing cultures and traditions and the concept of behavioral change, not much is done to identify either the emerging processes of production of new exclusions and their socio-political meaning or the experience of the subalterns in depth, in relation to the gender equality apparatus. This panel welcomes therefore contributions that critically interrogate gender equality programs and policies in Africa by focusing both on the production of new gendered forms of exclusions by the actors promoting gender equality themselves and on the actual and context specific experiences of subalterns in relation to what is globally seen and advertised as gender-inclusive development. Contributors are also encouraged to explore possible innovations, approaches and practices that might stem from the subalterns’ experiences presented. Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 10 Organisers: Asasira Simon Rwabyoma, University of Rwanda, srwabyoma@gmail.com


Presentations of panels and papers | 47

panel 8 – paper 1

Listening to the subalterns in Rwanda: Bottom-up gender perspective on development concepts Author: Maja Ladić, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, ladicmaja@gmail.com While interpreting development through post-colonial theories, this paper deals with gender dimension in development context in Rwanda. Taking bottom-up approach, which emphasises importance of good knowledge of the local context, the paper analyses two indexes that measure gender dimension of development, and tackles identified discrepancies and gaps. Assuming that development policies and strategies are successful only when they have positive effects also on the most vulnerable and marginalized groups, this research focuses on the perspective of the identified subaltern group − house-girls in Rwanda. The paper presents discrepancies between the measures of indicators on which gender indexes are based, and the findings of the field research focused on the identified subaltern group. While gender indexes are too often taken at the face value by decision-makers, the paper draws attention to complexities of Rwandan society that remain overlooked. panel 8 – paper 2

Exploring “appropriation effects” in Rwanda’s gender policies Author: Jenny Lorentzen, Lund University, Sweden & Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO), Norway, jenlor@prio.org This paper will explore the implementation of gender equality policies in Rwanda from an appropriation perspective, informed by theories about the localization and translation of global norms. Appropriation is understood as the “intentional reinterpretation of ideas across cultural, spatial and temporal contexts aimed at definitional power” and as such opens up for viewing different interpretations of gender equality norms by different Rwandan actors as serving specific political ends. The aim of the paper is therefore to explore the political and societal outcomes and effects of such “appropriations”, and more specifically whether the Rwandan government’s “appropriations” of gender equality norms in their policies produce new gendered forms of exclusion. Due to the particular historical context and the close links between gender and the construction of national identity in Rwanda, competing appropri-

ations of gender vocabulary may eventually end up as negotiations over the meaning of Rwandan national identity. The analysis must therefore also account for the links between the government’s appropriations of gender equality norms and its national identity imaginings, as well as between new gendered forms of exclusion and already existing patterns of exclusion and inclusion in Rwandan society. Because the appropriation perspective accounts for the power dynamics that are at play when norms travel, it should also be able to account for the power dynamics in the government’s promotion of gender policies in Rwanda. The basis for the analysis will be already existing literature and a close reading and textual analysis of documents produced by Rwandan government institutions relating to its gender policies and their implementation (including national policies, strategic plans, and reports). panel 8 – paper 3

Resisting capitalist enclosures: How subaltern women transformed their conditions of subjectivities in West Acholi, northern Uganda? Author: David R. Olanya, Gulu University, Uganda & University of Antwerp, Belgium, davidolanya@yahoo.co.uk This contribution concentrates on how women as autonomous agents outside the state domain are engaged in praxis against capitalist enclosures. Resisting capitalist enclosures are observed in Amuru Sugar Works Project and conservation draws women into emancipatory politics to contest the new forms subjectivities. This papers examines women not only as victim of development, but as active participants in emancipatory politics against the oppressions of political subjectivities of development narratives. This paper further extends the debate on how the actions of discipline and punish dissents attracted the ferminization of resistance. The emergence of women as autonomous resisters against the enclosures of land and the common nature resulted into their engagement in politicized everyday resistance and horizontal forms of collaborative constituted subaltern resistance. Basin on an empirical case analyses in agriculture and conservation project, this contribution analyzes how resistance against capitalist powers transforms women engagement in the emancipatory politics of everyday resistance of naked protests in West Acholi. In doing so, this contribution open up the women’s strategies, discourses, tactics, experiences and contexts of how subaltern women represented themselves in emancipa-


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tory politics. Apart from resorting to naked politics, women in West Acholi portrayed their exclusion from the land they subsist on through discursive practices, creating collective consciousness through war songs and memories, making resistance more knowledge driven rather than being a mere practices being observed. This paper maps the expression of mainstream politics on women emancipatory politics – practices of being represented that undermine their autonomy to speak for themselves, represent them as not only as victims of development. Rather to transform their relations with capitalist power. Key words: biopolitics, counter-conduct , politics, resistance, state. panel 8 – paper 4

Fruits from the forest and the fields: blind spots and gendered discourses in Burkina Faso’s REDD+ program Author: Lisa Westholm, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, lisa.westholm@slu.se This study analyses the local effects of global climate policy interventions in natural resource management. The study draws on an analysis of policy documents from Burkina Faso’s Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) program, and data on natural resource use and management in two REDD+ villages. I start from the policy discourses that produce global climate mitigation schemes such as REDD+, as win-win solutions for forest conservation, poverty reduction and women’s empowerment. The proposed policies are juxtaposed with an intersectional analysis of local organisation around, and use of, tree products. The analysis shows how global policy discourses on women and forest product use produce blind spots which fail to take into account how social relations interact with the surrounding environment. These blind spots include the categorisation of all tree products as Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) although the most important ones are collected elsewhere, putting to doubt the potential for incentivising forest conservation. Further, in policy interventions aimed at empowering women and reducing inequalities, the assumption that women are a homogenous group,

and the failure to recognise axes of social difference other than gender, such as ethnicity, risks leading to the marginalisation of certain groups. panel 8 – paper 5

New form of gendered exclusion in Rwanda: women in informal unions and access to land Authors: Ilaria Buscaglia and Asasira Simon Rwabyoma, University of Rwanda, ilaria.buscaglia@gmail.com Rwanda is known worldwide for its commitment in promoting gender equality, which has become one of the government priorities after the genocide against the Tutsi. The national emphasis on women’s empowerment is the result of a national interpretation of global discourses, which represents one of the main narratives of inclusion on which the post-genocide governments has been built itself since 1994. Being the economy mainly based on subsistence agriculture, land reforms have been considered one of the main strategies to promote gender inclusion in the economic development of the country. Although several new laws and programs have contributed to reshape rural femininities as "more equal to men" in access to land than before, some categories of women have been actually excluded from the right to land: mainly the women who are informally cohabiting with their spouses, either in monogamous or polygamous unions. The Rwandan Law only recognizes the civil marriage, leaving out all other forms of consensual unions, religious or traditional. The qualitative research conducted by our Centre, combining individual interviews and FGDs with rural women and men in consensual unions, and key-informant interviews at the local and national level, show that women living in such arrangements, with no secure right to land, are actually facing different level of exclusion and stigma that seem to be contradicting the national spirit of gender equality. This paper explores the creation of new gendered moral and social hierarchies, and new form of subaltern and hegemonic rural femininities, at the intersection of discourses on gender inclusion and land at the global, national and local level. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 49

panel 9

African women’s movements designing visions for change

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frican women have, over long stretches of time, been controversially depicted as victims of their environment and simultaneously inhabited the role of powerful agents of change. During the 1970s, although the development nexus postulated that development without the empowerment of women is impossible, images of African women as “poor, powerless and pregnant” and in need of assistance still circulated widely. With a different reading of gender justice, women from the South critiqued feminism for being exclusive (i.e. upper-class, white and enmeshed in imperialist power relations). Instead, African feminist scholars and activists brought “Other” forms of feminisms to the fore that promised to speak to their realities, such as womanism or Islamic feminism. Transnational feminism, mostly around the UN World Conferences on Women, proved to be a fruitful site of negotiation for North-South difference and South-South mobilization. In short, women’s movements from the South contested the normativity espoused by their “sisters”. Today, these different topics and alliances have become relevant once more – in a field of changed global relations. In this dynamic field, women’s movements oppose, adopt, appropriate and reinterpret images, gender roles as well as gender norms. Apart from the dialogue within women’s movements, external actors such as local churches, media or policymakers influence gender politics. Looking at these contradictions, we ask how women’s movements develop their visions of change? How do women’s movements relate and position their own visions to the norms, laws or discourses held by their communities, societies and states? To which extent can they change the widely shared stereotyped image of African women? In particular, contributions should seek to highlight agent/structure relations and tie them to ideational/discursive practices. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 and 16:00-18:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 230 Organisers: Antje Daniel, University of Bayreuth, Germany, antje.daniel@uni-bayreuth. de, and Rirhandu Mageza-Barthel, University of Frankfurt, Germany


50 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

» There is a tendency to approach gender equality by means of a ‘just add women and stir approach’ « Datzberger & Le Mat, panel 9, paper 4

panel 9 – paper 1

Challenges and prospects of Women’s Movement in contemporary Africa: Insights from Ethiopian women Author: Girmay Abraha, Samara University and Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, gakl42@yahoo.com It is a truism that several forms of women’s movements have happened throughout African history to change the fabrics of the society in which they operated. However, they are still experiencing unfavorable socio-political, economic and cultural environments which are responsible for their failure in Africa. The purpose of this paper is therefore to analyze the challenges that women’s movement faces while organizing themselves and struggling for collective concerns and rights in Ethiopia, as a particular subject of analysis. To this end, numerous scholarly literatures, international and national documents on women’s related rights and movements are critically reviewed and analyzed. Thus, the paper reveals that there have been internal and external challenges in which women’s movement faces in Ethiopia. The internal challenges include ideological inconsistency in their belligerent strategies; limited women’s knowledge and commitment; and unfavorable bureaucracies within their established structures. Externally, an exclusive politico-legal policies; token electoral principles; persistent socioeconomic hardships and uncivilized cultural practices are among the pressing situations discouraged women’s movements in contemporary Ethiopia. Lastly, participatory education is recommended to reduce the challenges to and in return encourage women’s movements. To this effect, the existing educational policies, curriculums and programs need policy reforms in a manner to accommodate women’s concerns and thereby encourage their

collective movements. The incumbent political party is also suggested to uphold the culture of public dialogue to deal with women and opposition parties to establish a comprehensive framework pragmatically authorizes women’s political representation in critical positions and decision making processes. panel 9 – paper 2

Claiming rights beyond the local-global divide: The Women’s Land Rights Movement in Morocco Author: Yasmine Berriane, University of Zurich, Switzerland, Yasmine.berriane@uzh.ch Studies analysing the making of women’s alliances across social divides in North-Africa are still rare. This is all the more surprising as coalitions between organisations and actors are a recurrent feature of advocacy movements in the region. In my contribution I aim therefore at analysing coalition formations by focusing on the processes that led to the making of a women’s land-use rights’ movement and by highlighting the role played by intermediate organisations and actors in connecting and merging together local, national and international norms, goals and practices. In looking at ‘the active social life’ (Abu-Lughod, 2010) of this landuse rights’ movement, it sheds light on the inequalities and fluid power hierarchies that are constitutive of it. It therefore goes beyond interpretations that read women’s grassroots activism as the sole result of international and elite-led gender empowerment projects and norms; highlighting processes of cross-fertilization and hybridisation instead. This women’s land use rights movement emerged in Morocco in 2007 as the result of an atypical collaboration between women living in rural and peri-urban areas and a major and mainly urban and elite based fe-


Presentations of panels and papers | 51

minist organisation. This partnership is based on a division of tasks: the symbolic power of the women from different local communities is completed through the expertise that the members of the feminist organisation have gained after several decades of contestation. Among these many tasks, the development of a strategy aimed at linking the issue of land-use rights to that of gender equality and at transforming a multiplicity of local claims into a common movement using national and international norms and standards had the most important impact on the making of the mobilisation. However, this transfer of terminologies and norms is not a unilateral process. It entails a process of hybridisation that merges together global and local frames of reference, thus producing a powerful discourse that enables the movement to reach a variety of different actors. panel 9 – paper 3

Appropriation or resistance? Female activists navigate in-between different visions about gender roles and relations in Kenya Author: Antje Daniel, University of Bayreuth, Germany, antje.daniel@uni-bayreuth.de Persisting images of African women are controversial and depict women both as victims of their environment and/or as powerful agents of change. For instance, the 1970s development nexus postulated that development without the empowerment of women is impossible, while at the same time designing an image of African women as “poor and powerless” and in need of assistance to access gender justice. Almost simultaneously women from the South opposed the allegedly exclusive white feminism that dominated the UN Conferences on Women and thereby the UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination (CEDAW), conceiving it as upper-class and ethnocentric. African female scholars thus reacted by condemning feminism as western, imperialist and not suitable to local realities. In this contradicting field women’s movements oppose, adopt, appropriate and reinterpret gender roles and relations circulated within the development nexus. Based on an empirical research on the Kenyan women’s movement I will illustrate one the one hand to what extent activists refer to CEDAW as international norm. The convention is an important source for defining gender inequalities and relations in order to legitimize the claims of the movement in opposition to the state. On the other hand CEDAW exacerbates so-

lidarity between women’s activists because some deny the Convention as western concept. Likewise contradicting are donor resources, because the women’s movement is highly depending on donor funding. In order to get access to donor funding activists navigate between gender policies of donor agencies and their local realities. This becomes particular obvious in the debates about the role of women within the welfare state, contents such as polygamy or abortion. Thus, the paper draws attention to contradicting edges of norms and development policies circulated within the development nexus and shows how female activists navigate in-between different visions about gender roles and relations. panel 9 – paper 4

Just add women and stir? Education, gender and peacebuilding in Uganda Authors: Simone Datzberger, Ulster University, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, s.datzberger@ulster. ac.uk, and Marielle Le Mat, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands There is widespread consensus in the literature that peacebuilding can be more effective if built on an understanding of how gendered identities are constructed through societal power relations between and among women, men, girls, boys and members of sexual/gender minorities. In this endeavour, international donors just recently started to point to the role of education as an entry point to understand how women and men jointly reproduce gendered structures in conflict-affected environments. By drawing on the case study of Uganda, this paper critically reflects upon several programmes and initiatives that are currently put in place by the Government of Uganda, aid agencies, CSOs and local activists to promote positive models and norms of femininity and masculinity through peacebuilding and education. It highlights how gender-responsive approaches have traditionally been based on the assumption that women face greater levels of vulnerability and marginalization. In practice, little attention is paid to the multiple conflict roles and experiences of men and women as both survivors and perpetrators of violence, or as change agents, and how their gender intersects with other sociocultural identities. Besides, most education interventions hardly take into account the socio-historical evolution of gendered norms that inform present gender relations and power dynamics in Uganda’s peacebuilding process. There is a tendency to approach gender equality by means of a “just add women and stir approach” with the risk of si-


52 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

de-lining history, cultural sensitivity and context. The potential of educational institutions and programmes to act as unique and safe spaces in order to develop and re-negotiate gendered identities and representation in the country’s peacebuilding process remains frequently overlooked. panel 9 – paper 5

Words to express visions for change - is there a franco-anglo gap in Cameroon’s womens’ movement ? Author: Elisabeth Hofmann, University Bordeaux, France, elisabeth.hofmann@u-bordeaux-montaigne.fr There are many actors fighting for womens’ rights in Africa, but can they be considered a pan-African “women’s movement”? This term refers to collective action by women organized explicitly as women presenting claims in public life based on gendered identities as women (GOERTZ, MAZUR, 2008). Discourse and actors are the two fundamental and interconnected characteristics all women’s movements share, being necessary and sufficient for defining them. In order to identify with a shared discourse, based on a common vision, it is important to have a common terminology. This paper focuses on the interaction of Francophone and Anglophone African actors and the existence of still significant linguistic barriers. The study focuses on Cameroon, a bilingual African country, as a case study for interaction between different linguistic spheres in Africa. Data collection took place during several stays in Yaoundé, the francophone capital, through different channels (participatory observation, bibliographical interviews, online survey, interview with the Minister of Women’s Empowerment, etc.). The results highlight that the choice of terminology to express visions and claims is guided by a very pragmatic stance. This communication will concentrate on the use of the term « empowerment » in Cameroon and the vision that is conveyed by this word. Very popular since the Beijing conference, there is still no French translation that has been unanimously accepted, leading to a variety of translations. Francophone women’s association in Cameroon use the term in certain circumstances and avoid it in others, juggling between different types of terminology. This terminological flexibility influences the ways visions are perceived and conveyed, not only inside Cameroon, but also in a pan-african setting. How do these choices of the « right » words influence the design of the African women’s movements visions for change?

panel 9 – paper 6

UN Resolution 1325 – A tool for women’s empowerment in Rwanda? Author: Diana Højlund Madsen, Aalborg University, Denmark, dmadsen@cgs.aau.dk Much work on Resolution 1325 (Res 1325) and the agenda of ‘women, peace and security’ has its focus on how (or to which extent) Res 1325 has ‘trickled down’ from the global to the local level in a specific context. However, this article will reverse the gaze through its bottom-up-perspectives highlighting women’s local perspectives asking not just what can women do for the ‘peace and security agenda’ but rather what the ‘peace and security agenda’ can do for women to improve their lives and bring about empowerment in a specific African post-conflict setting - Rwanda. The article sheds light on the local / global dynamics in the processes of translating Res 1325 into practice and the role of women not just as victims of genocide but also as agents of change and active norm translators. Thus, it is explored how the agenda of ‘women, peace and security’ has been used by women’s organisations in transformative processes and to which extent is has brought about empowerment for women at the local level. panel 9 – paper 7

Can ‘sisters’ become ‘friends’? On changing African gender politics Author: Rirhandu Mageza-Barthel, University of Frankfurt, Germany, r.mageza@soz.uni-frankfurt.de Over decades African women and women’s movements particularly – and their kin across the global South – have sought inclusion in development processes and politics. The aim being to partake in the improved living conditions these seemed to promise. Whilst contesting their exclusion they also increasingly grew critical of politics and institution. Many have belonged to the most vibrant part of civil society: either as part of liberation movements, being part of democratisation initiatives and joining transnational movements. African women, to paraphrase a Chinese proverb, have held-up half the African sky. But for a few exceptions, their audible silence on current African-Asian relations stands out. When they have intervened, they have either aimed at inserting themselves into or trailed along existing initiatives of African-Chinese cooperation. This is all the more surprising, because in framing itself as part of the global South, Beijing commits to solving common develop-


Presentations of panels and papers | 53

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ment challenges and sets itself apart from the West in taking-on African issues. One would anticipate women(’s movements) acknowledging this potential new opportunity for transnational gender politics. Set against the background of Chinese-Ethiopian relations, and Chinese-African politics more widely, the paper explores the pitfalls and potentials of changing African gender politics in this new context. I suggest that the rhetorical shift from ‘sisterhood’ to ‘friendship’ symbolizes the changed conditions under which women’s interactions are currently taking place. panel 9 – paper 8

(Re)negotiating gender roles: The participatory action research of the Tanzania Gender Network Program Author: Mirjam Tutzer, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Germany, tutzer@soz.uni-frankfurt.de For my research on the impact and negotiation of microcredits in Dar es Salaam I cooperated with the Tanzania Gender Network Program (TGNP), a feminist organization that uses participatory action research to learn from and consequently politizise and alter gender

relations and their structural embeddedness. In my talk I will focus on how the prior engagement and exposure to the work of TGNP influenced the group discussions with women groups I conducted in cooperation with TGNP and, more broadly, how the work of TGNP impacts on and is negotiated in the Tanzanian society. It is striking that the experiences and self-perceptions of the women TGNP works with are quite different then the stereotypes about ‘women in the Global South’ informing policies and ‘development´ projects, for example microcredits. Deriving from the perspectives of the women and the emancipatory practices of TGNP I will question and discuss the impact of such diverging pictures and their negotiation in the context of Tanzania. Further, I will reflect on our joint efforts to make my research and its outcomes accessible and noteworthy to the ‘research subjects’. I regard this as a necessary step towards transcending such dichotomous pictures or understandings, which do also persist between the academic world and practices ‘on the ground’, as for example those of TGNP. A critical understanding of power relations which manifest stereotypes and their deriving practices must therefore be accompanied by efforts to surpass or bend the same. 

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54 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 10

Gender at the cutting edge:

ICTs, social media and social change in East Africa

T

he possibilities for participating in the social media revolution and actively informing ongoing development are unevenly distributed in the world, and so also on the African continent. Women still do not have the same access to the public spheres and political arenas as men in African societies. However, it is necessary to nuance notions of gender through the understanding of an intersectional interplay between different power dimensions, and to bring the ongoing media revolution into the discussion. Social media are posing unprecedented possibilities for mobilisation, participation and social change for people all over the African continent, in particular through the contemporary generation of African youth that have grown up with these social media tools. By the same token, contemporary generations of African feminist activists are making use of social media in their own creative ways, in order to shape and contribute to processes of social change. In this manner, gender can be seen at the cutting edge of new and innovative social media appropriations. This panel gathers papers that critically investigate and discuss social change and development initiatives in East Africa with the particular aim of improving the conditions for women in society, and that arise from a generation of media-savvy youth who make use of social media tools and applications to reach their chosen objectives. The focus is on genuine grassroots initiatives from ordinary users and activists; sites or initiatives which seek to contribute with alternative voices or avenues into the ongoing development. The panel does not focus on top-down applications originating from governmental or donor-driven initiatives. Rather, the focus is on the use of gender sensitive social media approaches that seek to challenge the status quo both in terms of topics covered, discussions featured and organisational models chosen. The theoretical perspectives stem from a cluster of communication for development or social change approaches within media and communication studies. A particular focus will be on participatory communication, grassroots initiatives, indigenous voices, feminist or gender- sensitive approaches and the inventive uses of social media as tools for critical gender discussions and feminist activism. Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: BlĂĽsenhus, house 12, room 129 Organisers: Ylva EkstrĂśm, Uppsala University, Sweden, ylva.ekstrom@im.uu.se, and Hilda Arntsen, Oslo and Akershus College, Norway


Presentations of panels and papers | 55

» #IfAfricaWasABar was started by Botswana author and feminist Siyanda Panda and it trended for several weeks « Cheruiyot & Uppal, panel 10, paper 5

panel 10 – paper 1

Re-thinking communication for gender and development through ICT practices of a new generation of East African change-makers Authors: Ylva Ekström, Uppsala University, Sweden, ylva.ekstrom@im.uu.se, and Hilde Arntsen, Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway Through a combination of on-site ethnographic encounters with students at a university campus in Western Kenya, and continuous online engagement and interaction with these students in different online fora – such as WhatsApp, Twitter, YouTube and Facebook – this paper attempts to analyse how new mobile and social media become integrated practices of their everyday lives. Practices with the purpose of interacting and keeping in touch and making appointments with families and friends, as well as searching for and sharing of information, keeping themselves updated about trends and fashions as well as local, national and international news, and also to keep up their studies through different WhatsApp group discussions and through Google for doing research. But also, and perhaps above all, the critical and indepth analysis of these young Kenyans’ social media practices sheds light on how new mobile and social media are used as tools for attempts to make change in their own lives as well as in the lives of people in the communities around them. This paper shows that in their own creative ways, these young entrepreneurs are becoming everyday activists that are making use of social media in order to shape and contribute to processes of social change. Not seldom related to gender issues and initiatives with the aim of improving the lives of women in Kenya as well as the relationships between women and men. Thus, based on on-going research among a particular group of Kenyan students, this paper aims at ar-

guing for a multi-sited media ethnographic approach to investigating media’s role in everyday life in contemporary Africa. Further this paper aims at arguing for a re-thinking of Communication for Gender and Development through a critical analysis of the social and mobile media practices of a new generation of East African change-makers. panel 10 – paper 2

Social media and cell phones as tools for social mobilization and feminist activism in Tanzania Author: Charles Mustapha Kayoka, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania, ckayoka28@yahoo.com The last one decade has seen an unprecedented access and widespread use of Social media and Cellphones among Tanzanians in both rural and urban areas. In situations where mainstream media access is restricted by gate keeping and censorship, and requirement to pay for space, the new media have turned into convenient alternative tools for activism. Gender activist NGOs, established and managed by women have taken advantage of the ubiquity of the new media to mobilize women and men so that they engage with the struggle to transform the society, to engender a new, feminist, consciousness, and a gender equal community in all spheres of life, as an end vision. During elections, during major national, regional and global gender related campaigns the new media operate as bulletins boards, as well as rallying points, inundated with messages calling for support, action, and response. Cellphones have been used to share information that call for support of feminist struggles and agenda. This study case study looks into the effectiveness of the use of new media as strategic tool for social transformation and mobilization, focusing on the work of three women NGOs, all members of Tanzania FemAct-feminist activism.


56 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 10 – paper 3

Up against gendered cultural representations; De-mystifying online feminist forums in Kenya Author: Felicity Atieno Okoth, Moi University, Kenya, alakaokoth@gmail.com With the internet being more accessible in the global south, different social media have served to create an online meeting point that facilitates information exchange between organized groups in pursuit of social change. Cyber-activism and specifically online feminism have become central in destabilizing gender categories and hegemonic discourses. Feminists in Kenya have capitalised on these power of the social media to forge online forums that aim to counter gendered cultural representations constructed from the societal perspective of the male in both mainstream and alternative media in the country. Based on two such forums on facebook and twitter; this paper explores whether feminist online forums offers women real options for countering cultural gendered representations or do women simply interact online with closed options due to their real situation in the Kenyan society. This is discussed at the backdrop of the digital divide as not all women in the country have access to the internet. Such a disadvantage makes the incorporation of different women experiences in the new virtual community difficult thus producing new forms of exclusion. This article argues for participatory processes that include access to voice to Kenyan women marginalized in terms of technology. It concludes that if the voices of those in the margins are incorporated, online feminist forums can foster both a critical position and provide agency in terms of cyber culture and gendered representations in Kenya. Key Words: Online feminist forums, gendered representations, Kenya panel 10 – paper 4

Interrogating M4D-tales: some sociostructural aspects of ICTs and social change in everyday-life Author: Michael Waltinger, University of Education, Ludwigsburg Germany, waltinger@thinkbeyondborders. The integration of new media into the everyday and different dimensions of social life are deeply intertwined. Life structures are reflected by the way how media are embedded and given meaning to. The mobile phone in that regard allows, for instance, to examine

aspects of the social structures (e.g. roles and mutual expectations) of men and women in society. While the agency of the subject and increasing availability of media devices need to be stressed in media participation and social change, the importance of structural challenges must not be overlooked. As issues of media access diminish, issues of knowledge, skills and resources gain importance – especially in lower-income urban settings and among women. Media participation is no sure-fire success initiated by media availability – techno-euphoria needs to be ‘handled with care’. While people certainly bring media competencies with them and also appropriate new competencies in their daily media usage, structural constraints are real and self-socialisation in media usage has its boundaries – these are marked by the life conditions of and (educational) resources available to people. Women in urban Kenya often are part of the informal economy, do not advance much beyond primary education, and there often is a lack in public media education. At the same time, women do often voice need and interest in maximizing their knowledge in order to fully utilize mobile media to their needs. Structural constraints, however, keep them from attending workshops, skill trainings, and the like. The daily hustle and struggle as well as the social responsibility of woman for caring (and often providing) for their families make it difficult to attend trainings or workshops. Hence, while it is often the less-educated and socio-economically disadvantaged that would want assistance the most, these are exactly the people for whom it is most difficult to benefit from respective opportunities. panel 10 – paper 5

New Pan-Africanism? Expressions of African identity on Twitter Authors: David Cheruiyot, david.cheruiyot@kau.se, and Charu Uppal, charu.uppal@kau.se, both from Karlstad University, Sweden This article will interrogate the question whether a collective identity of a new Pan-Africanism is emerging through social media in Africa. The study focuses on the use of the hashtag IfAfricaWasABar by Twitter users across the continent in July 2015. It will entail a content analysis of tweets that were accompanied by #IfAfricaWasABar to analyse the issues raised by African Twitter users as regards their identity and self image on world media space. #IfAfricaWasABar was started by Botswana author and feminist Siyanda Panda and was trending for several weeks in different countries in


Presentations of panels and papers | 57

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Sub-Saharan Africa. The hashtag called upon Twitter users across Africa to satirize the Western media narrative of Africa as a country by coming up with hilarious lines that imagine the continent as a bar, which has interesting characters who in real life would define the continent's culture, politics and social life. Studies of Twitter use for expression of identity in Africa are few although there has been a marked increase of citizen participation on this social media platform (Portland Communications, 2012). Twitter has indeed turned into an interesting platform for deliberation and daily conversations among citizens. Such kinds of citizen engagement are turning out to offer an interesting forum for jokes as well as serious social and political discussion for discourses that appeal to citizens across the continent, who are both online and offline. In fact, in their recent study on the use of Twitter by Kenyans, Tully and Ekdale (2014) conclude that 'playful engagement' on Twitter is spurring significant

deliberation as users "infuse developmental agendas in their comments, actions and interactions" (p.68). The article will argue that more than offering a platform for deliberation, Twitter as a new media technology in Africa is enabling African citizens to recreate an African identity in the global space. It will seek to revive the old debate on Pan-Africanism and its expressions on media space, which has so far been overshadowed a process of globalization and a waning post-colonial discourse. It will further trace and discuss the discourses in the nexus of representation, identity as well use of ICTs in Africa for social change by activists such as Siyanda Panda. The article will pose the question whether through Twitter, a "New Pan- Africanism" is emerging, where ordinary citizens rather than the elites determine how the African identity should be defined and expressed on global space. Key words: Identity, media representation, Pan-Africanism, Twitter, #IfAfricaWasABar. ď Ž

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58 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 12

The quest for fair political participation and representation: African women in national Parliaments

I

n the last two decades, several African countries have moved from the very bottom to the very top of the world-based list of the countries in terms of women’s participation in national Parliaments (as it is the case of Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Namibia, Mozambique, Ethiopia and Angola). According to the most recent data (Inter-Parliamentary Union, Dec 2015), the regional average of sub-Saharan women in Parliament is 23,1%, which is a little higher than the world average, but still far from the Northern European countries average of 41,1%. While the literature on women members of Parliament outside Africa has become quite consistent, little attention has been paid to African female members of Parliaments. The purpose of this panel is to shed light on this specific aspect of women’s empowerment and democratic achievement. The panel seeks to provide pertinent answers to the following questions: why electing more women in African Parliaments? How should equal representation be accomplished (electoral systems; quotas; parties’ political orientation; women political mobilization, etc..)? Are African women’s interests better represented by electing more women to national legislatures? What are the impacts of an increased female political representation in African Parliaments on the legislation, on the institutions and institutional culture, on civil society, on the political landscape, on the media, etc..? Are there best practices and lessons to be learned? And finally, will a stronger female presence in Parliament increase and enhance democracy in Africa? The panel aims to bring together scholars from different disciplinary perspectives and to encourage a systematic, interdisciplinary conversation about the presence of women in African Parliaments vis-à-vis contemporary debates in the socio-political, legal, cultural, economic and geopolitical realms. Interested participants are invited to submit both theoretical and empirical papers, and specific case-studies as well as cross-country comparisons are welcome. Keywords: women’s political participation, African Parliaments, women’s political representation. Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 130 Organisers: Veronica Federico, University of Florence, Italy, veronica.federico@unifi.it


Presentations of panels and papers | 59

panel 12 – paper 1

panel 12 – paper 2

Who is pursuing women’s interests in the North Africa Region?

Critical perspectives on African patriarchal impunity in African national parliaments

Author: Tania Abbiate, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Germany, taniaabbiate@libero.it

Author: Susana Yene Chimy, CEFAM, Buea, Cameroon, susanawasom@yahoo.com

The traditional underrepresentation of women in the Parliments of North African countries has recently undergone some changes, particularly through the introduction of a gender quota. As a consequence, the number of women MPs has increased: in particular Tunisia can boast the highest percentage of women MPs (68 out of 217) in the arabic-speaking North Africa, Egypt’s Parliament counts 89 out of 596 women, while Morocco has 67 women out of 395 representatives in the Lower House and 14 women out of 120 in the Upper House (Inter-Parliamentary Union, 2016). Despite the recent increase, it must be noted that these figures are extremely low when compared to Western countries. According to the Gender Gap Report 2015, Tunisia ranks 69th out of 147 countries in terms of political participation, while Morocco ranks 97th, and Egypt 136th. In addition, even if on one side the global comparison of numbers inspires by itself some reflections, on the other the most provocative issue concerns whether women MPs, when present, are actually able to pursue women’s interests. Moving from the analysis of Tunisian experience, this paper will try to investigate the actors who drive women’s interests. At a first sight it appears that while women in society have deeply pushed for a political representation, once they seat in Parliament they display to be not so active in promoting women’s interests. An example is the fight occurred in Tunisia for the amendment of the Personal Status Code (PSC) enacted in 1959. Despite being remarkably progressive, the PSC entails some discriminations, especially in the area of succession rights. The effort for its modification, however, has been led more by civil society, and in particular by the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, than by women MPs. Similarly the recently adopted modification to the Law No. 40 of 14 May 1975, concerning passports and travel documents, which now allows children to travel with mothers without male authorisation, has been proposed by the Internal Ministry and by the Ministry of Women, Family and Childhood, thus by the Government and not by women MPs. In conclusion, through an examination of such dynamics, an attempt will be made to identify similarities and differences with other cases in the area, in order to eventually draw some reflections on the strategies enacted to pursue women’s interests.

Women participation in national parliaments in Africa is marred by patriarchal impunity which is as corrosive as of neopatrimonialism in African politics. Patriarchal practises are those wild forms of African masculinity which tend to exclude or marginalise women in public spheres through direct intimidation or through the resuscitation, invention and misuse of culture, tradition and religion. In essence, patriarchy is the domination of women by men, and this relationship between the sexes exemplifies what the sociologist Max Weber calls Herrschaft, a relationship of domination and subordination. This paper focuses on the manifestation of African patriarchial impunity in the legislatures of two African countries-Swaziland and Nigeria. Swazi patriarchal revivalism is the retreat of women members of parliament by 96 per cent after 2013 elections. The last 2013 legislative elections in Swaziland were a big waterloo for women as they lost all their seats. King Mswati III managed to appoint a few women to represent special interest groups. The potential threat of patriarchal impunity is represented by the systematic scathing attacks on the female Senate President, Mrs Zwane, by the Prime Minister for over two years now, repeatedly calling for her dismissal. In the Nigerian House of Representatives, several attempts have been made, since the re-introduction of multipartyism, to marginalise women and reduce their role in politics. Senator Mohammed physically assaulted his female colleague, Senator Anisulowo, in October 2004. This assault was one of the scandalous climaxes of patriarchal impunity in Nigerian politics. A March 2016 bill seeking to guarantee women equal rights with their male counterparts in Nigeria was thrown out by the Senate when it was presented for consideration on grounds that it was anti-Islamic. Essentially, the cause of women's oppression is represented as lying in the timeless male drive for power over women. Key words: Patriarchal impunity; African Politics; Swazi legislature, Nigerian Legislature.


60 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 12 – paper 3

When can electoral gender quotas be a tool for combatting corruption? The case of Tanzania Authors: Elin Bjarnegård, Uppsala University, Sweden, elin. bjarnegard@statsvet.uu.se, Mi Yung Yoon, Hanover College, USA, and Pär Zetterberg, Uppsala University, Sweden As more women enter into politics some studies report that increases in women’s legislative representation help reduce corruption. Other studies question this relationship and argue that it is spurious or goes in the other direction. One under-investigated issue is this debate is the role that electoral gender quotas play. Electoral gender quotas have been adopted in a large number of highly corruption-ridden countries. An important underlying ambition with gender quotas has been to disrupt the power that male-dominated intra-party patronage networks have had over candidate selection. Having an agenda-setting and theory-building ambition, this paper aims at addressing this research lacuna by, first, theorizing the relationship and presenting a framework for the potential links between quotas and corruption. Second, we show the usefulness of the theoretical framework by applying it on an empirical case: Tanzania. The paper argues that if electoral gender quotas are going to be used against corruption two necessary (albeit not sufficient) prerequisites are that they provide a clean slate, i.e. that quota candidates are recruited from new networks and that they are given their own mandate to act on a range of issues once in parliament. If quotas are instead implemented by ruling parties in electoral authoritarian regimes, there is a large risk that they will become yet another item on the “menu of manipulation” and that elected representatives will be expected to protect an already corrupt party line. panel 12 – paper 4

“A woman's place is in Parliament” – African women in national Parliaments Author: Veronica Federico, University of Florence, Italy, veronica.federico@unifi.it The participation of sub-Saharan women in Parliament is constantly increasing, and a number of African

countries have moved from the very bottom to the very top of the world-based list of the countries in terms of women's participation in national Parliaments, and yet, in several countries Parliament remains a male-dominated field. The paper seeks to provide a general overview of the state of the art of the literature on women members of African Parliaments, against the evidence of numbers and specific case-studies, and to analyse the mechanisms to increase the female presence in African Parliaments on the one hand, and the impacts of an increased female political representation in African Parliaments on the legislation, on the institutions and institutional culture, on civil society, on the political landscape, on the media, on the other. Finally, the paper will discuss the importance of a stronger female presence in Parliament toincrease and enhance democracy in Africa. panel 12 – paper 5

Gendering institutions – The role of the party structures for women’s political representation in Parliament in Ghana Author: Diana Højlund Madsen, Aalborg University, Denmark, dmadsen@cgs.aau.dk The paper explores the role of the party structures for the representation of women for the two major parties in Ghana – NDC the ruling party (National Democratic Congress) and NPP the major opposition party (New Patriotic Party). Paradoxically, Ghana was the first country in Africa to introduce a quota with ten reserved seats for women in Parliament by the first president Kwame Nkrumah but has now fallen behind other countries with a representation of 11 % women in the last elections in 2012. The paper explores if the party structures works as a barrier or possibility for the promotion of female candidates for Parliament and how the female Parliamentarians actually has made it into politics in Ghana within the gendered party structures. Drawing on the body of literature on feminist institutionalism the paper explores the dynamics of power and change relating to the party structures and how the responses have been from the party structures on initiatives to promote more female candidates in Parliament. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 61

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62 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 13

Women and nation building in Portuguese speaking African countries: contributions for a theoretical reflexion

T

he study of Gender relations and of how research has been using the category “Gender” as a central analytical concept has been drawing a growing and systematic attention in the social sciences, especially since the 1970s. In this sense, feminist criticism drew attention in global terms to the need to “deconstruct” post-colonial studies by questioning some important precepts in knowledge production from a Gender perspective: who produces it, under what social and political conditions this knowledge is formulated, and to whom it is addressed. As far as “African studies” are concerned, the question that arises and seems to be important is that Gender is also an epistemological issue since the conceptual category is intrinsically linked in its origin, constitution and expression to Western culture. In other words, Gender categories derive from the foundations of European social thought and the idea that the cultural logic of social categories is based on the ideology of biological determinism. However, this “bio” logic of the social world cannot be seen as universally applicable. The new scientific agenda and the ongoing search for research objects emerging from local social realities did not necessarily imply the participation of African intellectuals in this knowledge building process. In this regard, the African academic debate on Gender themes has since the early 1980s been systematically interrogating the applicability and the efficiency of some concepts which are universally acknowledged to define African social and historical realities. (Amadiume, 1987; Oyéwùmí, 1997). The Portuguese Speaking African Countries, known as PALOP-Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa, share a common colonial past and are historically known as countries belonging to the “second decolonization”. They have been independent since the mid-1970s, have experienced dissimilar historical and political pathways and have internal sociocultural differences. However, they all could count on the contribution of women in their social emancipation and national liberation processes. Notwithstanding the important women’s role to the liberation movements in those countries, the post-independence era was arguably not followed by a political agenda in terms of Gender equity. Contrary to expactations and


Presentations of panels and papers | 63

considering local and regional differences, most women were confronted with the “betrayal” of the promises that were made as far as the promotion of their socio-economic and political status in the following years was concerned. It is, therefore, important to reflect on what were the effective achievements resulting from women’s participation in the liberation struggles and, more importantly, to understand what happened once independence had been secured in 1974-1975. The question that arises concerns the extent to which (un)successful emancipation in the PALOP can be explained by an understanding of Gender which is (un)able to retrieve the realities of those countries. From a broader theoretical discourse on Gender relations in Africa and life trajectories of women who participated in the independence processes in the PALOP, we intend to make room to analyses that seek to problematize the narratives and/or official discourses produced – discourses which, to be sure, may have been romanticised.. The proposals should focus on the methodology of oral history based on gender analysis. Rather than recognizing the importance of women’s participation in the independence struggles, our interest is to seek a better understanding of some theoretical and conceptual issues and new challenges, from women viewpoints and considering the following questions: 1. What notions of Gender were deployed in those settings? 2. What processes of translation were carried out to render those concepts intelligible? 3. What other approaches to Gender were abandoned to privilege the understanding of patriarcalism entertained by the liberation movements? 4. How can women retrieve their own stories and negotiate political power in those countries? Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 132 Organisers: Patrícia Godinho Gomes, Federal University of Bahía, Brazil, patuxagomes@gmail.com, and Isabel Maria Casimiro, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique


64 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

» A vision that reproduces and does not challenge the tasks of the ‘woman, mother, wife and tractor driver’ « Isabel Maria Casimiro, panel 13, paper 4

panel 13 – paper 1

The Angolan women in the liberation struggle and nation building process. The case of Luzia Inglês Van-Dúnem Author: Patricio Batsikama Mampuya Cipriano, University Agostinho Neto, Angola, 23327@ufp.edu.pt From a global viewpoint on the participation of Angolan Women in the process of independence and Nation building, and based on oral history methodology focused on the life history of a former combatant, Luzia Inglês Van-Dúnem, commonly known as “Comrade Inga”, my objective is to analyse the nation building process in Angola and women’s role in the liberation struggle context from Luzia Inglês Van-Dúnem’s experience. More specifically, I aim to: 1. Understand the reasons behind the systematic silencing of Angolan Women’s voices and of their narratives in the Official History of the country; 2. Discuss and reflect on the importance of promo ting and disseminating the social history of Ango lan Women in the liberation struggle and contri bute to provide the creation of an academic space to analyse the contents and results of researches on this theme; 3. Discuss gender equality’s issues in a historical and anthropological perspective, focusing the issue of equal opportunities. Luzia Inglês Van-Dúnem is one of the most relevant figures in Angola today, not only because of her individual trajectory, but – also – because she represents the place of Woman in Angolan society. My work is based on the use of oral history and archival research methodology to understand the role of “History in Female” (Joan Scott). To what extents Luzia Inglês Van-Dúnem’s life history can be useful to understand the need of women’s inclusion in the nation building

process and national project in Angola? Key-words: Luzia Inglês Van-Dúnem, feminism in Angola, Gender. panel 13 – paper 2

The representation of the presence and participation of capeverdean women in the national liberation movement (1956 - 1974) by the colonial authorities and the P.A.I.G.C.'s structures Author: Ângela Sofia Benoliel Coutinho, Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal, coutinhoangela@hotmail.com Officially found in 1956 in Bissau, the PAIGC (African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde) has carried out its political activity until 1974, being one of the very few african liberation movements to obtain the political independence through a war. Having the armed struggle taken place in the territory of Guinea-Bissau, since 1963, involving the population of this former portuguese colony, the participation of guinean women has been known throughout the whole process. The participation of capeverdean women, in a much smaller scale, has been instead largely unnoticed, being usually refered only the names of two or three persons. After the independence, this aspect of the struggle for national liberation became hardly perceivable, even invisible to most of the citizens of the archipelago of Cape Verde. Nevertheless, about 40 capeverdean women were identified having actively militated in the P.A.I.G.C. in different periods of the whole larger one took into consideration (1956 – 1974). These women, coming from several islands or from the countries where ca-


Presentations of panels and papers | 65

peverdean communities are established, were born between the decades of 1920 and 1940, and they had then several social origins. In this communication, we aim, firstly, to rebuild their trajectories as militants, trying to understand the roles they played in this process. Through the anaysis of the testemonies and the archival documentation, it will also be possible to question the way as, on the one hand, the colonial authorities, and on the other, the P.A.I.G.C.’s structures perceived, interpreted and represented the presence and the participation of these women in this socio-political movement that has conducted the most significant changes in the capeverdean society until now. panel 13 – paper 3

Struggling gender in Guinea-Bissau: Women's participation on and off the liberation record Authors: Catarina Laranjeiro, CES, University of Coimbra, Portugal, catarina.laranjeiro@gmail.com, and Inês Galvão, ICS, University of Lisbon, Portugal, galvines@gmail.com The participation of women in Guinea-Bissau's liberation struggle was one of the main political banners presented by PAIGC for legitimating its anti-colonial program, amidst an international field framed by Cold War anxieties. Views on the struggle as a fight against a double colonialism, tangling established patriarchy with European domination, would inform nation-building narratives as well as gender policies throughout and after independence. In order to understand how this state-building project dialogued with contemporary political agendas and feminist theory, we cross dominant narratives with oral histories told in a persistently marginal countryside, where few written or visual records are kept. Being there, we've been confronted with performativities fragmented by moments of both proud enthusiasm and stillness or muttering, as well as by a significantly complex set of translation and mediation. Variations on national liberation history invite us to rethink readings on past and present unitarian discourses. It also invites us to disassemble gender categories put forward by people's mobilization and by our own academic and personal backgrounds. Our presentation

is based on an ongoing exercise of contrasting sources of shadow and re/iteration, indulging in a quest for recovering social textures that may help build up sensibilities to further understand emotions around notions of female subalternity or dependence, and emancipation or autonomy. panel 13 – paper 4

From emancipation to liberation. Women’s participation in the armed struggle in Mozambique (1962-1974) Author: Isabel Maria Casimiro, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique, isabelmaria.casimiro@gmail.com In the 60s and 70s, the Mozambique Liberation Front, FRELIMO argued that the emancipation of women should take place simultaneously with the struggle for liberation from colonial rule, within the building of a new society, adding that only the participation of women in the fight, and on all fronts, could advance the revolutionary process with a view to a society free from all forms of oppression. This position was embodied in the phrase "Women's participation is a necessity of the revolution, ensuring their continuity, condition of its triumph", pronounced by Samora Machel during the creation of the Mozambican Women's Organisation, OMM, in 1973 . The armed struggle has shown that one of the main indicators of progress and setbacks of the revolution, was connected to the women's liberation process and their participation has forced a rethinking about their role in society, on social relations with men on the division of activities between women and men, and about the kind of society to build, resulting in a symbolic rupture in gender relations. But the vision of FRELIMO on the participation of women during the armed struggle and after independence of Mozambique in 1975, seeks greater equality between women and men, without changing the stereotypes, sexual division of labor at the household level, the gender relations and power, access and control of resources and ideology. It is not a vision of woman’s liberation, of equality of rights, recognizing the differences between women and men. It is a vision that reproduces and does not challenge the tasks of the "woman, mother, wife and tractor driver", within the sexual division of labor, being women seen as a passive recipient of development. 

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66 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 14

Gender, sexuality and violence during and after humanitarian crises

I

t is widely acknowledged that humanitarian crises caused by conflicts, natural hazards, and public health emergencies such as Ebola impact people differently depending on their gender, age, ethnicity, and other social markers. However, we have limited understanding of exactly how those impacts are gendered. In addition, relatively little is known about the gendered nature of people’s responses to their circumstances in the midst of such crises, and how crises may (re)shape gender relations and social norms. This panel, convened by the Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium (SLRC), will explore sexual violence and exploitation as well as the use of transactional sex as a livelihoods strategy in crisis contexts in several countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The panel invites contributions on sexual violence, sexual exploitation, transactional sex, masculinities in humanitarian crises, and aid interventions addressing the above issues. Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: Blüsenhus, house 12, room 230 Organiser: Rachel Gordon, Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium and Tufts University, USA, rachel.gordon@tufts.edu Discussant: Ingela Winter-Norberg, Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), ingela.winter-norberg@sida.se


Presentations of panels and papers | 67

» Women who return with children born of sexual war crimes experience ongoing re-victimisation « Atim & Mazurana, panel 14, paper 2

panel 14 – paper 1

All violence is gender(ed) violence: men, women, and aid programming in crisis Author: Rachel Gordon, Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium and Tufts University, USA, Rachel.Gordon@tufts.edu Discussions of gender, violence, and conflict usually focus on sexual and gender-based violence. “SGBV” has become such a common catch-all term that the acronym is rarely explained, much less unpacked, and it has dominated some headlines along with NGO budget ledgers governing aid response to many conflicts. Prostitution, early marriage and pregnancy, and FGM, associated with both conflict and ‘recovery’ contexts across the continent, are similarly recipients of consternation, concern, and capital resources intended by well-meaning policymakers and aid practitioners to bring an end to such ‘scourges.’ This paper draws on research in South Sudan, Uganda, and Sierra Leone to interrogate these well-intentioned efforts, which tend to repeat and reproduce the unfortunate – and unfortunately common – conflation of ‘sexual’ and ‘gender’ with ‘women,’ with several effects. First, this tends to ignore sexual violence against men, including the ways in which men are forced to commit violence (sexual and otherwise) against women or other men as part of their participation in armed groups. It overlooks the ways in which violence both committed and experienced by men is based in socialized demands of male demonstration of masculinity. It also elides structural and economic violence against women, and the gendered manifestations of the every-day violence of poverty and desperation that drive participation in ‘risky’ occupations and behaviours by men and women, and boys and girls alike. Finally, programming responses tend to focus on ‘empower-

ment’ of women and girls – as if power exists to be redistributed by authorities and aid agencies – rather than addressing larger social norms and narratives that normalize violence, misogyny, and male dominance. Key words: Gender, Africa, Crisis, Aid, SGBV. panel 14 – paper 2

Surviving the post conflict: The everyday lives of women survivors of sexual war crimes and their children born of rape in Northern Uganda Authors: Teddy Atim, teddy.atim@tufts.edu, and Dyan Mazurana, both from Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium, Uganda, and Tufts University, USA Sexual war crimes against women and their children born of rape has gained increased attention. Evidence exists of the long term consequences of experiencing such violence on attaining social harmony in the post conflict periods. Studies show that girls and women who return with children born of sexual war crimes experience ongoing re-victimisation and discrimination. This paper draws on both quantitative and qualitative data to explore and analyse the lives of female survivors of conflict related sexual violence and their children born of war in Lango and Acholi sub regions of Northern Uganda. The paper provides more nuances to their daily lives, challenges and survival of the mothers and their children. The findings show that ongoing challenges faced by the mothers and their children are deeply rooted in the socio-cultural norms and practices that are discriminatory and stigmatising towards women, and which become amplified by experiences of sexual violence and having children outside marriage, in particular with Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) commanders.


68 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 14 – paper 3

Sexual violence response in the Democratic Republic of Congo Author: Nynke Douma, Independent research consultant Whyze Communications & Research, Netherlands, n.douma@whyze.eu The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is known internationally for its vast mineral resources, its wars, and the conflict-related sexual violence that has affected the lives of a very large number of victims. Along with the growing awareness of these phenomena, the number of programmes addressing sexual violence in DRC is impressive, with remarkable achievements in diminishing taboos, helping victims heal and recover, and criminalising and prosecuting perpetrators. Over the past years, however, questions have emerged about the effects and effectiveness of sexual violence response programmes. Research conducted in 2011 revealed a number of negative effects related to the complexity of the problem, the political, social and cultural context in DRC, and false assumptions and biases in the interventions. Based on these findings, we argued that sexual violence in DRC was often understood as a single-cause, single-type phenomenon (rape caused by conflict), without taking the complex context into consideration. We also note that programmes too often dealt with symptoms rather than contributing factors, and fail to include broader themes and wider community needs. This risks creating false victims and parallel services. Furthermore, coordination was poor and sexual violence assistance was largely detached from overall development planning. Finally, the interventions in the justice sector failed to ensure the independent functioning of Congolese legal actors and often created unfair trials. Congolese stakeholders and some international actors had already identified most of these critiques, but they had not yet been openly debated. As this was expected to change, follow- up research was conducted in 2014 to identify how engagement and practices on sexual violence response had evolved. It was found that since 2011, attention to sexual violence has indeed become more regulated and coordination has improved, including with regard to the engagement of the Congolese government. The approaches of actors dealing with sexual violence also changed, with more attention for other forms of gender-based violence, women’s empowerment and leadership. Victim-oriented support largely transformed into community-based responses. There is also more

recognition of other medical needs. However, the discrepancy between international rhetoric and realities on the ground is large, with international representations still focusing on conflict related rape. This is problematic from an ethical point of view, comes at the expense of transparency, and makes it difficult to scrutinize programmes for their effectiveness. Another major concern is that the fight against impunity has found a way in the political economy of survival and corruption, especially in the cities, where accusations of sexual violence are often used for revenge or extortion. Citizen disengagement with the issue of sexual violence has become stronger as a result. panel 14 – paper 4

“Kila mutu alisha kuwa chef”: Economic life of markets in east DRC: Case of Bukavu Author: Gloria Nguya, Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium and Wageningen University, Netherlands, gloria.nguya@wur.nl / glorianguya@gmail.com It’s often assumed that governance in fragile states is related to the absence of institutions of the state or the incapacity of the state to assume its role as provider of basics services. This argument is frequently used in relation to DRC, particularly eastern DRC. Since 1996, eastern DRC has become a territory of conflict. It makes the area an interesting place to come to a better understanding of the role of the state in situations where it is considered not to exist or seen as collapsing. To better understand the role of the state, this research will look at the organisation of the market place as a particular place where both state and non-state actors play a role in governance. To get access to the market, people and particularly women need to understand the rules of the game. The sociology of economic life approach is really helpful in understanding different actors involved in the organisation of markets, and to depict the interaction of formal and informal spheres in everyday economic life. In this paper, the exploration of these rules highlights the presence of the state which is often said to be absent or non-existing, the relevance of hybrid governance in the market, the role of different networks in the markets, and finally the interaction between formal and informal market. Most important, the paper suggests that the interaction of formal and informal institutions are taking advantage of vulnerable women, especially Internally Displaced Persons.


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ebruary 2016

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CALL FOR PAPERS  Gender and social change in Africa.

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lack of water  VIDEO INTERVIEW  Providin g clean water is a challenge in Africa's growing cities.

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panel 14 – paper 5

At home and in the bush: Sex, marriage, and masculinity among (ex)combatants in northern Uganda Author: Holly Porter, London School of Economics and Political Science, UK, h.e.porter@lse.ac.uk, When it comes to rape in war, evocative language of rape as “weapon of war” or the female body as battlefield are commonplace. Yet often such language does not map onto the lived experiences of men and women caught up in violence and assumes a level deliberate strategicness that can distort understandings of actions of fighters in armed groups – and thus theories of rape in war. For young men in the Lord’s Resistance Army, they were often (though not always) forcibly conscripted as teenagers into a group with a high level of sexual regulation – where opportunities for sex were in one of two ways: as a reward in the form of a forced marriage – usually not with a partner of their choosing;

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or, in violation of strictly enforced rules where consequences included death or castration. In this context, many male LRA fighters came of age, often had “wives” and fathered children. However, little is known about how these experiences of “the bush” shape their current, post-reintegration, intimate relations and understandings of masculinity. Based on over seven years of ethnographic work in northern Uganda focused on gender and sexual violence and long-term relationships with ex-LRA, this paper examines understandings of masculinities through the lens of sexual relationships young men had with women and girls in the LRA compared to their civilian sexual relationships in civilian life. The paper moves towards explanations of the sexual relationships (whether violent or not) of ex-combatants by giving attention to the interplay between personal agency of young men seeking affirmation of manhood through their intimate relationships as well as the bodily enactment of broader masculine sexual norms in the moral spaces of “bush” and “home.” Key words: Gender, Africa, War. 

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70 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 15

The Ebola epidemic in West Africa:

Caregivers’ disease and game changer

T

he Ebola epidemic in West Africa has been called a game-changer in global health. It exposed weakness in the international preparedness to health security threat from its ground zero in a small and isolated village in Guinea. From there it spread rapidly to neighbouring countries with Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia the ones most affected by the epidemic. The epidemic was also perceived as a threat to health all over the world. On the ground, Ebola was referred to as caregivers disease, indicating the high transmission rate and subsequent mortality in Ebola of those who cared for patients, healthcare workers and community members alike, in particular women. The overall aim of the panel is to identify, discern and synthesize challenges and opportunities for preparedness, prevention, and containment of global health threats such as the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa. We aim to bring together an international and inter-disciplinary group of researchers and practitioners to focus on the social, economic, political and cultural realities of the Ebola epidemic that can either contribute to preparedness, prevention and containment of epidemics, such as EVD, or facilitate its spread. Papers are invited that address the manifold challenges of the Ebola epidemic and lessons learned, including human rights violations and the gender dimensions. The impact of Ebola on caregivers, including women as a group and professionals, is of particular concern both during and after the epidemic. How has the epidemic affected women’s access to and use of health care facilities during pregnancy and birth? Has the international community a role to play to strengthen health systems, or is that a national responsibility? How can donors and recipients collaborate to improve preparedness, prevention, and containment of future epidemics and health threats such as Ebola? Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: Blüsenhus, house 12, room 20 Organiser: Geir Gunnlaugsson, University of Iceland, Iceland , geirgunnlaugsson@hi.is


Presentations of panels and papers | 71

» This epidemics was the occasion to discover and analyse a widespread mistrust towards the authorities « Abdoulaye Wotem Somparé, panel 15, paper 1

panel 15 – paper 1

Ebola: the politics of mistrust Author: Abdoulaye Wotem Somparé, awsompare@gmail. com (The paper will be presented by Hamadou Boir, National Institute for Studies and Research Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, samnaboiro@hotmail.com) One of the most striking aspects of the recent epidemics of Ebola in West Africa, and especially in Guinea, was the abundance of attitudes of reticence and resistance of urban and rural communities, determined not to respect the recommendations of the authorities, or to impede their action even through violence. Resistances were mostly based on the idea that the epidemics did not exist and was the result of a conspiracy organized by the State against with the help of the International Institutions. This epidemics was the occasion to discover and analyse a widespread mistrust towards the authorities, perceived, according to Bayart’s description (2009) , as corrupted and uninterested in the well-being of local people . Such attitudes were thrived by a political context of bipolarization, in which some leaders of the opposition party tended to make an instrumental use of rumours, in order to weaken the support to the Government .After a year of fieldwork on resistances as a consultant of WHO, I will try to present the historical and socio-political reasons of the common feeling of mistrust, deception and abandon, directed both towards the State and local political and moral authorities, perceived as partners of the Government and increasingly delegitimized. I will also show how the epidemics has been the occasion, for many unheeded communities , to finally express their needs and claims to the authorities. Finally, I will analyse how Ebola has disrupted the social ties and hierarchies of many rural areas, eroding gerontocracy to the advantage of new social actors, taking part of networks relating villages and towns, able to provide information, control rumours and influence public opinion.

panel 15 – paper 2

The challenges of EVD in Guinea: the puzzle of monitoring contacts Author: Hamadou Boiro, National Institute for Studies and Research Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, samnaboiro@hotmail.com During the Ebola epidemic in Guinea, monitoring the whereabouts of contacts was a major task and an obstacle to interrupt the infection chain. After the death of a woman who tested positive for Ebola Virus Disease (EDV) in one village in Gberika Forecariah District, a list of one hundred contacts with her was established. Among them was a friend who undid the braids of the deceased woman who fled the village when identified as a contact. Despite active search for more than 42 days, she was never found. The main objective of this presentation is to document and analyze this case of lost contact in the village in order to illuminate the challenges that faced the Ebola workers. To find the woman several approaches and strategies were put in place, including use of force when her husband and parents were arrested and socio-anthropological approach that applied kinship networks, women’s networks, and collaboration with leaders. The results highlight that when communities decide to hide a person that person cannot be found. Underneath, there was competition between members of the Ebola team to find the lost woman. In Guinea there are even villages local authorities can not access, such as this village. Even the Prime Minister came to talk to the population that added to politicization of the Ebola response. The population became more afraid of the team that worked to eradicate Ebola than the disease itself. A key recommendation is to establish community engagement that builds on existing traditional networks in which the population has trust. Further, with proper community involvement stigmatization of Ebola survivors can been fought.


72 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

» In former cholera epidemics in Europe and North America similar popular reactions are documented « Jónína Einarsdóttir, panel 15, paper 4

panel 15 – paper 3

Ebola preparedness in Guinea-Bissau: frontline healthcare workers Author: Geir Gunnlaugsson, University of Iceland, Iceland, geirgunnlaugsson@hi.is The Ebola epidemic in West Africa has exposed weakness in international preparedness to health security threats with implications for the whole world. Guinea-Bissau has since the start of the epidemic been exposed to the risk of Ebola exposure through cross-border transmission from Guinea (Conakry) with which it shares a porous 400 km long border, and daily contacts through fishermen. Here the aim is to describe and analyse knowledge, practice and attitudes of frontline healthcare workers in Guinea-Bissau vis-à-vis Ebola preparedness for an eventual outbreak in the country. Qualitative interviews were held in 2015 and 2016. Over-all results indicate that in a country with a fragile health system, as Guinea-Bissau, it is difficult to stick to high-level preparedness for months. With on-going flare-ups of Ebola in the neighbouring country, Guinea-Bissau needs strong global support, both in preparedness for an outbreak, but also how to cope in case Ebola is diagnosed within the country. panel 15 – paper 4

Preparedness for Ebola in Guinea-Bissau: lessons learned from cholera epidemics Author: Jónína Einarsdóttir, University of Iceland, Iceland, je@hi.is In the early phase of the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone, correct

diagnosis was difficult. The disease was new in the area, and frontline health workers were unaware of its recent introduction. Symptoms of EVD are also similar to commonly occurring diseases, for example malaria, typhoid and cholera, which contributed to delayed recognition of an epidemic in the making. The population had no prior experience of the new disease that increasingly spread death and despair. Misguided preventive activities and political interventions contributed to population mistrust and violence against health workers and others fighting the epidemic. In former cholera epidemics in Europe and North America where mortality rates exceeded 50% similar popular reactions are documented. The aim of this presentation is to explore local responses to new threatening diseases such as cholera and Ebola. Are there any lessons that can be learned from cholera epidemics of importance for prevention of EVD? The data presented rests on qualitative and quantitative research conducted in Biombo Region, Guinea-Bissau, during cholera epidemics in the 1990s as well as interviews on Ebola with villagers in the region in 2015 and 2016. The 1994 cholera epidemic in Biombo Region prompted ritual practices that aimed to curtail the epidemic. The population observed that most of those who sought treatment were cured, although mortality levels varied greatly between the health centers. Nurses working at a health center with high mortality rates were victims of violence and accusations of sorcery. Likewise, guidelines given by local authorities for disinfection of cadavers deceased of cholera and a quick burial were not followed by all. Similar rituals have been performed to prevent eventual Ebola epidemic as in the 1990s to prevent transmission of cholera, and traditional authorities prohibited certain burial rituals for a while. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 73

panel 16

Gender research and genderresponsive methodologies

G

ender is a crosscutting issue in any contemporary social research. In this panel the question is posed: How do researchers include gender in their research and what research methodologies specifically take gender into account? How do we move from gender blind research methods to methods that are gender-responsive or gender-sensitive, methodologically taking into account, or giving special attention to gendered dynamics and various social and cultural gender norms or imbalances? This panel offers a forum for proposing, discussing, and appraising various methodological issues, tools, techniques, and sources in gender research and gender-responsive methodologies applied in research on contemporary Africa. The forum is intended to engage these questions in a wider sense, encouraging the submission of abstracts that address issues related to all phases of research, including formulating research questions, concept formation, data collection, data analysis, and dissemination. We aim to take stock of current developments, continue existing debates, and open up spaces for possible new issues pertaining to gender-responsive research methodologies within and outside the sphere of gender research. We particularly encourage panel paper submissions that focus on the following: • Methodological innovations and their implications for research on gender in present-day Africa – for example: new quantitative and qualitative methods; new tools; social media; mixed methods; interdisciplinary research; transdisciplinarity; collection, analysis and the application of sex-disaggregated data. • Methodological concerns, problems, practices and solutions in the analysis of key themes of gender research in Africa. • How gender-responsive approaches inform research and the application of gender-responsive research methodologies for research in which gender is not the overarching theme. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 132 Organiser: Erla Hlín Hjálmarsdóttir, erlah@hi.is, and Pétur Waldorff, United Nations University Gender Equality Studies and Training Programme, Iceland


74 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

» States with greater gender inequality are more likely to go to war « Sumit Roy, panel 16, paper 4

panel 16 – paper 1

Reconstructing gender through comparative historical linguistics: A South African case study

panel 16 – paper 1

Method of engagement in gender research

Author: Raevin Jimenez, Northwestern University, USA, rfjimenez@u.northwestern.edu

Author: Thera Mjaaland, Independent researcher affiliated to UiB Global, University of Bergen, Norway, thera.mjaaland@uib.no

Gender studies in Africa overwhelmingly focus on the post-19th century period, with few key studies venturing into the more distant past. One of the reasons for this is the dearth of evidence for the pre-colonial period, and especially of the sort that allows for sustained and in-depth discursive analysis conducive to the study of gender. My research seeks to develop research protocols drawing on combined comparative historical linguistic and archaeological data, paired with gender-sensitive theoretical framing in order to pursue gender histories among Nguni-speakers of South Africa, 8th-19th century. The proposed paper addresses the challenges and shortfalls of using reconstructive methodologies in order to access gender in the distant past. It also discusses some of the valuable insights available only through this approach, including challenges to broad categories like “patriarchy,” “femininity,” and “masculinity.” In particular, my research counters the notion that pre-19th century Nguni-speaking communities organized socially around patriarchy, and that women occupied a marginal position in society. Female subordination, especially through marriage, emerged only in the last two hundred years, and initially only in coastal communities such as the Zulu kingdom. The process of marginalization was, however, incomplete until the codification of customary law as a function of the “invention of tradition” in colonial South Africa.

Post-colonial feminist critique of Western feminists’ imperialist blind spots when doing gender research in Africa is premised on the assumption that North-South research is always a one-way communication. Longterm involvement in one district in north-western Tigray in North Ethiopia over a couple of decades has meant being involved in discussions on gender issues over time where also my perspectives have been up for discussion. From this dialogue it has become clear that biases and blind spots do not belong to outsiders only. In order to identify where power passes unquestioned in gendered social practices (cf. Bourdieu), a multitude of research methods has been necessary; ranging from participatory observation and informal dialogue, to indepth interviews, explorative enquetes as well as visual methods (stills and film). In my current project where I probe into competing discourses on youth sexual and reproductive health from a gender perspective in the case of contraceptive use and abortion, I produced a short cinematic edutainment drama (23 minutes) that was used to initiate discussion among female and male secondary school students, teachers, parents, health workers and clergy. This drama, “Choices & Consequences”, is based on taken for granted gender norms defined in my earlier research; such as the disproportional burden of sexual morality that girls/women are left to shoulder and the lack of focus on boys’/men’s responsibility when sexuality is at issue. Screening of this


Presentations of panels and papers | 75

drama will be followed by reflection on the advantages and challenges of using this method of engagement in gender research. panel 16 – paper 3

Gender-responsive value chain analyses as a social research strategy Authors: Erla Hlín Hjálmarsdottir, University of Iceland, Iceland, erlah@hi.is, and Pétur Waldorff, the Nordic Africa Institute and University of Iceland. In this paper, we discuss gender-responsive value chain analysis as a methodology for scholarly inquiry and a tool for informing development interventions. Value chain analysis (VCA), as a research methodology and an analytical tool, originates in business studies and has in recent years been modified to focus on and capture gendered dimensions. The approach opted for is not to solely regard the gender-responsive element as an added dimension to the conventional VCA, but rather as a conceptual framework for carrying out gender research in Africa. Gender-responsive value chain analysis is hence regarded as a valuable social research strategy which accommodates the use of different methods to capture complex social contexts and their underlying gendered dynamics. Further, it is argued that gender-responsive VCA can serve as a logic for research design and guide field research. The gender-responsive value chain analysis methodology is presented through a case from the small-scale fisheries value chain on the Lake Tanganyika shore in the Kigoma region of Tanzania. The research follows the value chain from fishing boats, through landing sites, to fish processing on shore and markets, and finally, to the consumer. Its goal is to supplement the knowledge of gendered aspects of small-scale fish processing, which traditionally has primarily been the role of women in Tanzania. The paper presents gender-responsive value chain analysis as a research methodology, using the case of Lake Tanganyika, and describes the underlying logic of the approach, its challenges and advantages.

panel 16 – paper 4

Gender, international relations and African development: Challenges Author: Sumit Roy, Visiting Senior Research Fellow, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India, sumitroy100@hotmail.com This paper will unfold through political economy the ways in which International Relations (IR) has incorporated gender relations and how this impinges on African developmental challenges. This unfolds ‘gender’ as a relevant analytical, empirical and normative category for re-thinking world orders. This contests power and knowledge of mainstream Realist and Liberal IR and calls for a shift of IR away from a singular focus on inter state relations to a fuller understanding of transnational relations and global politics stressing the role of non state actors with special interest in gender perceptions. In this respect, till recently IR has centred on the causes of war and conflict and global expansion of trade and commerce with no particular reference to people. This makes it critical to investigate the extent to which femininist positions help to explain and improve IR encompassing the ways in which feminist IR throws light on global politics- exemplified by militarization and economic globalisation. In this respect, a key challenge confronting feminists in Africa is how to overcome the exclusion of women’s lives and experiences from IR and its impact on male biases in the development process. Indeed, it emerges that women have been a cheap and flexible source of labour in free trade zones with the downside of globalisation exposing sex tourism and transnational trafficking of women for prostitution. Moreover, poor implementation of projects pose major problems in eradicating poverty and empowering communities. However, it is often more efficient to provide women with appropriate agricultural technology, credit financing, education and health resources. Moreover, states with greater gender inequality are more likely to go to war or engage in state supporting violence against women. The study offers analytical and policy insights into gender and development in Africa. 

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76 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 17

Gender socialization in rural South Africa

T

he last century saw changes in gender due to globalization. Whilst urban communities are deemed to be more amenable to change, rural communities seem to either be slow or resistant to change. This panel reports on various aspects of gender socialization in rural parts of South Africa in the era of globalization. Right from birth, boys and girls are treated differently by the members of their own environment, and learn the differences between boys and girls, women and men. Parental and societal expectations from boys and girls, their selection of gender-specific toys, and/or giving gender based assignments at home, school or in the community, seem to imbue differentiating socialization processes. Through a critical intellectual enterprises approach, which states that human beings continuously scrutinise the world around them, we tap into contemporary gender socialisation process in rural South Africa. Changing expectations of men and women in society impact their education, identity, opportunities in the labour market and also draw from their socialisation in the early years. Observable, persistent and dynamic gender differences in behaviour and attainment are well documented around the world. In some cases, these differences are attributable to constructions of either nature or nurture, or a combination of both. These combinations further lead to complex behaviours. This panel also reflects on attempts at addressing gender inequality, discrimination and empowerment. For example, equality in the labour market, educational opportunities, deconstructing gender roles, women representation in leadership and governance are continuously scrutinised to favour women and girls. We argue that due to the fact that socialisation as well as its agents (parents, teachers, and the communities) was used as a vehicle entrenching existing gender postures, the same socialisation will be most appropriate vehicle for de-learning, un-learning and re-learning a new gender code of human existence in rural South African communities. Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 Venue: BlĂĽsenhus, house 12, room 229 Organiser: Dipane Hlalele, University of the Free State, South Africa, hlaleledj@ufs.ac.za


Presentations of panels and papers | 77

panel 17 – paper 1

Gender and education in rural South Africa Author: Dipane Hlalele, University of the Free State, South Africa, hlaleledj@ufs.ac.za Rurality as a function of human existence continues to be associated with strongly entrenched codes of behavioural expectations. Drawing from social learning theory, this paper presents an account of gender and education in rural South Africa. Whilst the degree of conformity and adherence to socially constructed, internalized and perceived expectations is as diverse as humanity can be, there are describable patterns. Research shows that in many rural schools boys and girls are assigned different roles in schools and are also encouraged to follow certain career paths. Conditions also favour them as they stay in school longer than girls. The glaring implication is that they would have a better shot at life. Women and girls constitute twothirds of the world’s poor and women account for two-thirds of the world’s 792 million illiterate adults. Despite progress towards gender parity in education 35 million girls of primary school age and 37 million girls of lower secondary school age are out of school. This paper further teases out the use of socialisation in so far as it assists in the deconstructions of socially crafted gender roles and their impact on education in rural South Africa. panel 17 – paper 2

Gender socialization in the early years Author: Mahudi Mofokeng, University of the Free State, South Africa, MofokengMM@ufs.ac.za Unicef (2007), Asserts that it is generally accepted that early gender socialization is one of the most pertinent issues in early childhood, affecting both boys and girls. The research indicates that the foundations for stereotypes in gender roles are laid through early gender socialization, furthermore early gender socialization starts at birth and is a process of learning cultural roles according to one’s sex (Unicef 2007). Gender socialization is the process by which people learn to behave in a certain way, as dictated by societal beliefs, values, attitudes and examples. In Cairo (2006-Unicef ) they called on governments and others committed to universal education and gender equality to remember that the earliest years are the most critical for children’s development. Unicef (2007) agues that if many of the Millennium Development Goals are to be reached, the children’s agency warned that the cycle of negative gender ste-

reotypes must be broken earlier in a child’s life rather than later. The study reveals that the earliest years are the most critical for children’s development. Therefore it is imperative to investigate this phenomenon in the early years setting. This article seeks to understand that is it that important to have gender socialization in early years. It is evident that primary schools are the important sites where feminists and masculinities are produced. Gender socialization in early years plays a pivotal role in this research because everything revolves around cultural roles according to one’s societal beliefs, values, attitudes and behaviors as appropriate for males and females within a culture. This study will be guided by qualitative approach. panel 17 – paper 3

Gender and commerce in rural South Africa Author: Habasisa Molise, University of the Free State, South Africa, molisehv@ufs.ac.za This paper provides a reflective discussion on gender inequality for commerce in rural South Africa. Gender inequality is a multifaceted phenomenon that, beside education, requires consideration of its economic and political dimensions. UNESCO is adamant on the goal of “eliminating gender disparities in commerce by 2015, with a focus on ensuring woman’s full and equal access to and achievement in commercial fraternity”. The presenter departs from the view that gender equality is partly or not achieved through commerce in rural South Africa. Often, even when women are involved in income producing activities outside the home, their work remains invisible due to their low status. For instance, in the agricultural field, much of the work women do is pre and post-production, such as weeding, livestock rearing, and processing; and because economic value is placed on the actual output, the work is not seen as important. The reversal of gender gap adversities, to the advantage of women as proposed in this paper is a revolution which will gradually transform women’s lives for commerce in rural South Africa. To understand the drivers of this change is important to understand the implication of gender and how it affects commerce. The presenter explores to different degrees, four gender characteristics of livelihoods: the longstanding gender segregation and segmentation of livelihood activities, the disproportionate burden of reproductive activities or care work on women, gender inequalities in the control of land and labour, and the role of economic and social policies and institutions such as markets and households


78 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

530 BOXES WAITING FOR YOU

IN OUR LIBRARY There are 530 cardboard boxes piled up in the basement. Each is filled with up to 100 documents of various sorts – pamphlets, brochures, essays, posters, leaflets and telegrams. These are just some of the treassures that you can find in the NAI Library.

in sustaining gender inequalities in commerce livelihoods. Therefore, gender and development theory is considered to be relevant theoretical lens in constructing how gender misfortunes continue to perpetuate these injustices in rural South Africa. panel 17 – paper 4

Gender and Identity Author: Cias Tsotetsi, University of the Free State, South Africa, tsotetsict@ufs.ac.za This paper argues for the adoption of Botho as one of the theoretical lenses that can narrow the theoretical constructed gap in gender. Botho emphasis the interconnectedness of both privileged and less privileged among human beings. Botho recognizes a respectful interaction amongst human beings. On the other hand, for communities in rural areas, being either a male or a female plays a role in identity formation. An identity refers to either a social category, defined by members rules and characteristic attributes or social-

ly distinguishing features that a person takes pride in or views as unchangeable but socially consequential (or both at once). There are at least two categories to which one can belong, i.e. a dominant or a subordinate group. Researchers speak volumes in how females in rural ecologies are relegated to the margins. Being in the margins they form part of a subordinate group. On the other hand being a male gives, a number of privileges which are not enjoyed by the opposite. Females are being “othered” as they do not belong to the dominant group. The paper explores the inequality which results in the accepted, normalization of identity of the dominant and subordinate groups in rural areas in South Africa. The paper further examines how teachers, in various interaction with school-going learners, treat males and females. In addition, the paper demonstrates the subordinate status linked to being a female. Flowing from the above exploration a lace is constructed which links Botho and identity. The paper concludes by illustrating its contribution to both theory and practice. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 79

panel 19

Social media and mobile communications:

Gender identities in SubSaharan Africa in transition

T

he panel seeks papers that draw from critical theory approaches to engage in discussions on how social media users appropriate online platforms in reconstructing gender identities. It will address the theme of new media and evolving gender identities; mobile communications and social change among rural communities and the urban poor in Africa; gendered social media discourses about ethnicity, violence, corruption and politicians in Sub-Saharan Africa. The opportunities afforded by social media are immense and therefore, what is being witnessed today are online users adapting identities and roles that challenge the prevailing dominant patriarchal society that draws its ideals from a culture that dictates gender binary opposites of male and female identities. Social media has undoubtedly become a core issue in Sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on female users who are appropriating these spaces as avenues of self-expression and emancipatory narratives. In light of rapid technological advancements in Sub-Saharan Africa, the panel hopes to draw references to the dynamics of power and technology in the society and the subsequent role of technological advancements in power dynamics and positioning of public expression and discourses by female users within the prevailing gendered world view. The main emphasis being on drawing a distinction between theory and praxis by researchers who seek to engage in the analysis of technologically mediated gendered discourses. We hope to engage in discussions on how for instance, online platforms can be aggregated as sources of social capital in creating online networks of followers who can then reaffirm one’s identity and in some cases propel one to fame in cases such as viral videos on you tube or users who have substantial followers, which then converts to fame and monetary returns though paid appearances at events, advertising and endorsement of products. The panel welcomes papers seeking to critically engage in analysis of emancipatory gender identities and discourses with regard to analysis of emerging technological structures and their evolving relationships within a postmodern critical theory approach. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 and 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blüsenhus, house 12, room 230 Organiser: Lynete Lusike and Joyce Omwoha, Moi University, Kenya, lusikem@mu.ac.ke


80 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

» The female communicators create identities that seem to defy the social stereotypes of females as invisible, powerless, voiceless « Juliet W.Macharia, panel 19, paper 2

panel 19 – paper 1

New media and the reality of Abla Fahita’s tweets: Is she a fictitious character or a secret agent? Author: Mai Samir El-Falaky, Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Egypt, maismf@hotmail.com Social Media along with linguistic manipulations play an inevitable role in commenting on and communicating socio-economic and political ideologies to wide range of audiences especially in Affrican countries. The study seeks to infer how social media in Egypt plays an important role in representing and investigating the ideologies of social groups. The answer to this question is sought in the content analysis of a famous twitter Account called Abla Fahita or ‘Auntie Fahita’. The study seeks to explore who is the feminine character Abla Fahita, how her tweets are structured, and for what purpose. The ideological implication of the analysis is determined through a linguistic description of the tweets which are targeted to a large number of audiences who follow the tweets of this fictitious character. Key words: Content analysis; new media; discourse analysis; linguistic; language use; social networks. panel 19 – paper 2

The role of social media in communicating gender identity: The contradiction between cyberspace presence and the reality in Africa Author: Juliet W.Macharia, Karatina University, Kenya, juliemach@yahoo.com The development of technology in the 21st century has enabled global communication enabling the senders and receivers of messages to be visible in the communication process. The social media, accessed through the mobile phones in Africa have created visibility of

populations who would have remained voiceless in the vast world, governed and regulated by a patriarchal worldview. Research shows that for adults who have social media accounts, more than 50% users are female except for those ones that attract a mainly male users. The female communicators create identities that seem to defy the social stereotypes of females as invisible, powerless, voiceless and in the African continent as receivers of development. However, this visibility seem to remain virtual and the identities created live in cyberspace. This paper discusses the role of the social media in Africa’s development. The availability and use of social media through mobile phones is examined in relation to the role of the media in communicating female identity in a globalized Africa .Issues of the hidden chains in the females perceived empowerment are highlighted ,focusing attention on how despite the cyberspace visibility ,most females in Africa have not used the opportunities offered by social media to transform their lives and those of others in the continent.What have the females achieved through social media? That is the question. Key words: Cyberspace, development, gender, identity, patriarchy and socialization. panel 19 – paper 3

Moving health campaigns to new horizons: a paradigm shift towards digital health care Author: Alfred O. Akwala, The Technical University of Kenya, Kenya, akwala08@yahoo.com According to the World Health Organization (WHO), every minute, at least one woman dies from complications related to pregnancy and childbirth, translating to about 585,000 women losing lives each year due to child-birth related complications. In Kenya, it is approximated that 6,000 women die annually during childbirth, with infant mortality approximated at 488


Presentations of panels and papers | 81

» Amber Rose, a celebrity who earned a living working as a stripper, has gone an extra mile to popularise her feminist movement ‘Slut Walk’ « Joyce Omwoha, panel 19, paper 4

for every 100,000 live births. There is urgent need for intervention, and one such strategy is effective health communication which can help raise awareness of health risks and equip communities with skills to reduce these risks. Modern information and communication technologies (ICTs) have a pivotal role to play in tackling health-related problems, by empowering individuals and equipping decision makers with timely information about critical health issues. There is a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the potential for mobile communications to radically improve healthcare services among the rural poor populations. Traditionally, mobile phone was restricted to making calls and send text messages to single individuals at a time, but now with the prevailing mobile phone developments, content of various media types such as text, audio, picture, video can be shared with many individuals across social networks within a very short time. Maternal health information can be created, distributed and consumed through the use of the mobile phone. This study aimed to evaluate the appropriation of mobile phone applications in enhancing Maternal-Child health knowledge in rural areas in Kenya with special focus on Busia County. The study through the Social Cognitive Theory interrogated the value of mobile phone technologies in reshaping and revolutionizing communications among communities in maternal-child health campaigns in Kenya. Using data based on a review of the relevant literature as well as information obtained through discussions with patients and health service providers from a survey conducted in Busia County, we examined how mobile phone technology can be mainstreamed in maternal-child health campaigns in rural areas. Findings indicated that mobile phone dissemination of maternal health knowledge has a possibility of accelerating access and utilisation of skilled facility services. Therefore emerging technologies can offer real opportunities to communities by enabling them get reliable and timely information on maternal –child health issues.

panel 19 – paper 4

Reading Bandura’s Social cognitive theory: Social media’s portrayal of sexuality as popular culture? Author: Joyce Omwoha, The Technical University of Kenya, Kenya, joyceomwoha@gmail.com In the recent past there has been an “evolution” of sexuality as the thought and understood gay and lesbian to transgender, transsexual and “they” identities. The media have perpetrated these sexual contents through reality shows and online campaigns held by celebrities who have moved away from the “norm” to ensure that people understand the challenges and need for acceptance by these individuals who try very much to be understood and accepted as members of the society. American Celebrities have been portrayed in Africa as the voice of sexuality both on mainstream and on social media. Popular media networks like E! airs a program, I am Cait whose content is meant to illuminate the life of a once world athletics champion (Bruce Jenner)’s battle with his sexuality, raising a family as a man and eventually deciding to come out and live as a transsexual. Amber Rose, a celebrity who earned a living working as a stripper has gone an extra mile to popularise her feminist movement ‘Slut Walk’ which aims at identifying marginalized groups including women of color, transgender people and sex workers that are victims of sexual workers. The Kenyan audience have received these images and texts and are using the named celebrities’ actions to establish their own platforms on social media for identity creation/formation and identity expression. Considering the above, this paper will utilize Bandura’s Social cognitive theory, which suggests that individuals will observe, imitate, and learn from others, including characters in television and film, in a way that provides a monitoring system for their own behaviors, attitudes and values. Individuals will look to others as a way to reinforce their own perceived accom-


82 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

Yes We Have Scholarships!

Scholarships for students and researchers based in Sweden, Finland and Iceland

Apply now on our website www.nai.uu.se/ scholarships

We offer a one-month stay at the Nordic Africa Institute. Master students, PhD candidates, postdoctoral researchers, journalists and writers pursuing Africaoriented studies or research in Social Sciences and Humanities. All nationalities are welcome to apply, but you must be affiliated to a university or research center in Sweden, Finland or Iceland. Deadline for applications is 16 October.

Scholarships for researchers based in Africa We offer scholarships for postdoctoral researchers based in Africa and engaged in Africa-oriented research in Social Sciences and Humanities. The application period for scholarships in 2018 will open in the beginning of 2017.

plishments, behavioral patterns, or inadequacies (Bandura, 1986). The paper will answer the questions: Is a choice of sexuality a cultural minority issue in Africa? Are portrayals of sexuality popular culture? panel 19 – paper 5

Social media and mobile communications: Gender identities in Sub-Saharan Africa in transition Authors: Lynete Lusike and Joyce Omwoha, Moi University, Kenya, lusikem@mu.ac.ke The opportunities afforded by social media are immense and therefore, what is being witnessed today are online users adapting identities and roles that challenge the prevailing dominant patriarchal society that draws its ideals from a culture that dictates gender binary opposites of male and female identities. Social media has undoubtedly become a core issue in Sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on female users who are appropriating these spaces as avenues of self-expression and emancipatory narratives. In light of rapid technological advancements in Sub-Saharan Africa, the panel hopes to draw references

to the dynamics of power and technology in the society and the subsequent role of technological advancements in power dynamics and positioning of public expression and discourses by female users within the prevailing gendered world view. The main emphasis being on drawing a distinction between theory and praxis by researchers who seek to engage in the analysis of technologically mediated gendered discourses. We hope to engage in discussions on how for instance, online platforms can be aggregated as sources of social capital in creating online networks of followers who can then reaffirm one’s identity and in some cases propel one to fame in cases such as viral videos on you tube or users who have substantial followers, which then converts to fame and monetary returns though paid appearances at events, advertising and endorsement of products. ď Ž

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Presentations of panels and papers | 83

panel 20

The other side of masculinity and mass violence. Examining non-combatant, conflict-affected men in Africa

I

n studies of gender, security and conflict in Africa, the masculinities of violent men have been relatively prominent, with important work being done by scholars examining the constructions of military-, gang-, rebel-, peacekeeper- and other potentially violence perpetrating masculinities. Important and insightful as this work is, there is however an immense gap in the research of the majority of men in conflict-affected societies, namely those whose lives are defined by the conflict but who are not active combatants. This panel engages masculinity and violence with a focus on the precariousness of these men’s lives in societies of ongoing violence as well as post-conflict societies. Collecting scholars from a variety of disciplines, the panel examines sexual violence against men, drawing in cases from ongoing conflicts and the challenges of transitional justice in their aftermath. Sexual violence takes many forms and affects both men, their families and their partners, yet both the language of gender interventions and the information about the issue is thoroughly limited. Moreover, the panel examines gendered security politics directed at young men and the effects of NGOs focusing on constructing ‘positive masculinities’ in post-conflict societies. Although engaging potentially violent masculinities may be considered an important political priority, these efforts often employ gendered biases that affect both women and men negatively, and are at times used to justify excessive violence against non-combatant men. By collecting these many different perspectives on conflict-affected masculinities, the panel seeks to open up for more nuances to academic and political discussions and initiatives concerning gender, security and violence in and outside of African countries. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 228 Organiser: Rose Løvgren, Danish Institute for International Studies, Denmark, rolo@diis.dk


84 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

» This paper seeks to disturb how the relation between masculinity, intoxication and violence is commonly understood « Rose Løvgren, panel 20, paper 3

panel 20 – paper 1

Farmers in conflict-prone societies: A cycle of dependency, opportunism and identity concerns Author: Wendy Isaacs-Martin, University of South Africa, isaacw@unisa.ac.za In the popular imaginaire African peasant farmers are portrayed as an impoverished, peripheral, marginalised and tied to the land, diametrically opposed to the notion of the African fighter who is overwhelmingly portrayed as a hodgepodge of unemployed youth, former armed combatants, disgruntled soldiers and mercenaries. Therefore a perception exists that fighting is confined to the unemployed, marginalised or those paid to perpetrate violence. Due to their intermittent participation farmers seldom are perceived as contributors to conflict. Yet they exist within an insecure environment and thus, form part of the conflict machinary. The question posed is whether African peasant farmers are pawns in conflict-prone and insecure countries? Firstly the precariousness of farming in conflict-prone, and thus insecure, countries results in farmers forming self-defence units, to thwart attacks from rival cattle farmers, soldiers, bandits and other armed groups. A lack of resources, weapons, and protection are amongst the reasons that farmers join or align with militias and insurgents where identities are salient. Secondly militias offer an alternative source of income to crop harvesting. For the farmer a militia stipend can surpass the financial value of farming. Reduced far-

ming benefits warlords strategically by creating false famines. A third reason is to sell crops, by avoiding heavy concessions to governments, across borders to commercial entities, who share ethnic identities, who may themselves be part of, and benefitting from, conflict. The conclusion drawn is that peasant farmers, while of strategic use for armed groups, are the least valued fighters in militias and insurgent groups. However they are the most likely to return to using the land once the conflict subsides and retain relationships to identity-linked commercial interests. panel 20 – paper 2

“Gendered men”: Exploring strategies engaging men in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Author: Chloé Lewis, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, chloe.lewis@linacre.ox.ac.uk Efforts to address sexual and gender-based violence in conflict and post-conflict settings have largely been focused on and targeted towards responding to the needs of women and girls. More recently, however, increasing attention has been paid to the potential role of men, and to a lesser extent boys, in strategies to promote gender equality and reduce levels of gender-based violence. Demonstrating the high-level institutional support of this incremental trend, Security Council resolution 2106 on Women, Peace and Security, adopted in June 2013 and the first resolution to make explicit reference to men and boys, affirms that: “the enlistment of men and boys in the effort to combat all forms


Presentations of panels and papers | 85

of violence against women are central to long-term efforts to prevent sexual violence in armed conflict and post-conflict situations”. Resolution 2106 is also credited as being the first Security Council resolution to make reference to men and boys as potential victims of sexual and gender-based violence in conflict-affected settings. Against this backdrop, this paper explores the (still limited) spaces available to non-combatant men in the North and South Kivu provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo amid the widespread and long-standing policies and programmes aimed at sexual and gender-based violence. More specifically, and drawing on interviews with a diversity of actors working across the sector, it considers the ways in which Congolese men are seen and see themselves as gendered beings. Overall, it seeks to demonstrate that despite an increasingly institutionalised, and to some degree nuanced, shift towards engaging men in “gender programming”, men are still rarely, if ever, engaged as potential victims of (sexual) violence in this context. panel 20 – paper 3

Governing intoxicated masculinities – drug policing and the gendered order of security in Rwanda Author: Rose Løvgren, Danish Institute for International Studies, Denmark, rolo@diis.dk Images of intoxicated masculinities play a major role in interpretations of mass violence on the African continent. Perpetrators of violence are often portrayed as marginalized young men under the influence of alcohol and/ or drugs, making them emotionally callous and capable of horrific forms of violence. This tendency has been no less prevalent in interpretations of the Rwandan genocide in 1994. Its low-level perpetrators have repeatedly been characterized as young men in the margins of society, who were easily lured into committing genocide by festive rallies “where alcohol usually flowed freely” (Gourevitch 2004, 93), in spite of much evidence indicating that young men were not over-represented among genocidaires. While drug and alcohol consumption among combatants is a significant factor in war and conflict all over the world, this paper seeks to disturb how the relation between masculinity, intoxication and violence is commonly understood. It does so by analyzing governance of intoxicated masculinities in Rwanda. I argue that an understanding of drug and alcohol addicted young men as a lurking threat to societal security is part of the motivation for excessive violence against them. Based on ethnographic field-

work in Rwanda, I argue that Rwandan governance of the consumptions of men is closely linked with the production of local and national security. This link in turn makes economically marginalized drug and alcohol addicted young men especially vulnerable to large scale arrests and long term detention. By analyzing the gendered order of security produced in the policing of drugs, I aim to question more broadly the role played by intoxicated masculinities in interpretations of violence and the security politics derived from them. panel 20 – paper 4

New respect, new clothes, new men – Examining the construction of ‘positive masculinities’ in Central Africa Author: Henri Myrttinen, International Alert, United Kingdom, hmyrttinen@international-alert.org Over the past five to ten years, local and international NGOs concerned about issues such as domestic violence and unequal gender relations, have increasingly started working on engaging with men and boys, as well as the masculine norms they are societally expected to live up to, in order to change their behaviours and attitudes. The post-conflict and conflict-affected states of the Great Lakes region have been a focal area for this work. While these efforts seem, by most accounts, to have been successful at reducing violent male behaviour and instilled participating men with regained self-respect, the paper will examine some of the potential unintended consequences that these interventions may have on gendered power dynamics. panel 20 – paper 5

Gendered post-conflict justice: Male sexual violence victims in Northern Uganda Author: Philipp Schulz, Ulster University, United Kingdom, Schulz-P@email.ulster.ac.uk Male survivors of sexual violence in Acholiland have been continuously silenced by society and processes of dealing with the past for the last twenty-five years. In Northern Uganda, such processes are primarily administered in a top-down approach, characterized by a lack of community or victim participation, and emphasize institutionalized initiatives, resulting in a neglect of informal, uninstitutional and everyday practices of social repair. At the same time, crimes of sexual violence against men are excluded from official discourses of the conflict and from exercises of negotiating Nort-


86 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

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hern Uganda's violent past, therefore slipping under the radar of post-conflict justice processes. This paper examines the lived realities of male sexual violence survivors in Northern Uganda while focusing on survivors' processes of negotiating a harmful past and their on-going quests for gendered post-conflict justice. Deriving from six months of ethnographic field research between January and August 2016, the paper focuses on 'everyday' and bottom-up processes of justice that male survivors are engaging with. Situated within legal anthropology, the paper contributes to a broadened and contextual understanding of justice, emphasizing that in the Northern Ugandan post-war context, justice for male survivors is a social project, rather than a set of institutionalized mechanisms. The paper demonstrates that one avenue of social repair for male sexual violence victims are survivors' groups, which provide peer-support and initiate a process of

public recognition of their gendered harms, in which acknowledgement and recognition constitute integral aspects to justice. Recognition as a notion of justice, however, needs to be nuanced, and includes acknowledgement by wider Acholi society and the government, but not necessarily awareness of the crimes committed against survivors by immediate community and family members, due to fear of stigmatization. Justice processes further need to be responsive to male survivors' gendered harms, characterized by thwarted gender identities and emasculation. Key words: Masculinity; Uganda; Conflict; Rape; Sexual Violence; Men. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 87

panel 21

Chronic violence and non-conventional armed conflict in Africa:

Unlocking complex dimensions of human security

V

iolence shatters lives. Though conflicts among (African) nations diminished at the end of the last millennium, positive change in many societies is not happening rapidly and effectively. As countries traverse differently the journey of a democratic revolution agenda the trajectory of social progress is a mix of successes and challenges. Self-reproducing systems of chronic violence driven by a complex combination of structural factors and behaviors, cultures, and practices undermine democratic dispensation for violence reduction. This is a high risk factor for human security and development objectives of country national development strategies including the African Union Agenda 2063 and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Agenda 2030. Indeed, progress has been made in many areas and governments are improving inclusive political space. However, extant dividends are still not achieving the outcomes necessary to ensure adequate progress in creating peaceful relations and a ‘better life for all’. What is it that we know and we can know about positive change and peaceful relations of enduring human security? This panel represents aspirations of engendering a trans-disciplinary perspective on understanding complex interactions in chronic violence and non-conventional armed conflict in Africa. It does not seek to reduce issues of social transformation including protracted hybrid organized violence to causally-related abstract phenomena. Instead, the panel will underscore and stimulate a series of evidence-based open and non-suggestive insights that allow for systematic but flexible reflection of different aspects of human security including peace and security (conflict-related sexual violence, local and national public decision-making and education); development and economics (climate change resource conflicts, access to resources, female entrepreneurship, and property rights); health (sexual and reproductive health, family violence and bodily rights); and, politics (civil society, law reform and political participation). Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 and 16:00-18:00 Venue: BlĂĽsenhus, house 12, room 10 Organiser: Sylvester B. Maphosa, Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa, smaphosa@hsrc.ac.za


88 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 21 – paper 1

Small arms and light weapons proliferation in Africa: Implications for peace and security Author: Adegboyega Adedolapo Ola, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 215068618@ stu.ukzn.ac.za One of the greatest problems facing the world, especially African states is the proliferation of small arms and light weapons. Small arms constitute a major source of destruction of lives and properties, and exacerbate terrorism. The availability of these weapons further increases their lethality and insecurity in Africa, which result in human right abuses, undermining of the rule of law, promotion and sustenance of the culture of violence in African states. Small arms and light weapons are widely used in various terrorist attacks across different countries in the African region, especially in Nigeria, and the neighbouring West Africa countries. An uncontrolled and illegal trade in small arms could be the major cause of terrorism and violent crises in Africa. This study examines the implications of small arms on peace and security in Africa. It further assesses the role of the regional bodies and various governments in arms control with a view to proffer suggestions on how to address some of the resultant threats, loss of lives and properties. The study posits that the control of small arms and light weapons is essential in curtailing the spread of terrorism and various armed conflicts. This hopefully should result in peace and security in the African continent. It is the recommendation of this study, that all African leaders, governments and regional bodies; such as African Union, Southern African Development Community among others, should cooperate and work together to address the problem of illicit small arms for the sustenance of peace in the region. Key words: Small Arms and Light Weapons, Terrorism, Armed Conflict, Arms control, Peace and Security. panel 21 – paper 2

Civil conflict and terrorism in Sub-Saharan African states: The effect of ethnicity, religion and natural resources Author: Anastassia (Boitsova) Buğday, Bilkent University, Turkey, boitsova@bilkent.edu.tr Recent events, including the attacks in Kenya conducted by a Somalian terrorist group Al-Shabaab, brought once again to the fore the importance of studying ter-

rorism in Sub-Saharan Africa. This importance is also underlined by the fact that many new terrorist groups that emerged on this continent are more extreme than the previous generation of terrorists. In this vein, this paper seeks to answer the following questions: Why do transnational terrorist organizations target Sub-Saharan Africa? What are the motivations of transnational terrorist organizations while they prefer one country over another to perpetrate attacks? The present paper argues that these organizations are quite strategic in their choices and their decision-making process factors the internal dynamics of the countries that they pick. Particularly important are whether the country is experiencing a civil conflict, is ethnically divided and, thus, whether ethnic groups can easily be mobilized through religious extremism. Essential also is the presence of natural resources that the terrorist organization can utilize and profit from. This paper provides a large-n analysis of transnational terrorism in Sub-Saharan Africa, based on a combination of data, including the Birnir and Satana DHS-funded project “One God for All? Fundamentalism and Group Radicalization,” as well as A-MAR, GTD and CIDCM. Key words: Ethnicity; Religion; Resources; Terrorism; Sub-Saharan Africa. panel 21 – paper 3

The role of socio-economic status in the construction of masculinity: The case of ex-combatants in Burundi Author: Gudrun Sif Fridriksdottir, University of Iceland, Iceland, gsf3@hi.is In the work on masculinity, and in particular the masculinity ideas of men with combat experience, a lot of emphasis is put on militarized notions of masculinity. My research with ex-combatants in Burundi however does not depict militarised ideas of masculinity as particularly important. The reason why men joined the army or rebel groups varied quite a lot, but ideas of men with arms and in uniforms as the “ideal” version of man were not common and bore little weight in the reasons given for why men chose to bear arms. Masculinity on the other hand was described in more positive terms. Being a man of truth, justice, and peace were recurrent themes in the interviews. The importance of marriage and having a family was also frequently mentioned. Participant observation and informal interviews however led to the conclusion that economic status is possibly the most important factor


Presentations of panels and papers | 89

» New evidence of punitive practices highlights the importance of naming and shaming fighters into sexual discipline « Angela Muvumba Sellström, panel 21, paper 6

in the construction of masculinities in Burundi. This is linked with the importance of marriage and family since substantial funds are needed (due to both bride price and the price of starting a new home) to attain the status of a married family man. Rather than view their time in the armed struggle in a positive light and yearning for that period, the ex-combatants spoken to often resented it. The time as a combatant was viewed as a time standing in the way of them becoming men, since it was time not used on education or starting to build a career, rather than a time of conforming to ideas of masculinity. Many ex-combatants in Burundi are currently dealing with the frustration of the unattainability of masculinity, but it is related to poverty and unemployment, rather than a sense of disempowerment due to a lack of gun and uniform. panel 21 – paper 4

Pokot woman - A case study of gendered human ( in) security Author: Nurit Hashimshony-Yaffe, the Academic College of Tel Aviv Yaffo, Israel, nurithas@mta.ac.il Multiple threats converge to affect Pokot livelihood in North Kenya. How and in what ways local and global threats are represented in community lives of Pokot Women? Climate Change effects (David P. Rowell et al, 2016) ; water scarcity, drought ,land degradation and limited access to grazing pasture – were recorded as changing livelihoods, causing food insecurity and undernourishment amongst Pastoralists (Kisake Nangulu, 2001;Fratkin, 2014;Ton Dietz, Dick Foeken, Sebastiaan Soeters, 2014 ;David P. Rowell et al, 2016). Following the emergence of nation- states, Pastoralists in East Africa became more vulnerable ((Little, 1985; Hogg, 1992). Ethnic Clashes between Pokot

and neighboring group Turkana and ongoing warfare , livestock raiding (Greiner, 2013) and terror attacks on Somalia- Kenya border area, added a political and ethnic value to be considered (Yieke, 2007 ) . Political Changes; constitutional and institutional changes - added to the former. The research is based on field work done during July – August 2015 in northern Kenya, and will present preliminary insights. It is a qualitative research taken in Sigor – Kapenguria area in different villages. The paper will overview the main threats in the region; following the literature regarding the social and political changes , the development issues (Robertshaw & Collett, 1983;Fratkin,1997) and Climate Change effects on livelihood (Ulrich Anneet al, 2012), and will suggest their multi layered influence on Pokot Women. Research findings show Pokot women choosing individual strategies to both economic and social threats, and community based coping strategies (for example traditional meetings and gatherings, self- help and mutual aid, official Ngo's,) - in different occasions and as a response to different threats. Focusing on Women in a Pokot community- the paper seek to understand is there a gendered human security issue in Pastoralist societies? panel 21 – paper 5

Protection of civilians: The role of government and non-government actors in protection of displaced persons from South Sudan living in Uganda Author: Sylvester Bongani Maphosa, Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa, SMaphosa@hsrc.sc.za The current crisis in South Sudan began on 15 December 2013 as a conflict between the Government of the Republic of South Sudan and opposition for-


90 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

ces. It started from internal political disputes among the country’s elite political and military leaders. Interpersonal and collective violence broke out in Juba and quickly engulfed other locations in the country. Consequently, the mass displacement that followed was rapid and chaotic. Throughout, civilians have borne the brunt as they were targeted. More than 2.2 million individuals were displaced representing over 600 000 refugees scattered in the region mainly in Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Kenya, and, an estimated 1.6 million displaced internally. People displaced by armed violence need immediate support. More than 85 percent of refugees from this conflict are women and children many of whom are being displaced for not less than once in their lives. Further, more than 35, 000 children are travelling alone, either having been separated from their family or because their family was killed; some, will never be able to find the truth of what happened to their loved ones. This study examines the challenges and opportunities faced by government and non-government actors in protection of displaced persons from South Sudan living in Uganda. What is the nature of prevention and response strategies implemented by government and non-government actors in protection of displaced persons from South Sudan living in Uganda? What are the challenges faced by various actors in protection of displaced persons from South Sudan living in Uganda? What lessons can be learned and contribute to global knowledge and capacity of protection of civilians in acute emergencies? In considering these buildups the study is not seeking definitive or absolute conclusions, but rather substantive and collective understanding of what actually is – and/or not – being impacted by intervention action in protection of civilians. panel 21 – paper 6

ous or ethnic separatists and nationalists – stop their fighters from committing wartime sexual violence. These organizations establish varying degrees of, and nuanced versions of sexual discipline. Other actors carry-out sexual abuse and exploitation with impunity. What explains this variation? Civil war research has provided a number of interpretations of these abuses at the level of armed actors. New evidence of punitive practices by some forces highlights the importance of naming and shaming fighters into sexual discipline. Progress on this front should be expanded and enriched, particularly since the complex phenomena of wartime sexual violence has multiple causes and consequences at different levels of analysis. Empirical research has yet to tackle more fundamental theoretical implications of different social origins of insurgents and the way they discipline their troops. Focus has been on the pathology of wartime sexual violence, not its prevention. Finally, the interaction between gendered notions of warfare, masculinity and organizational goals have not been explored systematically. This paper offers a preliminary theory of prevention by assessing social, gendered dimensions of fighting among different types of organized non-state armed groups in Africa. Inclusive social origins, equal protection gender norms and prohibitive institutional practices, are seen as inter-related, proximate explanations for wartime discipline. The paper explores how these factors play out, illustrated with three cases: the Party for the Liberation of the Hutu People-Forces for National Liberation (FNL) of Burundi; the National Resistance Army (NRA) of Uganda; and the African National Congress’s (ANC) armed wing, Umkhonto we Sizwe’s (MK). By comparing these groups, the paper introduces new ways of seeing social dimensions and variation among non-state armed organizations, and the discipline of their fighters. 

Diciplining fighters: Non-state armed groups and the prevention of wartime sexual violence Author: Angela Muvumba Sellström, Uppsala University, Sweden, angela.muvumba-sellstrom@pcr.uu.se Some organized non-state armed groups – such as rebel armies, armed liberation movements and religi-

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Presentations of panels and papers | 91

panel 22

“We must all be feminists”: Confronting feminisms from African points of view

T

he recent call for a universal rally around the feminist cause by Nigerian novelist Chimamanda Adichie calls to mind the old endeavor of creating a global sisterhood by different feminist waves from the North. These have been persistently contested by non-white, non-European women, who criticize western feminism for its own racist and colonial tendencies that obliterated and oppressed the Women of the Rest when formulating feminist agendas for the West – and (imperialistically) for the Rest as well. Thus, African feminism in particular insists upon the “decolonization of gender”. African feminists question the heart of feminist epistemologies and activism from the North and do not hesitate to deeply criticize the supposed base of a global sisterhood, namely the idea of “universal” notions such as patriarchy or gender as sources of oppression (even when their socially constructed character is acknowledged). If “we must all be feminists”, at least the “how” of the “feminists” we must be still has a lot to be debated. We wish to start with the idea that feminisms from the North participate in the coloniality of power that has generated several epistemicides, actively producing subjects and knowledges from the South as non-existent. Our intention is to question the conceptual and theoretical pillars of hegemonic feminisms, deconstructing their affiliation in western modernity. This questioning must cross disciplinary borders and encompass fundamental notions, such as “gender” and “patriarchy”, but also “power”, “emancipation”, “knowledge”, “work”, “production”, “value”, “public / private”, “love” and “sexuality”. This panel intends to create an interdisciplinary and broad dialogue between feminist thought from Africa and the North, in which African standpoints should be analyzed by feminists from both “sides” as a pretext for a common critical revision of feminist conceptual frameworks and the creation of ampler solidarities. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 and 16:00-18:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 129 Organiser: Catarina Martins, University of Coimbra, Portugal, cmartins@fl.uc.pt


92 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 22 – paper 1

Nomadic subjectivity in the novels of four African women writers: Americanah, We need new names, Woman at Point Zero, and Your name shall be Tanga Author: Siphiwe Ignatius Dube, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa, siphiwe.dube@wits.ac.za In her chapter regarding the relationship between her nomadic theory and feminist concerns about difference entitled “Transposing Difference,” Rosi Braidotti offers up the concept of nomadic subjectivity as another tool for thinking about the kind of feminist subjectivity peculiar to the contemporary world. This presentation argues that the concept of nomadic subjectivity is a useful tool for women writers in Africa as they explore the relationship between identity as resistance and subjectivity as agency in the context of a post-colonial Africa. Braidotti argues that “the multiple locations of devalued difference are also, though not at the same time, positive sites for the redefinition of subjectivity” (2012, 30). This presentation argues that the four novels of Adichie, Beyala, Bulawayo, and El Saadawi give literary articulation to Braidotti’s argument above, while also positing, in their own way, responses to the political materiality of difference faced by women in the diverse African continent. As such, these novels’ engagement with nomadic subjectivity offers gendered constructive narratives that not only open up new locations in the spectrum of liberation struggle discourses, but also construct new identities of resistance for women writers writing in a context still very much informed by labile patriarchal discourses of power. panel 22 – paper 2

The global black hair industry and marketplace in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Americanah Author: Julie Iromuanya, University of Arizona, USA, jiromuanya@email.arizona.edu The politically voiceless, economically visible, and racially indeterminate Middleman Minority of Edna Bonacich and Pyong Gap Min hardly comes to mind when scholars envision women of Africa and the African Diaspora. Still, if we consider the ways the global black hair industry acts as a mechanism for work, production, value, agency, and mobility, then we would be remiss if we did not include a discourse on the black hair industry; for it alternately critiques, challenges, and participates in binary conceptions of race, soci-

oeconomic class, and citizenship. Further, while the traditional Middleman Minority subsumes the female identity under that of the male head of the family, the global black hair industry, largely established, fueled, and energized by black and African women, centralizes the female. Like many industries with a commanding economic force, black hair, as an industry, acts both within and without the bounds of the patriarchal state, macrocosmically, and the male head of the patriarchal family, microcosmically. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel Americanah, while concerned with her protagonist’s mediation of the “Americanah” identity – the repatriated immigrant “with odd affectations, pretending to no longer know” home – also presents a unique observation of the ways that black hair and its commerce are also attendant, if not central, to notions of feminist ideology, both African and western, advocated by Adichie in her feminist treatise We Should All Be Feminists. In my paper, I seek to illuminate the questions that Adichie raises in Americanah regarding the centrality and alterity of women, who, like traditional Middleman Minorities, act as consumers and producers within a market that is both deeply entrenched in the racial, political, and economic framework of the larger patriarchal society, while also operating with a great deal of autonomy. panel 22 – paper 3

Performance and female coalition building: Indigenous feminist praxis and racialized geographies Author: Sidra Lawrence, Bowling Green State University, USA, sidralawrence@gmail.com “Why is equality only for white women?” The Regional Minister of Gender, Children and Social Protection says this, challenging the perceived demarcations between western and African feminist agendas with which the Ministry struggles. In Ghana’s Upper West Region, women articulate their goals, agendas, and priorities in myriad ways that often do not coincide with the national and international development protocol that structures policy. For Dagara women on the border of Ghana and Burkina Faso, equality is not an articulated priority for women without formal educations. Here, discourse on equality denotes a western feminist praxis that is considered transgressive for women of lower class positions. When Dagara women employ such positions they are dismissed as behaving like white women. Mediating this regulation, Dagara women articulate their positions in creative ways voice progressive goals while


Presentations of panels and papers | 93

» The concept of nomadic subjectivity is a useful tool for women writers in Africa « Siphiwe Ignatius Dube, panel 22, paper 1

negotiating cultural parameters. The result is a transnational feminist praxis that relies upon indigenous performance traditions as a primary mechanism to enhance women’s life experiences, opportunities, and goals. These non-oppositional modes of resistance are often found in song and dance performances in all female social spaces through which women share strategies of mediating development agendas by which they are asked to abide. In this paper I utilize a Dagara feminist framework to theorize the ways that Northern feminist agendas are universalized through development narratives. I address how globalized notions of progress fail to account for the myriad ways that women organize and create meaning in their lives, especially regarding social change in areas where notions of tradition are complex and often contradictory. Using examples from ethnographic research conducted in Dagaraland from 20082016 I explore how local feminist praxis, as evidenced through performance, contributes to broader theorization about transnational feminist models. panel 22 – paper 4

Decolonizing gender – perspectives from West-Africa Author: Catarina Martins, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal, cmartins@fl.uc.pt My argument starts from the post-colonial theory’s assumption that western modernity and colonialism created abyssal lines that rendered Other ways of living invisible and caused epistemicides. My aim is, thus, to contribute to recover some of the epistemologies of a South that must be understood as a metaphor for all those whose subjectivities, world views and social practices were produces as inexistent by a hegemonic epistemology from the North. Also, my paper wishes to corroborate the call for a decolonization of feminisms made by feminists from the South and particularly from Africa. Using African theoretical proposals and models of feminist intervention and through a brief balance of what I think must be accepted by European feminists as a challenge to self-critique I intend to question how and to what ex-

tent feminisms from the North may have participated in the coloniality of the power that generated such epistemicides. I will discuss some of the conceptual pillars of hegemonic feminisms in order to evaluate their affiliation in the root paradigm of colonialism – western modernity, starting with the very concept of gender, but extending to other notions such as power, public / private, emancipation, intersectionality, etc. I will use as a focus some of the results of my work in progress about the Yewwu Yewwi movement from Senegal, which is important to understand women’s movements and their feminist thought in a West-African Islamic context. panel 22 – paper 5

Adichie in Sweden. African women writers, social media and cosmopolitan feminism Author: Paula Uimonen, Stockholm University, Sweden, paula.uimonen@socant.su.se Chimamanda Ngozi Adichies’s book We should all be feminists (2014) has become well known among Swedish youth. In December 2015 some 100,000 copies of the Swedish translation Alla borde vara feminister (2015) were distributed for free to Swedish senior high school students. In a country that prides itself as being at the vanguard of feminism, it is perhaps not surprising that students get to learn about feminism at the age of sixteen. But it is somewhat surprising that feminism is introduced through the voice of an African woman writer. This paper discusses Adichie’s We should all be feminists in terms of cosmopolitan feminism. Focusing on the content as well as circulation of the book, including its various digital mediations, the paper argues that Adichie is advancing a more global and inclusive form of feminisim, a truly cosmopolitan feminism, which both builds upon and departs from earlier constellations. While Adichie’s cosmopolitan feminism articulates a rallying cry for universal rights and equality, it provokes counter reactions of racist antifeminism, as evidenced in some social media commentaries. Adichie’s literary production can thus be re-


94 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September Photo: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, CC BY 4.0

Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, November 2008.

lated to some of the most promising and problematic social forces at play in our digitally mediated world. Note: This paper is part of my new research project on African women writers, which will be based on fieldwork in Ghana and Tanzania. This project is part of a larger research programme on Cosmopolitan and vernacular dynamics in world literature (2016-2021), coordinated by researchers at Stockholm University, Sweden. See www.worldlit.se (web site in progress) or http://www.english.su.se/about-us/news/cosmopolitan-and-vernacular-dynamics-in-world-literatures-receives-43-8-million-from-rj-1.252610. panel 22 – paper 6

Interrogating Chimamanda’s ‘We must all be feminists’ and locating Gikuyu feminisms within an African feminist epistemology Author E. Njoki Wamai, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom,new24@cam.ac.uk and njokiwamai@gmail.com Oyeronke Oyewumi (2005) has argued that research on gender in Africa has often taken cues from western theoretical concerns, concepts, problematics and

methodology. Gender in Africa has been received as an area of scholarship without critical interrogations that decolonise the study from western feminist underpinnings. The gender and development paradigm in the 70s and 80s particularly hindered research on African feminism. Hence, African feminism is today often overdetermined by a functionalist anthropology and developmentalist anthropology, which limits possible gender discourses to emerge from below according to Desiree Lewis (2005). The Gikuyu are the most populous ethnic group in Kenya. The group was initially founded on a matriarchal culture that has since been eroded by patriarchal traditions arising from generational changes internally and the colonial-christian encounter. However, some interesting cultural practices I intend to discuss in this paper have remained and others have been adapted overtime providing everyday forms of resistance by ordinary to hegemonic patriarchy and western forms of feminism that ignore these local practices as feminist and revolutionary. Such practices include Kamweretho, the transfer of female names to their children as surnames and land inheritance. This paper is part of a larger research project that is situating Gikuyu feminist practises within the feminist debates that are decolonising African feminism. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 95

panel 24

Exploring gender relations and rural women’s livelihoods in times of change:

What’s beyond the focus on “women’s economic empowerment”?

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ince 2010 - and, more recently, with the 2030 SDGs - there has been, in development policy and practice, a renewed attention on the key role that women play in agriculture and in food security, and on how to address the structural inequalities that rural women face.

This broad understanding has produced strategies and interventions focusing mainly on women’s economic empowerment, bringing on board the private sector with agricultural investments and generally neglecting social and political issues and women’s rights. The WB Gender Strategy for 2016-2023 claims that “gender equality is a core development objective in its own rights, and it is also smart development policy and business practice”. Many scholars and development practitioners have highlighted that, while supporting women’s economic activities contributes to overall economic growth, economic growth is not sufficient to promote gender equality and women’s empowerment. The panel digs in the locus where gender relations are shaped, first of all the household. New tools are needed to look at it especially where households coincide with economic activities like family farming, considered the stronghold of resistance (and of food security) against the new risks faced by smallholders, threatened by large land-consuming investments. In many African countries, the public debate is focused on including smallholders into markets. What do we know about these processes and their gendered effects? Most economic empowerment interventions focus on the support to women entrepreneurship and access to finance. How does this approach affect gender relations? How does this relate to social protection and to the need of diversified livelihood strategies to face shocks and income insecurity? What is it missing of the multiple strategies and rights’ requests of rural women? We welcome contributions from different disciplines and from different African contexts, including methodological contributions on how to measure women’s empowerment and how to produce indicators for rural contexts. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 and 16:00-18:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 231 Organiser: Cecilia Navarra, University of Turin and Roberta Pellizzoli, University of Ferrara, Italy, cecilia. navarra@gmail.com


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» I investigate how access and claims to livestock is defined by intersections of gender, ethnicity, race and class « Andrea Petitt, panel 24, paper 9

panel 24 – paper 1

Gender dynamics in cassava leaves value chains – The case of Tanzania Authors: Karolin Andersson, Johanna Bergman-Lodin and Linley Chiwona-Karltun, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, karolin.andersson@ sei-international.org In view of the political-economic context of transforming agricultural value chains with potentially altered gender relations as a consequence, this paper explores the structure and gender dynamics in the value chain of cassava leaves in Mkuranga District, Tanzania. This was done to reveal factors that inhibit or facilitate value chain development, which can inform researchers and policy makers on efficient and gender sensitive strategies for support of the value chain actors. Data was collected through a household survey, semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions and observations, and quantitatively and qualitatively analysed and described. The cassava leaves value chain in Mkuranga District is in its formative stages and is characterized by a large number of loosely organized small-scale farmers with relatively weak spot market relationships to their mostly urban buyers in Dar es Salaam. Women farmers are mainly responsible for harvesting and selling the leaves to brokers and wholesalers at farm gate. Reasons given for this includes the persisting low value of the leaves and that cassava leaves are considered convenient for women to deal with. Women reported to be constrained by their reproductive responsibilities at home which prevented them from taking the leaves to market places themselves, and some women reported that their husbands did not allow them to go to the market. These are serious gender issues that need planned and concerted multi-sectoral intervention to be properly addressed.

The majority of the large wholesalers were men, which was explained by reasons such as that women retailers lacked the necessary capital to enable bulk trade, safety issues related to traveling to Dar es Salaam, and the need to be physically able to carry heavy loads. Some women retailers highlighted that they did not have the confidence and business skills to expand their businesses. Policy makers, NGOs and private and public actors need to increase the support of the cassava leaves value chain, for instance through increased research on the role of cassava leaves for rural and urban populations and development of appropriate technologies for mechanized processing. Future research on cassava is recommended to include the leaves and to consider their importance in enhancing diets in especially low-income households and as a source of income, particularly for women. panel 24 – paper 2

Rural women’s empowerment in West Africa Author: Astrig Tasgian, University of Turin, Italy, astrig.tasgian@unito.it Women are particularly vulnerable to poverty in rural areas, where gender inequalities in access to resources (education, health, land, credit and productive inputs) and thus in earned income and control over household resources are higher. Furthermore, rural women are more affected by discriminatory social norms and stereotypes. The paper refers to the evidence from field surveys I conducted in West Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger) and analyses the role of women’s income-generating activities exercised individually or in groups in promoting women’s empowerment and poverty reduction. Women represent 50% of the agricultural labour force especially in small-scale, subsistence farming and


Presentations of panels and papers | 97

produce most of the food for family consumption. However, their role in production is underestimated; they are unpaid family labour, neglected by extension services and usually have no say on the utilization of family production. With respect to women’s activities different from farming (livestock, horticulture, agro-processing, crafts), the paper points out the important role of female producer associations and groups, in case of illiterate, poor women. Psychological empowerment appears to be the main benefit for a woman from being involved in collective income generating activities. As far as the economic empowerment is concerned, it depends on the characteristics of the organization, its sector of activity, amount of capital, marketing capacity and on the way work is organized. Some conclusions at policy level are presented to improve the productivity and livelihoods of rural women (greater access to land and productive inputs, greater voice in society and within the household). Women’s greater self-confidence and income can favour but do not guarantee changes in the power relations within the household. This is the most difficult area of change, which requires a cultural change and a redistribution of unpaid care and domestic work within the family. panel 24 – paper 3

Evolving gender relations in transforming cassava value chains and implications for intrahousehold nutrition and health. The case of Tanzania Author: Johanna Bergman Lodin, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden, johanna.bergman.lodin@slu.se This paper introduces a new mixed methods research project, carried out in collaboration with the CGIAR Research Program 4 on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH). Informed by a human geography perspective and grounded in the local context and the subjective and embodied experiences of women and men, the project will explore and explain how the interaction of gender norms, agency and innovation in cassava production, processing and marketing shapes development outcomes related to intrahousehold nutrition and health in contexts characterized by widespread malnutrition. The project will focus on evolving gender relations in households, communities and cassava value chains in light of the rapid commercialization and increasing higher value added processing of the crop in Tanzania. Assessing agricultural performance in terms of its nutritional and health outcomes revalues food crops as

a means to wellbeing and health as well as a commodity and engine for growth. This is central in the Tanzanian context where malnutrition, especially among children under five, is endemic. It also invites a revaluation of particularly women’s multiple contributions in caring, feeding, farming and income generation. The project responds to recent calls among feminist researchers, agriculturalists and nutritionists to document how commodity-and-site-specific value chain development impacts gender relations, women’s empowerment and intrahousehold nutrition and health, and vice versa. With little evidence of the effect of value chain improvements on women’s empowerment, or dimensions thereof, and on the nutrition and health status of individuals in households involved in value chain activities, especially women and children, this project will generate strategies and options for improving outcomes. More specifically, the paper outlines the proposed project design, discusses its underlying rationale as well as provides a survey of the field and relevant theories. panel 24 – paper 4

Local associations and widows’ property rights in Marracuene, Mozambique Author: Fernando Manjate, Uppsala University and Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, fernando.manjate@ antro.uu.se In my ongoing PhD-research, of which this paper forms part, I focus on how people in increasingly complex intercultural contexts, interpret, modify and sometimes even manipulate the rules to ensure individual and collective interest. Particularly, I am looking on how people deal with property rights pertaining to their own life situation when they still alive. After death, the research is geared forwards the values, mechanisms and institutions through which people resolve the emerging conflicts and how different actors secure what they consider their inheritance and succession rights. Many studies of inheritance systems in African societies highlight that women and children are often excluded from inheritance due to gender discrimination in property ownership laws or customs and organizations of kinship relations and customary roles. The lightening of inheritance systems effects on women’s rights has led to an increasing involvement of local associations that defend the rights of widowed women. These women are considered to be victims of property grabbing, especially by relatives of the deceased husband. Due to their comparatively lesser bargaining


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power, widows are vulnerable to ill-treatment, both by wider society, and also by the two families to whom they have close ties: their natal families, and their inlaws. Daughters often appear to be regarded as temporary members of their natal families, and wives are treated as secondary members of their husband’s families. Although the Mozambican legislation grants to widows the right to half of the marital property, property grabbing is practiced in many Mozambican families. Such a scenario requires rethinking about local notions of property. In this article, I will discuss some of the reasons behind widows´ marginalization and dispossession. I will attempt to analyze the role of local based association challenging widow’s discrimination in Marracuene – Mozambique. The research reveals the close relation between widows’ exposure to property grabbing and patrilineal attempts to assure the safeguarding of familiar property. Traditionally assured through levirate, current widows’ property grabbing appears as pragmatic strategy to fulfill this old family’s purpose. Despite their importance of seeking to minimize gender inequalities and to change values and social assumptions attached to women marginalization and dispossession, the impact of these local associations is limited. Instead of focusing on the causes behind widows’ property grabbing local associations restrict their intervention to the women legal assistance. Keywords: Inheritance, property rights, property grabbing, widows. panel 24 – paper 5

Women’s negotiation within the household and strategies of access to land. Ethnographic cases from a Mossi village of Burkina Faso Author: Martina Cavicchioli, Goethe Universität, Germany, martina.cavicchioli@stud.uni-frankfurt.de The international debate on gender equality in access to natural resources often points at customary systems and patriarchy as obstacles to the improvement of women’s empowerment in contemporary Africa, especially in rural areas. Within this framework, women are mostly seen by governments and development agencies as victims of unequal socioeconomic systems that should rethink gender roles and categories of ownership. Giving access to land to women has been identified as way to alleviate poverty and insecurity. However, access to personal plots represents a complex domain in which farming labour intertwines with work activities, household duties, and gender re-

lations. In what ways do household relations and conjugal ties affect women’s bargaining power of access to land? How do development projects and interventions evaluate these aspects? In most areas of Burkina Faso, women are allowed to acquire a personal plot from their husband, although land inheritance is only granted to male members of the family. In regions where land is scarce and not rentable, there is a growing reticence among household heads to allocate plots to individuals for personal use. This leads many people, and especially women, to look for alternative ways to access land such as asking for fields to their family of origin or other community members, which exposes them to short-term land loans, frequent retirements, or tenure conflicts. While much scholarship has elucidated women’s need for a personal plot, less attention has been paid to the impact of household dynamics on practices of land distribution and the creation of spaces of agency by women to this end. Drawing from recent fieldwork within polygamic families of a Mossi village of the Kouritenga province, this paper shows the importance of tending to female bargaining power within and outside the household as practices of micro-resistance to constraints in access to land. panel 24 – paper 6

Promoting women’s socio-economic empowerment: experiences from Mozambique Authors: Cecilia Navarra, University of Turin, Italy, cecilia.navarra@gmail.com, and Roberta Pellizzoli, University of Ferrara, Italy, rpellizzoli@gmail.com In January 2015, the Italian Development Cooperation started to implement the project “Promotion of women’ socio-economic empowerment in Mozambique”, in partnership with several institutional actors, with a focus on women’s led SME in different sectors. The qualitative and quantitative researches carried out in rural and urban contexts highlight a variety of relevant issues for the discussion on the implications of the “women’s economic empowerment” mantra: Women very often become entrepreneurs out of necessity due to life events (divorce, widowhood). This necessity often turns in an opportunity to make autonomous (even though not always well informed) decisions over their lives, family expenses, investments etc.; Having had access to specific training or to programmes providing inputs or funds is a key factor for starting an enterprise (but where programmes are not specifically targeted at women, they tend to participate


Presentations of panels and papers | 99

as unpaid labour force for their husband enterprise) The characteristics of a sector and of SME have a strong impact on how women use their time and on their capacity to fulfil the requested reproductive roles, increasing demands for social protection Access to (and interest in) formal financial products from commercial banks is almost inexistent; however women have access to a variety of opportunities – mainly ROSCAs, district development funds, church funds. Microcredit is less and less considered a viable option due to high interest rates. There is a severe lack of coordination and knowledge sharing between the main actors involved The paper focuses on the need to re-integrate within the revived mainstream view that economic empowerment of women is smart economics the analysis of gender relations – starting from the household, and a more thorough understanding of the role that different actors play in this domain. panel 24 – paper 7

Gender perspectives on Social Protection Policy and delivery in Cameroon Author: Blaise Fofung Vudinga, University of York.UK, bvf500@york.ac.uk Over the past decades, social protection has become a prominent development strategy used in many poor countries to understand issues surrounding societal risks and vulnerabilities. Gender is a key part of social protection policy challenge hence many studies have mostly focused on how the design and implementation of social protection interventions can address gender-based constraints within households. Using a gender lens, this paper explores how well the roles, assumptions, and gender perspectives of female social protection bureaucrats, address how structural barriers and difficulties influence the nature of social protection policy and delivery. Data for this paper, is drawn from both primary and secondary data. The primary data consists of 10 qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted with social protection elites in Cameroon as part of PhD research. The paper uses thematic analysis to capture the views and experiences of social protection policy and decision makers. The paper argues that for better conceptualisation and supply of social protection resources and services gender-related perspectives should be promulgated to the forefront. The paper demonstrates that the roles and assumptions of gender- sensitive social protection bureaucrats serving as gatekeepers is crucial for the provision of

diversified social protection livelihood strategies. The paper concludes by arguing that whilst addressing the constraints of women in households is good, for effective and efficient social protection policies and interventions, a gender perspective that underscores the assumptions of female social protection elites must be considered. Thus, strengthening the capacity of social protection policy and decision making in Cameroon. panel 24 – paper 8

Frugal innovation: Empowering female farmers? Authors: Jessica Kampanje-Phiri, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANAR), Malawi, jessica.kampanje@bunda.luanar.mw, and Saskia Vossenberg, International Institute of Social Studies, The Netherlands, vossenberg@iss.nl Innovation is often highlighted as a key driver for the inclusion of small scale farmers into markets and has become an important policy goal in Sub-Saharan countries (AfdB, 2014). This paper explores the effect of frugal innovation on food systems and market place conditions for female farmers. Frugal innovation is the development of technologies, organizational forms, and business models by and for ‘the small and marginal’ in resource constraint settings (Gupta, 2011; Badhuri, 2016). How does frugal innovation empower female farmers and affect their livelihoods? By taking on an institutional and gender lens, the paper argues that impact of frugal innovation in lives of female farmpreneurs is mediated by long-established gendered patterns of social and economic life. Whereas aspects of the innovation can be new, its usage and implementation is often a reproduction of existing gender relations. Drawing from data collected between January 2014 and April 2016 at household level in rural and urban regions of Malawi, preliminary findings are presented on how women use the gains of frugal innovation as a strategy for income and food insecurity. Our data shows that gender relations institutionalized at the level of the household influence women’s agency to use and benefit from frugal innovation. Modified marital roles and expectations, shaped in matrilineal and patrilineal systems, form an entrepreneurial motivation and a risk that female farmers manage when it comes to their production, consumption, trading and investment. Our findings suggest the importance of considering gender relations in understanding how frugal innovation affects empowerment and benefit people’s livelihoods.


Water harvesting for agroindustrial developments at Lake Naivasha, Rift Valley, Kenya

Water level change at Lake Baringo, Kenya

New irrigation technology in Kisangesangeni, Moshi, Tanzania

100 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

FORMER NAI-RESEARCHERS

NOW DEALING

WITH WASTE

BOOK PRESENTA TION Friday 23 Se ptember, 13:15-13:30 Blåsenhus, M ain Entrance Ha ll

The failure of formal solid waste management systems in many African cities has paved the way for an informal sector. In a new book, Dealing With Waste (Africa World Press 2016), edited by two NAI-alumni researchers, Onyanta Adama and Chidi Nzeadibe, 17 researchers with different African perspectives, make an attempt to capture the complexity of this informal sector. The two waste researchers’ will present their book during the lunch break on Friday.

panel 24 – paper 9

Women’s cattle ownership in Botswana. Rebranding gender relations? Author: Andrea Petitt, Center for Gender Research, Uppsala University, Sweden, andrea.petitt@gender.uu.se Cattle are often portrayed as a male affair in Botswana. However, venturing out to the Kalahari countryside to scratch the surface of this state of affairs, another picture emerges. There are in fact many women from different socioeconomic background who own, manage and work with cattle in different ways, and their farming is defined by both the connection to the EU beef market and interlinked local processes of power. Cattle are ever-present in Botswana and play a paramount role for the economy, politics and rural landscape of the country, as well as for many people’s cultural identity, kinship relations and everyday routines. I study women’s involvement in cattle production in Ghanzi District to think about how peoples’ relations to certain livestock species produce, reproduce and challenge established patterns of material and social relations. More specifically I investigate how access and claims to livestock is defined by intersections of gender, ethnicity, race and class within broader contexts

associated with the commercialisation of livestock production. The objective of this thesis is to explore how different women are able to benefit from their cattle ownership for their social positions and material welfare in Botswana within the broader political, economic and socio-cultural contexts associated with the commercial beef industry. Through ethnographic fieldwork and an intersectional analysis of gendered property relations to grazing land and cattle, I show how women do benefit from both subsistence products and monetary income from cattle sales. An increased need for cash together with the possibility to sell cattle stimulated by Botswana’s beef trade with the EU have motivated women to gain control over cattle. There are women who, encouraged by gender equality messages from the Ministry of Gender Affairs, make use of the government’s loans and grants for entrepreneurship to start up their own cattle operations and make claims to the cattle market. In addition, there are women with control over their cattle who also benefit in terms of social status and those women who engage in cattle production in ways seen as new speak of more equal gender relations. Key words: gender, women, livestock, cattle, ownership, property, commercialisation, change, intersectionality. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 101

panel 26

Revisiting language and gender in African settings

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anguage has been generally theorised as an important tool in the performance and negotiation of gender, as well as the understanding/analysis of gendering and gender relations. In short, language is a prime instrument for doing, and undoing, gender. However, the apparent universalism of this theorisation has been complicated over time by exhibited differences in ethnic and cultural perceptions of ‘gender,’ ‘language’ and their intersection. These have led to, for example, scholarly contestation around the real or perceived ‘gender neutrality’ of some African languages. Yoruba, a West African language, has often been projected as a prime example of such ‘gender neutrality.’ Further complications of the relationship between language and gender have emerged from consideration of the intersection between ageism, sexism, patriarchy and the power conundrum in African settings. Questions have also been asked as to whether a perfect symmetry exists between language and social reality, or what intervening trajectories may complicate the equation. And language has featured prominently in the homosexuality/ heterosexuality debate on Africa, etc. This panel invites interventions devoted to the investigation of the multiple and possibly peculiar ways in which language impacts the performance of gender in African settings and how these may in turn enhance a broader understanding of gender and the gendering process. Panelists would hopefully explicate or shed new light on the intersection between language, gender, age, sexuality and ethnicity in African settings. Interventions are expected to be both data and theory driven, with data drawn from real life situations or from aesthetic representations. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 and 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 229 Organiser: Taiwo Oloruntoba-Oju, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, ttobaoju@unilorin.edu.ng


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panel 26 – paper 1

Of neutrality, language and sexuality discourse in Yoruba music: A study of Abass Akande ‘Obesere’ and Janet Ajilore ‘Saint Janet’ Author: Adeyemi Johnson Ademowo, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, yemi.ademowo@ abuad.edu.ng Sexuality is a central aspect of human life that encompasses sex, gender, identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. It is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs and, in some cases, misinterpreted as nothing but vulgarity. Hence, the derision of sexuality related discourses on the public space. The desire to preserve the ‘sanctity’ of the Yoruba language so that it will remain ‘morally clean’, has made sexuality discourse a taboo subject among the Yorubas. But the pertinent question is: how clean and neutral is Yoruba language? Using Foucault’s theory of sexuality embodied in his history of sexuality as a foil, we aver that the stigmatization of Obesere and Saint Janet’s music as “Immoral’ and ‘not fit for the ears’ is basically because they both frustrate efforts to control sex at the level of speech, and inadvertently intensify discourses on sex, sexual performance and the power relations among Yoruba men and women. panel 26 – paper 2

Redefining womanhood: Combating gender discrimination in Yoruba and Afro-Brazilian contemporary popular music Author: Anike R. Omidire, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria, anikomi2002@yahoo.com One of the Millennium Goals for world development is based on gender equality, economic and political empowerment of women. This is seen as a tool to resolve certain world problems like poverty, unemployment, gender inequality as well as a measure to guarantee a universal education for all. The preamble of the United Nation’s Communiqué of 1945 was a reaffirmation of faith in the fundamental human rights, dignity and worth of the human person, placing a great emphasis on equal rights of men and women. However, after so many years of the establishment of the United Nations, it is lamentable to see that all forms of humiliation, oppression and discrimination against women still persist in our societies. In gender relations, women are often seen as inferior to men or incapable of ma-

king simple decisions that will benefit any society or individuals. Nevertheless, female resistance and courage in confronting the diverse manifestations of gender discrimination have kept the women on their feet as is evident in different areas of social, cultural and ideological expressions by women. This work seeks to undertake a feminist analysis of womanhood as a weapon to combat gender discrimination in an attempt to see how the songs, “Obìrin ni mi” by Shola Allyson Obaniyi and “Mulher” by Mariene de Castro extol the values of the Ecofeminist theory which can be seen as a direct contribution of Yoruba and Afro-Brazilian women towards the attainment of this Millennium Goal that is represented by Gender Equality. panel 26 – paper 3

A discursive analysis of the epistemological understandings of gender mainstreaming and gender equality in development organisations in Cameroon Authors: Lilian Lem Atanga, The University of Bamenda, Cameroon, l.l.atanga@gmail.com, and Relindis Neh Ngwa, University of Dschang, Cameroon, ngwarelindis@yahoo.com Language and gender in African contexts has previously been questioned as a valid epistemology (Atanga et al 2013). This paper seeks to show that although there are elaborate written documentation spelling out what gender equality and gender mainstreaming is, knowledge and understanding of gender equality and gender mainstreaming is still limited as observed in developmental discourses. The paper seeks to show that discourses on faulty understandings of gender equality and mainstreaming often translate into wrong practices regarding the two, and can lead to what Fricker (2009) calls epistemic injustices. Relevant data consists of documentation from development oriented NGOs in Cameroon and interviews with development workers including participant observation.A quick look at most organisation websites in Cameroon show that they all claim to focus on mainstreaming gender in their organisation or projects. A further look shows that most reputable organisations, especially international non-governmental organisations have gender policies and gender action plans spelling out exactly what gender policies exist in the organisation and what should be done in their programs. Adiscursive analysis of the data (using CDA – vanDijk 2009) shows however that although gender policies and action plans of both national and international NGOs exist, the understanding and practice of gender mainstreaming (UN 2014) are still skewed by


Presentations of panels and papers | 103

» There was an abundant use of passivisation when the press reported issues and events concerning women « Maureen Enongene Nzung, panel 26, paper 4

patriarchal ideologies and power relations between males and females in these development programs. Gendered discourses therefore shape knowledge and practices within development organisations. Results also show that although positive gendered discourses evolve within the Cameroonian context, gendered practices and understandings of gender mainstreaming are still very problematic within the organisations. Key Words: Gender, epistemology, CDA, development organisations. panel 26 – paper 4

Gendered discourses in the Cameroonian press Author: Maureen Enongene Nzung, University of Buea, Cameroon, menzung@yahoo.com This paper submits that language is a powerful tool used for social constructions and representations as well as a medium through which values and meanings are portrayed and can be used to perpetuate and/or challenge societal stereotypes. We set out to explore the ways in which language is used in the Cameroonian press of English expression to perpetuate, maintain and challenge gender constructions, perceptions and representations. It examines the language of newspapers, highlighting the role it plays in marginalising and undermining the experiences and identity of women. Using Critical Discourse Analysis(CDA) as both its theoretical and methodological framework data collected was qualitatively analysed and found out that through a number of discourse strategies, gender is constructed and sustained in the Cameroonian press; that women and men are constructed as being diffe-

rent from each other and play different roles in a society which expects them to be at opposite ends both at home and at work. There was an abundant use of passivisation when the press reported issues and events concerning women, side-lining them or rendering them completely invisible. We also found out that certain discourses serve to challenge stereotypical constructions of gender in post-colonial Cameroon. The study is important in that it contributes to the search for bias-free press, where no segment of the society therein represented is back-grounded or minimised. panel 26 – paper 5

Gender representation in cultural expressions of the Yoruba people Authors: Ayobola Raji, Fountain University Osogbo, Nigeria, rajiayobola@gmail.com, and Asiru Hameed Tunde, Kenyatta University, Kenya, asiruhameedtunde@yahoo.com Language has always been acknowledged as a vehicle of identity construction. This construction is always conditioned by socio-cultural affinities such as gender and religion. Language as a social 'weapon' in the service of identity construction is either explicit or implied. When it is explicit, it is gender-marked and when it is implicit, it is not overtly marked for gender. Consequently, if a language is not gender-marked, does it mean such a language is completely silent or neutral in terms of gender? In this paper, we argue that although the Yoruba language is considered in scholarly circles as a gender-neutral language, there are instances of pragmatic gendering in its usage. That is, gendering should not only be viewed from the structural/grammatical mar-


104 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

kers in a language but from a pragmatic perspective of stereotypes. Ten Nollywood movies will be purposively selected and analysed by identifying from the socio-cultural context, random lexical and structural gender-marked expressions. The study adopts Lazar (2007) Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis (FCDA) to substantiate our claim of positive and negative gender stereotypes in Yoruba. We conclude that gendering is not only located in the subjective and objective pronoun markers of languages but also, evidently, in the socio-cultural use of the language. Key words: Yoruba, Socio-cultural, Gender, Language, FCDA, Nollywood. panel 26 – paper 6

dies, examines contemporary Hip-Hop song lyrics of some popular music circulating among the Nigerian youth. Based on the analysis of selected data, the paper shows that popular Nigerian artistes across the popular music spectrum associate with their songs and promote through the song texts the ideologies of masculinity. Apart from glorifying rape and abuse of women, Nigerian youth languages continually are depicting women ‘as second class’, ‘good only for sex’, ‘money-hungry’ and ‘easily bought’, The paper maintains that youth languages in Nigeria are not just distinct to the youth, but that the languages reflects the worldviews of the youth which are similar to that of their parents. Keywords. Youth language, Sexuality, Women, Gender studies, Nigeria. panel 26 – paper 7

Youth language practices in Nigerian song lyrics: An analysis of gender-based expressions

African precolonial gendering perspectives: revisiting the linguistic evidence inYoruba

Author: Folorunso Odidiomo, Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria, fodidiomo@oauife.edu.ng

Author: Taiwo Oloruntoba-Oju, University of Ilorin, Nigeria, ttaiwooju@yahoo.com

Abstract. The practice of language creation by African youth has generally been established. Most studies on youth language claim that youth invent languages to suit their communicative/cognitive needs and particularly to enhance group identity and solidarity. The results of these studies have shown that youth languages deviate from the traditional norms and, more importantly, distinguish the youth from the older generations. On the basis of Nigerian linguistic plurality, few studies also have examined youth languages in urban centers and have drawn conclusion that males tend to contribute more than females into the ‘market’ of youth linguistic innovations. The issue of youth languages, especially males, focusing on women and their sexuality has not been adequately examined and, again, the interrelationship between these languages (argots, slangs, jargons and taboo words) and norms, values and practices of the older generations needs to be examined. This paper addresses the question of male dominance in the enterprise of Nigerian youth languages creation and of why the youth languages focus on women. The paper, drawing insights for analysis from Psychoanalytic Feminist Literary Theory/Gender stu-

Certain African linguistic peculiarities, such as the absence of generic pronouns in Yoruba, have figured prominently in the theorization of pre-colonial Africa as a somewhat Edenic ‘gender neutral’ idyll. This paper re-examines the linguistic evidence for gendering or non-gendering in pre-colonial Yoruba. Parameters that may serve as the “test of gender,” or of gendering, in western languages have been variously proposed in the literature (such as generic pronouns and nouns, “women as marked form,” “naming and androcentrism,” tests, etc). The paper checks these parameters, among others, against core linguistic elements that appear reflective of gendered practices in Yoruba society. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 105

panel 27

Including the Voice of Women in Educational Development

W

ithin the research on education, gender and development, as in development studies in general, the strand that gives emphasis for peoples’ ‘voices’ has intensified its status, drawing from the critique of policy level decisions without involving those who are targeted by these policies. At the core of this criticism are concerns that, in the planning, implementation and assessment of global policies, too little attention is paid to the notions of social justice and equality of opportunity and treatment. Furthermore, understanding of dynamics and underlying power relations in any human endeavour, including education, tend to be ignored. Nobel laureate economist Amartya Sen (2005, xiii) has commented that the denial of ‘dialect’ from the common people is elitist, cynical and tends to encourage impassivity; for him, ‘participation in arguments is a general opportunity, not a particular specialised skill (like composing sonnets or performing trapeze arts)’. Yet the challenges for evidence-informed policy making, and consequently also for research, are whose voice, lived experience and story are of relevance to be told and heard, and how voices are represented and listened to. In this panel we will discuss research approaches that have proven potential to provide tools for listening to women’s voice and meaningfully engaging them in educational research concerning their experiences, and ways to integrate their ‘voice’ in educational development from planning and management to implementation and evaluation. By giving the ‘voice’ for the women, our aim is to take ‘into consideration not only the global benchmarks, but also, and most importantly, the situation on the ground’ (Lehtomäki, et al., 2014). Time: Friday 23 September, 16:00-18:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 132 Organiser: Suzanne Adhiambo Puhakka, Agora Center, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, suzanne.puhakka@jyu.fi


106 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 27 – paper 1

The role of research in examining implications of gender differences in education Author: Suzanne Adhiambo Puhakka, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland, suzanne.puhakka@jyu.fi In this context, gender refers to culturally developed mannerisms that define the personalities and traits of femininity and manhood in societies. Gender differences are evident in education globally, there is a developing understanding that there are psychological differences in the way females and males think in any given setting and this affects how they perceive education and how they are influenced by the education they receive. Additionally, assigned roles within their environments may also affect their education. While we admit that this will always be the case, it is important for educationists to understand why the gender differences exist and the implications for these differences with the aim of creating equitable educational outcomes. Conventionally, research has been seen as a way of gathering evidence-based information on various topics however more recently research evidence is used to provide practical solutions to societal challenges. This paper builds upon a research framework whose aim is to examine how research can be used to better understand the causes and consequences of gender disparity in education. Key words: Gender differences, Education, Research. panel 27 – paper 2

Including marginalized women through research engagement Author: Elina Lehtomäki, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, elina.k.lehtomaki@jyu.fi Key tasks of sub-Saharan higher education are to enhance the human capabilities and reduce poverty. While gender disparities still remain in the enrolment of students and the number of women in academic positions, these differences are more evident among population groups that experience marginalization in education since early years. This paper provides insights into how women with disabilities studying in higher education – one of the poorest and most marginalised groups in society – construct their agency, perceive their roles as models for others and advocate for social change. The evolvement of agency is analysed in light of the capabilities approach across research on women with disabilities in sub-Saharan African higher education are presented. The potential of research en-

gagement, with the foundational idea that research is conducted with persons involved and targeted by development policies for social change, is proposed as a strategy to further enhance the emerging capabilities among women with disabilities in higher education for promoting sustainable social change. Key words: equity, inclusion, marginalisation, higher education, women with disabilities, sub-Saharan Africa. panel 27 – paper 3

Empowering teachers-as-researchers: Experiences from women teachers in a collaborative action research Author: Said Juma, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, said.k.juma@student.jyu.fi Traditionally, women, in Sub-Saharan African context, have always been regarded as inferior and dependent to men. Women’s voices are hardly heard in planning, management and implementation of economic, development and academic issues. Using data collected through interviews, the researcher’s and teachers’ self-reflective journals, and reports from collaborative action research projects conducted in two primary schools in Tanzania, this presentation shows the commitment and active role played by women teachers in making their projects successful. The findings show how the women teachers successfully assumed most of the roles in their projects and how they managed to find time for their projects amid their heavy teaching load and family responsibilities. These women teachers also raise their voices to recommend strategies for promoting the implementation of inclusive education in their schools through collaborative action research as a continuing professional development model. These findings provide insights into how empowered women teachers can contribute to implementation of national policies and improvement of educational development. Key words: women teachers, collaborative action research, inclusive education, educational development, Tanzania. panel 27 – paper 4

Examining female agency: Epistemological and ontological considerations Author: Mari-Anne Okkolin, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and Institute for Reconciliation and Social Justice, University of the Free State, South Africa, mari-anne.okkolin@jyu.fi More than twenty years ago, Shulamit Reinharz (1992) remarked on how Western feminists were criticised for


Presentations of panels and papers | 107

12 | Nordic Africa Days 2016

CHANGES, PEOPLE & LAND FILM AND POSTER

EXHIBITION am-5 pm 23-24 September, 10trance Hall En ain M , us nh se Blå

Pastoral pathways in Samburu, Kenya

Water level change at Lake Baringo, Kenya

IN EAST AFRICA

In Eastern Africa, like in many other parts of the world, social and environmental changes are occurring at unprecedented rates and amplitudes. Climate variations, increasing populations, new patterns of land tenure, urbanisation and weak governance are causing and exacerbating environmental problems. REAL, Resilience in East African Landscapes, is a research and training network within the EU-funded Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions program. REAL links together 20 researchers from different universities, and with different disciplinary backgrounds. They have set out to investigate landscape changes and social and cultural transformations in Kenya and Tanzania. For the Nordic Africa Days, the REAL network has prepared an exhibition displaying a documentary film, poster presentations and snapshots that cast light on various aspects of socio-ecological transformations in East Africa. The exhibition will be open during both Friday and Saturday. A representative from REAL will be there to give guidance and answer questions.

Water harvesting for agroindustrial developments at Lake Naivasha, Rift Valley, Kenya

New irrigation technology in Kisangesangeni, Moshi, Tanzania

not studying third world women (ethnocentrism) and social reality ontologically and epistemologically, are for doing so as outsiders to those cultures (coloniaand what kind of methodological implications they FORMER NAI-RESEARCHERS lism); she also stated how feminists studying women have in conducting research on women and culture. BOOK in cultures other than their own were criticised if they This paper draws on the findings a research on PRESEof NTATthe ION accepted that culture’s way of subordinating women women in Tanzania. In the paper I examine conFriday 23 Se ptember, of (misogyny) and if they repudiated the culture’s subcept of female agency and illustrate the adaptation 13 5-13:30 ordination of women (ethnocentrism again). Overall, the concept in analytical phasesBlåofse:1the research pronhus, Main she concluded, feminists doing cross-cultural research cess. In doing so, I wish to highlight importance of Entrthe ance Hall seem to confront two competing sets of ethics: respect acknowledged reflexivity and relationality of knowledfor women and respect for culture. Still today the quesge construction.  tion remains the same: how are we as researchersThe to failure of formal solid waste management systems in many respect both women – all of our research participants, African cities has paved the way for that matter – and culture at the same time. for an informal sector. In a new The debates concerning the individual – society, book, Dealing With Waste (Africa agency – structure, macro – micro dualisms are atWorld the Press 2016), edited by two core of the social and human investigations. To elaboNAI-alumni researchers, Onyanta rate the above question further one may ask, howAdama we and Chidi Nzeadibe, 17 with different African are about to understand these foundational aspectsresearchers of

NOW DEALING

WITH WASTE

perspectives, make an attempt to capture the complexity of this informal sector. The two waste tweet about paneltheir 27:book researchers’ will present during the lunch break on Friday.

#NAD2016 #WomenInEducation


108 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 28 Gender, sex and race in research and pedagogical practices with young people in and between Finland and South Africa:

Transnational reflections on the politics of knowledge/praxis

T

his panel arises from close transnational research between Finland and South Africa in the project, ”Enabling South African and Finnish youth towards non-violence, equality and social well-being”. The project is funded by the Academy of Finland and the National Research Foundation (NRF) in South Africa (2013-2016). The project has involved multiple research contacts of various kinds, research collaborations, extended, research visits, doctoral student support, writing and publishing workshops, collective memory work, and joint writing and publishing. In this panel we reflect on these transnational collaborations through three main broad sets of questions, addressed in particular ways by each of the panel members. 1. What does it mean to work transnationally, in this case between Finland and South Africa, across the contexts of difference at multiple levels, both material and discursive within continued inequalities and injustices in a patriarchal, post-colonial present? And what can we learn about how our research related to young people’s sexualities, genders, and intersectional identities, shape, reinstate or resist dominant discourses related to global inequalities? 2. How does our research and related pedagogies and programmes directed at/ with young people in transnational contexts intersect with global frameworks of neoliberal governmentality which reproduces adult authority and surveillance and regulation of young sexualities and genders in ways that are raced and classed? 3. What are emerging alternatives to a framework of scholarship and pedagogies that are located in a didactic paradigm hinging around authoritative knowers/ researchers and subjugated learners/research subjects and that destabilise dominant ways of knowing and making meaning for social justice. How do we begin to shift from rigid binarism between pedagogy and research and the investment of both endeavors in a civilizing project on young people? Time: Saturday 24 September, 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 4 Organisers: Tamara Shefer, University of Western Cape, South Africa, tammy.shefer@gmail.com, and Jeff Hearn, Örebro University, Sweden


Presentations of panels and papers | 109

panel 28 – paper 1

Challenging youth psychologies: participatory research engagements with young people in postcolonial contexts Author: Floretta Boonzaier floretta.boonzaier@uct.ac.za While young people’s lives and the inequitable contexts in which they are located are key areas of concern for social scientists, much research on children and young people has begun with privileging the knowledge of adult researchers above those of the young people themselves. Psychology as a discipline is heavily implicated in the production and reproduction of discourses that problematically position young people as passive, with insufficient attention to the complexities of youth subjectivities. Young people negotiate selves and subjectivities in complex postcolonial contexts that involve continuities in the stereotypical gendered, racialised and classed ways in which people in the global south are represented. These include depictions of black people as lazy, ignorant and irresponsible and of black women and children in particular as passive and in need of help or ‘saving’. These representations stand in stark contrast to potential positionings of young people as active participants in their communities and societies and as having the ability to effect positive transformations in their lives. It has been recognized that participatory methods hold the capacity to engage marginalized individuals and communities in the process of research, education and action. In this paper I reflect on the potential of a participatory form of action research, Photovoice to provide the resources for young marginalized people to challenge their situations and mobilize for social change. The paper draws on examples from studies that engaged with diverse groups of young people around their concerns around poverty, violence, homophobic discrimination, and their gendered and sexual lives and identifications more broadly. panel 28 – paper 2

Transnational reflections on transnational research projects on young people: the paradoxical place of critical adult studies Author: Jeff Hearn, Örebro University, Sweden, and Hanken School of Economics, Finland, and University of Huddersfield, UK, Jeff.Hearn@oru.se This paper is in two parts. It first reflects broadly on the research project, ‘Engaging South African and Finnish youth towards new traditions of non-vio-

lence, equality and social well-being’, funded by the Finnish and South African national research councils, in the context of wider debates on research, projects and transnational processes. This discussion is located within a broader analysis of research projects and projectisation (the reduction of research to separate projects), and the increasing tendencies for research to be framed within and as projects, with their own specific temporal and organisational characteristics. This approach is developed in terms of different understandings of research across borders: international, comparative, multinational, and transnational. The theoretical, political and practical challenges of the North-South research project are discussed. The second part addresses more specifically some cautions in framings of research on or with young people. In some kind of parallel with critical whiteness studies (CWS) and critical studies on men and masculinities (CSMM), I argue for critical adult studies (CRAS) – more precisely critical studies on adults and adulthood – that are historical, materialist, relational, deconstructive, and problematising of adults and adulthood. A CRAS perspective on researching and engaging with young entails highlighting double ageism, the similarities and differences between ‘young ageism’ toward younger people, and ‘old ageism’ towards older people, in terms of, for example, interdependence, care, vulnerability, individual and collective agency, and solidarity. This political direction is elaborated through attention to transnational contexts, across borders, in physical migration, online and offline, North-South, and what this means for researching and engaging young people in complex mixings of place, location, institution, friendship, politics, and critical inquiry. panel 28 – paper 3

Rescuing the veiled queer: Pedagogies of intersectionality in youth work Authors: Katarina Jungar, Helsinki University, Finland, Katarina.jungar@helsinki.fi, and Salla Peltonen, Åbo Akademi University, Finland, salla.peltonen@abo.fi In this text we analyze and discuss the pedagogy of difference as articulated in youth work of the national lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans and intersexual (LGBTI) rights organization in Finland (Seta). We pay special attention to a poster campaign and a discussion at a seminar on rainbow youth, where one poster was addressed. This poster displays a woman, marked as Muslim, kissing another woman marked as Finnish. Recently the figure of the Muslim has become the crucible of othering discourses in Europe, marking the difference


110 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

between those who belong and those who are excluded from Western modernity. In this article we address how a politics of race, inclusion and exclusion articulates itself in a Finnish context of multiculturalism. By discussing what kind of politics of knowledge is articulated in the poster we ask what kind of failures and success intersectional approaches can offer in a neoliberal nationalist context. By analyzing the pedagogical aims of the campaign, we follow Petzen (2012) in arguing that that tropes of care and protection need to be interrogated and understood in the context of European racisms. By analyzing the discussion around the poster we pay attention to how the aforementioned questions articulate themselves in the context of Finnish lgbti youth work. In conclusion we argue that despite an emphasis on a pedagogy of difference and an attempt to an intersectional perspective, the work risks reproducing whiteness as the dominant position, especially when not acknowledging the work and insights of feminist postcolonial and critical race theory. panel 28 – paper 4

Ambivalent positions and challenging contexts in researching ”rainbow youth” in Finland Authors: Jukka Lehtonen and Riikka Taavetti, University of Helsinki, Finland, jukka.p.lehtonen@helsinki.fi In our presentation we will discuss on the positions of young people and researchers in research projects on young lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, intersexual and queer (LGBTIQ) or “rainbow” people. We base our presentation on the experiences of researching on and with young people, who question normative sexuality or gender. In Lehtonen’s ethnography he analysed construction of sexuality, gender and intersecting differences in the youth work of Seta, the national LGBTI human rights organisation, and focus on the experiences of non-heterosexual and trans youth. Taavetti engaged with young “rainbow” people in her research on their situation and experiences. We based our work partially on a survey called “Well-being of rainbow youth” which was produced by Seta and the Finnish Youth Research Society in 2013. Six groups of young people were taking part in Taavetti’s project and worked fairly independently with the survey data and

results into their own directions. Lehtonen followed this work as part of his ethnography. We will discuss methodological, ethical and theoretical problems we faced with our research on and with young people. We analyse our own positions as adults belonging to the LGBTIQ community. We also discuss on challenges related to research contexts. Taavetti worked in a government funded short-term project with a need to produce results for advocacy, and Lehtonen in a transnational research collaboration project, which gave him perspectives from other culture. panel 28 – paper 5

Re-thinking South African scholarship/ practice on gender and sexuality among young people in transnational contexts Author: Tamara Shefer, University of Western Cape, South Africa, tammy.shefer@gmail.com In the last 22 years of the post-apartheid democracy in South Africa there have been many efforts to pursue a social justice and transformation agenda at all levels in society. With the challenges of high rates of HIV infection among young people in many communities, together with an acknowledgement of the widespread nature of gender-based violence, there has been a particular focus on young people in both research and in practice through interventions and policy. Some feminists in South Africa, and the global South in general, saw the imperatives of HIV and the resources that it brought as an opportunity for critical postcolonial feminist scholarship to bring the challenges of intersectional gender justice to the center stage. On the contrary, it has become evident that our research and practice, that is how understandings about HIV and gender-based violence are operationalized, may rather be reinstating the very things we had hoped to challenge. Drawing on examples from narratives of young people in school situations, the paper unpacks some key areas where it is evident that HIV and gender concerns are being deployed in ways that undermine a critical gender justice project and serve rather to rationalize a regulatory framework of disciplining and constraining young sexual practices as well as reproduce local and global gendered, classed and raced othering practices and discourses. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 111

panel 30

Poverty and gender in Sub-Saharan Africa

A

lthough there is widespread recognition of poverty’s impact on gender relations and women’s rights, many of the problems which impact women more than men in Sub-Saharan Africa are still blamed primarily on local gender concepts or cultural practices. There is still insufficient in-depth analysis of how poverty and inequality as structural factors are the main drivers shaping such cultural and gendered practices. There is also insufficient analysis of the factors beyond simple measures such as employment and income (such as unequal access to space) that give rise to poverty in the first place. This panel invites papers dealing with how poverty affects gendered concepts, relations and practices in Sub-Saharan Africa to contribute to this discussion. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 and 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 231 Organiser: Laura Stark, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, laura.stark@jyu.fi


112 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

» Rwanda is dismantling farming cultural practices, such as denying women to milk cows as a cultural taboo « Asasira Simon Rwabyoma, panel 30, paper 1

panel 30 – paper 1

Men-engagement in women’s poverty reduction: a study of Ubudehe participatory practices in Rwanda Author: Asasira Simon Rwabyoma, University of Rwanda, s.rwabyoma@gmail.com Poverty remains the global development challenge in the 21st Century, despite the overall achievements in some regions such as Eastern Asia and South-Eastern Asia that have halved the extreme poverty rate, unlike sub-Saharan Africa. Most poverty assessments have relied heavily on the multilateral agencies to measure and understand poverty, such as, the poverty line designed by the World Bank. This study will focus on innovative approaches to address poverty in Rwanda, that build on the high women parliamentary representation of 64% and men-engagement approaches to mitigate the exclusion of women’s poverty. The major aim of this study is to understand how Ubudehe as a cultural practice in Rwanda is used to identify the categories of the poor based on participation and collective action of men and women. The specific objectives of this study will include; finding out how Ubudehe is applied to challenge the norms and attitudes that sustain poverty in Rwanda; and to understand how men-engage approaches are being practiced to challenge cultural practices in Rwanda’s agricultural sector which employs 86% of women who are the poorest and vulnerable. The study is part of a Ph.D. research project in Gastibo District in Rwanda, which is applying a combination of qualitative and participatory research methodologies while drawing upon feminist methods of research. Semi-structured interviews with women/men and focused group discussions, and key informant interviews

are being carried out. In sub-Saharan Africa, Rwanda is dismantling farming cultural practices, such as denying women to milk cows as a cultural taboo, which was regarded as the work of men. Gender equality is crucial for the social and economic empowerment of women, through men-engagement approaches that enhance women participation in the economic growth and development of sub-Saharan Africa. panel 30 – paper 2

The role of civil society in prevention of child marriage prevalence in Southern Africa Authors: Olivia Lwabukuna, Olga Bialostocka and Sylvester B. Maphosa, Africa Institute of South Africa in the Human Sciences Research Council, South Africa, olwabukuna@hsrc.ac.za The practice of child marriage is a persistent problem across countries, cultures, and religions. It is deeply rooted in gender inequality and low value placed on girls, with traditions and cultural norms typically ‘blamed’ for the phenomenon. Structural cleavages, such as poverty, insecurity, and conflict exacerbate the problem and undermine development initiatives, thus impeding progress toward more equal communities. Africa does not suffer from the dearth of policies prescribing the rights of the child, and protecting the girl child. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (1990) prohibits practices that affect the dignity and development of the child. The African Charter of Human and Peoples Rights (1981) addresses gender based violence against women through the Protocol on the Rights of Women, which calls for elimination of harmful practices affecting women, and provides for legislatively backed equality within mar-


Presentations of panels and papers | 113

riages. In Southern Africa, the above policy positions have been echoed through the SADC Protocol on Gender and Development (2008). Nevertheless, the said instruments have all provisos where the underage girl child may be married without her consent. It is illuminating that civil society has been involved in gender-based violence prevention activities in Malawi, Mozambique, and Zambia for a long time. However, the scourge of the problem remains. Using Bourdieu’s theory of practice, Galtung’s symbolic violence, and Bronfenbrenner’s social ecology, the discussion will examine how social settings in which child marriages occur maintain gender inequality and reproduce poverty. While it is important to acknowledge that the complex child marriage prevalence scenario in the three countries is an outcome of many factors, it is imperative to explore the extent to which civil society organisations have played a role in gender-responsive mitigation of the problem, and how their efforts can be scaled up and enhanced. panel 30 – paper 3

Space, gender and livelihood practices in a Tanzanian slum Author: Tiina-Riitta Lappi, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, tiina-riitta.lappi@jyu.fi People living in an informal neighbourhood face multiple challenges caused by lack of residential planning and their possibilities to make any kind of living are strongly affected by extremely difficult economic, environmental and spatial circumstances. Poor women’s livelihood practices and survival strategies are closely connected to the immediate informal spaces because the majority of them spend most of their time, whether working or not, close to their homes. Urban poverty also has a distinctive gendered aspect, especially as it places a disproportionate burden on women, who are responsible for unpaid caregiving work. Drawing on in-depth interviews in a chronically poor neighbourhood in Dar es Salaam this paper focuses on two questions: How are women’s livelihood practices formed in dialogue with the spatial possibilities and limitations of their physical environment and the ways in which this environment is socially understood? What is the role of gender-related practices and cultural norms when women seek for livelihood opportunities? In this paper I’m arguing that women’s livelihood strategies differ from men’s in significant ways and that these differences are closely linked to ideas and practices regarding space and gendered agency.

panel 30 – paper 4

Questioning Poverty: Experiences of women in South Western and North Central Nigeria Authors: Lohna Bonkat, University of Jos, Nigeria, lohnab@yahoo.com, and Asaaju Morenikeji, University of Bayreuth, Germany, morenikeji_asaaju@yahoo.com The issues of poverty and gender are long standing social problems that permeate every society (UN 2009). Although men and women experience poverty differently. The question of poverty and gender relations is a topical issue particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Nigeria, beyond factors such as cultural practices, unemployment, low income amongst others are also issues of insecurity, violent conflict, instability to mention a few, have further entrenched poverty and continuously affected gender relations. With particular focus on Abeokuta (South Western) and Jos (North Central) as case studies, we explore other factors for poverty and its effects on gender relations and practices. We further discuss strategies and opportunities to reduce poverty and enhance gender relations. Using information drawn from semi structured interviews, archival materials and content analysis of existing literature as sources of data. This article draws a link between poverty and gendered relations besides cultural practices which has been overemphasized. Keywords: Cultural Practices, Gender Relations, Nigeria, Poverty, Africa. panel 30 – paper 5

Gendered political crisis: The materiality of the everyday matters in female authored Zimbabwean novels Author: Faith Mkwesha, Abo Akademi University, Finland, fmanyong@abo.fi The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how gender relations were transformed during the male engineered Zimbabwe crisis and how the crisis reconstituted modern post-colonial subjectivity. The primary texts are Valerie Tagwira’s The Uncertainty of Hope, Virginia Phiri’s Highway Queen and No Violet Bulawayo’s We Need New Names which represent the unmanageability of everyday life during the male engineered Zimbabwean crisis. They depict every day realities of the crisis on marginalized townships and communities in their daily struggle to provide a decent livelihood for their families.


114 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

I am more interested in how the materiality of the everyday affects the choices, decisions and practices of the characters. I posit that while the crisis created a space for women to forge new gendered identities, and to intervene in the politics of masculinity to renegotiate and challenge the unfeeling African masculinities. I argue that while male characters are immobilized by economic disenfranchisement and alienation from their gender roles as providers, protectors and fathers, literary Zimbabwean women are being forced to make “choice-less” choices to provide the materiality of everyday needs for their families during the Zimbabwe crisis. I examine how gender relations and roles are redefined by the crisis, through more flexible definitions of the terms and roles of bread winner, fatherhood and motherhood. I propose that the female writers (Tagwira, Phiri and Bulawayo) position themselves as gender activists and human rights advocates. panel 30 – paper 6

Gendered access to urban living and livelihoods: A case study of livelihood opportunities in two emerging urban centres in rural Tanzania Authors: Susanne Haunstrup Kirkegaard and Jytte Agergaard, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, suki@ign.ku.dk The urban change sweeping across Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), is not merely taking place in cities, as small to intermediate urban centres continue to be the fastest growing in most Africa nations and they also contain the majority of urban residents. Focusing on the smaller segment of small towns, this paper focuses on villages transitioning into small town. These small towns which we refer to as emerging urban centres (EUC’s) due to their transitional phase of becoming towns create intrinsic complex webs of rural and urban lifestyles merging, changing and challenging current social structures and gender relations. The paper explores how gender dynamics are played out in places undergoing urban change, through an investigation of gendered access to livelihood opportunities and gendered mobility practices in two EUC’s. The paper will through an examination of livelihood and mobility practices demonstrate how gender, generation and socio-economic status interact in the construction of EUC’s. By exploring the livelihood practices of people, the paper analyses how (im-)mobility and notions (non-)progress are deeply intertwined into people’s notions of urban development and urban living while the access to these urban livings are intersected by gender.

The paper suggests that a gendered perspective on access to livelihood opportunities in EUC’s, provides important insights into how urban changes and gender dynamics are unfolding in rural Tanzania. The paper is based upon data collected in relation to the research project, Rural Urban Transformation: Governance, Mobility, and Economic Dynamics, in Emerging Urban Centres for Poverty Reduction (RUT), including a household survey among 740 households and two months of in-depth field study of two EUC’s, collecting information on household and individual livelihood practices, migration trajectories and daily mobility practices in these EUC’s. panel 30 – paper 7

Bridewealth: Gender roles and poverty Author: Diana Raitala, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, diana.raitala@gmail.com ‘You have no rights, you have no say because he pays the cows [bridewealth]’ Even though she is mistreated she cannot go back to her natal home because there is so much poverty that her father could not feed her, besides he would have to return the payment made for her, she could not burden her family with it. Therefore, she has to accept being her husband’s property. This was told to me by Jane (pseudonym), a Luo woman, in order to explain some aspects of bridewealth on my ethnographic trip to eastern Kenya. My research for my Master’s thesis shows that gender roles are determined by bridewealth, a cultural practice which legalizes marital union. This practice confers rights on husbands such as ownership of their wives and custody of their children. At the same time, women’s rights are violated because due to this practice women are not allowed to own property as they are considered the husband’s property themselves; for the same reason women should accept physical and psychological abuse. Poverty plays a major role in the dynamics of bridewealth since i) usually a wife has to accept abuse from husband because if she leaves him, he could demand that her father repay the brideweath, and often the father has no means of doing so; ii) children are wanted because they are responsible for the well-being of their parents when they grow older. In a poor country like Kenya where basic needs such as potable water, food, medical care and housing are not met by the state, children have a moral duty within their financial possibilities to provide for their parents. Bridewealth is traditionally paid to obtain a wife who produces children for her husband and his kin.


Presentations of panels and papers | 115

» Does early marriage deny girls the chance for education, or is the situation more complicated than this? « Laura Stark, panel 30, paper 8

panel 30 – paper 8

Poverty, education, and child marriage in Dar es Salaam Author: Laura Stark, University of Jyväskylä, Finland, laura.stark@jyu.fi The UN and other international agencies define child marriage as involving spouses under 18 years of age. In many African societies, such marriage is still common, despite strenuous efforts to eradicate it. Using over 250 interviews with residents of a chronically poor neighborhood in Dar es Salaam between 2010 and 2015, this paper asks: how are early marriage practices grounded in local concepts of childhood and adulthood? Does early marriage deny girls the chance for education, or is the situation more complicated than this? According to older cultural norms still prevalent in Tanzania, children are seen to become independent adults at roughly age 15–16. It would be wrong to conclude that Tanzanian parents who push or force girls into early marriage at this age do not recognize the dangers or risks in such marriages, or consider their daughters to be worth less than sons. On the contrary, most parents would prefer their daughters to be in school, but for the chronically poor in Tanzania, schooling at all levels is expensive. High unemployment has meant that for the poorest residents of the city, even secondary school education – for which whole families make sacrifices – does not guarantee girls a job

or a better means of making an income. In this case, marriage can be seen as providing the best security for girls. Moreover, in a context in which many girls get pregnant while in school (from sexual relations with other students) or drop out of school to generate income through transactional sexual behavior, marriage is seen to be the only way to ensure that the man’s family will recognize any resulting pregnancies as belonging to his kin group, thereby providing more security for the baby. Many girls I interviewed wanted to marry before age 18, indeed for many it was an unattainable dream, because they could not find a man wealthy enough to provide for them. In some contexts, therefore, so-called child or marriage should be seen not as a ‘traditional’ solution but as an aspiration emerging from the current economic crisis in Tanzanian society. Age 18 as the upper limit of childhood represents an arbitrary cut-off point with historical roots in Western society, one that does not reflect the norms and conditions of African societies. Policy discourses and campaigns against early marriage implicitly assume that, if not for the burden of having to marry early, girls would automatically have other routes to agency and self-fulfillment. Yet I suggest that the lives of young brides would not necessarily have been better if their parents had been legally prevented from pressuring them to marry. For the very poor, legislation grounded in Western conceptions of the person is therefore not likely to be an effective way of addressing the issue of early marriage. 

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116 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 31

Legitimacy, family and political power in East Africa, ca 1800 to present

S

tories connecting political power and households come in many forms, from oral histories that explained political success and failure as the result of how precolonial chiefs fulfilled - or failed to fulfil their obligations as husbands, uncles, sons-in-law, fathers, to colonial court records critiquing chiefs’ marriages, to rumours about politicians’ behaviour. They presented narratives not just of what it meant to be a good leader, but also what it meant to be a good husband, son, father, or uncle. In exploring these varied stories and debates, this panel sheds light on the ways in which gendered expectations are reinforced or contested, and how they shape access to political power. This panel explores the ways that the legitimacy of individuals’ political power in Eastern Africa has long been debated through stories, rumours, and arguments about the actions of powerful men in forming, destroying or sustaining families. The connection between political power and gathering followers has long been recognised by Africanist historians and anthropologists through the concept of “wealth in people” (Guyer & Belinga.) More recent work has highlighted that, in contrast to the operation of European colonial states, precolonial political state-making depended upon the strategic deployment of households as political assets (Osborn). But powerful men’s households were not only a form of wealth they were also a site of struggle, creating expectations and responsibilities that men might not fully uphold. In addition, while the nature of the connections between households and political power in East Africa has shifted over the past two centuries, they have not disappeared and are particularly visible in debates about the legitimacy of an individual’s power. The papers in this panel consider how we might rethink powerful men’s relations with their households as sites of failure, where a man’s unsuitability for political power becomes manifest. Time: Saturday 24 September, 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 132 Organiser: Rachel Taylor, Northwestern University, USA, racheltaylor2013@u.northwestern.edu


Presentations of panels and papers | 117

» The papers in this panel consider how we might rethink powerful men’s relations with their households as sites of failure «

panel 31 – paper 1

panel 31 – paper 2

Destroying families, destroying states: Narrating defeat in nineteenth-century East Africa

Rethinking indigenous legitimacy and political power: A case of the Lugbara society in Uganda, 1900-2010

Author: Rachel Taylor, Northwestern University, USA, racheltaylor2013@u.northwestern.edu

Author: Agatha Alidri, Gulu University/ Makerere University Uganda, alidri.agatha@chuss.mak.ac.ug

Why did a chief die? Why was he unsuccessful in war? Why did his followers turn against him? In narratives seeking to answer these questions, East and Central Africans repeatedly focused not on external political events but instead on internal family dynamics. They told stories of chiefs who provoked their wives’ wrath through breaking promises or violating social norms. The wronged wives called on warriors from elsewhere, and the disloyal husband was defeated. In other accounts, wives revealed husbands’ weaknesses to their enemies, or disputes over women caused allies to split. Such accounts are not just stories about the potential hazards and treachery of women, although they are often read as such. They are also stories of the difficulties of “wealth in people”, of the ways that powerful men could fail to live up to the expectations of their followers and could lose their ability and right to rule as a result. For this paper I draw particularly from written versions of oral histories associated with the Nyamwezi of Tanzania and with related groups, including the Yeke in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, but such narrative tropes can be found in stories over a much wider area.

This paper explains the role of indigenous society in grooming political leadership. Indigenous apprenticeship could supplement leadership skills in contemporary African states. The historical study among the Lugbara explored the effect of the interface between indigenous and modern law, order and judicial system on society. Personal and group narratives were used to get opinions and experiences of clan elders, elderly person, retired and active civil servants, politicians; and the youth. Indigenous society is key in socializing and mentoring members into responsible persons in the family, clan and society. Gendered societal norms developed from indigenous wisdom were used to enforce social order and regulate social behaviour. The patriarchal nature of society strengthened the male power position. Although women were not given social space in the higher hierarchy, they received respect based on their reproductive role. The elderly women had voices as originators of the clan. Colonialism witnessed the neglect of cultural standards and socialization as means to access political position. It ‘invented’ chiefs who by their salaried employment, worked to the service of the colonial masters rather than the people. Persons without cultural legitimacy ascended to power and relied on con-


118 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

THERE'S A CHAIR

WAITING FOR YOU IN UPPSALA

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In 1974 and 1991, Ethiopia underwent two spectacular revolutions that played great role in (re)shaping its society and state. The 1974 revolution had broken down a ‘societal taboo’ that kept women behind family doors, opening a wide-ranging opportunities for the women in the military, local administrations and mass organizations. It was, compared to the culture in Ethiopia, a dramatic move but with remarkable limitations. The 1991 revolution that had introduced Ethiopia’s multi-national federation went far ahead to the extent of establishing a separate ministerial in 2006 office related to the affairs of the women. Despite achievements of these celebrated revolutions, predicaments related to Ethiopia’s gender relations by and large remained uncurbed at local level. Much of the challenges have to do with societal traditions embedded much deeper in the country’s family histories. The proposed paper analyzes and theorizes the process, progress and challenges, vis-à-vis historically embedded traditions, in gender relations within families. With samples of empirical data drawn from the Oromia region, the paper throws light on contours of gender relations at family level as Ethiopia opted for political changes. As Ethiopia’s two successive regimes legitimized, but at radically different levels, compe-

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Author: Getinet Fulea, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, rohobot2007@yahoo.com

Claude Ake Visiting Chair 2017:

EA

Women, revolutions and the challenges of tradition in Ethiopia (1974-2015)

R UPPSA AI

panel 31 – paper 3

N G CH ITI

nections to sustain their status quo. The colonial law upheld the patriarchal power structure that left women as ‘natural subjects’. The failures of post-colonial leadership among the Lugbara was attributed to the inheritance of the colonial system and the weakening of indigenous practices. The Lugbara society although acepholous, raised persons who were considered culturally eligible and able to take up social leadership. The gendered mentorship was based on socially constructed sex roles and social apprenticeship instilled allegiance to the people. Clan leaders were selected based on culturally defined qualities and ability to fulfil family and clan obligations. Indigenous society therefore is critical in raising leaders and its contribution should be appreciated.

The Claude Ake Visiting Chair was set up in 2003 in collaboration between Uppsala University and the Nordic Africa Institute

ting ethno-national identities between 1974 and 2015 in serious attempts to resolve contradictions in the country, women issues were also taken into considerations. State measures to consider historical grievances, however, also boosted bolstering ethno-nationalism that have been committed to achieve far better than what the state was willing to achieve. As the two forces went into decades of confrontations, especially in a territory that is now Oromia, women have been involved on both sides. Popular demands have been answered piecemeal but women affair at family level remain a serious challenge in today’s Ethiopia. This paper argues that there is still invisibly another side of a rather visible socio-economic and political contradictions in today’s Ethiopia – issues of gender relations vis-à-vis historically embedded traditions. More to the point, the paper places Ethiopia’s gender relations in the broader perspectives and calls into question the country’s institutional (re)configurations relevant to women and the family. 

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Presentations of panels and papers | 119

panel 32

Urban change and shifting gender dynamics in Africa

U

rban growth in Africa, in particular the continuous and accelerated expansion of urban areas in the last decades, has also involved transformations in gender relations. While migration to cities has required redefinition in terms of background rural dispositions; the rapid shifts in urban life over the last years have also changed the expected and experienced roles of both men and women in the African city. The specificities of urban economies and of urban sociabilities shape the way gender relations are built and reproduced, conveying specific roles and behaviours to men and women, to the relationships between and among them. Moreover, in the present context of important global changes, and within the wide spectrum of alternative and conservative possibilities that are creating new modernities, urban African men and women are challenged to produce and engage in new types of gender relations. This panel addresses the multiplicity of transformations taking place in urban Africa and their effects on gender relations, particularly in the inequalities involved. It focuses not only in the material aspects of urban life – related to urban economies, access to resources, access to urban land, to services and infrastructure – but also addresses the transformation of models, perceptions and rationales in women and men’s roles. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 and 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 128 Organisers: Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues, cristina.udelsmann.rodrigues@nai.uu.se, Annika Teppo, and Patience Mususa, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden


120 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 32 – paper 1

Gender relations in Shashemene, Ethiopia: Change and continuity Author: Gunilla Bjerén, Stockholm University, Sweden, gunilla.bjeren@socant.su.se During the 1970’s and 80’s I worked on a case study of urbanization in Ethiopia, taking the town of Shashemene as the case. Shashemene was then and still is one of the most dynamic urban centres in the country. In 2008 I was able to collect data for a follow up study of the original one, which was based on survey data from 1973. In this paper I will present some findings related to changing gender relations at the two points in time. First I want to bring up some problems in studying change over a period as long as 35 years and at a time when so many factors are changing at the same time: the setting for the study, the theoretical approach to gender relations, and the researcher herself. Then there is the problematic of defining and measuring gender relations. The first study was entirely based on survey data relating to migration and livelihoods. The second study repeated the first, with extended and more nuanced questions. In addition there we gathered of life history interviews which brought in a qualitative element, in addition to what the researchers learnt during extended visits to Shashemene. Findings from the first study were that gender, urban mobility, and earning one’s living were closely intertwined. Women were economically active in different ways but simultaneously dependent on their relations to men directly or indirectly. Adult women and men lived in separate but interdependent economic and social spheres. How much of this has remained the same, or been transformed but with a consistent core? These are some of the questions I want to discuss. panel 32 – paper 2

Urbanization and shifting gender dynamics in Ghanaian mines - no man’s work, no woman’s job, rather, people’s employment Authors: Rufai Haruna Kilu, Eira Andersson, Mohammed-Aminu Sanda & Maria Uden, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, rufai.haruna.kilu@ltu.se This paper explores transformations that have occurred as a result of urbanization, leading to increasing women participation within the Ghanaian mine jobs. Over the past decades, scholars of gender have mapped

women’s entry into numerous occupations, with the realization that, mining seem entirely male-dominated job. Also, in industrial and organizational discourses and representations, mine jobs appear naturalized as masculine domains. In some jurisdictions, the mining space is not only perceived a male profession, but also coded as masculine, because of its close association with science, engineering, the use of tools and machines. The warm, humid, dark interiors of the mine pits are also mysterious and arouse a sense of danger and risk. As a consequence of these and related determinants, society perceives and portray the mine job as highly gendered. Therefore, whenever women entered the mining profession, they are viewed to have crossed cultural, social and professional boundaries. However, recent developments in urban growth in Ghana, the continuous and accelerated expansion of urban areas, occasions redefinition in terms of background rural dispositions, transformations in gender relations, and a change in expectations, experiences, and in roles of both men and women. This paper therefore, set to answer the question as to what ways has urbanization in Ghana influence the shifting gender dynamics in the world of mine jobs. Adopting a qualitative approach, couple with review of previous empirical studies, this paper settles on some outcomes of urbanization like, demystification of technical / engineering education, policy interventions, changing family structures, changing gender roles and patterns of employment as contributing to increasing women entry into the mine jobs. panel 32 – paper 3

Social capital as a coping mechanism for women small scale traders in the informal economy in Nairobi, Kenya Authors: Daniel M. Muia, Kenyatta University, Kenya, muia.daniel@ku.ac.ke, Anne W Kamau, Nairobi University, Kenya, Paul Kamau, Nairobi University, Kenya, Harun Baiya, Site Enterprise Promotion, Kenya, and Jane Ndung’u, Site Enterprise Promotion, Kenya Gender relations are increasingly being transformed in the informal urban economy in Kenya. Women small scale traders (WSSTs) have had to cope by neither relying on their spouses as traditionally expected nor on profit maximisation.. This paper argues that for WSSTs social capital and is at the core of their business operations. Their networks are not just sources of social support but also business support for capital and credit for their businesses. WSSTs control their resour-


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ces irrespective of their marital status. This paper is based on primary data collected from 398 WSSTs in five urban informal settlements in Nairobi between June and August 2015 using a mixed method approach. Access to credit for WSSTs was a major handicap in their business. The requirements by the credit institutions available were too stringent for small businesses due to requirement for guarantee and collaterals. WSSTs resorted to forming groups (merry go round or chamas (67.5%), women groups (27%) and associations including SACCOs (6%).) so that, besides other benefits, including networking, they could get financial credit. While many of these groups are not registered, they are mainly involved in giving loans and credit besides offering welfare support to their members. The spouses/ partners have no say in the businesses. This Paper concludes that WSSTs belong to groups (chama) for social support and also financial support. They do not revert to their spouses/partners for support. The membership of the chama serves as guarantors for WSSTs to access credit. Thus intervention targeting WSSTs should have focus on the social capital development mechanisms as entry point. Equally the emerging gender dynamics of women having full control of their resources needs to be appreciated as an important turning point in gender relations. Key words: Social capital, informal settlements, women small scale traders; informal economy, Nairobi. panel 32 – paper 4

Urban change and rural continuity in African gender ideologies and practices Author: Alice Evans, University of Cambridge, UK, ae383@cam.ac.uk Across Africa, there is growing support for gender equality (such as in terms of girls’ education, women’s employment and leadership). However, this trend tends to be concentrated in urban areas Why is this? And what does it tell us about the causes of egalitarian social change? The aim is to collectively discuss and reflect upon rural-urban differences in gender ideologies and practices. Why is the prevalence of (and support for) female genital cutting lower in urban areas (UNICEF, 2013)? Why are people with equivalent characteristics (age, education, occupation, marital status, wealth and media access) less likely to justify violence against women if they live in urban areas of Sub-Saharan Africa? And why are there statistically significant associations between urban residency and women’s participation in household decision-making? Why does the urban tend

to disrupt gender inequalities in Africa? And what can we learn from this? Drawing on comparative rural-urban research in Zambia suggests that urban heterogeneity (due to intersecting migration channels) increases the likelihood of exposure to women undertaking socially valued roles. This appears to undermine gender stereotypes and enable a positive feedback loop, catalysing increased flexibility in gender divisions of labour. Further, greater proximity to clinics and police allows urban women to control their fertility and secure external support against domestic violence. But does this hypothesis hold across the continent? What else is significant, in other parts of Africa? Further, while disruption is more likely to occur in urban (rather than rural) Africa, this is likely in conjunction with further factors. So what else matters? What enables greater support for gender equality in urban areas, and how might this be amplified in rural and urban areas? panel 32 – paper 5

Gendered power and identities at the rural-urban interface in Zimbabwe Author: Magnfríður Júlíusdóttir, University of Iceland, mj@hi.is The rural-urban divide in community formation, behaviour and attitudes has interested social scientist from the early days of industrial urbanisation in Europe in the 19 century. In the idea of the rural as a conservative place and the urban as a progressive place, disruption of traditional power structures and greater individual freedom and heterogeneity in urban spaces is a common narrative on the transformative power of urbanisation. In the paper I will draw on my research in eastern Zimbabwe in the 1990s to reflect on changes and continuity in gender relations in this urban socioapatial context. Apart from common themes in explaing the rural-urban divide, like selective migration of younger and better educated people to urban areas, I argue that the disruption of gendered power and identities based on land in rural communities is an important dimension in understanding change in gendered practices and ideologies in urban spaces. At the same time the long standing and frequent mobility between rural and urban areas raises interesting questions on the mobility of transformative ideas, as well as resistance to change, at the intersection of gender, generation and economic inequalities in rural and urban places.


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panel 32 – paper 6

The contradictions, ambiguities and ethical dilemmas of being a young man in contemporary South Africa Author: Hannah Dawson, Oxford University, UK, hannah.joy.dawson@gmail.com Informal settlements in South Africa have often been portrayed as homogeneous places typified by deprivation, informality, and violence. This paper takes up the challenge presented by Jacob Dlamini (2009) and Roy (2011) to capture the diversity, complexity, resourcefulness and dynamism of the social and cultural life of Zandspruit. It does this by suggesting Zandspruit, an informal settlement on the outskirts of Johannesburg, is best understood as a nucleus of heterogeneity where different, often divergent, moral frameworks are negotiated. This paper explores these contested domains and relations of meaning by interpreting the diversity of young men’s economic and social practices and arrangements in a context of unemployment, superfluity and devaluation. In exploring the social and moral categories young men construct and use to constitute themselves in relation to others, this paper pays particular attention to the ways in which young men establish, maintain or curtail social relations, expectations and obligations (to kin, peers, romantic and sexual partners). This paper illustrates how young men reconcile, negotiate and contest the multiple and sometimes competing interpretations of what it means to be a man in contemporary South Africa. Specific attention is paid to the moral, social, and economic implications of young men’s money flows, transactions and distribution to show how moral subjectivities are not only mediated but also constituted through and by diverse articulations of obligation and relatedness. panel 32 – paper 7

Honest labour or human trafficking; the exploitation of female domestic workers in Kenya Author: Dulo Nyaoro, Moi University, Kenya, email.dnyaoro@yahoo.com Urbanization in Kenya has generated a great deal of social and economic transformations. In Kenya like many countries in the developing world, one of the greatest vehicles for social transformations is rural urban migration. While urban areas provide space for great eco-

nomic opportunities and personal development, they are also spaces where the tragedies of neoliberal prescriptions of market forces are deeply experienced. The neoliberal orthodoxy that drives labour and capital creates great chasm of inequality. This inequality is dichotomous at both macro and micro level as manifested in the binaries of developed and developing countries, or rich and poor people. However such grand concepts hide human agency in the perpetuation or experience of inequality. One of the enduring creations of urbanization in modern Kenya is the domestic house help. While at the beginning of the formation of the salaried employment, house helps were typically relatives, the increasing need for formal education and change in family formations required that house helps be paid. Domestic work has come to symbolize the sharp edges of class formation and gender inequality and exploitation. The house help in Kenya is typically a teenage girl, semi-illiterate, from a poor background and powerless. Compared to the dominant norm projected by neoliberal capitalism of a white, male, rich and powerful, the deviation of the house help from this norm of success is complete. This paper argues that several reasons converge to make the female house help the embodiment of urban crises in Kenya. First, the kinship ties which link housemaids and their employers have not completely died. This allows for exploitations. Secondly, neoliberal economic ideas disadvantage the most vulnerable groups, and female house maids are the most vulnerable people; third, poverty and greed conspire to make families expose their female children to exploitation. Fourth in the class formation, the house help is at the bottom of the labour hierarchy, without union protections. Fifth, the law offers little protection to the house maid making the position of the housemaid informal. Key Words; Urbanization, housemaids, poverty, gender, discrimination. panel 32 – paper 8

Expectations of beauty: the woman in Nairobi Author: Lydia Muthuma, Technical University of Kenya, muthumalydiawaithira@yahoo.com Contemporary Nairobi accords masculinity the official role of heading a family. However, in this society, the man of the family, the father and husband, is not tasked with the responsibility of reflecting that family's honour through his sense of beauty as displayed in his dress. This role has curiously been reserved for the woman.


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What are Nairobi's expectations of a woman's personal appearance (grooming and general attire)? What underlies these expectations? Does appearing beautiful (well groomed) connote intangible goodness? Why is this role/expectation placed on the woman rather than the man? This paper is about authentic feminine beauty in Nairobi. It is an echo of Lisa Mladinich's (2015) query: "which women exemplify beauty in your life?" I pose this same question to Nairobians in order to find out their standard of feminine beauty and whether this standard is identical from the perspective of both genders. An assumption that Nairobians follow the global fad beamed by the current mass media is difficult to accept especially in the face of #mydressmychoice, an open online conversation carried out in response to a public beating of a woman dressed 'incorrectly' or indecently. The men who beat her up claimed that she was ill dressed; she was dressed like today's girlish supermodel in body hugging clothes. She was like many a cover model that appears in women's magazines all over Nairobi. #mydressmychoice suggests that public expectations, of feminine beauty, are not choreographed to the dominant cultural image carried by the mass media and social media. Some men, according to this debate, appear to tolerate the image while violently disagreeing with its realisation in their womenfolk. They do not believe in, accept or allow the flesh-and-blood supermodel that otherwise lives among them courtesy of smartphones, computers, tablets, the television and bill boards. This supermodel or movie star, painted and airbrushed into picture perfect photoshop, appears offensive in reality (i.e. in the flesh-and-blood version) raising a question about public images and their relation (or lack of it) to everyday life. ď Ž

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124 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 33

Serendipitous infrastructures:

Intended and unintended outcomes

I

nfrastructures in Africa follow many different dynamics, from rapid development of state-of-the-art communication infrastructures to deteriorating electricity grids, and grasping this multitude of trajectories poses many challenges for researchers, policy makers and practitioners alike. One particularly common fallacy is to be so preoccupied by what infrastructures are supposed to do, that one becomes blind to everything except aberrations and dysfunctions. This panel, however, aspires to move the gaze to what infrastructures actually do, which is significantly more dynamic, unpredictable, and socially productive. The designs and intentions behind infrastructural expansion, as well as the anticipated consequences of neglect, are often superseded by unintentional, unexpected, or serendipitous outcomes. It is often said that infrastructures tie different social contexts together, but it is also clear that rifts and alienation ensue when some roads are tarred while others aren’t, or when access to water is being facilitated for some but not for others. Motorway flyovers are intended to ease congested traffic, but often serve other purposes as well. In some cases, market places have developed under the bridges with a staggering turnover and a value that can match or exceed that of their intended use. When infrastructures leak – for instance, when crude oil, water or electricity is being stolen or diverted – they tend to open up parallel networks, which in turn produce new social configurations. Waste management is another prime example: it produces material order by separating pure from impure, or by transforming the useless into commodities that can re-enter the capitalist circulation of value, but at the same time a number of ‘unwanted’ economic logics are plugged in as informal entrepreneurs or organized crime enters the scene. This panel welcomes contributions on all fields of infrastructure (material as well as immaterial) and particularly, analogue to the theme, it encourages experimental thinking. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 and 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 128 Organisers: Eric Trovalla, Ulrika Trovalla, The Nordic Africa Institute, María José Zapata and Patrik Zapata, University of Gothenburg, eric.trovalla@nai.uu.se


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» The consequence of neglecting the link between conflict and water supply is that policies and programmes are formulated that can hardly support peace and sustainable development « Victor Adetula, panel 33, paper 1

panel 33 – paper 1

Violent conflicts, water shortage and livelihood question on the Jos Plateau (Nigeria) Author: Victor A.O. Adetula, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, victor.adetula@nai.uu.se Whereas there is an abundant study on violent conflicts in Nigeria generally, adequate scholarly attention has not been paid to the link between violent conflicts and infrastructures and facilities for service delivery and the overall implications for livelihood and wellbeing especially in the conflict zones. The Jos Plateau area in central Nigeria has recorded several violent conflicts especially since the return of the country to electoral democracy. Disappointedly questions on the effects of violent conflicts on water supply and related service delivery have not received attentions among scholars as well as policy makers. There has been violent clashes that were associated with struggle over political appointment, economic opportunities, and election outcomes in the past in Plateau state. However, today cases of ethno-religious conflicts and conflicts over land and other natural resources including the conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and native farmers over grazing land and water resources have become quite common. Also, the conflict situation in Plateau has been made worst by the widespread displacement of people as a result of the on-going insurgency in the north East and the resultant growing humanitarian crisis. Internally dis-

placed people from the conflict zones in the north East are pouring in on droves to seek refuge among host communities in Plateau State, and which in turn is causing further serious strains on already scarce resources, and also more pressure on water infrastructure and facilities. This paper examines in details the link between conflict and water infrastructure and service delivery on the Jos Plateau. The consequence of neglecting the knowledge of the link between conflict and water supply is that policies and programmes are formulated that can hardly support peace and sustainable development. Given the strong link between conflict and service delivery within sustainable peace process, programme of effective and efficient service delivery should be mainstreamed into peace-building programming and implementation. panel 33 – paper 2

The promise of infrastructure: preparing for the railway in a Nigerian town Author: Gabriella Körling, Stockholm University, Sweden, gabriella.korling@socant.su.se Infrastructures such as roads and railways often come to signify modernity and economic development. In 2014 the construction of Niger’s first railway was announced. The railway was billed as a ‘lifeline and corridor of hope’ was presented as a longstanding dream that had finally come true and as a key investment for the country’s future economic development. In this pa-


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per I focus on anticipations of the arrival of the railway and related infrastructure in Dosso, a town located alongside the future railway tracks. In Dosso imaginaries surrounding the railway centered less on mobility and circulation, usually associated with transport infrastructure, and more on turning Dosso, a slumbering regional capital, into a ‘destination’. Despite being situated in the Cotonou-Niamey transport corridor which channels important quantities of imports and exports, and at the crossroads of two important national highways, commercial activities in Dosso had never really taken off and the town had remained economically marginalized. In this context, the construction of the railway together with a dry port were seen as a means of tapping into formerly elusive flows of goods and economic capital. Flows that would now, or so it was imagined, stop in Dosso. The case of Dosso illustrates the importance of paying attention to the ways in which national infrastructure projects and related promises of economic development are filtered through local perceptions, experiences and histories that together shape the kinds of desires and hopes that people invest in infrastructure. In Dosso these future oriented imaginaries of economic prosperity were also accompanied by important investments, altering land ownership and changing the urban landscape. Infrastructure, even when as in the case of the railway it is still under construction, produces important political and economic effects as imaginaries of future prosperity are entangled with individual and collective investments. panel 33 – paper 3

Infrastructural dreams and materialities in the periphery of Maputo Author: Ilda Lindell, Stockholm University, Sweden, ilda.lindell@humangeo.su.se Rising “world-class city” ambitions in Africa are materializing through selective investments in large-scale infrastructures that are often represented as symbols of urban progress and modernity. These developments increasingly involve sanitizing the city from other types of infrastructure – those created by the urban majorities –, constructed as signs of urban decay. The paper addresses the effects of large infrastructural investments in the periphery of Maputo, Mozambique, which included the construction of a football stadium (by Chinese capital) and an ‘Olympic Village’. Close to their completion, vendors were evicted from a selfbuilt market by the stadium. Following contestations, the vendors were allowed to re-build their market in a

disadvantageous location in the area, with the promise of infrastructural improvements by the authorities which did not materialize. Fenced in and with falling incomes, the vendors resisted relocation and confinement in various ways. Drawing on recent theorizations that foreground the social and political centrality of infrastructures, the paper examines the socio-political effects of the above infrastructural transformations: the import of the large infrastructures for (re)producing state power, the various technologies of rule deployed to make invisible and discipline the vendors (enclosure, co-option etc.); but also, importantly, the subversive practices of the vendors and the negotiations and claims they enacted. However, the vendors’ subjective experiences of such disjunctive infrastructural changes were more complex than expected. Vendors embraced rather than contested those exclusionary visions of progress that were undermining their own existence. Seduced by the symbolic appeal of the megaconstructions, their politics centred on the deficient material infrastructures in and around their new market. Their fractured subjectivities were shaped by both hope, desire and abjection, despite their increasingly uncertain condition. panel 33 – paper 4

Urban space and climate citizenship in Lagos and Kinshasa: Sustainability, inequality and the new contours of exclusion in urban Africa Author: Stephen Marr, Malmö University, Sweden, stephen.marr@mah.se The proposed paper seeks to examine dynamics of inequality, sustainability and urban governance via large-scale urban engineering projects underway in Lagos and Kinshasa. The Eko Atlantic development in Lagos, along with Kinshasa’s La Cité du Fleuve, are both intended to resolve problems wrought by failing infrastructure and poor planning, while also serving as an investment against future ravages caused by a changing climate. The pursuit of these goals, in Lagos, Kinshasa and elsewhere however, often comes at the cost of increasing exclusion and inequality within the space of the city. Of particular importance in the coming years then, is the question of to what extent urban inequality and sustainability will come into conflict as cities are divided into neighborhoods occupied by climate haves and have-nots. Understanding the interaction between unequal urbanization in Africa and the changing scope of sustainability politics in an era of climate change is an urgent


Presentations of panels and papers | 127

task for scholars and policymakers. The paper relies on both comparative urban studies literature, along with planning and promotional material related to these projects in order to trace the emerging contours of climate exclusion in contemporary urban Africa. panel 33 – paper 5

Municipal solid waste infrastructure and policy in Lagos megacity: Embracing green neoliberalism for social sustainability and inclusion Authors: Thaddeus Chidi Nzeadibe, chidi.nzeadibe@ unn.edu.ng, and Peter Oluchukwu Mbah, both from University of Nigeria The Lagos megacity is the cultural capital of Nigeria and the economic hub of the West African sub-region. With an estimated population of 21 million, the megacity is a large market and a major gateway into the sub-region. Consequently, the growth of human population coupled with increased economic activities in Lagos has resulted in high rate of solid waste generation. Hence, municipal solid waste management (MSWM) remains one of the most daunting environmental challenges facing the megacity. The MSWM challenges have also remained intractable over the years. Institutional and policy reforms for MSWM have not been at pace with the dynamic nature of solid waste production while current approaches to MSWM have tended to emphasize infusion of massive investment in infrastructure as panacea to the MSWM conundrum. Unfortunately, these approaches have failed to capture the underlying political economic concerns of policy making and implementation in MSWM. Applying the political economy framework of ‘green neoliberalism’ and using data obtained from interviews with stakeholders in MSWM in Lagos, field observations as well as secondary sources, the paper reviews the state of MSWM infrastructure and policy in the Lagos megacity. It observes that while issues of globalization of wastes and recyclable materials have often been left out of analyses of MSWM, the drivers of MSWM in the megacity appear to have neoliberal underpinnings beyond the megacity scale. While noting the sub-regional material linkages of the informal economy in Lagos, the paper argues that a political economy approach integrating the informal economy in the framing of MSWM and infrastructure policy is a necessary condition for evolving green, socially sustainable and inclusive solution to the solid waste problem in the megacity.

panel 33 – paper 6

Infrastructural ‘Backup Cultures’: Everyday predictions and the future of African Cities Authors: Eric Trovalla, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, eric.trovalla@nai.uu.se, and Ulrika Trovalla, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, ulrika.trovalla@nai.uu.se At the same time that the rapid development of information and communications networks increasingly shapes African urban realities, other large scale infrastructures are crumbling under the weight of population growth and neglect in maintenance and investments. In the gap between increasing demand and irregular output, an alternative infrastructure is growing under the radar of most infrastructural studies. This paper examines what we term ‘backup cultures’: the daily efforts of individuals to get access to services in cities where infrastructures decay, and the extensive amounts of equipment, practical knowledge, conventions, beliefs, expectations, and world views that attach to them. These material and immaterial assemblies are intrinsically shaped by people’s everyday predictions. As infrastructure is brought to the forefront of everyday life as a conundrum to figure out, people struggle to predict the erratic flows of infrastructure, as well as what appliances or practices will be best suited to address immediate and future needs. This entails actively engaging with, and investing in, particular ways of envisioning the future: what one wishes, fears, or expects the city to become. With Pragmatism as its theoretical framework, and through close ethnography from the Nigerian city of Jos where backup cultures have been growing since the 1980’s, this paper illuminates how these predictions have come to form a backbone of city life. Devised and upheld from grass root activities, backup cultures install new practices, material structures and expectations, which in turn generate alternative logics of development that shape the African cities in novel ways. panel 33 – paper 7

Digging deeper than before. Socio-technical change in an artisanal gold mine in Guinea Authors: Cristiano Lanzano, Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, cristiano.lanzano@nai.uu.se, and Luigi Arnaldi di Balme Following the increase in global prices during the last two decades, gold mining has become a key sector for


128 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

many West African economies, accelerating their internationalization (through growing investments from foreign large-scale companies) and transforming the livelihoods of millions of people (particularly artisanal miners working in small-scale extraction areas). In this presentation, we draw from our ongoing ethnographic work in artisanal mining areas in West Africa to describe how migrant miners from neighboring countries and technological innovations have contributed to the rapid transformation of work conditions and institutional settings of sanibara (“gold-related work” in Malinke language) around the village of Tonso (Upper Guinea, prefecture of Siguiri). The changes in the infrastructural landscape, with new digging techniques that allow the miners to reach the reef deposits and machines required for treating the ore extracted in depth, is reshaping the logic of gold production and posing a challenge to the control traditionally exerted by local institutions. panel 33 – paper 8

Where the skip used to be. Informal settlements, the city, and waste management in Kisumu, Kenya Authors: Michael Oloko, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga University of Science and Technology, Kenya, Jutta Gutberlet, University of Victoria, Canada, Jaan-Henrik Kain, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden (corresponding), Patrik Zapata, University of Gothenburg, Sweden, patrik.zapata@spa.gu.se (corresponding), and María José Zapata Campos, University of Gothenburg Sweden

points represent the interfaces between the informal settlements and the formal city; between the informal practices of householders and waste pickers and the formal waste collection services. Diverse practices of bottom up organizations have tried to address some of the waste issues in informal settlements. Individual local entrepreneurs, waste pickers and organized groups of waste collectors or recyclers engage in the collection of household waste for disposal or material recycling. These workers play an active role in improving residents’ health, generating income, and reducing the city’s environmental footprint. This paper applies a situated urban political ecology (UPE) framework to examine the gaps and conflicts in waste management in informal settlements, allowing us to understand the three dimensions of power involved in decision-making and resistance framing. The paper tells an everyday story of transfer points in Kisumu’s informal settlements. Here the waste management system is fragmented to the point that less than 7% of the total household waste is collected. Through an ethnographic and chronological lens we learn about the related conflicts and resolutions connected to one particular transfer point ‘where the skip used to be’. The paper concludes with uncovering and interpreting the power of the (often missing) interfaces between the informal settlements and highlights some of the nascent initiatives rooted in these informal spaces and enacted through community-based groups and local socio-environmental entrepreneurs to bridge the infrastructure and the service deficiencies. 

The challenges posed by inadequacies, absences and weaknesses within waste management systems as they are often present in informal settlements in cities in the global South generate conflict and mobilize resistance among the local population. Municipal skips, employed as waste transfer points, are frequently the weak links in waste management systems. Without regular evacuation of the accumulating solid waste these transfer points develop into highly hazardous and unhealthy spaces, seriously affecting the quality of live in these communities. These spaces ‘where the skips used to be’ turn into spaces of waste concentration and informal resource separation. Dedicated waste transfer

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Presentations of panels and papers | 129

panel 36

Health, politics and culture in Africa

F

rom local health centers and traditional medical practices, to scientific research facilities and health policy documents, the papers in this panel reveal some of the processes and relationships whereby the promise of good health becomes entangled with politics and culture in Africa. In a context where illness and disease are a continuing burden upon communities across the African continent, access to knowledges, technologies, and practices for producing health and well-being are strategic resources that actors, institutions and other collectives seek to possess, and whose (re)distribution they seek to govern. Offering both historical and contemporary accounts, this panel investigates the manner in which resources with potential to produce health and well-being are incorporated into broader political and cultural projects within and beyond the borders of African communities. Rather than focusing on the specific sufferers of disease and ill-health, this panels focuses on the politicians, NGOs, scientists, state agencies, religious organizations, unions and other assemblages of actors that incorporate the provision and production of health into their broader strategic endeavors. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 and 14:00-16:00 Venue: BlĂĽsenhus, house 12, room 130 Organisers: Eren Zink, Uppsala University, Sweden, eren.zink@antro.uu.se


130 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 36 – paper 1

Political culture, nationalism and biomedical AIDS care in central Mozambique Author: Carla Teófilo Braga, Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique, cbraga56@yahoo.com As any other human endeavor, biomedicine is a historical formation permeated by socio-cultural, political and economic relationships . There is no single biomedicine but a multiplicity of biomedicines, and as a cultural construction biomedical practice is imbued with values and norms. In Mozambique biomedical care is provided mostly by the state through the National Health Service. However, AIDS care in particular, is provided through institutional arrangements comprising the state, aid agencies, international and national NGO’s, churches, and associations of persons living with HIV and AIDS. AIDS clinics - a vertical approach to HIV/AIDS care – concentrated most of AIDS treatment in Mozambique and the ministerial decision to integrate those clinics into primary health care services sparkled quite some controversy. Based in two years ethnographic fieldwork in Manica province, central Mozambique as well as in the country’s capital, this paper suggests that: 1. Biomedicine, as a symbol of science and therefore rationalism, modernity and “progress” occupies a key place in post-colonial political discourse in Mozambique; 2. The resurgence and reinforcement of some nationalist discourses during AIDS clinics integration process seem to show criticism of transnational AIDS’ aid as well of the reconfiguration of the relations among territory and sovereignty under a neoliberal paradigm for healthcare provision; 3. Biomedical authoritative knowledge and hierarchical features coupled with Mozambique political culture marked by authoritarianism, strict hierarchies and “obedience to superior decisions” affect healthcare provision and quality of care within the National Health Services in terms of: i) ministerial decision-making, ii) enforcing and assuring the acquiescence and obedience of health professionals, and iii) displaying rank and exercising power in clinical encounters.

panel 36 – paper 2

Everyday health governance as democratic substance: Public health, party politics and municipal democracy in Burkina Faso Author: Sten Hagberg, Uppsala University, Sweden, sten.hagberg@antro.uu.se This paper is about health governance and local politics, particularly how public health dispensaries become assets for political claims and positions. Public health is central for citizens and political actors alike. Dispensaries represent in a sense the substance of municipal democracy, as they may offer citizens benefits and a return from politics. The Centre de Santé et de Promotion Sociale (CSPS) – or dogotoroso in Jula – has for long time been at the core of political and administrative struggles in Sidéradougou in Burkina Faso. For fourteen years, a local opposition politician chaired the CSPS health management committee in an efficient everyday governance. Over the years, this engagement came to pave the way for his political career. He was opposition leader in the municipal council in 2006-12 and in 2012-14. Yet his political involvement also meant that the attacks from power-holders of then incumbent Congrès pour la démocratie et le progrès (CDP) came through the health management committee. In the May 2016 municipal elections taking place in a changed political landscape of Burkina Faso this politician is running for elections of the Nouvelle Alliance du Faso (NAFA) against the ruling Mouvement du Peuple pour le Progrès (MPP). Hence, this politician is still in opposition against the new incumbent MPP. In conclusion, the paper argues that the ways in which everyday health governance articulates with public health and political culture in Burkinabe municipalities tell us something important about how everyday health governance can become the very substance of democracy in municipal politics. In this vein, everyday health governance may provide legitimacy to municipal democracy well beyond the specific health issues at stake. panel 36 – paper 3

Mobile phone texting and the facilitation of ethnomedical response at the time of Ebola Author: Ivo Ngade, Department of Anthropology, Rhodes University, South Africa, I.Ngade@ru.ac.za Based on qualitative research about local responses to disease spread, especially ebola conducted in Lim-


Presentations of panels and papers | 131

be, Cameroon, this paper examines the rise of mobile technology on health information dissemination. Meanwhile ebola never occurred in Cameroon, reports of the first cases in neighboring Nigeria created widespread panic, fear and uncertainty among locals in Cameroon. As a result, news of Garnicia, a fruiting of west African tropical plant found to contain bioflavonoids (known to have inhibitory effects with various pathogens), xanthones (with insecticide capacity) and benzophenones (with anti-allergen qualities) (Iwu, Duncan and Okunji 1999) as purported remedy went viral through mobile phone texting. As mobile technology has brought about changing culture in Africa, this paper also attempts to highlight the relevance of telephony usage in local culture as this creates means of social responses during a fear-inducing crisis such as ebola. Findings for this research have implications on the role of technology on health in a particular cultural context. panel 36 – paper 4

Reducing inequalities in development practice: a case study of water and sanitation sector Authors: Nathaly Guzmán Figueroa, nathaly.guzmanfigueroa@helsinki.fi, and Hisayo Katsui, katsui@mappi. helsinki.fi, and both from Helsinki University, Finland This research aims at reducing inequalities through research process particularly for persons with disabilities (PWDs) in the Global South. We focus on water and sanitation sector which is fundamentally important for any human being. However, even when one of the Millennium Development Goals of access to clean water has been achieved in time, the need of such access for PWDs in the Global South is paid little attention to. When it comes to development cooperation, disability mainstreaming has been challenged in most development practices. The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities has been ratified by 150 countries. However, even after the era of the Convention, PWDs in the global South have often been left behind from practice of development efforts. For instance, less than 1% of the Finnish Official Development Aid goes for disability-specific projects and programmes, while 99% of mainstream development activities rarely include those at the risk of inequalities such as PWDs. Therefore, the research investigates on disability mainstreaming in water and sanitation sector.

Continuous personal interviews to stakeholders, focus group discussion and observation are essential methods in comprehending the complexity of both mainstreaming and disability-specific development practices and their impact to each other. In Tanzania, a slum was visited to interview PWDs and stakeholders on their experiences on water and sanitation. In Nepal, a Finnish-Nepalese bilateral development cooperation project on water and sanitation was visited to clarify challenges and opportunities for PWDs in participating in water management. The paper presents preliminary findings from these fieldworks. panel 36 – paper 5

The medicinal use of land mark trees of Mbundu Villages in Kwanza Norte Province, Angola; The indigenous healing practice’s contribution to the primary healthcare sector Author: Éva Sebestyén, Universidade do Porto, Portugal, sebestyen99@gmail.com Due to the Angolan Land law of 1994-revised in 9 November 2004 the process of land delimitation, and title emission has been started a decade ago with collaboration of FAO and NGOs in order to recognise officially the rural communities land borders. This national task also deals with the protection of customary right of rural communities to land use and adjacent natural source uses. My paper has a special link with the rural land demarcation process, namely, the trees used as land mark between the villages in my fieldwork area, in Samba Cajú, Kwanza Norte Province proved to have properties of several kind of economic use, and most dominantly in the field of traditional healing. Angola has an very rich and poorly studied botanical diversity with 250 families and 6961 species. The recent studies focus on the recognition of this diversity in Bengo Province, North Angola and a special research on anti/malarial plant in South Angola try to answer this huge demand. My contribution to the local primary health center in Kwanza Norte aims to give a historical contribution with the written record of land mark trees in village chiefs “archives” produced between 18th and 20th centuries and the medicinal use of these trees identified with the help of the Botanical Centre of Tropical Research Institute in Lisbon. Key words: land mark trees, medicinal use, , preservation of traditional medicinal practices, primary health centres.


10 132 | | Nordic NordicAfrica AfricaDays Days2016 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 36 – paper 6 Program Conference

panel 36 – paper 7

Deviant and disease-ridden sexualities - a study on Twitter as a tool for reframing sexual minority status in Uganda thursday 22 september

Traditional healing, biomedical practice, and mental illness – in search of intercultural medical practices saturday 24 september

Author: Cecilia Strand, Uppsala University, Sweden, 16.00 - 18.00 Pre-registration for NAD-participants cecilia.strand@im.uu.se The office of the Nordic Africa Institute

Authors: Annika Teppo, The Nordic Africa Institute, 9.00 - 11.00 Parallel panel sessions Sweden, annika.teppo@nai.uu.se, Yanga Zembe, Panels number 3, 5,and 6, 15, 19, 26, 30, 32,South 33 African Medical and Research 36 Council, yanga.zembe@mrc.ac.za

Women,has Peace and Security 16.00 - 18.00 Uganda Post-colonial witnessed a surge of persecu– Case Study on South Sudan tion of sexual minorities with the notorious Anti-hoHigh-level Pre-conference panel. Venue: mosexuality 2009 as aInstitute culmination See page 18 Bill theintroduced office of the in Nordic Africa of legal and institutionalized state-condoned discri18.00 - 19.00 Welcome reception and mingle mination. The The Anti-homosexuality Bill ofInstitute 2009 also library of the Nordic Africa further entrenched negative media discourses on sexNordic Africa Institute, ual minorities. Rights that areThe indisputable for other NAI, is the venue for the preUgandan citizens most notablyconference rights to panel privacy, andhealth weland indeed life, were openly questioned in on relation come reception Friday. Itto is situated the Botanicalthe sexual minorities in mainstream media.in Although Garden, some 100 meters causalities behind this change northwest in publicofpolicy and inBlåsenhus, the creasingly negative opinions on sexual minorities main conference venue. are contested, the features of media discourses are better understood. Traditional media has repeatedly provided space to both religious leaders and elected public offifriday 23 september cials to frame sexual minorities as vectors of moral vice and disease, most notably HIV. 08.00 - 09.00 Registration The following study analysesvenue a Ugandan sexual miAt the conference Blåsenhus nority networks’ utilization of Twitter to bypass tradi09.00 - 11.00 Parallel panel sessions tional media’s negative othering and toand provide Panels number 1, 7, 8, 10,failure 12, 13, 14 17 space for self-representation, as well as actively chal11.00 - 11.15 Coffee Break lenge negative discourses by supplying the domestic Key note lecture 1: Challenging Tradi11.15 - 12.45 public with counter-narratives in connection with the tions, Changing Masculinities 2016 general election. The University analysis of the network’s Kopano Ratale, of South Africa Seetweets page 8 (Nov Venue: Blåsenhus, downstairs lecture hallsalt407 2015-Feb 2016) indicates that hough is usedBreak as a space for highlighting orga12.45 - Twitter 13.45 Lunch nizational activity in general, activities and informaDealing with Waste 13.15 - 13.30 tion sharing areNAI-alumni often connected to Onyanta health and healthy researchers Adama and Chidi Nzeadibe present their new book. living beyond HIV. But even more notable is the high See page 12 Venue: Blåsenhus, Main Entrance Hall proportion of tweets celebrating the Ugandan LGBT 13.45 - 15.45 and Parallel panel sessions community its members. In fact, almost a third of number 4, 9, 20, 21, 22,communi24 and 37 the tweets werePanels dedicated to 1,2, showcasing the 15.45 16.00 Coffee Break ties’ accomplishments and instilling pride in its mem16.00despite - 18.00 aParallel panel sessions bers pronounced discriminatory context. Panels 4, 9, 21, 22, 24resilience and 27 Tweets celebrated thenumber LGBT2,community’s in How to communicate research on Africa 16.00 18.00 adversity, courage, as well as honored its fallen heroes. Open workshop arranged NARN, the for Twitter as a platform, was thus not by only a space Nordic Africa Research Network. organizational coordination, and one-way information See page 14 Venue: Blåsenhus 12:128 sharing, but a space that is used to actively challenge 16.00 - 18.00 Housework, Commodification and discriminatory and negative othering of sexual mino’Mother Africa’ – Domestic Labor in Africa rities by featuring inspirational and psycho-social sup1900-2015 portive messages. Thesession, study with finally discusses the imSpecial Deborah Bryceson and Pekka Peltola. portance of access to alternative public platforms for See page 16 Venue: developing a sense of Blåsenhus collective 11:128 and individual self-effi19.00in- 22.00 Conference Dinner cacy discriminatory environments. Uppsala Concert and Congress Hall (UKK)

11.00 - 11.30

Coffee Break

Post-apartheid South African policy pronouncements Key care note emphasize lecture 2: Assumptions and De11.30 - 13.00health on mental a shift towards unisires in Scholarship on Gender in Africa versal primary Maria health care. Universal primary health Eriksson Baaz, researcher at the care integration of mental health services in Seeplaces page 4 the Nordic Africa Institute primary health care and the development of commu13.00 - 14.00 Lunch Break nity-based rehabilitation services at the heart of decen14.00 - 16.00 Parallel panel sessions tralization and de-institutionalization processes. The Panels number 3, 16, 19, 26, 28, 30, 31, 32,call for a re-imagined mental 33 and 36 health system is based on the reality that the current system is inadequate, under-re16.00 Conference closure sourced and incompetent inatmeeting the demands of its See you again NAD 2018! client base, particularly in hard to reach areas. South Africa’s inadequate mental health system fails to reach the most vulnerable among people with mental disorders. South Africa’s goal of universal primary healthcare requires innovation in the way in which mental health services are provided to poor and hard to reach populations. Presently, nearly half of the people with mental disorders use traditional healers as well as medical clinicians to address their condition. Traditional healers and biomedical mental health practitioners understand the contributing factors of mental disorders differently and apply different diagnostics and treatments. Uppsala konsert och kongress, UKK, the Concert and Congress Hall, is the venue for the conference dinner on Friday evening. It is located at Vaksala torg, about 1,7 kilometers from Blåsenhus, see number 7 on the map on the opposite page.

Ludidi’s Lucidities

Mpho Ludidi is a South African singer-songwriter residing in Uppsala since 2014. His music reflects the Xhosa and Zulu folk music with extracts from blues, jazz, gospel and soul. At the conference dinner on Friday he will be playing for us a selection of his compositions with a sound inspired by his upbringing in South Africa.


Presentations of panels and papers | 133

» Nearly half of the people with mental disorders use traditional healers as well as medical clinicians to address their condition « Teppo & Zembe, panel 36, paper 7

In this paper, we will discuss problems and opportunities regarding a possible collaborative engagement between traditional healing and biomedical health systems. We claim that this co-operation is imperative for South African mental health system. So far, there has not been sufficient culturally sensitive health systems research on how this could be achieved in practice. We suggest that policies on mental health and traditional healers may change once it has been demonstrated that new models of integrative medicine that help to establish practices of mutual, intercultural learning are possible and implementable. panel 36 – paper 8

Double burdens and multiple opportunities: Disease and international research collaborations in sub-Saharan Africa Author: Eren Zink, Uppsala University, Sweden, eren.zink@antro.uu.se In universities and research centers in cities like Harare, Entebbe, Kampala and Accra, tropical diseases link an array of local and foreign scientists, research insti-

tutions, funding agencies, and governments together under the mantle of international scientific collaboration. This paper draws upon ongoing ethnographic fieldwork and surveys amongst biomedical researchers in three African countries to interrogate the narratives and ambitions that contribute to the stability of these networks. It demonstrates how beneath the veneer of accounts tailored to fit the expectations of international financers of research and Northern scientific partners, there remains a robust and oftentimes contradictory repertoire of meanings and purposes for carrying out medical research in sub-Saharan Africa. The stability of the collaborations rely upon the strategic hiding, unknowing, or deletion of alternatives at critical moments (such as the application for funding), thereby facilitating the cohesion and persistence of the actor-networks. In addition to being an anthropological exercise in understanding how diseases are known by actors with different histories and sets of social ties, this paper offers a practical contribution to understanding the composition of contemporary models of bio-medical research collaboration in sub-Saharan Africa. 

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134 | Nordic Africa Days 2016, Uppsala, 23-24 September

panel 37

European mobility towards Africa:

Power, identities and post-colonial encounters

E

uropean human mobility towards former African colonies has increased over the last years, driven by a variety of factors. Many move in hope of economic gains and upward social mobility, and their movements sometimes take place against a background of globally changing economic power relations, with recession in parts of Europe and economic growth in some African countries. Other Europeans in Africa are motived by a search for adventure and new experiences, and their mobility may be of a more temporary character. Yet other Europeans move to African countries in order to study or as representatives for the development industry. This panel focuses on encounters between Europeans and Africans in the wake of these contemporary movements. In particular it welcomes papers that discuss changing power relations and identities, and explore how these are related to continuities and ruptures with the colonial history of European-African relations. The panel is open for papers discussing the integration of Europeans into African countries of destination, as well as papers critically exploring these persons’ potential contributions to social, political and economic development. Contributors are encouraged to apply an intersectional perspective and pay attention to variations that have to do with understandings of race, gender, class and generation. Theoretically, the panel aims to combine post-colonial perspectives with research on integration and on the migration-development nexus. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 Venue: Blüsenhus, house 12, room 132 Organisers: Lisa Åkesson, The Nordic Africa Institute and University of Gothenburg, Sweden, and Carolina Cardoso, University of Gothenburg, Sweden


Presentations of panels and papers | 135

» The paper demonstrates that the Portuguese – resonating with colonial discourses – portray themselves as superior « Lisa Åkesson, panel 37, paper 2

panel 37 – paper 1

‘Back to the Future’: Angolan-Portuguese workplace grievances and inequalities in contemporary Angola Author: Pétur Waldorff, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, and The United Nations University Gender Equality Studies and Training Programme, psw@hi.is The new Portuguese migration to Angola represents a reversal of historic and conventional patterns of migration with citizens of a former European colonial power seeking employment opportunities and improved conditions in an ex-colony on a large scale. It evokes new configurations of power between ex-colonizer and ex-colonized. From a macro-economic perspective, the tables have turned between oil-rich and ex-colonized Angola and recession-struck ex-colonial master, Portugal. It is a postcolonial context, in which an estimated 100 to 150 000 Portuguese nationals have migrated to Angola to work side by side with Angolans as co-workers, employers, and subordinates after 40 years of Angolan independence from Portugal. In this postcolonial context disagreements arise, as well as cases of suspicion of intent, and outright accusations of re-colonization, in addition to accusations on both sides of arrogance and racism. The experience of many Angolans’ can be described as reliving ‘colonial encounters in postcolonial contexts’ which brings up allegations and concerns over (post)colonial inequalities and segregation in contemporary Luanda. This paper investigates Angolan-Portuguese workplace relations based on ethnographic fieldwork from 2014 and 2015. It focuses on Angolan grievances, feelings of precarity, and anger towards the recent Portuguese labour migration to Angola. Analysis of the data shows that workplace inequalities epitomized in salary

disparities and workplace segregation, in which Portuguese employees keep to themselves and eat and socialize separately, are among the grievances most commonly mentioned by Angolan informants working with Portuguese nationals in contemporary Luanda. panel 37 – paper 2

Portuguese labour migrants in Angola: Postcolonial notions of work Author: Lisa Åkesson, The Nordic Africa Institute and University of Gothenburg, Sweden, lisa.akesson@gu.se When the financial crisis hit Portugal in 2008 the economy was booming in the former colony of Angola. In the years to come, unemployment and drastically decreased salaries pushed people away from Portugal. This paper sets out to analyse the often strained workplace relations emerging in the wake of the Portuguese labour migration to Angola. A key area of tension is identities in relation to notions of labour and work ethos. The paper demonstrates that the Portuguese – resonating with colonial discourses – portray themselves as superior particularly in terms of diligence, responsibility and organizational skills, while simultaneously describing Angolan colleagues as idle and in want of rational thinking and organizational capacity. The paper argues that the images and tensions around work have to be understood in relation to the crucial role of labour in the Portuguese colonial empire, where forced labour was both more widespread and later abolished than in other European colonies. Consequently, ideas about Angolans as incapable of working independently are an intrinsic part of the Portuguese colonial library. Angolan informants’ narratives on labour and work ethos are often quite complex and contradictory. Many


136 | Nordic Africa Days 2016

lament discrimination and the overvaluation of Portuguese skills. Yet, some said there is a need for experienced Portuguese as there is a lack of people with good education and professional experience in Angola. Such statements can be read as an implicit critique of the Angolan party-state and its failures in bringing justice and development to the country. In resonance with the narratives of many Portuguese, others described themselves as “lacking a working spirit”. The paper argues that this ambivalent position reflects the complex and often contradictory workings of colonial memories and discourses and is marked by how in Angola “labouring for someone else” continues to be associated with suffering and subjection. panel 37 – paper 3

Hierarchies of struggle: Gender and nationalist cosmopolitanism in Ije (The Journey) Author: Senayon Olaoluwa, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, samsenayon@gmail.com Too often the calibration of gender relations and the struggles in which women are implicated towards the dismantling of hierarchies of patriarchal values glosses over the fate of African women who in their bid for survival engage in transnational migration out of the continent into the western hemisphere. The apparent escapism of their response doesn't of prove to provide adequate insulation in the western nations that they imagine to offer respite from exclusionary patriarchal structures. What are the socio-cultural patriarchal instigations for their transnationalism in the first place? How have transnational African women in their various migration forms coped with the challenges of patriarchy? How does the structural patriarchy of the African homeland find collusion in the structural patriarchy and racism of the West against African women's struggle for honour? What is the place of marriage in the manifestation of the transnational ordeals of African women? How have all these and more found expression in contemporary African cinema/film from the Cape to Cairo? What are the emerging trends in the representation of transnational African women in these films?

panel 37 – paper 4

Reviving paternal and cultural legacy in the “Alt-Nollywood” works of Zina Saro-Wiwa: Illustrations from Sarogua Mourning and Karikpo Pipeline Author: Fella Benabed, Badji Mokhtar – Annaba University, Algeria, fella.benabed@univ-annaba.dz Zina Saro-Wiwa, a film-maker born in Nigeria and raised in the UK, rose to fame in 2010 when she had her first art exhibition, Sharon Stone in Abuja, in Soho, New York. She is now an Afropolitan artist touring the world to present what she calls “Alt-Nollywood” experimental cinema. She uses the techniques of Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry, but subverts some of its characteristics, mainly its representation of women. Her father, Ken Saro-Wiwa, is an iconic writer and grassroots activist who created the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People and led nonviolent protests against multinational oil companies. He was executed by the Nigerian government in 1995. Zina Saro-Wiwa’s work is partly devoted to reviving the legacy of her father whose death was, according to her, “the culmination of many unspoken forces: historic, futuristic, political, economic, racial, personal and spiritual.” Her ambition is to experiment with these forces in order to create a connection between the geographical landscape and the emotional landscape (her own and her audience’s). Her work is also partly devoted to reviving the African cultural legacy, by finding inspiration in the wellspring of myths and legends, and casting on them the critical gaze of an educated cosmopolitan woman. Sarogua Mourning (2011), inspired by her incapacity to mourn the death of her father, gives her an artistic opportunity for cathartic relief. She reveals that after the execution of her father, she could not cry for ten years because she believed his tragedy belonged to the whole world and not to her. In this short video, she shaves her head and performs the ritual of a traditional Ogoni mourner. In Karikpo Pipeline (2015), she borrows the Ogoni masquerade to describe the vestiges of the oil industry in Ogoniland with a drone camera. These two works are part of her quest journey of cultural discovery and personal recovery. 

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Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September | 137

List of participants By affiliation we have participants from 36 different countries, by nationality probably even more. The total number of participants from each country is indicated in the brackets below:

Sweden (91)

Germany (6)

Finland (19)

USA (6)

Sudan (3)

Ghana (3)

Burkina Faso (1) Lithuania (1)

South Africa (13) United Kingdom (12) Kenya (11)

Netherlands (5) Uganda (5)

Switzerland (3)

Angola (1)

Portugal (4)

Slovenia (2)

Mexico (1)

Nigeria (9)

Italy (4)

Rwanda (2)

Egypt (2)

Sierra Leone (1) Algeria (1)

Denmark (9)

Ethiopia (4)

Tanzania (6)

Iceland (6)

Norway (4)

Cameroon (3)

Mozambique (2) Israel (1)

Guinea-Bissau (1)

Benin (1)

France (1)

Turkey (1)

NAME

AFFILIATION

E-MAIL

Sara Abbas

Freie Universität Berlin, Germany

sara2abbas@gmail.com

Tania Abbiate

Max Planck Institute for Social Policy and Law, Germany

taniaabbiate@libero.it

Sami Adbelhalim Saeed Abdelhalim

Sudan

advosami@hotmail.com

Kidist Abebe

Ethiopia

kidistabayneh@yahoo.com

Sunil Abeyasekera

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden sunil.a.1990@gmail.com

Joyce Addo-Atuah

Touro College of Pharmacy, New York, USA

joyce.addo-atuah@touro.edu

Victor Adetula

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

victor.adetula@nai.uu.se

George Adu

Kwame Nkrumah University, Kumasi, Ghana

gyadu2015@hotmail.com

Lily Adu-Aboagye

University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ghana

laboagye@uhas.edu.gh

Beth Maina Ahlberg

Uppsala University, Sweden

Paul Ajala

Emmanuel Alayande College of Education, Nigeria

moljal1956@yahoo.com

Alfred O. Akwala

The Technical University of Kenya, Kenya

akwala08@yahoo.com

Henrik Alfredsson

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

henrik.alfredsson@nai.uu.se

Agatha Alidri

Gulu University, Uganda

a.alidri@gu.ac.ug

Elnaz Alizadeh

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

elnaz.alizadeh@nai.uu.se

Lani Anaya

Uppsala University, Mexico

lanimire@gmail.com

Karolin Andersson

Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI), Sweden

karolin.andersson@sei-international.org

Gunilla Andrae

Stockholm university (retired), Sweden

gunillaandrae7@gmail.com

Signe Arnfred

Roskilde University, Denmark

signe@ruc.dk

John Atibila

Community Development Services Alliance, CODESA, United Kingdom

j.m.atibila@codesa.co.uk

Teddy Atim

Tufts University & Wageningen University, Uganda

atimapunyo@gmail.com

Lamya Badri

Chr. Michelsen institute (CMI), Sudan

badrilamya@gmail.com

Ibrahim Bangura

University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone

bangural@yahoo.co.uk

Anna Baral

Uppsala University, Sweden

anna.baral@antro.uu.se


138 | Nordic Africa Days 2016 NAME

AFFILIATION

E-MAIL

Sebastian Bay

Swedish Armed Forces, Sweden

sebastian.bay@mil.se

Fella Benabed

Badji Mokhtar - Annaba University, Algeria

benabed_fella@yahoo.fr

Redie Bereketeab

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

redie.bereketeab@nai.uu.se

Tania Berger

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

tania.berger@nai.uu.se

Johanna Bergman Lodin

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden johanna.bergman.lodin@slu.se

Yasmine Berriane

University of Zurich, Switzerland

yasmine.berriane@uzh.ch

Atakilte Beyene

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

atakilte.beyene@nai.uu.se

Cresantus Biamba

University of Gävle, Sweden

cresantus.biamba@hig.se

Elin Bjarnegård

Uppsala University, Sweden

elin.bjarnegard@statsvet.uu.se

Jesper Bjarnesen

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

jesper.bjarnesen@nai.uu.se

Gunilla Bjerén

Stockholm University, Sweden

gunilla.bjeren@socant.su.se

Hamadou Boiro

University of Iceland, Guinea-Bissau

hboiro@gmail.com

Heidi Bojsen

Roskilde University, Denmark

hbojsen@ruc.dk

Floretta Boonzaier

University of Cape Town, South Africa

Floretta.Boonzaier@uct.ac.za

Felicien Bossou

Benin

felicienbossou15@gmail.com

Hannah Bradby

Uppsala University, Sweden

hannah.bradby@soc.uu.se

Carla Braga

University Eduardo Mondlane, Mozambique

carlamtbraga@gmail.com

Ian Bryceson

Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway

ian.bryceson@nmbu.no

Anastassia Buğday

Bilkent University, Turkey

boitsova@bilkent.edu.tr

Mekuria Bulcha

Sweden

mekuriabulcha@gmail.com

Ilaria Buscaglia

University of Rwanda, Rwanda

ilaria.buscaglia@gmail.com

Isabel Casimiro

Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique

isabelmaria.casimiro@gmail.com

Martina Cavicchioli

Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

martina.cavicchioli@stud.uni-frankfurt.de

David Cheruiyot

Karlstad University, Sweden

david.cheruiyot@kau.se

Elvis Chifwafwa

Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences (SLU), Sweden

elvischifwafwa@gmail.com

Linley Chiwona-Karltun

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden linley.karltun@slu.se

Lene Bull Christiansen

Roskilde University, Denmark

bull@ruc.dk

Patrício Batsikama Cipriano

Universidade Agostinho Neto, Angola

23327@ufp.edu.pt

Ingela Dahlin

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

ingela.dahlin@nai.uu.se

Antje Daniel

University Bayreuth, Germany

antje.daniel@uni-bayreuth.de

Simone Datzberger

University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

simone.datzberger@gmail.com

Hannah Dawson

Oxford University, United Kingdom/South Africa

hannah.joy.dawson@gmail.com

Chris De Bont

Stockholms universitet, Sweden

chris.de.bont@humangeo.su.se

Diana Diaz Delgado Raitala

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

diana.raitala@gmail.com

Nynke Douma

The Netherlands

n.douma@whyze.eu

Siphiwe Ignatius Dube

University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa

siphiwe.dube@wits.ac.za

Susanna Dukaric

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

Susanna.Dukaric@nai.uu.se

Elvis Javeaya Ekoka Eghosa

University of Pretoria, South Africa

eghosah@gmail.com

Jónína Einarsdóttir

University of Iceland, Iceland

je@hi.is

Martti Eirola

Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Finland

martti.eirola@formin.fi

Duone Ekane

Stockholm University, Sweden

ekaneduore@yahoo.com

Kristin Ekström

International Centre for Local Democracy (ICLD), Sweden

kristine@icld.se

Ylva Ekström

Uppsala University, Sweden

ylva.ekstrom@im.uu.se

Mai El-Falaky

Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Egypt

maismf@hotmail.com

Mona Eliasson

Uppsala University, Sweden

Mona.Eliasson@hig.se

Beth Elness-Hanson

Johannelund teologiska högskola, Sweden

beth.elness-hanson@johannelund.nu

Linda Engström

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden linda.engstrom@slu.se

Kent Eriksson

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

kent.eriksson@nai.uu.se

Maria Eriksson Baaz

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

maria.eriksson@globalstudies.gu.se


List of participants | 139 NAME

AFFILIATION

E-MAIL

Alice Evans

University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

ae383@cam.ac.uk

Julia Falkerby

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

julia.falkerby@nai.uu.se

Veronica Federico

University of Florence, Italy

veronica.federico@unifi.it

Annika Franklin

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

annika.franklin@nai.uu.se

Gudrun Sif Fridriksdottir

University of Iceland, Iceland

gsf3@hi.is

Sophia Gajan

Riga Graduate School of Law, Germany

gajangajangajan@gmail.com

Inês Galvão

Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal

galvines@gmail.com

Rachel Gordon

Tufts University & Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium (SLRC), USA

rachel.gordon@tufts.edu

Amanda Gouws

University of Stellenbosch, South Africa

ag1@sun.ac.za

Geir Gunnlaugsson

University of Iceland, Iceland

geirgunnlaugsson@hi.is

Nathaly Guzmán Figueroa

University of Helsinki, Finland

nathaly.guzmanfigueroa@helsinki.fi

Hilda H Strandberg

Umeå University, Sweden

hilda.hargestam@engelska.umu.se

Sten Hagberg

Uppsala University, Sweden

sten.hagberg@antro.uu.se

Susanne Hagström

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

susanne.hagstrom@nai.uu.se

Kiflemariam Hamde

Umeå University, Sweden

kifle.hamde@umu.se

Sarah Hamed

Uppsala University, Sweden

sarah.hamed@soc.uu.se

Kamil Adeyemi Hamzah

University of Ibadan, Nigeria

hamzahkamil@gmail.com

Adeyemi Hamzah

University of Ibadan, Nigeria

hamzahkamil@gmail.com

Rufai Haruna Kilu

Sweden

rufai.haruna.kilu@ltu.se

Nurit Hashimshony-Yaffe

Academic College of Tel Aviv Yaffo, Israel

nurithas@mta.ac.il

Jeff Hearn

Örebro University, Sweden Hanken School of Economics, Finland University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom

jeff.hearn@oru.se

Erla Hlín Hjálmarsdóttir

Iceland

erlah@hi.is

Dipane Hlalele

University of the Free State, South Africa

hlaleledj@ufs.ac.za

Elisabeth Hofmann

Université Bordeaux Montaigne, France

elihof@wanadoo.fr

Hans Holmén

Sweden

hans.holmen@liu.se

Marianne Hägglund

Uppsala University, Sweden

Marianne.Hagglund@uadm.uu.se

Diana Højlund Madsen

Aalborg University, Denmark

dmadsen@cgs.aau.dk

Chinemerem Ilechukwu

Creative Souls Movement, Nigeria

renaissancekoncept@gmail.com

Mesia Ilomo

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) , Sweden University of Dar es Salaam Business School (UDBS), Tanzania

ilomo5@yahoo.com

Julie Iromuanya

University of Arizona, USA

jiromuanya@email.arizona.edu

Raevin Jimenez

Northwestern University, USA

rfjimenez@u.northwestern.edu

Magnfríður Júlíusdóttir

University of Iceland, Iceland

mj@hi.is

Said Juma

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

said.k.juma@student.jyu.fi

Dorothy Roseline Juma

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden ononoluke@yahoo.co.uk

Katarina Jungar

University of Helsinki, Finland

katarina.jungar@helsinki.fi

Anne Kamau

University of Nairobi, Kenya

anne.kamau@uonbi.ac.ke

Marie Karlsson

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

marie.karlsson@nai.uu.se

Candice Dielle Kengne Tagne

University of Dschang, Cameroon

candicedielle@yahoo.fr

James Kilika

Kenyatta University, Kenya

kilikam3@yahoo.com

Susanne Kirkegaard

University of Copenhagen, Denmark

suki@ign.ku.dk

Sonja Klingberg

University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

sonja.klingberg@gmail.com

Selom Klu

South Africa

wkselom@hotmail.com

Sena Kpeglo

University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ghana

skpeglo@uhas.edu.gh

Anne Kubai

Uppsala Unversity, Sweden

anne.kubai@teol.uu.se

Opportuna Kweka

University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

okweka@yahoo.com

Gabriella Körling

Stockholm University, Sweden

gabriella.korling@socant.su.se


140 | Nordic Africa Days 2016 NAME

AFFILIATION

E-MAIL

Maja Ladič

University of Ljubljana & The Peace Institute, Slovenia

ladicmaja@gmail.com

Cristiano Lanzano

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

cristiano.lanzano@nai.uu.se

Tiina-Riitta Lappi

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

tiina-riitta.lappi@jyu.fi

Catarina Laranjeiro

Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal

catarina.laranjeiro@gmail.com

Yameogo Lassane

University Ouaga I Pr Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Burkina Faso

yameogolass@gmail.com

Elvira Laurien

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden elvira.laurien@gmail.com

Sidra Lawrence

Bowling Green State University, USA

sidralawrence@gmail.com

Marielle Le Mat

University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

m.l.j.lemat@uva.nl

Elina Lehtomäki

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

elina.k.lehtomaki@jyu.fi

Jukka Lehtonen

University of Helsinki, Finland

jukka.p.lehtonen@helsinki.fi

Chloe Lewis

University of Oxford, United Kingdom

chloe.lewis@qeh.ox.ac.uk

Ilda Lindell

Stockholm University, Sweden

ilda.lindell@humangeo.su.se

Lilian Lem Atanga

University of Bamenda, Cameroon

l.l.atanga@gmail.com

Jorge C. Llopis

University of Bern, Switzerland

jorge.llopis@cde.unibe.ch

Jenny Lorentzen

Lund University & Peace Research Institute Oslo, Norway

jenlor@prio.org

Åsa Lund Moberg

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

Asa.Lund-moberg@nai.uu.se

Rose Løvgren

Danish Institute for International Studies, Denmark

rolo@diis.dk

Mante Makauskaite

Norway Registers Development AS / AfriKo, Lithuania

m.makauskaite@gmail.com

Fernando Manjate

Uppsala University, Sweden

fernando.manjate@antro.uu.se

Philippe Marcadent

International Labour Organisation, Switzerland

marcadent@ilo.org

Eva Marn

University of Ljubljana, Slovenia

eva.marn@gmail.com

Stephen Marr

Malmö University, Sweden

stephen.marr@mah.se

Catarina Martins

Portugal

catarina.caldeira.martins@gmail.com

James McKeown

Åbo Akademi University, Finland

jmckeown1@yahoo.com

Marianne Millstein

Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Research (NIBR), Norway

marianne.millstein@nibr.hioa.no

Thera Mjaaland

University of Bergen, Norway

theramjaaland@yahoo.com

Faith Mkwesha

Åbo Akademi University, Finland

faithmk20@gmail.com

Mahudi Mofokeng

University of the Free State, South Africa

mofokengmm@ufs.ac.za

Fatma Mohamed

Sudan

fatma.abdelkarim@fessudan.org

Habasisa Molise

University of the Free State, South Africa

molisehv@ufs.ac.za

Moustapha Moussa

University of Ngaoundere, Cameroon

moustapha.moussa.ird@gmail.com

Daniel Muia

Kenyatta University, Kenya

muia.daniel@ku.ac.ke

Lynete Mukhongo

Moi University, Kenya

lusikem@gmail.com

Andrew Mukwana

Iniatitives of Change (IofC) Uganda Chapter, Uganda

teachersdialogue@gmail.com

Getinet Fulea Muleta

Ethiopia

rohobot2007@yahoo.com

Tim Murithi

University of Free State, Kenya and South Africa

tkmurithi@hotmail.com

Charles Mustapha Kayoka

University of Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania

ckayoka28@yahoo.com

Patience Mususa

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

patience.mususa@nai.uu.se

Angela Muvumba Sellström

Uppsala University, Sweden

angela.muvumba-sellstrom@pcr.uu.se

Henri Myrttinen

International Alert, United Kingdom

hmyrttinen@international-alert.org

Cecilia Navarra

University of Torino, Italy

cecilia.navarra@gmail.com

Gloria Nguya Binda

Wageningen University, The Netherlands

glorianguya@gmail.com

Maria Nilsson

Stockholm University & CEDAW network, Sweden

maria3nilsson@gmail.com

Frida Nilsson

Uppsala University, Sweden

fridnils@gmail.com

Milka Njoroge

Oulu University, Finland

milka.njoroge9@gmail.com

Carin Norberg

Nordic Africa Research Network, Sweden

carinnorberg@hotmail.com

JanOle Nordgaard

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

janole.nordgaard@nai.uu.se

Thaddeus Chidi Nzeadibe

University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria

chidi.nzeadibe@unn.edu.ng


List of participants | 141 NAME

AFFILIATION

E-MAIL

Elina Oinas

University of Helsinki, Finland

elina.oinas@helsinki.fi

Mari-Anne Okkolin

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

mari-anne.okkolin@jyu.fi

Felicity Okoth

Moi University, Kenya

alakaokoth@gmail.com

Makinde Olaniyi

Åbo Akademi University, Finland

omakinde@abo.fi

Senayon Olaoluwa

University of Ibadan, Nigeria

samsenayon@gmail.com

Taiwo Oloruntoba-Oju

University of Ilorin, Nigeria

ttaiwooju@yahoo.com

Joyce Omwoha

Technical University of Kenya, Kenya

joyceomwoha@gmail.com

Nnaeto Jr Onwuzurumba

Åbo Akademi University, Finland

nnaeto47@yahoo.com

Comfort Onyee

AVwDHA, Added Value With Diaspora Home-Away, Norway

avwdha-post@outlook.com

Opira Otto

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden Opira.Otto@slu.se

Anne Ouma

Sweden

anneouma77@gmail.com

Mai Palmberg

Finland

mai.palmberg@gmail.com

Camille Louise Pellerin

London School of Economics, United Kingdom Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

camillelouise.pellerin@gmail.com

Roberta Pellizzoli

Italy

rpellizzoli@gmail.com

Veronica Perzanowska

Sida, Sweden

veronica.perzanowska@sida.se

Sesan Abraham Peter

National Open University of Nigeria, Nigeria

sesanpee@yahoo.com

Andrea Petitt

Uppsala University, Sweden

andrea.petitt@gender.uu.se

Jenni Porkka

Hugo Valentin Centre, Uppsala, Sweden

jenni.porkka@hotmail.com

Holly Porter

London School of Economics, Uganda

h.e.porter@lse.ac.uk

Suzanne Adhiambo Puhakka

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

suzanne.puhakka@jyu.fi

Rasha Ramzy

Egypt

eshesh_40@yahoo.com

Kopano Ratele

University of South Africa, South Africa

kopano.ratele@mrc.ac.za

Asasira Simon Rwabyoma

University of Rwanda, Rwanda

s.rwabyoma@gmail.com

Henriette Rødland

Uppsala University, Sweden

henriette.rodland@arkeologi.uu.se

Philipp Schulz

United Kingdom

Schulz-P@email.ulster.ac.uk

Éva Sebestyén

Porto University, Portugal

sebestyen99@gmail.com

Aisha Sembatya Nakiwala

Makerere University, Uganda

aisha@chuss.mak.ac.ug

Mohamed Semkunde

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden moudyvan@gmail.com University of Dar es Salaam Business School (UDBS), Tanzania

Thiyumi Senarathna

International IDEA, Sweden

thiyumi.s@gmail.com

Tamara Shefer

University of the Western Cape, South Africa

tshefer@uwc.ac.za; tshefer@icon.co.za

Vicensia Shule

University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

vicensiashule@yahoo.com

Véronique Simon

Uppsala University, Sweden

veronique.simon@fba.uu.se

Roxanna Sjöstedt

Lund University, Sweden

roxanna.sjostedt@svet.lu.se

Iina Soiri

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

iina.soiri@nai.uu.se

Jenny Sonesson

WWF, World Wildlife Fund, Sweden

jenny.sonesson@wwf.se

Laura Stark

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

laura.stark@jyu.fi

Cecilia Strand

Uppsala University, Sweden

cecilia.strand@im.uu.se

Gisela Strand

Sida, Sweden

gisela.strand@sida.se

Eva-Lena Svensson

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

Eva-Lena.Svensson@nai.uu.se

Johan Sävström

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

Johan.Savstrom@nai.uu.se

Mimmi Söderberg Kovacs

Folke Bernadotte Academy (FBA), Sweden

mimmisoderbergkovacs@gmail.com

Amr Taha

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

amrtahaelshazli@gmail.com

Astrig Tasgian

University of Turin, Italy

astrig.tasgian@unito.it

Rachel Taylor

Northwestern University, USA

racheltaylor2013@u.northwestern.edu

Annika Teppo

Uppsala University, Sweden

Annika.teppo@antro.uu.se

Anders Themnér

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

anders.themner@nai.uu.se

Gabrielle Tillberg

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden Gabrielletillberg@gmail.com

Chemera Tolossa

Ethiopia

chmrtls@gmail.com


NAME

AFFILIATION

E-MAIL

Ulrika Trovalla

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

ulrika.trovalla@nai.uu.se

Eric Trovallla

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

eric.trovalla@nai.uu.se

Per Trulsson

Expert Group for Aid Studies, Sweden

per.trulsson@gov.se

Icarbord Tshabangu

Leeds Trinity University, United Kingdom

icatshabs@gmail.com

Cias Tsotetsi

University of the Free State, South Africa

tsotetsict@ufs.ac.za

Mirjam Tutzer

Goethe-University, Germany

tutzer@soz.uni-frankfurt.de

Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues

The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden

cristina.udelsmann.rodrigues@nai.uu.se

Paula Uimonen

Stockholm University, Sweden

paula.uimonen@socant.su.se

Pétur Waldorff

University of Iceland/The Nordic Africa Institute, Iceland

psw@hi.is

Michael Waltinger

University of Education, Ludwigsburg (Germany), Sweden

waltinger@thinkbeyondborders.org

E. Njoki Wamai

University of Cambridge, UK/Kenya

new24@cam.ac.uk

Philip Wambua Peter

Kenyatta University, Kenya

pfilipu2002@gmail.com

Jurate Vazgauskaite

Copenhagen University, Center of African Studies, Denmark

jurajura@gmail.com

Jakob Vester

Aalborg University, Denmark

jave@plan.aau.dk

Lisa Westholm

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Sweden lisa.westholm@slu.se

Merezia Wilson

Swedish University of Agricultural sciences (SLU), Sweden University of Dar es salaam Business School (UDBS), Tanzania

mmpawenimana@yahoo.com

Pekka Virtanen

University of Jyväskylä, Finland

pekka.k.virtanen@jyu.fi

Saskia Vossenberg

Erasmus University, The Netherlands

saskiavossenberg@gmail.com

Blaise Fofung Vudinga

University of York, United Kingdom

bvf500@york.ac.uk

Alexandra Yasmin Spardahl

Denmark

aayspaa@gmail.com

Susana Yene Chimy Awasom

Centre de Formation pour Administration Municipale (CEFAM) Buea, Cameroon & University of Buea, Cameroon

susanawasom@yahoo.com

Patrik Zapata

University of Gothenburg, Sweden

patrik.zapata@spa.gu.se

Eren Zink

Uppsala University, Sweden

eren.zink@antro.uu.se

Lisa Åkesson

The Nordic Africa Institute & University of Gothenburg, Sweden

lisa.akesson@nai.uu.se lisa.akesson@gu.se


Panel 1 Gender and new forms of violence in Africa Africa is experiencing new forms of violence whose causes have become associated with globalization. Take for example, in Africa many ethnic and religious conflicts now occur more frequently as part of transnational relations. Similarly, human trafficking, cross-border robbery and other cross-border crimes are on the increase on the continent in addition to mineral resources-driven conflicts. While the various forms of violence across the continent have attracted considerable scholarly attention, the scholarship examining the links between gender and new forms of violence in Africa have not received adequate enlightened attention. For example, in many African countries information in the public domain about gender-related concerns in violent conflicts are limited to such matters like the effects of conflicts on women and children as the most vulnerable gender categories, youth restlessness and their vulnerability to manipulation by the politicians and other conflict entrepreneurs. While these are legitimate concerns that need to be addressed, there are other equally compelling issues in organized violence that affect men and women differently. Against a background that interprets the new forms of violence in Africa as dominant expressions of profound social transformations associated with the globalizing influence of capital, upsurge in “transnational communities” and the significant engagement of new social movements with networking across national frontiers, a panel of researchers, academics, development workers and policy analysts is proposed to examine the links between gender and new forms of violence in Africa. Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 and 13:45-15:45 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 128 Organiser: Victor Adetula, The Nordic Africa Institute, victor.adetula@nai.uu.se Panel 2 Gender and health in African contexts Gender is the socially constructed meaning of the differences between females and males that allocates unequally, social power and privileges to women and men and shapes their identities and perceptions, interactional practices and the forms of institutions created. In this sense gender is a key determinant of health of women and men. Differences established between tend to attribute greater importance and value to ”masculine” characteristics but of course there are contextual variations in gender relations depending on legislation culture, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Gender norms and values may provoke practices and behaviours that may endanger or protect health. Gender violence is a major cause of women’s disability and death, but it takes culturally patterned forms such as honour killing in some areas, creation of abnormalities that then require to be corrected through surgical interventions. Among these are cosmetic surgeries and female genital mutilation (FGM). In situations of war and conflict, sexual coercion and rape is a phenomenon that takes a large toll on women’s health. In the related phenomena of forced migration and human trafficking, gender violence is an important element, whereby victims are not only exposed to sexual and psychological violence; but also often sustain injuries and are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV and AIDS, if they survive the perilous journeys across the seas and deserts. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 and 16:00-18:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 229 Organisers: Beth Maina Ahlberg and Anne Kubai, Uppsala University, Sweden, e-mail beth.maina.ahlberg@kbh.uu.se and anne.kubai@teol.uu.se Panel 3 Thinking beyond colonial concepts of gender/sexuality Colonial notions of gender and sexuality are rooted in the Bible, with its expulsion of female desire (Eve from the Garden of Eden) and separation of sexuality from motherhood (Virgin Mary). A male/female hierarchical dichotomy of dominance/subordination is taken for granted, along with heterosexuality, marriage as a central institution, and patriliny as the kinship system par excellence. Feminist anthropology from the 1970s onwards has contested some of these notions. However, feminist views have also been taken as a point of departure for Gender-and-Development lines of thinking, where issues of formal political gender equality and women’s rights have taken centre stage, while sexuality is seen in terms of male domination/female vulnerability, with sex as a zone of risk and danger for women. Post- and decolonial scholars insist on a more radical critique, seeing ‘gender’ as well as ‘race’ as European constructions, introduced to the rest of the world in the process of colonization. Colonial relations of domination are justified by the invention of ‘race’ as a biological distinction, and gender power relations are introduced, while claimed to be natural and already there, rooted in biology and bodies. According to Oyèrónké Oyewùmí, “for females, colonization was a twofold process of racial inferiorization and gender subordination. The creation of ‘women’ as a category was one of the very first accomplishments of the colonial state.” In order better to understand dynamics of contemporary African lives, thinking beyond colonial concepts is needed. The panel invites studies which – rooted in empirical investigations – challenge conventional concepts of gender and sexuality. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 and 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 129 Organiser: Signe Arnfred, Roskilde University, Denmark, e-mail signe@ruc.dk Panel 37 European mobility towards Africa: Power, identities and post-colonial encounters European human mobility towards former African colonies has increased over the last years, driven by a variety of factors. Many move in hope of economic gains and upward social mobility, and their movements sometimes take place against a background of globally changing economic power relations, with recession in parts of Europe and economic growth in some African countries. Other Europeans in Africa are motived by a search for adventure and new experiences, and their mobility may be of a more temporary character. Yet other Europeans move to African countries in order to study or as representatives for the development industry. This panel focuses on encounters between Europeans and Africans in the wake of these contemporary movements. In particular it welcomes papers that discuss changing power relations and identities, and explore how these are related to continuities and ruptures with the colonial history of European-African relations. The panel is open for papers discussing the integration of Europeans into African countries of destination, as well as papers critically exploring these persons’ potential contributions to social, political and economic development. Contributors are encouraged to apply an intersectional perspective and pay attention to variations that have to do with understandings of race, gender, class and generation. Theoretically, the panel aims to combinepost-colonial perspectives with research on integration and on the migration-development nexus. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 132 Organisers: Lisa Åkesson, The Nordic Africa Institute and University of Gothenburg, Sweden, and Carolina Cardoso, University of Gothenburg, Sweden‘Back to the Future’: Angolan-Portuguese workplace grievances and inequalities in contemporary Angola Author: Pétur Waldorff, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, and The United Nations University Gender Equality Studies and Training Programme, psw@hi.is The new Portuguese migration to Angola represents a reversal of historic and conventional patterns of migration with citizens of a former European colonial power seeking employment opportunities and improved conditions in an ex-colony on a large scale. It evokes new configurations of power between ex-colonizer and ex-colonized. From a macro-economic perspective, the tables have turned between oil-rich and ex-colonized Angola and recession-struck ex-colonial master, Portugal. It is a postcolonial context, in which an estimated 100 to 150 000 Portuguese nationals have migrated to Angola to work side by side with Angolans as co-workers, employers, and subordinates after 40 years of Angolan independence from Portugal. In this postcolonial context disagreements arise, as well as cases of suspicion of intent, and outright accusations of re-colonization, in addition to accusations on both sides of arrogance and racism. The experience of many Angolans’ can be described as reliving ‘colonial encounters in postcolonial contexts’ which brings up allegations and concerns over (post)colonial inequalities and segregation in contemporary Luanda. This paper investigates Angolan-Portuguese workplace relations based on ethnographic fieldwork from 2014 and 2015. It focuses on Angolan grievances, feelings of precarity, and anger towards the recent Portuguese labour migration to Angola. Analysis of the data shows that workplace inequalities epitomized in salary disparities and workplace segregation, in which Portuguese employees keep to themselves and eat and socialize separately, are among the grievances most commonly mentioned by Angolan informants working with Portuguese nationals in contemporary Luanda. Portuguese labour migrants in Angola: Postcolonial notions of work Author: Lisa Åkesson, The Nordic Africa Institute and University of Gothenburg, Sweden, lisa.akesson@gu.se When the financial crisis hit Portugal in 2008 the economy was booming in the former colony of Angola. In the years to come, unemployment and drastically decreased salaries pushed people away from Portugal. This paper sets out to analyse the often strained workplace relations emerging in the wake of the Portuguese labour migration to Angola. A key area of tension is identities in relation to notions of labour and work ethos. The paper demonstrates that the Portuguese – resonating with colonial discourses – portray themselves as superior particularly in terms of diligence, responsibility and organizational skills, while simultaneously describing Angolan colleagues as idle and in want of rational thinking and organizational capacity. The paper argues that the images and tensions around work have to be understood in relation to the crucial role of labour in the Portuguese colonial empire, where forced labour was both more widespread and later abolished than in other European colonies. Consequently, ideas about Angolans as incapable of working independently are an intrinsic part of the Portuguese colonial library. Angolan informants’ narratives on labour and work ethos are often quite complex and contradictory. Many lament discrimination and the overvaluation of Portuguese skills. Yet, some said there is a need for experienced Portuguese as there is a lack of people with good education and professional experience in Angola. Such statements can be read as an implicit critique of the Angolan party-state and its failures in bringing justice and development to the country. In resonance with the narratives of many Portuguese, others described themselves as “lacking a working spirit”. The paper argues that this ambivalent position reflects the complex and often contradictory workings of colonial memories and discourses and is marked by how in Angola “labouring for someone else” continues to be associated with suffering and subjection. Hierarchies of struggle: Gender and nationalist cosmopolitanism in Ije (The Journey) Author: Senayon Olaoluwa, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, samsenayon@gmail.com Too often the calibration of gender relations and the struggles in which women are implicated towards the dismantling of hierarchies of patriarchal values glosses over the fate of African women who in their bid for survival engage in transnational migration out of the continent into the western hemisphere. The apparent escapism of their response doesn’t of prove to provide adequate insulation in the western nations that they imagine to offer respite from exclusionary patriarchal structures. What are the socio-cultural patriarchal instigations for their transnationalism in the first place? How have transnational African women in their various migration forms coped with the challenges of patriarchy? How does the structural patriarchy of the African homeland find collusion in the structural patriarchy and racism of the West against African women’s struggle for honour? What is the place of marriage in the manifestation of the transnational ordeals of African women? How have all these and more found expression in contemporary African cinema/film from the Cape to Cairo? What are the emerging trends in the representation of transnational African women in these films? Reviving paternal and cultural legacy in the “Alt-Nollywood” works of Zina Saro-Wiwa: Illustrations from Sarogua Mourning and Karikpo Pipeline Author: Fella Benabed, Badji Mokhtar – Annaba University, Algeria, fella.benabed@univ-annaba.dz Zina Saro-Wiwa, a film-maker born in Nigeria and raised in the UK, rose to fame in 2010 when she had her first art exhibition, Sharon Stone in Abuja, in Soho, New York. She is now an Afropolitan artist touring the world to present what she calls “Alt-Nollywood” experimental cinema. She uses the techniques of Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry, but subverts some of its characteristics, mainly its representation of women. Her father, Ken Saro-Wiwa, is an iconic writer and grassroots activist who created the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People and led nonviolent protests against multinational oil companies. He was executed by the Nigerian government in 1995. Zina Saro-Wiwa’s work is partly devoted to reviving the legacy of her father whose death was, according to her, “the culmination of many unspoken forces: historic, futuristic, political, economic, racial, personal and spiritual.” Her ambition is to experiment with these forces in order to create a connection between the geographical landscape and the emotional landscape (her own and her audience’s). Her work is also partly devoted to reviving the African cultural legacy, by finding inspiration in the wellspring of myths and legends, and casting on them the critical gaze of an educated cosmopolitan woman. Sarogua Mourning (2011), inspired by her incapacity to mourn the death of her father, gives her an artistic opportunity for cathartic relief. She reveals that after the execution of her father, she could not cry for ten years because she believed his tragedy belonged to the whole world and not to her. In this short video, she shaves her head and performs the ritual of a traditional Ogoni mourner. In Karikpo Pipeline (2015), she borrows the Ogoni masquerade to describe the vestiges of the oil industry in Ogoniland with a drone camera. These two works are part of her quest journey of cultural discovery and personal recovery. Panel 4 Leadership and innovation 2030: Gender empowerment for sustainable futures in Africa This panel links women leadership and empowerment to innovation and sustainable development in Africa with six topics: 1. “Marginalisation of women and leadership failures in Africa: past and present”, discusses traditional gender roles and how male dominance has contributed to social and economic failings, particularly institutionalised corruption. We present evidence showing how changing roles and empowerment of women have influenced African politico-social scenes, leading to openness, accountability, transparency and good governance, and set the stage for panel papers on politics, education, entrepreneurship, and health. 2. “Changing dynamics of women in political leadership in Africa”, explores women empowerment and participation in politics at local, national and continental levels, and discusses their influence and impact on governance at state, AU, and sub-regional economic blocs such as ECOWAS, EAC, SADC, etc. 3. “Women leaders in entrepreneurship: financial independence and business sustainability”, analyses women’s roles in enterprise development, particularly SMEs, as drivers of economic growth in Africa, and discusses their future role in job creation and poverty alleviation. 4. “Women leadership in educational development in Africa”, critically looks at the changing trend of women as leaders of African Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs), including vice chancellors, deans, and registrars and discusses and discusses their future role in internationalisation of education, and private-public partnerships. 5. “Women leadership in health systems management in Africa”, presents findings on healthcare improvement in Africa as a result of changing gender roles, and how this could lead to significant improvement of SDGs Health Targets by 2030. 6. “Women leadership in human rights and social justice”, presents findings on women’s roles in Africa’s judicial and justice system, highlighting their roles as Justice Ministers and other positions in the criminal justice system, including International Court of Justice. Panel 5 Negotiation, contestation, collaboration: Sudanese women under the State’s Civilizational Project This panel has a thematic focus on gender relations in contemporary Sudan. It deals with the (a) positioning of Sudanese women vis a vis formal and informal justice and governance institutions (b) avenues for potential change and (c) the ways in which women negotiate, navigate and contest the prevailing gender order in the context of Sudan’s Civilizational Project. One of the papers looks at the women of rural setting of Doka where the lives of women are governed in large measure by customary laws and traditional authorities. The Civilizational Project, which has encouraged women’s participation in Islamic education and activites, has provided a space for better understanding of religious rules that govern women’s lives on matters of family law. Coupled with better opportunities in education, paid labour and involvement with CSOs, this has led to a shift in the gender relations and provided women with more resources to reject verdicts that are not in their best interest. This shift has yet to change the structure of the court however, which remains male-only, and which women perceive as geared at family integration, not justice. The second paper examines formal law reform processes and institutions in Sudan, and the extent to which they are effective in addressing the issue of violence against women. He identifies gaps in the current legal framework and proposes necessary reforms to bring laws and mechanisms in closer alignment with international human rights norms. The third paper focuses on the women affiliated with the Sudanese Islamist Movement and its political arm, the National Congress Party. These women populate state institutions and affiliated civil society bodies in large numbers, and do much of the day to day work of the Project. The paper discusses what the lives and work of the project’s “own women” tell us about its discourses, institutions and practices of the Project, and by extension those of the state. It draws on fieldwork conducted in 20152016 in Khartoum State and the predominantly agricultural state of Gezira, central Sudan. Panel 6 Agrarian questions and large-scale land investments in Africa: What lessons for the SDG? Agriculture and other natural resources are the main means of livelihoods and source of employment for the majority of the rural people in Africa. The production systems are dominantly small-scaled and managed by households and communities, typically, as sedentary farming, pastoral and other extractive systems. Although these systems continue to be the major sources of food and employment, they also have problems such as failure to meet food and nutrition demands, vulnerability to external (environmental, economic and social) shocks, and weak integration to high-value markets. Hence, change and improvement in the management and structure of the agricultural and other land use systems, as well as in their broader economic and social condition are seen as necessary precondition for African development. Central in these is the land question where the governance regimes of the land continued to be key area of focus to both research and policy. The recent surge in foreign and domestic investments in land has also raised renewed interest into the prospects and impacts of private/corporate investments on African agriculture. Many African countries are endorsing a more liberal policies in their land and agricultural policies. The policy idea here is that such investments will facilitate both growth and modernization of the agricultural sector at large. The outcomes on these are mixed: while only some investments are performing well, many investments have failed. This panel aims to address both the unsettled nature of land rights across much of the land resources in the continent, especially on communal lands, on the one hand, and the implication of the current liberal land policies, on the other hand, in contemporary and future African development prospects. How are current agricultural land investment policies impacting the smallholder African farmers? What types of land governance regimes can help in modernizing the State in Africa? What are the major land-related questions for research and policy in light of the sustainable development goals, such as eradicating poverty and hunger in rural Africa? The purpose of this panel is to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners engaged in African natural resources governance to exchange ideas and information about their work. Panel 7 African spring? Since the popular uprising in Burkina Faso in September 2014, renewed attention has been directed towards public protests in Africa as a platform for political contestation and a potential source of further democratization and regime change. Following the uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt in 2010-11, which have become symbols of an “Arab awakening” or “Arab spring”, hopes, wishes and speculations about a similar wave of regime change in other parts of the continent evoke images of an “African spring” of democratic reform and popular participation. In evoking the similarities between the northern African uprisings and recent events in Burkina Faso and Burundi in particular, several factors may be listed as prominent across these cases. Firstly, popular protests were organized primarily in capital cities with public squares as a central platform for congregation. Secondly, the primary demand of the protesters was for regime change and a respect for the constitution. Thirdly, social media such as Facebook and Twitter have been prominent in organizing and publicizing protests. Fourthly, the importance of young people taking a lead role in mobilization as well as in articulating the grievances of the population has been instructive. At the same time, popular protests in many African countries continue a longer historical trend of being met with state brutality, making the successful toppling of Burkinabe president Blaise Compaoré a remarkable exception rather than the catalyst for a region- or continent-wide “wave” of regime change. Raising the question of an African Spring, this panel invites reflections on both the expression and the relative absence of popular dissent in the face of semi-authoritarian regimes across the continent. Papers are encouraged to discuss the dynamics of case-specific political contestations in contexts where electoral politics and constitutional amendments play a crucial role in regime governmentality, reflecting specifically on the dynamics of mobilization and/or oppression of dissent; the communication strategies of protesters, activists, as well as of the state in relation to public protests; the generational, gendered, and socioeconomic characteristics of those actors mobilizing dissent; and the extent to which the imagery of an “Arab” or an “African Spring” has been used explicitly by those involved, or those commenting on, specific instances of political mobilization. Panel 8 Equal rights but not quite: Subalterns’ experiences and perceptions of gender equality policies and programs in Africa Several African countries have embraced gender equality and gender mainstreaming as core principles in their national laws, policies and programs. Several non-government organizations are busy working in Africa in the same field, promoting women’s empowerment and, more recently, also men’s engagement. This, to a different extent according to the context considered, is usually said as having largely benefitted women, men, and the whole society, fostering general development and equality among citizens. However, not only are some women and men practically unable to exercise the formally given rights for different reasons (socio/cultural, economic, ethnic, among others) but new hierarchies and new forms of exclusion have been reinforced or created (sometimes intentionally, sometimes as a side effect) by the same programs and policies meant to support gender equality. While a lot of development assessment and quick consultancy work commissioned by government and non-government institutions focuses much on the concept of existing barriers to women’s empowerment, usually linked to pre-existing cultures and traditions and the concept of behavioral change, not much is done to identify either the emerging processes of production of new exclusions and their socio-political meaning or the experience of the subalterns in depth, in relation to the gender equality apparatus. This panel welcomes therefore contributions that critically interrogate gender equality programs and policies in Africa by focusing both on the production of new gendered forms of exclusions by the actors promoting gender equality themselves and on the actual and context specific experiences of subalterns in relation to what is globally seen and advertised as gender-inclusive development. Contributors are also encouraged to explore possible innovations, approaches and practices that might stem from the subalterns’ experiences presented. Panel 9 African women’s movements designing visions for change African women have, over long stretches of time, been controversially depicted as victims of their environment and simultaneously inhabited the role of powerful agents of change. During the 1970s, although the development nexus postulated that development without the empowerment of women is impossible, images of African women as “poor, powerless and pregnant” and in need of assistance still circulated widely. With a different reading of gender justice, women from the South critiqued feminism for being exclusive (i.e. upper-class, white and enmeshed in imperialist power relations). Instead, African feminist scholars and activists brought “Other” forms of feminisms to the fore that promised to speak to their realities, such as womanism or Islamic feminism. Transnational feminism, mostly around the UN World Conferences on Women, proved to be a fruitful site of negotiation for North-South difference and South-South mobilization. In short, women’s movements from the South contested the normativity espoused by their “sisters”. Today, these different topics and alliances have become relevant once more – in a field of changed global relations. In this dynamic field, women’s movements oppose, adopt, appropriate and reinterpret images, gender roles as well as gender norms. Apart from the dialogue within women’s movements, external actors such as local churches, media or policymakers influence gender politics. Looking at these contradictions, we ask how women’s movements develop their visions of change? How do women’s movements relate and position their own visions to the norms, laws or discourses held by their communities, societies and states? To which extent can they change the widely shared stereotyped image of African women? In particular, contributions should seek to highlight agent/structure relations and tie them to ideational/discursive practices. Panel 1 Gender and new forms of violence in Africa Africa is experiencing new forms of violence whose causes have become associated with globalization. Take for example, in Africa many ethnic and religious conflicts now occur more frequently as part of transnational relations. Similarly, human trafficking, cross-border robbery and other cross-border crimes are on the increase on the continent in addition to mineral resources-driven conflicts. While the various forms of violence across the continent have attracted considerable scholarly attention, the scholarship examining the links between gender and new forms of violence in Africa have not received adequate enlightened attention. For example, in many African countries information in the public domain about gender-related concerns in violent conflicts are limited to such matters like the effects of conflicts on women and children as the most vulnerable gender categories, youth restlessness and their vulnerability to manipulation by the politicians and other conflict entrepreneurs. While these are legitimate concerns that need to be addressed, there are other equally compelling issues in organized violence that affect men and women differently. Against a background that interprets the new forms of violence in Africa as dominant expressions of profound social transformations associated with the globalizing influence of capital, upsurge in “transnational communities” and the significant engagement of new social movements with networking across national frontiers, a panel of researchers, academics, development workers and policy analysts is proposed to examine the links between gender and new forms of violence in Africa. Time: Friday 23 September, 09:00-11:00 and 13:45-15:45 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 128 Organiser: Victor Adetula, The Nordic Africa Institute, victor.adetula@nai.uu.se Panel 2 Gender and health in African contexts Gender is the socially constructed meaning of the differences between females and males that allocates unequally, social power and privilegestowomenandmenandshapestheiridentitiesandperceptions, interactional practices and the forms of institutions created. In this sense gender is a key determinant of health of women and men. Differences established between tend to attribute greater importance and value to ”masculine” characteristics but of course there are contextual variations in gender relations depending on legislation culture, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, religion, etc. Gender norms and values may provoke practices and behaviours that may endanger or protect health. Gender violence is a major cause of women’s disability and death, but it takes culturally patterned forms such as honour killing in some areas, creation of abnormalities that then require to be corrected through surgical interventions. Among these are cosmetic surgeries and female genital mutilation (FGM). In situations of war and conflict, sexual coercion and rape is a phenomenon that takes a large toll on women’s health. In the related phenomena of forced migration and human trafficking, gender violence is an important element, whereby victims are not only exposed to sexual and psychological violence; but also often sustain injuries and are at high risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV and AIDS, if they survive the perilous journeys across the seas and deserts. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 and 16:00-18:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 229 Organisers: Beth Maina Ahlberg and Anne Kubai, Uppsala University, Sweden, e-mail beth.maina.ahlberg@kbh.uu.se and anne.kubai@teol.uu.se Panel 3 Thinking beyond colonial concepts of gender/sexuality Colonial notions of gender and sexuality are rooted in the Bible, with its expulsion of female desire (Eve from the Garden of Eden) and separation of sexuality from motherhood (Virgin Mary). A male/female hierarchical dichotomy of dominance/subordination is taken for granted, along with heterosexuality, marriage as a central institution, and patriliny as the kinship system par excellence. Feminist anthropology from the 1970s onwards has contested some of these notions. However, feminist views have also been taken as a point of departure for Gender-and-Development lines of thinking, where issues of formal political gender equality and women’s rights have taken centre stage, while sexuality is seen in terms of male domination/female vulnerability, with sex as a zone of risk and danger for women. Post- and decolonial scholars insist on a more radical critique, seeing ‘gender’ as well as ‘race’ as European constructions, introduced to the rest of the world in the process of colonization. Colonial relations of domination are justified by the invention of ‘race’ as a biological distinction, and gender power relations are introduced, while claimed to be natural and already there, rooted in biology and bodies. According to Oyèrónké Oyewùmí, “for females, colonization was a twofold process of racial inferiorization and gender subordination. The creation of ‘women’ as a category was one of the very first accomplishments of the colonial state.” In order better to understand dynamics of contemporary African lives, thinking beyond colonial concepts is needed. The panel invites studies which – rooted in empirical investigations – challenge conventional concepts of gender and sexuality. Time: Saturday 24 September, 09:00-11:00 and 14:00-16:00 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 129 Organiser: Signe Arnfred, Roskilde University, Denmark, e-mail signe@ruc.dk Panel 37 European mobility towards Africa: Power, identities and post-colonial encounters European human mobility towards former African colonies has increased over the last years, driven by a variety of factors. Many move in hope of economic gains and upward social mobility, and their movements sometimes take place against a background of globally changing economic power relations, with recession in parts of Europe and economic growth in some African countries. Other Europeans in Africa are motived by a search for adventure and new experiences, and their mobility may be of a more temporary character. Yet other Europeans move to African countries in order to study or as representatives for the development industry. This panel focuses on encounters between Europeans and Africans in the wake of these contemporary movements. In particular it welcomes papers that discuss changing power relations and identities, and explore how these are related to continuities and ruptures with the colonial history of European-African relations. The panel is open for papers discussing the integration of Europeans into African countries of destination, as well as papers critically exploring these persons’ potential contributions to social, political and economic development. Contributors are encouraged to apply an intersectional perspective and pay attention to variations that have to do with understandings of race, gender, class and generation. Theoretically, the panel aims to combinepost-colonial perspectives with research on integration and on the migration-development nexus. Time: Friday 23 September, 13:45-15:45 Venue: Blåsenhus, house 12, room 132 Organisers: Lisa Åkesson, The Nordic Africa Institute and University of Gothenburg, Sweden, and Carolina Cardoso, University of Gothenburg, Sweden‘Back to the Future’: Angolan-Portuguese workplace grievances and inequalities in contemporary Angola Author: Pétur Waldorff, The Nordic Africa Institute, Sweden, and The United Nations University Gender Equality Studies and Training Programme, psw@hi.is The new Portuguese migration to Angola represents a reversal of historic and conventional patterns of migration with citizens of a former European colonial power seeking employment opportunities and improved conditions in an ex-colony on a large scale. It evokes new configurations of power between ex-colonizer and ex-colonized. From a macro-economic perspective, the tables have turned between oil-rich and ex-colonized Angola and recession-struck ex-colonial master, Portugal. It is a postcolonial context, in which an estimated 100 to 150 000 Portuguese nationals have migrated to Angola to work side by side with Angolans as co-workers, employers, and subordinates after 40 years of Angolan independence from Portugal. In this postcolonial context disagreements arise, as well as cases of suspicion of intent, and outright accusations of re-colonization, in addition to accusations on both sides of arrogance and racism. The experience of many Angolans’ can be described as reliving ‘colonial encounters in postcolonial contexts’ which brings up allegations and concerns over (post)colonial inequalities and segregation in contemporary Luanda. This paper investigates Angolan-Portuguese workplace relations based on ethnographic fieldwork from 2014 and 2015. It focuses on Angolan grievances, feelings of precarity, and anger towards the recent Portuguese labour migration to Angola. Analysis of the data shows that workplace inequalities epitomized in salary disparities and workplace segregation, in which Portuguese employees keep to themselves and eat and socialize separately, are among the grievances most commonly mentioned by Angolan informants working with Portuguese nationals in contemporary Luanda. Portuguese labour migrants in Angola: Postcolonial notions of work Author: Lisa Åkesson, The Nordic Africa Institute and University of Gothenburg, Sweden, lisa.akesson@gu.se When the financial crisis hit Portugal in 2008 the economy was booming in the former colony of Angola. In the years to come, unemployment and drastically decreased salaries pushed people away from Portugal. This paper sets out to analyse the often strained workplace relations emerging in the wake of the Portuguese labour migration to Angola. A key area of tension is identities in relation to notions of labour and work ethos. The paper demonstrates that the Portuguese – resonating with colonial discourses – portray themselves as superior particularly in terms of diligence, responsibility and organizational skills, while simultaneously describing Angolan colleagues as idle and in want of rational thinking and organizational capacity. The paper argues that the images and tensions around work have to be understood in relation to the crucial role of labour in the Portuguese colonial empire, where forced labour was both more widespread and later abolished than in other European colonies. Consequently, ideas about Angolans as incapable of working independently are an intrinsic part of the Portuguese colonial library. Angolan informants’ narratives on labour and work ethos are often quite complex and contradictory. Many lament discrimination and the overvaluation of Portuguese skills. Yet, some said there is a need for experienced Portuguese as there is a lack of people with good education and professional experience in Angola. Such statements can be read as an implicit critique of the Angolan party-state and its failures in bringing justice and development to the country. In resonance with the narratives of many Portuguese, others described themselves as “lacking a working spirit”. The paper argues that this ambivalent position reflects the complex and often contradictory workings of colonial memories and discourses and is marked by how in Angola “labouring for someone else” continues to be associated with suffering and subjection. Hierarchies of struggle: Gender and nationalist cosmopolitanism in Ije (The Journey) Author: Senayon Olaoluwa, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, samsenayon@gmail.com Too often the calibration of gender relations and the struggles in which women are implicated towards the dismantling of hierarchies of patriarchal values glosses over the fate of African women who in their bid for survival engage in transnational migration out of the continent into the western hemisphere. The apparent escapism of their response doesn’t of prove to provide adequate insulation in the western nations that they imagine to offer respite from exclusionary patriarchal structures. What are the socio-cultural patriarchal instigations for their transnationalism in the first place? How have transnational African women in their various migration forms coped with the challenges of patriarchy? How does the structural patriarchy of the African homeland find collusion in the structural patriarchy and racism of the West against African women’s struggle for honour? What is the place of marriage in the manifestation of the transnational ordeals of African women? How have all these and more found expression in contemporary African cinema/film from the Cape to Cairo? What are the emerging trends in the representation of transnational African women in these films? Reviving paternal and cultural legacy in the “Alt-Nollywood” works of Zina Saro-Wiwa: Illustrations from Sarogua Mourning and Karikpo Pipeline Author: Fella Benabed, Badji Mokhtar – Annaba University, Algeria, fella.benabed@univ-annaba.dz Zina Saro-Wiwa, a film-maker born in Nigeria and raised in the UK, rose to fame in 2010 when she had her first art exhibition, Sharon Stone in Abuja, in Soho, New York. She is now an Afropolitan artist touring the world to present what she calls “Alt-Nollywood” experimental cinema. She uses the techniques of Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry, but subverts some of its characteristics, mainly its representation of women. Her father, Ken Saro-Wiwa, is an iconic writer and grassroots activist who created the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People and led nonviolent protests against multinational oil companies. He was executed by the Nigerian government in 1995. Zina Saro-Wiwa’s work is partly devoted to reviving the legacy of her father whose death was, according to her, “the culmination of many unspoken forces: historic, futuristic, political, economic, racial, personal and spiritual.” Her ambition is to experiment with these forces in order to create a connection between the geographical landscape and the emotional landscape (her own and her audience’s). Her work is also partly devoted to reviving the African cultural legacy, by finding inspiration in the wellspring of myths and legends, and casting on them the critical gaze of an educated cosmopolitan woman. Sarogua Mourning (2011), inspired by her incapacity to mourn the death of her father, gives her an artistic opportunity for cathartic relief. She reveals that after the execution of her father, she could not cry for ten years because she believed his tragedy belonged to the whole world and not to her. In this short video, she shaves her head and performs the ritual of a traditional Ogoni mourner. In Karikpo Pipeline (2015), she borrows the Ogoni masquerade to describe the vestiges of the oil industry in Ogoniland with a drone camera. These two works are part of her quest journey of cultural discovery and personal recovery. Panel 4 Leadership and innovation 2030: Gender empowerment for sustainable futures in Africa This panel links women leadership and empowerment to innovation and sustainable development in Africa with six topics: 1. “Marginalisation of women and leadership failures in Africa: past and present”, discusses traditional gender roles and how male dominance has contributed to social and economic failings, particularly institutionalised corruption. We present evidence showing how changing roles and empowerment of women have influenced African politico-social scenes, leading to openness, accountability, transparency and good governance, and set the stage for panel papers on politics, education, entrepreneurship, and health. 2. “Changing dynamics of women in political leadership in Africa”, explores women empowerment and participation in politics at local, national and continental levels, and discusses their influence and impact on governance at state, AU, and sub-regional economic blocs such as ECOWAS, EAC, SADC, etc. 3. “Women leaders in entrepreneurship: financial independence and business sustainability”, analyses women’s roles in enterprise development, particularly SMEs, as drivers of economic growth in Africa, and discusses their future role in job creation and poverty alleviation. 4. “Women leadership in educational development in Africa”, critically looks at the changing trend of women as leaders of African Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs), including vice chancellors, deans, and registrars and discusses and discusses their future role in internationalisation of education, and private-public partnerships. 5. “Women leadership in health systems management in Africa”, presents findings on healthcare improvement in Africa as a result of changing gender roles, and how this could lead to significant improvement of SDGs Health Targets by 2030. 6. “Women leadership in human rights and social justice”, presents findings on women’s roles in Africa’s judicial and justice system, highlighting their roles as Justice Ministers and other positions in the criminal justice system, including International Court of Justice. Panel 5 Negotiation, contestation, collaboration: Sudanese women under the State’s Civilizational Project This panel has a thematic focus on gender relations in contemporary Sudan. It deals with the (a) positioning of Sudanese women vis a vis formal and informal justice and governance institutions (b) avenues for potential change and (c) the ways in which women negotiate, navigate and contest the prevailing gender order in the context of Sudan’s Civilizational Project. One of the papers looks at the women of rural setting of Doka where the lives of women are governed in large measure by customary laws and traditional authorities. The Civilizational Project, which has encouraged women’s participation in Islamic education and activites, has provided a space for better understanding of religious rules that govern women’s lives on matters of family law. Coupled with better opportunities in education, paid labour and involvement with CSOs, this has led to a shift in the gender relations and provided women with more resources to reject verdicts that are not in their best interest. This shift has yet to change the structure of the court however, which remains male-only, and which women perceive as geared at family integration, not justice. The second paper examines formal law reform processes and institutions in Sudan, and the extent to which they are effective in addressing the issue of violence against women. He identifies gaps in the current legal framework and proposes necessary reforms to bring laws and mechanisms in closer alignment with international human rights norms. The third paper focuses on the women affiliated with the Sudanese Islamist Movement and its political arm, the National Congress Party. These women populate state institutions and affiliated civil society bodies in large numbers, and do much of the day to day work of the Project. The paper discusses what the lives and work of the project’s “own women” tell us about its discourses, institutions and practices of the Project, and by extension those of the state. It draws on fieldwork conducted in 2015-2016 in Khartoum State and the predominantly agricultural state of Gezira, central Sudan. Panel 6 Agrarian questions and large-scale land investments in Africa: What lessons for the SDG? Agriculture and other natural resources are the main means of livelihoods and source of employment for the majority of the rural people in Africa. The production systems are dominantly small-scaled and managed by households and communities, typically, as sedentary farming, pastoral and other extractive systems. Although these systems continue to be the major sources of food and employment, they also have problems such as failure to meet food and nutrition demands, vulnerability to external (environmental, economic and social) shocks, and weak integration to high-value markets. Hence, change and improvement in the management and structure of the agricultural and other land use systems, as well as in their broader economic and social condition are seen as necessary precondition for African development. Central in these is the land question where the governance regimes of the land continued to be key area of focus to both research and policy. The recent surge in foreign and domestic investments in land has also raised renewed interest into the prospects and impacts of private/corporate investments on African agriculture. Many African countries are endorsing a more liberal policies in their land and agricultural policies. The policy idea here is that such investments will facilitate both growth and modernization of the agricultural sector at large. The outcomes on these are mixed: while only some investments are performing well, many investments have failed. This panel aims to address both the unsettled nature of land rights across much of the land resources in the continent, especially on communal lands, on the one hand, and the implication of the current liberal land policies, on the other hand, in contemporary and future African development prospects. How are current agricultural land investment policies impacting the smallholder African farmers? What types of land governance regimes can help in modernizing the State in Africa? What are the major land-related questions for research and policy in light of the sustainable development goals, such as eradicating poverty and hunger in rural Africa? The purpose of this panel is to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners engaged in African natural resources governance to exchange ideas and information about their work. Panel 7 African spring? Since the popular uprising in Burkina Faso in September 2014, renewed attention has been

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Nordic Africa Days 2016  

The Nordic Africa Days 2016 takes place in Uppsala, Sweden, 23-24 September 2016. The theme for this year's conference is Gender and Change:...

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