Thai-Norwegian Business Review 2014 – 03
Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce
New reality for Thailand? Interview with JFCCT Chairman Stanley Kang
Meet Norway’s new Ambassador to Thailand
Contents President’s foreword 5 Meet Kjetil Paulsen, the new Norwegian Ambassador to Thailand
Letter from Singapore: Knowledge at the Core
NSC’s Jon Erik Steenslid: Nothing fishy here!
Cover story: New reality for Thailand?
Thoughts from the JFCCT Chairman Stanley Kang: “Liberalisation will set you free”
Samitivej to Focus on Trident of Excellence
Countering IP Infringement on the Internet
Feature: More from the Summit
Norway-Asia Business Summit 2014, a great success
Introducting the next Summit host: Welcome to India and Bangladesh
Sigve Brekke on Telenor’s simple, yet refined recipe for success in Asia
The cost of understanding Global Leadership
BI Norwegian Business School’s Asian Adventure
How the low-cost approach will work on long-haul routes
Ola Borge: Myanmar on the Move
Bjørn Holsen: Powering Myanmar’s growth
Getting to know the members
Thailand’s economy at a glance
Editor: Thitikul K. Opdal Advertising: Anders Magnusson Journalists: Eric Baker, Ezra Kyrill Erker Graphic Design: Graphics-Related Co., Ltd. www.norcham.com
THE SHORTCUT BETWEEN
ASIA AND EUROPE Fly the faster, northern route via Helsinki to over 70 destinations in Europe. Learn more at ﬁnnair.com On 22 May 2014, Thailand awoke to a new reality; the military had once again taken power in a military coup, the 12th since 1932. While international reactions condemned the return of a military government, the reactions in Thailand have been more mixed. Many people felt the political stalemate resulting in street violence between a politically divided and polarised population had to end. The military claimed it had to step in because the various factions were unable to reach an agreement. Miami
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Since then we have seen a decisive government address a number of public complaints, e.g. graft, corruption, mafia influence, vested interests, vice as well as national legislative challenges such as pending laws in a number of fields ranging from international agreements, taxation, energy and the environment. The Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce is an active member of the Joint Foreign Chambers of Commerce in Thailand (JFCCT). Our chamber has played an active role in the organisation for many years and we feel we are being heard. Through JFCCT we have been consulted by the National Council for Peace and Order (NCPO) on a number of issues concerning foreign investments in the country. We have particularly emphasized the need for streamlining the visa and work-permit regulations to make it easier for companies and their executives to operate and live in Thailand. Through interest organisations like JFCCT and Thailand’s Board of Trade, of which we are members, we will continue to engage the government in matters of special importance to us as Norwegian investors in Thailand.
It remains to be seen how long the military will stay in power. It’s my hope that we soon again will see a democratic Thailand with checks and balances introduced into the country’s legislation, making sure that all sides are heard, listened to and respected.
Xi’an Delhi Chongqing Krabi Phuket
Hanoi Bangkok Singapore
Tokyo Nagoya Seoul Osaka Shanghai Beijing
From the Norwegian perspective, we have a new ambassador in Thailand. Although Kjetil Paulsen is new to Asia, he comes to us with a wealth of experience from previous postings in Europe, Africa and North America in addition to postings at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. We wish him a warm welcome to Thailand and are pretty sure that he will enjoy the “Land of Smiles” as much as we do. The previous Norwegian Ambassador to Thailand, Ms. Katja Nordgaard, developed the concept of an illustrated coffee table book showing images of modern Norway together with photos taken by King Chulalongkorn during his trip to Norway in 1907. The result is the book “Modern Norway, Then and Now”. It is an ideal as an exclusive gift to Thai partners and contacts and can be ordered through the chamber office. Vibeke Lyssand Leirvåg President Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce
Thai-Norwegian Business Review
Meet Kjetil Paulsen, the new Norwegian Ambassador to Thailand By Eric Baker
“The Foreign Ministry obviously thought I was an expert at following up collapsed regimes, as they sent me to Ethiopia after the collapse of the Mengistu administration. The main focus there was again poverty issues.”
Mr. Paulsen has an extensive background in foreign affairs and he expects some common themes from his previous postings will crop up during his tenure in Thailand. Much of his work, which included stays in Nigeria, Ethiopia, Romania, Macedonia, Geneva and New York City, as well as several stints in Oslo, was on projects to reduce poverty.
Mr. Paulsen has great admiration for Thais, based mostly on his experience in Norway. “Thousands of Thais live in Norway and make great contributions to the country. They are not causing any problems,” he said. “In fact, if you are familiar with Spitsbergen, there are about 110 Thais working there under very harsh living conditions, especially for people coming from a tropical climate. It’s amazing, as they are the second-largest nationality on the island after Norwegians.
nly two days on the job, and Kjetil Paulsen is wide-eyed as he gazes along the horizon from his corner office. “The big buildings in the skyline remind me of New York, though the reality down on the street is much different,” he said.
“Thailand is interesting because it’s been able to decrease poverty relative to others in the region, and I look forward to working with regional and multilateral organisations here on reducing poverty,” he said. “I worked on this issue from an organisational context in Geneva. But while I was in Nigeria, I saw examples of what worked, and particularly what didn’t work for reducing poverty.” The position in Thailand also offers new opportunities for Mr. Paulsen, which he seemed genuinely excited about. “I’ve never been with an embassy that had such a strong commercial interest, which I really look forward to working on, especially as the political situation here is likely to be fluid,” he said. “When I was in Nigeria, I learned about promoting commercial cooperation in very, very difficult circumstances,” said Mr. Paulsen. “Then I was sent to Romania the day after Ceausescu’s regime collapsed. There was a period of shock because people were so traumatised by this dictatorship. They couldn’t really accept that they were free. This taught me that you really need a generation to pass before people can move on with their lives. This posting saw the least amount of commercial assistance, as there was only one Norwegian doing business in Romania at the time, exporting violins to the Norwegian Philharmonic.
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“I’ve never been with an embassy that had such a strong commercial interest, which I really look forward to working on, especially as the political situation here is likely to be fluid,”
“Even 20 years ago there were no Thai restaurants in Oslo. Now they are everywhere. But then 20 to 30 years ago there weren’t any foreign restaurants there except for Chinese and Italian.” Mr. Paulsen said consular work still plays a large role at the embassy, with 150,000 Norwegians visiting Thailand every year and about 10,000 Thais requesting visas to head to Norway. There are also about 6,500 Norwegians that are permanent residents of Thailand.
H.E. Ambassador Kjetil Paulsen relaxes in his new office in Bangkok. Photo: Jørgen Udvang
“It goes without saying that this brings about some consular challenges,” he said. “We have about a dozen people here working on these issues. On average, two Norwegians die in Thailand a week, and this also keeps them busy.” Mr. Paulsen said his goals for his tenure in Thailand are to continue support for business cooperation between Thailand and Norway, foster Norwegian business interest in Southeast Asia, which is already at an all-time high, and to keep his office door open to all comers for assistance within normal diplomatic limits.
most assistance from embassies, so I hope I can be a useful partner in that regard. “I believe we should not be afraid of integrating business and cultural efforts when trying to promote the country. The idea that they are incompatible is a perspective belonging to the past.”
“In Macedonia, I worked a lot with gründers, which is a Norwegian word for innovative entrepreneurs,” he said. “These are often the types of companies that need the
Thai-Norwegian Business Review
Letter from Singapore: Knowledge at the Core
Singapore Branch SEB is a leading Nordic financial services group with 16,000 employees, total assets amounting to SEK 2,651 billion and assets under management totalling SEK 1,504 billion. Rewarding relationships are the cornerstones of the bankʼs business. Ever since the foundation in 1856, SEB has provided financial services to assist itʼs customers in reaching their financial objectives. The foundation of SEB´s client activities are trust, active listening, developing solutions together with the clients as well as strong and lasting dedication to professional and pro-active high level services. According to a recent Bloomberg ranking, SEB is one of the worldʼs ten strongest banks.
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his week a group of Norwegian Members of Parliament visited Singapore – the Standing Committee on Research and Education. Their purpose was twofold. Firstly, we wanted to explore the close linkages between research and business development in Singapore, in short how knowledge translates into money in this economy. Secondly, their visit allowed for a quick look at an educational system that differs significantly from ours.
It became an interesting visit – for the visiting Parliamentarians and for us at the Embassy. We were reminded of the importance of knowledge for any modern economy, and we got a good look at how knowledge is being built in Singapore. Most research activities in Singapore are aimed at developing this nation’s competitive edge. The government spends a good 1% of the GDP on research, and the industry itself more than matches that amount. Much of the government-funded research is carried out in close collaboration with industry, to ensure that research findings result in marketable products and services. One example of such teamwork is the Offshore Technology Center at the National University of Singapore (NUS), which is run
Norwegian industry has shown a remarkable ability to reinvent itself, to transform strong competencies into something new.
jointly by the University and the ship and rig-builder group Keppel. Knowing the capabilities of NUS and Keppel I know that this center will become an important center of knowledge – in an industry of strategic importance to Norway, and situated in an area where we will see large investments in offshore exploration and production in the
H.E. Ambassador Tormod C. Endresen leading the participants through the summit agenda. Photo: TNCC
years to come. We can chose to see this as a challenge or an opportunity. I am convinced - our response must be to team up with Singaporean and other partners – to make sure that Norwegian know how and companies can help deliver the energy to fuel Asia’s growth. Fortunately, Innovation Norway has made sure that there already are close ties between NUS and people at Marintek and SINTEF. During the visit, we also made sure that our Parliamentarians met some members of the Norwegian business community. After being impressed with strategic Singaporean research policies, these meetings were in a way reassuring. We were reminded that Norwegian companies play in the premier league, too, notably in the maritime and offshore sectors. Our companies are attractive partners – precisely because of their knowledge and experience. They are not the least expensive, but they offer a kind of quality that there is still in high demand, in particular where reliability and safety really matters. We can continue to meet this demand, provided we keep developing our capabilities. Norwegian industry has shown a remarkable ability to reinvent itself, to transform strong competencies into something new. That is how a strong maritime tradition helped us become a global oil and gas nation, how our knowledge of fisheries is at the base of our success in
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Continued from page 9
aquaculture. That is also how Norwegian start-ups in Singapore use our on-line experience to capture the business opportunities made by the millions of Asians who hook up to the web every month. I am convinced that we will see similar conversions of knowledge in the future. If we succeed in transforming our knowledge, it becomes a renewable resource. That will require that we allow ourselves to be challenged by opportunities and partnerships in new markets. It will also require a continued investment in research and innovation, and an education system that foster the talents of tomorrow.
NSC’s Jon Erik Steenslid: Nothing fishy here! Knowledge will remain at the core of what Norway offers the world. That was the number one take-away for our visiting Parliamentarians – and an important message to reinforce for all of us who work to promote Norwegian interests abroad.
By Eric Baker
Norwegian Seafood Council’s new Regional Director for Southeast Asia, Jon Erik Steenslid in one of Norway’s beautiful fjords. Photo: NSC
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s consumers in Southeast Asia become more concerned with food safety and sustainability, Jon Erik Steenslid, the new Regional Director of Southeast Asia for the Norwegian Seafood Council, believes Norway is in a position of strength because of its stringent standards and strong brand.
“Production of seafood in Norway is regulated because we know there are dangers to overfishing. Animal welfare is also important to Norwegians, and with a minimum of 97.5% water and maximum 2.5% fish in Norwegian farms, we can be assured the fish are not cramped. Another reason it’s important to preserve the environment and limit production is it creates predictability for the market.”
“The origin of food has become more important to consumers, in addition to food safety,” said Mr Steenslid. “This is good for the council because Norway is associated with cold, clear waters and all our major fisheries are certified. Protecting the environment as well as the salmon population is very important in Norway, and that will never change.
Mr Steenslid has some 20 years of experience in the seafood industry, most recently back in Norway as a business consultant. He started his post in July, doing marketing for Norwegian seafood, financed through an export levy. The big seller in Southeast Asia is Norwegian salmon, and in addition to educating consumers, the council works with
Thai-Norwegian Business Review
Continued from page 11
New reality for Thailand
On 22 May 2014, Thailand awoke to a new reality; the military had
supermarkets on how to cut and handle seafood as well as providing point of sale material to decorate various stores.
once again taken power in a military coup, the 12th since 1932. While
In some regards, educating consumers is not that tough as more people learn about the health benefits of salmon and demand for sushi and sashimi skyrockets. “I see a huge opportunity in Southeast Asia,” he said. “Seafood is a part of the daily diet here, and the taste can be adapted to the local cuisine. In addition, the local seafood reserves are being depleted and its quality is not consistent. Our studies have shown Asian mothers are willing to spend more on seafood for their children if they think it is superior. “On the other hand, you’re dealing with different rules and regulations for every country in this region as well as different cultures. Some consumers think farmed salmon
“I see a huge opportunity in Southeast Asia. Seafood is a part of the daily diet here, and the taste can be adapted to the local cuisine.”
is not fresh salmon, so that is another challenge for us. Sustainability is gaining importance here, but it is still not as big a priority in Asia as it is in the US and Europe.” The recent unrest in Russia and Ukraine could put a short-term crimp in sales, as a few years back last year Russia was the biggest market for Norwegian seafood in the world, said Mr Steenslid. “But the global salmon market should more than make up the difference from any shortfall in Russia,” he said. “We strongly believe the market will stabilise, as we export to over 100 countries.”
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international reactions condemned the return of a military government, the reactions in Thailand have been more mixed. Many people felt the Salmon cages in Loppa, Northern Norway. Photo: Per Eide Studio/Norrwegian Seafood Council
political stalemate resulting in street violence between a politically divided and polarised population had to end. The military claimed it had to step in
Global demand for salmon increased by 13% last year, but production only rose 5%. Norway produces 60% of the salmon in the world, he said. “We saw very high prices for salmon in 2013, and Norway recorded growth of 20% for salmon sales in Southeast Asia last year,” said Mr Steenslid. While there are concerns about the global sustainability of fish stocks given the sushi craze taking over country by country, Norway has kept its emphasis on protecting its marine environment and fisheries. In some instances, even threats have provided opportunity. Russians introduced king crabs to the Barents Sea in the 1960s, and they have slowly worked their way down the Norwegian coast. This new species poses a threat to Norway’s marine environment because crabs are voracious eaters that will consume almost anything near the bottom of the sea. But king crabs are also considered a delicacy, fetching extremely lucrative prices in the US and Europe. Norway decided to export the ones it catches. “We are already exporting king crab to Asia, sending live crabs to China and South Korea and some frozen crab to Southeast Asia,” said Mr Steenslid. The key will be to see if Norway can control the crustacean from taking over the whole ecosystem, but the country can feel confident looking at its track record on sustainability.
because the various factions were unable to reach an agreement. Since then we have seen a decisive government address a number of public complaints, e.g. graft, corruption, mafia influence, vested interests, vice as well as national legislative challenges such as pending laws in a number of fields ranging from international agreements, taxation, energy and the environment. It remains to be seen how long the military will stay in power. It is also unclear whether the military will apply the same ethical standards to itself as those it demands from people who eventually take over after democracy is restored. So far, the military rulers have placed themselves above the law. In the meantime, Thailand faces a number of challenges in order to keep the economy growing. Thai-Norwegian Business Review will continue to report on these matters until democracy is restored.
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Thoughts from the JFCCT Chairman Stanley Kang: “Liberalisation will set you free” By Eric Baker
hen Stanley Kang looks at the future of the Thai economy, he is more optimistic than most. In his capacity as chairman of the Joint Foreign Chambers of Commerce in Thailand (JFCCT), Mr Kang has plenty of experience in meeting with Thai government officials. But now he thinks the chamber’s message might really be resonating with the interim military government. “In the past, different ministries just told me what they cannot do,” he said. “Now they ask me, ‘What can we do?’ Maybe it’s not democratic, but at least it’s functional. “The junta has given us a roadmap from the beginning about what it intends to do, and so far it has followed the map.” Mr Kang is quick to point out the chamber does not take sides on matters of politics, but it does see the lack of violence and protests in Thailand as good for business. The country’s economy still faces a lot of challenges in its struggle for growth, but he believes if the government focuses on the proper priorities, it can facilitate a rebound. “Thailand has to realise with the Asean Economic Community (AEC) slated for late 2015, it is in direct competition with Singapore, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam to be one of the foreign investment hubs in the region,” said Mr Kang. “Singapore is more advanced than Thailand in a number of ways, but I keep telling officials foreign investment is funnelling there mainly because of three reasons: business-friendly laws, liberalised industries, and availability of finance. And the key point I keep repeating to them is that changing Thailand’s position on all three of these categories can be done and it doesn’t cost any money. Thailand can compete with Singapore on foreign investment. I think the message is starting to get through.” A common mantra in discussions about Thailand’s economy is how it has to continue to shift to a high value-added products and services base and away from
Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce
going to require expertise from overseas. The country needs to invest in bringing over expertise, especially since the smaller companies that are going to benefit the most from this shared knowledge cannot afford to bring over foreign experts.
cheap labour, in part because of a labour shortage. Here again Mr Kang has a prescription. “There are two ways to improve productivity and teach your staff if the knowledge doesn’t exist in this country: you can pay to send all your people abroad to learn, including tuition fees, or you can bring foreign experts here,” he said. “Don’t be afraid! Thailand is already open in many respects. Bringing in foreign know-how helps everyone in the country and is likely to improve language skills here too, if you look at Singapore’s example. And as Thais know the country better than anyone, who will be in a better position to take advantage of this new knowledge? In Singapore there are more foreign small and midsized entrepreneurs (SMEs) than here, and people do a better job of learning from each other and make more international contacts there.” Part of his message about the AEC is the same one most executives and economists make: if Thailand focuses only on itself, it will be eclipsed. The country is too small compared to the competition it will be exposed to once the AEC is in effect. “Thailand has the best location geographically of countries in the AEC, and it has decent infrastructure, but it needs to improve the condition of its roads and greatly improve the rail system if it wants to be the regional leader of Asean,” said Mr Kang. “The AEC will be the fifth-largest trading bloc in the world once formed, and I believe the community should help develop Thailand’s supply chain.” Previous Thai governments have also expressed interest in becoming a hub for regional operating headquarters. Mr Kang said the country needs to study Hong Kong and Singapore if this is its ambition, as Thailand doesn’t have the assets needed to realise this goal. “Of course Thailand needs better education and more skilled workers, but Bangkok also needs to become a more intelligent, IT-based city,” he said. “The city should have more efficiency, less traffic, and an economy based on 4G wireless service.
“I believe once they have the knowledge, if you create the right incentives, Thais can be creative here. Thailand doesn’t just need labour; it needs skilled labour because the new foreign investment coming in requires more technical and management skills than the country can supply.”
JFCCT Chairman Stanley Kang expresses his views. Photo: Eric Baker
“JFCCT is creating a new committee for SMEs because they are often more active and creative than larger members. We believe some rules need to be liberalised, such as foreign companies needing to hire a certain quota of Thai employees, which can be difficult for start-ups and very small companies. We also want SMEs to receive better treatment and promotions. “The chambers are also supporting more e-government as we believe this will make doing business more efficient and transparent. Thai Customs has already adopted some electronic procedures. The country also needs to develop more competency in the service sectors. “I urge Thailand to keep good relations with its neighbours, as these countries supply valuable labour that helps the Kingdom compete globally.” The chambers support the Thai government’s blueprint for development of the economy, following a path economists call the smiling curve. This is where an economy moves from mass production to a focus on innovation, value-added products, branding, supply chain management and improved service.
In fact, the JFCCT’s four-pronged message to the government has not changed even as administrations cycle through the door. First, it wants a stable government because foreign entrepreneurs look years in advance when planning where to invest. Second, the chambers want a very clear economic policy that is consistent across all ministries. Third, provide more investment incentives because the JFCCT believes they are good for the government too, enhancing the tax base and employing more Thais. And fourth, work to decrease corruption, which was one reason for the protests, so that the cost of doing business is reasonable. “We support the government’s goal of a fairer, more transparent tax system,” said Mr Kang. “This is why we support e-government initiatives. The private sector should pay the tax it owes, which helps to improve infrastructure among other things, but the government still needs to provide investment incentives or no one will want to come here.” He reiterated that Thailand can reach some of its lofty goals if takes the proper approach. “In the end what we are talking about is long-term planning,” said Mr Kang. “Where does Thailand want to position itself in the AEC? Large Thai companies have already realised this and started to look abroad. We need to convince smaller companies that they need a broader vision as well.”
“Thailand is going to need more innovation and emphasis on what the customer really wants,” he said. “This is likely
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Bridging Societies is our business
Samitivej to Focus on Trident of Excellence
Nera Networks provides wireless transmission solutions to communication network owners in most market segments including: • Mobile • Broadcast • Enterprises and Internet Service Providers • Government and Educational institutes • Defence • Offshore and Utilities • Retail Payment Solutions
By Eric Baker
Nera (Thailand) Ltd. 26th Floor, 253 Asoke Tower 253 Sukhumvit 21 (Asoke) Road Klongtoeynua, Wattana Bangkok 10110 Tel: +66 (0) 2664 1464, Fax: +66 (0) 2664 4002 www.nera.no
ospitals in Thailand are becoming more specialised, and Samitivej is no exception. As more hospitals shift from a general bent to a more intense focus, Dr. Dhun Damrongsak said Samitivej wanted to excel in three sectors. “We have chosen three areas in which we want to specialise – women and children’s care, liver and gastrointestinal (GI) issues, and orthopaedics and rehabilitation,” he said. “We have organised the structure of our company’s expansion based on this plan.” “Our goal is to become the best in the region in these areas, not just Thailand.” The Samitivej Children’s Hospital is located adjacent to the company’s existing facility on Srinakarin Road, but is managed separately. It opened at the end of last year and is looking for a partner in the US with which to collaborate. The hospital has added news doctors and equipment, and it will also have focus areas: surgery, bone marrow transplantation, rehabilitation, and medical evacuation.
“Our goal is to become the best in the region in women and children’s care, liver and gastrointestinal (GI) issues, and orthopaedics and rehabilitation.” “By including the evacuation, this means we can appeal to more customers from Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam,” said Dr. Dhun. The new liver and GI centre signed a memorandum of understanding with Sanno Hospital in Japan for collaboration, and Samitivej plans to renovate its existing facilities and double the area.
Dr. Dhun Damrongsak. Photo: Samitivej Hospital
“Sanno has specialists in this area, and we have many Japanese patients,” he said. “We will send some staff to Japan to train on liver and GI treatment as well. “With orthopaedic and rehab areas, we are already excellent in this area, especially the spine. In fact, our Revision Spine Centre has already introduced a fallback surgery offer, which means if you had unsuccessful back surgery somewhere else, we guarantee a successful surgery if it is physically possible. This is a risky move, but it has worked for us so far.” Samitivej has traditionally targeted expats and tourists in Thailand, and now it wants to expand its reach around the region. In March it opened a clinic in Yangon, which Dr. Dhun said is doing well. The flagship Samitivej Hospital on Sukhumvit Road has become so congested the company bought the S&P shoppe out front and plans to expand over the next two years. He said the hospital first developed a relationship with Scandinavian patients after the tsunami in 2004 because it did a lot of rescue work. Now it enjoys a good arrangement with several of the Nordic embassies, and Dr. Dhun said many Norwegians come to Samitivej in groups for plastic surgery or liposuction.
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Countering IP Infringement on the Internet By Wiramrudee Mokkhavesa
T Manufacturing a quality collection requires trust, patience, knowledge, experience and a lot of diplomacy. They say, behind every great designer, there is a great manufacturer.
HIGH END JEWELRY MANUFACTURER
he rise of mobile technology—from laptops to smart phones to tablets—has ushered in a shift among consumers away from shopping at brick-and-mortar stores toward purchasing products online. Brand owners, in response, have moved huge resources toward online sales strategies. So it should be no surprise that counterfeiters, too, have mobilised to take advantage of the growing market for products on the Internet. As more and more commerce occurs on the Web, the number of fakes being sold online has also drastically risen.
In addition to this global trend, local events here in Thailand may also be exacerbating the online infringement situation. Thailand has been mired in political unrest
since November 2013, leaving the police with less time to devote to intellectual property infringement matters. There has been a notable decrease in the number of intellectual property raid actions and Customs cases that have been initiated since the political unrest began. In this context, intellectual property owners need to consider what actions they can take—at their own initiative—to remain vigilant in their struggle against counterfeiting, while waiting for the political situation in Thailand to stabilise. One tactic that can reap immediate rewards is to redeploy resources to counter online infringement.
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Continued from page 19
ARE YOU MAKING THE MOST
OF FREE, RENEWABLE ENERGY TO REDUCE OPEX? To assist brand owners in these efforts, Tilleke & Gibbins has a dedicated investigation team focused on identifying and disrupting IP infringement online. Our team focuses on the two core elements of online infringement: Cybersquatting, where infringers use a registered trademark belonging to another party as their domain name or part of their domain name; and
al property owner can pursue a claim of regulatory infringement by taking action against the seller for advertising the sale of food, medicine, and medical equipment using untrue information that is deceptive to consumers. This approach can be supported by the findings of Red Case Sor. 33/2554, in which the court deemed that such an act constitutes an offense under Thailand’s Act on Computer Crimes and found the defendant guilty.
The sale of fake goods via specific websites. Our investigation process uncovers detailed information about the infringer and the nature of the infringement. With this evidence in hand, we work with the brand owner to send a cease-and-desist letter to the infringer, ordering them to immediately stop their infringing activities. For high-value targets, a warning letter may not be sufficient. Using advanced investigative techniques, we collaborate with the IP owner to unearth detailed information about the infringer in order to learn more about the source of the goods. This type of investigation can help to trace online supply chains, leading to the discovery of hubs for the distribution of fake goods. While these investigative techniques are important, we also encourage IP owners to pursue an integrated approach toward stopping online infringement. This can be most effective when actions aren’t limited to relying solely on intellectual property law, but instead bring together a range of legal options to disrupt infringers’ activities. The sale of illegal medical devices online provides a good example of how such an approach can be successful. Through our investigation team’s routine monitoring of online infringement activities, we became aware that a large number of medical devices were being promoted on the Internet as legitimately certified in Thailand, when, in fact, they have only been certified in other countries. Such a claim is not a violation of intellectual property law, but it does open the door to other types of actions under other laws. To address this issue, the legitimate intellectu-
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It should be no surprise that counterfeiters, too, have mobilised to take advantage of the growing market for products on the Internet.
This combined legal and regulatory approach can be easily replicated across a wide range of tightly regulated products, including food, drugs, agrichemicals, and more, in order to provide new opportunities for IP owners to defend their rights. A well-coordinated online-monitoring campaign— one that bridges the gap between intellectual property law and other regulatory options—can be a very cost-effective strategy for brand owners to uncover and prevent intellectual property infringement on the Internet. The Tilleke & Gibbins investigation unit actively monitors online infringement activities and reports suspicious activity to many large IP owners. If you would like Tilleke & Gibbins to monitor your brand, please contact Wiramrudee (Pink) Mokkhavesa at firstname.lastname@example.org.
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More from the Summit
In this issue we bring you the third set of articles from the Norway-Asia Business Summit held at the end of April 2014. The articles are from a varied field ranging from education, telecom and aviation to energy. Throughout the summit there was a special focus on Myanmar, a country that continues to attract interest from Norwegian companies across the board. Also presented here for the first time is the next Norway-Asia Business Summit 2015 host â&#x20AC;&#x201C; India in combination with an extension programme to Bangladesh. The summit will take place in New Delhi during third week of April 2015 with an optional extension to Dhaka, Bangladesh. Exact dates will be communicated later. We hope you will enjoy the articles.
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New input to influence focus in org?
Participantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sector 2%
19% 2% 5%
Business NGO Investor Private individual
Academia Public sector Media Other
To a great extent Not at all
Satisfaction Myanmar Summit
Satisfaction Bangkok Summit Summary from Survey Response rate
Overall evaluation Bangkok
4.6 of 5.0
Overall evaluation Myanmar
4.6 of 5.0
Support team eavaluation
4.4 of 5.0
Appropriate mix professional social?
Appropriate mix business/public?
New input to organisation?
Consider participating next year?
Conference facililities Bangkok Conference venue
Post-summit website 4.5
4.43 4.23 3.57 4.22
The most successful event in the 15-year history of the Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce
Support team and materials
Sound and Light
NORWAY - ASIA BUSINESS SUMMIT 2014
30% + 66% = 96% Yes
Clearer picture of team Norway?
To some extent
3.97 3.49 3.56 3.83 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.8
Introducing the next Summit host: Welcome to India and Bangladesh By Vibeke Simonsen
orway-Asia Business Summit 2015 will take place in New Delhi during third week of April 2015 with an optional extension to Dhaka, Bangladesh. Exact dates will be communicated later. At the summit we will be looking into Asian megatrends, the transformative, global forces that define the future Asia with far-reaching impacts on businesses, societies, economies, cultures and personal lives, and discuss how these define and open up new business opportunities for Norwegian enterprises. In addition, we will introduce the participants to the rich cultural heritage and flavours of the Indian sub-continent. The annual Norway Asia Business Summit, attracting participants from the Norwegian business communities in Asia, as well as Norwegian politicians, business leaders, diplomats and media, is a melting pot of networking, professional updates and discussions, profiling, socialising, and cultural inspiration. The summit will feature all of this. In the professional dialog, be it in plenary or panel discussions as well as in breakout sessions, emphasis will be on sectors with a strong Norwegian footprint in Asia, and how this presence can be strengthened and take new paths. The summit will also represent a chance to meet pioneers and successful businesses, who have cracked the code to success in Asia.
Schedule Day 1 Arrival in Delhi. First session setting the stage for the summit, followed by dinner
Day 2 Economic, political and social megatrends, and the growth sectors that follow. Speakers: Norwegian and Indian Ministers; Chief Economists and business leaders, multilateral institutions (World Banks largest office outside US; IFC; ADB), think-tanks. Full day spouse program.
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Day 3 Morning session continuing the discussions on subjects introduced on day 1, ending formal summit program with lunch. Afternoon: Cultural programme/shopping. Saturday – Sunday: Visit to Taj Mahal, one of the Seven Wonders of the World
Day 4 Direct flight Delhi-Dhaka. Evening: Opening of the Dhaka program organised by the Nordic Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Bangladesh and the Norwegian Embassy in Dhaka. Meet successful Nordic businesses in Bangladesh – get their insights and advices from operating in a highly challenging environment that will boost your leadership ability in Asia India will host the Norway-Asia Business Summit 2015. Participants will also have a chance to experience the spledours of Taj Mahal.
Day 5 Full day summit program, ending with dinner. Further to the program in Delhi, there will be an option of deep diving in one of the regions fastest growing economies. In Dhaka, urbanisation will be the main theme, with a country-specific focus on infrastructure, habitats, energy and environment.
The host countries India is the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the largest democracy in the world. In May 2014, India concluded the largest democratic elections in the history of mankind. Prime Minister Narendra Modi, and his party BJP, won a clear majority, and a strong mandate to pursue his ambitions of economic growth, increased investments, efficient bureaucracy and an agenda of anti-corruption and anti-cronyism. The business community and the financial markets are expecting positive changes in the investment climate over the next years.
The Indian economy is the world’s eleventh largest by nominal GDP and third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies; the Indian labour force of close to 500 million people is the world’s second-largest, as of 2011. During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annual average of 8%, making it potentially the world’s fastestgrowing major economy until 2050.
The Summit 2015 hosts
Bangladesh is quickly turning into an economic success story, and has experienced an average of 6% annual GDP growth over the past 20 years. One of the most densely populated countries in the world; Bangladesh owes most of its economic success to its main resource: its workforce. Social indicators are improving, and the country will be among the few to fulfil several of the Millennium Development Goals. Bangladesh’s future depends on its success in handling challenges related to climate change, population growth, poverty alleviation and urban planning.
The summit website will soon be re-established featuring information and updates regarding the Norway-Asia Business Summit 2015, as well as an online registration.
Norwegian Business Association – India (NBAI) in collaboration with the Nordic Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Bangladesh, the Norwegian Embassies in Delhi and Dhaka, and Innovation Norway are the proud hosts of the Norway Asia Business Summit 2015.
Summit news and updates
Thai-Norwegian Business Review
Sigve Brekke on Telenor’s simple, yet refined recipe for success in Asia By Eric Baker
elenor had its fair share of sceptics when it decided to enter the Asian market. Its first market was Bangladesh, which couldn’t be more different than Norway in terms of development, population and technology. But the group’s abiding belief before entering any market is if you have a proper operating model, you can make money.
“Bangladesh was more of an experiment than setting up a company,” said Sigve Brekke, executive vice-president and regional head of Asia for Telenor Group. “And though we’ve followed a model in all the markets we’ve entered in Asia, we’ve learned you cannot do the same thing in every market because every country is different.” And yet, Telenor has been a runaway success by any measure. As Mr Brekke likes to point out, 5 million people see the company’s propeller logo in Norway, but 1.1 billion people do so in Asia. It’s one thing to talk about following a different strategy, but entirely different to be successful in so many varied cultures and countries. “In our business it is extremely difficult to create sustainable advantages,” he said. “Pricing and branding are easy to copy, but what we are selling is up in the air. When we talk about the Telenor way, I think there are two factors that are consistent, that we can control and take across borders. The first is the culture, which is built on respect for others, passion, and an attacking mindset in the market. These values are exactly the same in every market. The second is the people because they manage these values, and it is not easy to find the right people.” Telenor’s mantra is internet for all. One example of the challenges the company faces depending on the market takes place in Pakistan and Bangladesh, where the internet is seen by some as evil, said Mr Brekke. The governments of these countries are trying to block services such as YouTube and set up restrictive filters under the guise of child pornography laws in order to keep people secluded from the internet. Telenor is working to educate the people
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and governments in those countries about the benefits the internet can provide to their way of life, he said.
But Telenor is gaining 2 to 3 million new customers a month in Asia, where the company gains 46% of its cash flow and 42% of revenue, he said. Mr Brekke credits the backing of the Norwegian government, the company’s major shareholder, for allowing it the long-term stability needed to expand abroad.
Much of that work involves showing people by its actions, as Telenor bought a bank in Pakistan that now has 4 million active customers and $4 billion in transactions per year. Only 15% of the population has access to banking services in Pakistan, so the company decided it could affect the biggest change by starting a mobile bank. The bank now handles salaries, remittances, transfers and payments – all via people’s mobile phones.
Some of Mr Brekke’s advice sounds mesmerisingly simple, but when you look at how it is put into practice there is an art to Telenor’s actions. His invocation that “the only way to succeed is to meet customer’s needs” should be obvious to anyone who’s ever run a business or taken an entrepreneurship class. But Telenor looked at the rural areas in some of its markets and decided to change the way it communicates and makes offers to customers. These areas are so cash-driven, said Mr Brekke, the company decided to de-package its products and sell them in smaller bundles because people there often live hand-to-mouth. Telenor started to sell one hour of Facebook time, or one day or even a week. Consumers latched on to this tactic and it is now an accepted practice.
Telenor’s strategy is to show people the utility of the internet and let demand grow organically. Sigve Brekke, Telenor’s Head of Asia sees enormous opportunities in providing internet for all. Photo: TNCC
Telenor’s strategy is to show people the utility of the internet and let demand grow organically. It started a mobile healthcare service in Bangladesh where people can have live video consultations with doctors from a hospital because less than 50% of births in the country are registered. In Thailand, Telenor started a pilot project where farmers get updated market prices by SMS and can read about modern agricultural techniques online, while its smartphone app tells farmers how much and what type of crops to plant. Mr Brekke was speaking at the Norway-Asia Business Summit in Thailand, and a number of the participants were prospective or fledgling European investors in Asia. He offered three simple tidbits of advice for anyone thinking of moving a business to the region.
“First, you have to be local, which means understand the market,” he said. “You can’t use the Norwegian way because the cultures are so different. Second, don’t outsource the partnership. You need to be the majority owner. And finally, you have to be relevant. The locals will always look at you as a foreigner. If you simply send tons of money back to Norway, you won’t survive long. In addition to showing people studies that document how access to telephony and internet drives an increase in GDP, we also offer banking and healthcare services. You need to take an extremely long-term approach, which is not always easy with a business, because it can take years to build up.”
Like most mobile companies, Telenor realises the future lies with data and not voice. Asia has 145 million internet users and Thailand has 120% mobile penetration rate, but Myanmar only has an 11% penetration rate. The company is excited about the potential in Myanmar, as the penetration rate was 1% before the country opened up. Mr Brekke pointed to online marketplaces in the country such as mudah.com.my already offering a mobile version. Thailand will undoubtedly be seeing more of Mr Brekke in the future as he was appointed interim chief at DTAC, Telenor’s Thai subsidiary, in September after a shake-up of management. Time will tell whether he can marshal the same refined tactics in this market.
Telenor has not been successful in every Asian venture. Mr Brekke recalls the company’s three-year run in Vietnam, which never materialized in an operating license.
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hat is leadership and how important is it? Most people in business often take leadership for granted. It’s something the boss does, but they don’t know if it is important. But Jan Ketil Arnulf, an associate professor at BI Norwegian Business School who is teaching in its China programme, tried to distil leadership because he saw so many differences between leadership styles in China and Europe. His findings were a revelation, and he started with etymology. Leadership did not exist as a word until 1850. Motivation came about then too, but leadership originated in a US shareholding company’s publication. For quite a long time after that, there was still no word for it in French, Italian, Spanish or Mandarin.
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Leadership did not exist as a word until 1850. Motivation came about then too, but leadership originated in a US shareholding company’s publication.
With the rise of American companies, they used words such as authority, power, motivation and management to create a concept of leadership. But if a leader is just an authority figure, how much does that person really matter to a company?
Asst. Prof. Dr. Jan Ketil Arnulf addresses the Norway-Asia Business Summit 2014. Photo TNCC
The researchers Lieberson and O’Connor undertook a 20-year study on whether a change in the chief executive changed the value of the company. They found over a three-year period, leadership accounts for 32% of the value creation of a company. Their work helped carve out a new definition for leadership as non-routine handling of situations. Why does all this matter? Because as more companies start to branch out abroad, connotations of leadership in various countries are going to affect how successful the companies are. Or as Mr Arnulf puts it, “Are you going to have German quality at Chinese prices or Chinese quality at German prices?”
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If only theisbegostod enough...
Continued from page 31
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Companies are bound to stumble if they think they can transplant a leader from one country office to another, said Mr Arnulf, for a number of reasons. “The main problem is that humans are all ethnocentric, which means we judge other cultures solely by the values of our own culture,” he said. “This leaves us blind to the problems we might have operating in another country. “Another hurdle is that knowledge typically needs to be created in a new market by hand because it transports poorly, meaning a translated e-mail instruction is unlikely to have the intended consequence. In addition, leaders typically don’t receive enough cross-cultural training before they go to work in another country, which can exacerbate misunderstandings. And finally, leaders in new countries need to learn how to go out and make new relationships and reach out to deal with potential problems, because they can’t assume the employees will come to them.” Of course the examples of business faux pas due to cultural differences are legend, but Mr Arnulf prefers the case of the man who goes into two shops, one run by a German and the other by a Chinese producer. He says he wants 30 well-built products in six months. “To the German, this guy is not a customer,” said Mr Arnulf. “The German tells him, ‘We produce quality products here and you want a lot of products quickly, so you are not interested in quality.’ But to the Chinese, the customer is god. He accepts the order even though he knows he can’t do the job well. The Chinese man says, ‘Come in, have a cup of tea.’ “These differences extend to how these cultures deal with business problems. The Western style is more open to talking and debate. The German and English languages are very precise; our words allow us to be more precise because the truth is in the words. But my experience learning Mandarin has taught me that this language has stripped away much of the cognitive structure. In China, the truth is not in the language, it is in the relationship between the leader and the worker.”
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In Mr Arnulf’s studies of the differences between leadership styles in Norway and China, he came up with several characteristics to explain the wide gap in productivity between the two nations. Norway has high productivity, some 102% of the US’s level, while China has 17% of the US standard. Mr Arnulf cites a low power distance and flat hierarchies in Norwegian society as key to this chasm because workers in Norway feel comfortable bringing problems to their superiors and even questioning their bosses at times. Norwegian society also has high levels of trust and empowerment, meaning lower-level workers are trusted to contribute and participate so there are less bottlenecks in companies. He traces these Scandinavian leadership traits to the country’s ancestors, as Norwegians tended to be more educated than the maritime regions in Southern Europe. Norwegians were also able to figure out how to transport more tonnage on ships than several of their European neighbours, said Mr Arnulf. Most of Norway’s imports and exports are with countries that it finds easy to deal with because of similar languages and understanding, he said, such as Europe and the US. The lone exceptions are China and South Korea, while trade with Asia overall is increasing. Mr Arnulf wants to emphasise to business leaders that if individual leadership capabilities contribute 32% of the variation in company performance, this is a huge chunk and should not be taken for granted, especially when measured on a global scale. Indeed, leadership in a foreign market can make the difference between whether your business succeeds or fails, he said.
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BI Norwegian Business School’s Asian Adventure By Eric Baker
s Asians and Europeans started to do more business with one another, it was only natural each would want to learn more about how the other approached the profession. BI Norwegian Business School was ahead of the curve in establishing a base in Asia, offering a master’s in financial management in China in 1996.
From those humble beginnings, BI now has over 2,000 alumni from its Asia campuses, mostly from Fortune 500 companies. BI is the largest private business school in Norway and was recently ranked top in its class by Financial Times. The school has to compete with government schools that offer free tuition, so students have to feel BI is offering something unique. But Sissel Hammerstrom, the programme director for China, pointed out that BI has a 90% placement rate for its graduates because it works very closely with the businesses it studies. “Instead of just offering certain courses, we target decisionmaking and try to find out how we can make companies better,” she said. “Faculty at BI can customise courses to the needs of a company. If you’re going to succeed as a business school, you can’t just have your teachers sitting in front of a classroom.” There are some stereotypes about the differences between Asian and European education, but BI tries to look for common areas rather than pave over the gaps, said Ms Sissel. “It’s true that in Chinese education and business, the structure is much more hierarchical than in Norway,” she said. “But we think we are making a contribution in bridging the divide. For example, BI just had its first module on creativity, and some people said it won’t work in China. Yet we found Chinese students to be extremely playful, embracing Nordic management styles but returning to Chinese methods when needed. “Some of our Norwegian professors in China are among the most popular in their home country, but in Asia they had to
change their presentation style so that it would resonate with the students. In business as in education, if you’re going to succeed in Asia, you need to adapt your style. I think inside every Asian is a little Norwegian, and vice versa.”
companies. Many Norwegian students are keen to travel abroad as well, even though it’s a completely different business environment, mainly because they want to improve their soft skills.
BI China has some 20 to 30 alumni in Thailand. Most of its students are Asian, with 10 years of business experience and an average age of 38. All classes are taught in English and students matriculate from all over the globe.
Great challenges remain for the only Nordic school in China, as Ms Sissel pointed to Deunden Nikomborirak’s speech at the Norway-Asia Business Summit in Thailand
Every year BI has a group of thesis students do a research project for a Norwegian company in China or Hong Kong. Though the school does not have a programme in Thailand, it would be open to working with Norwegian companies here on business solutions because many of the challenges in Thailand are similar to China, she said. The school just completed a specialised IT programme for Ericsson.
“It was a little bit by chance that this programme worked out,” said Ms Hammerstrom, who graduated from the China school in 2005 and became head of the department in 2007. “We had a special history with a Chinese university as one of the first foreign-degree programmes. The programme evolved and although business schools in Asia remain very competitive, we now offer several master’s degrees.”
“We are very strong in efficiency and programme management. This is relevant everywhere in the world. Norway has some of the highest costs in the world, which requires us to be productive.”
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earlier this year where the speaker said Asians don’t understand the concept of conflict of interest, so how can you teach ethics in such an environment?
Euro-Center provides assistance in emergency situations and secures the best service by combining global cover and local expertise.
But BI believes it offers a skill set that can translate to any business in any setting. “We are very strong in efficiency and programme management,” she said. “This is relevant everywhere in the world. Norway has some of the highest costs in the world, which requires us to be productive. As labour costs increase in China, those companies want to improve their efficiency too.
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“We also have the most competitive maritime studies programme in the world at our Singapore campus. This was a natural fit with Norway’s long history of shipping and Singapore’s status as one of the world’s leading ports.”
Postal address: PO. Box 11, Ratchatevi Phyathai Road Bangkok 10401 Thailand
Some two-thirds of BI’s faculty in China are from Norway, with many conducting extensive research relevant to local
Visiting address: Evergreen Place, 10th Fl. 318 Phyathai Rd. Bangkok 10400 Thailand Office hours: 24/7 Tel: +66 (0) 26 96 36 26-7 Fax: +66 (0) 26 96 36 28 E-mail: Bangkok@euro-center.com Web: www.euro-center.com
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Since 1989, Euro-Center Thailand has provided not only medical assistance and claims handling services to the companies dealing with tourists, business travellers and expatriates in Thailand and South East Asia, but also worldwide through Euro-Center global network of offices. By dealing with medical claims locally, where the accident happened or where the expatriate is based, Euro-Center is in a unique position to 'plug in' its clients into local healthcare systems recommending the best choice from our preferred providers’ networks. Euro-Center, thereby, can help when an adequate medical treatment is needed. At the same time, we assure reasonable and customary costs for services provided by a medical facility to our clients. Customers can have an access to Euro-Center services either directly or through insurance companies such as Thaivivat Insurance Pcl., who provides International standard Health and Travel Insurance on the local market.
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chools are trapped in the past. While much of the world has embraced the changes driven by technology and globalization, our schools are all too often grounded in an old-fashioned mindset that depends on the delivery of knowledge and standardized testing. Those that do succeed still often fail to realize that the universities themselves no longer want the straight-A student in every case. They want to know what makes students different. They want to hear their stories.
Being involved in business dealings between Thailand and Norway, you have constant needs for commercial contacts, information and networking. The Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce can be one of your valuable links in these matters. In a business forum the members can interact, gather and exchange information through a variety of functions and activities. The Chamber organises business related events from Breakfast Meetings covering current business affairs, to topical Business Seminars and Dinner Events featuring guest speakers. The members can get helpful assistance from our Chamber office located in central Bangkok. The Chamber is co-located with Innovation Norway and cooperates closely with them at the Norwegian Business Centre. The Chamber has a good relationship with the Royal Norwegian Embassy, and several Chamber members also offer valuable support in many key business areas.
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How the low-cost approach will work on long-haul routes By Eric Baker
Education needs something different, and a small number of top schools around the globe have begun working together on a new initiative that aims to not only incorporate 21st century skills into their programmes, but also provide universities and employers with the means to evaluate them. NIST International School has worked with two other top IB schools to collaboratively launch the Global Citizen Diploma (GCD), an optional qualification that will be offered alongside the high school and IB diplomas. As universities and employers have increasingly acknowledged, traditional grades simply do not provide enough information about the abilities and strengths of students. The GCD focuses on the abstract skills that existing
programmes do not directly measure, requiring students to reflect on their growth in areas such as leadership, community service and global citizenship. Through the GCD, a student without top grades could demonstrate to universities that he led an initiative to solve development problems in a small rural village. Another could showcase the photography project she undertook to raise funds for abused women in a neighboring country. All too often students like these are measured by a number—a number that says nothing about their capabilities or potential for success. The GCD gives them the opportunity to tell their stories and reveal what makes them unique as learners. Since its creation the GCD has generated a positive reaction from universities. More
importantly, it has helped students develop and demonstrate the skills and passion for learning that both universities and employers are so desperately seeking. Though the GCD is an option for students at the participating schools, it clearly fills the existing void and offers the means for students to tell their stories, and to connect learning experiences in a way that once again makes education relevant to the needs of a changing world.
For more information about the Global Citizen Diploma, visit www.globalcitizendiploma.org. NIST International School is the first full, not-for-profit IB school in Thailand. To learn more about its programmes, visit www.nist.ac.th.
An optimistic Bjørn Kjos, CEO of Norwegian, addresses the summit on the future of aviation. Photo TNCC
here was always a certain cache to flying. You were told if you could afford it, you were entitled to better service.
But low-cost carriers changed the paradigm the last decade. Air Asia trumpeted “Now everyone can fly”. Short-haul routes are now controlled by low-cost airlines, from Asia to Europe and even in the US. Norwegian Air chief executive Bjorn Kjos argues there are a number of reasons for this shift, and now that it’s started there’s no reversing course. He’s also gambling billions of dollars that Norwegian Air can make the same transformation in the long-haul market, even if labour unions and US regulators are offering some turbulence.
“We also believed everyone should be able to fly,” said Mr Kjos, a former air force pilot. “But our competitors thought only the rich should fly.” The airline had quite humble beginnings, starting with only four aircraft in 2002. It competitors, all legacy carriers, responded by cutting prices 30% to try and drive Norwegian Air out of the market. Little by little the airline grew its fleet, and it wasn’t profitable until the jets numbered 20, he said. “We also constantly looked for inefficiencies,” said Mr Kjos. “Around 2004, Norway had the most expensive airline tickets in the world, but only 0.4% of their tickets were bought online. We figured out massive savings could be realised by switching to an internet-based reservations system, and within months some 30% of the country’s airline tickets were purchased online.”
Thai-Norwegian Business Review
Continued from page 41
Norwegian Air now flies to 128 destinations in 38 countries, and Mr Kjos sorted out plenty of other ways that legacy carriers have inflated costs. Many of them have to do with the new jet models, which he said have changed the rules of the industry. “It takes 73 minutes to refuel an airplane,” he said. “It’s our policy that our planes shouldn’t sit on the ground for more than 90 minutes. Legacy airlines also keep their planes on the ground for an average of 12 out of 24 hours per day. We fly our planes for 18 out of 24 hours, because that’s how the new aircraft was built to operate.” The new aircraft Mr Kjos is talking about are the Boeing 737 Max 8 and Airbus A320neo planes, which he claims use much less fuel and have 30% fewer carbon dioxide emissions. “We can save $14 million per year per aircraft on fuel with the new planes compared to the Airbus A340 or the Boeing Dreamliner,” he said. “This is essential as fuel prices are forecast to keep rising.”
“You can’t stop the consumer interest,” he said. “This is why I say the era of national airlines is over. Consumers want reliable alternatives at a low price, and that will always win out in the market.” Mr Kjos still insists when Norwegian Air made Europe’s largest jet order of 300 planes in 2012 it was not a gamble. Even though the airline only uses 90 planes now and the bulk of the orders have not been delivered, he pointed out 70% of all flights are on leased planes and the airline plans to lease those jets they don’t use.
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Plus the bargain hunter just couldn’t help himself when he went shopping for planes, knowing both Boeing and Airbus were desperate to land a large order for their new fuelefficient models. He played both off each other, but they kept lowering their prices until he went to the board and told them it needs to accept both offers because it will not likely see similar prices again in their lifetime. Norwegian flies to Thailand and the US from Europe on its long-haul routes now, and Mr Kjos is on a mission contacting governments around the world, trying to convince them to open up their airspace because it’s going to benefit people in those economies. “You can’t stop the consumer interest,” he said. “This is why I say the era of national airlines is over. Consumers want reliable alternatives at a low price, and that will always win out in the market.” “Thailand has been very receptive to opening its skies up to Europe, and it has benefitted their tourism market. But the next great shift will be Asians heading to Europe, as Chinese and Korean and Southeast Asian economies continue to grow. All the growth is happening in Asia; Norwegian and European companies have moved to Asia, and we have turned Europe into a museum. But you need people to visit a museum to afford to keep it open. “Look, Europe has a 10% unemployment rate right now, and I think you could solve that just by opening up the skies between Asia and Europe. I predict you could have an average of 300 million new tourists heading to the UK and Europe from Asia, and you would need to hire at least 10-15 million more people in Europe just to service them. That solves your unemployment problem. Some countries such as India are trying to protect their national carriers, but it needs to realise more competition creates more jobs. Sure, some airlines might die in the process, but they would have died anyway even without Norwegian Air because they weren’t competitive.”
Norwegian’s current route structure: This is only the beginning! Photo: Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA
The airline planned to launch flights from London and Scandinavia in April via a new Ireland-based subsidiary, but it needs approval from US authorities. Norwegian Air has also been criticised by labour unions, who say it is trying to circumvent European labour laws by registering aircraft in Ireland and hiring staff at local bases in Europe, Asia and the US. Cabin crews in Norway have threatened to strike a handful of times over labour conditions. “What unions don’t see is the overall pie will be bigger,” said Mr Kjos. “They argue it will be a race to the bottom in terms of standards, but if you double the traffic on these routes you need to hire more workers and eventually increase their salaries. “There is a minimal difference between the adjusted salaries for Thai, US, British and Spanish air crews. In fact, Norwegian Air crews in Thailand have higher purchasing power than similar crews based in Norway. “Look, salaries for Norwegian Air and Ryanair are actually higher than at legacy carriers. We just hired an American pilot who doubled his salary by coming over to Norwegian. You have to pay market prices if you want competent employees.”
Europe and the US and Thailand, and Mr Kjos is adamant that its model of airplane movement offers a major competitive advantage over the legacy carriers. “The hub and spoke model, where planes and customers have to sit and wait for hours at certain bases, is outdated,” he said. “The key is to have several flight crews in large population catchment areas. Your crews have to be based in the areas where all the customers are. This means we will have more crew based in New Delhi than Oslo in the future. In fact, in the future it is highly likely your flight won’t go to Oslo; we only have room for two planes to fly into Oslo now. “You can’t have a plane or a crew sitting in a city for four or five days until the next flight out of that city. Routes aren’t going to be linear. A plane may fly to four or five cities until it returns again. This is also why labour strikes won’t be as effective, if you have several flight crews based in several different catchment areas.” Mr Kjos is also bullish on Southeast Asia, as he believes the Asean Single Aviation Market will force other countries in the region to follow Thailand’s lead and open their skies as the industry liberalises.
Norwegian has had a successful and rapid expansion, claiming 90% load factors on its long-haul flights between
Thai-Norwegian Business Review
Ola Borge: Myanmar on the Move By Ezra Kyrill Erker
wealth of natural resources, its strategic location and the potential strength of the labour force, tourism and local consumption make Myanmar very attractive to foreign investment despite some lingering infrastructural and legal shortcomings, says Ola Nicolai Borge
KPMG’s executive director in Myanmar, Ola Nicolai Borge, spoke at the Norway-Asia Business Summit in April on some of the business challenges investors may face in the country. KPMG provides advisory and compliance services in Myanmar, including tax and legal, corporate finance and general business advisory. Mr Borge said his first project in the country was 12 years ago, and business fundamentals were very difficult at the time. The majority of clients now are Thai and Japanese, but things are changing as more investors move in. “The advantages of doing business are potentially plentiful despite the difficulties,” Mr Borge said. “You need patience. But GDP will grow, and the local market will grow.” While somewhat overplayed, Myanmar’s ASEAN membership is one potential advantage, especially once the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) takes effect late next year. The AEC will provide regional trade benefits, linking the economies of Southeast Asia and removing some of the barriers and restrictions of doing business across borders. “It won’t take that much effect for a while,” Mr Borge added. “Those companies that are waiting for 2015 and the AEC are wasting their time.” The country’s location between India and China, the world’s two most populous countries – and among the most dynamic, makes it potentially a prime manufacturing base. Trade to the north and west will only increase. There is also a rich supply of natural resources, such as timber, minerals, natural gas, gems and jade, and agricultural and marine resources.
Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce
The potential for tourism is very high, not only from ASEAN member countries but the West and Asia, especially China. “Three hundred million Chinese will travel by 2030,” Mr Borge pointed out. Myanmar has an extraordinary wealth of cultural and historical sites that will appeal to Asian and international visitors. “The demographic profile of the labour force is also attractive,” he said. There is a large, young population and high potential in domestic consumption. Many challenges remain, however. With greater demand than supply in the skilled labour force, there is a battle for bright minds; foreign companies often steal brainpower from local ones, making it difficult for a local to set up a manufacturing operation. Real estate prices have risen to Manhattan levels. Roads, internet and electricity are among the country’s infrastructural weaknesses. And laws and regulations are in transition. Rule of law is nascent. Many changes have taken place recently and many more are expected in the near future. “There seems to be more law firms than experienced lawyers here,” Mr Borge pointed out. It remains difficult to find competent legal counsel, and some laws simply don’t exist yet. In the Doing Business 2014 pamphlet, Myanmar ranks 182 out of 189 countries – just above the Democratic Republic of the Congo – in terms of ease of doing business. “It was their first time of being involved in the survey, and they were happy to be involved - despite the low ranking”, he said. Myanmar also ranks 172 out of 175 in Transparency International’s 2012 corruption perceptions index (between Uzbekistan and Sudan), but this is expected to improve quickly. (It has risen to 157 in the current index.) “Corruption is actually better than what you might expect,” Mr Borge said. “Don’t bring gifts for officials in Nay Pyi Taw. The gifts won’t help you and might even hurt you.” There are several ways to run a company here. It is possible to have 100 per cent foreign-owned subsidiaries, joint
Ola Borge guides the summit participants through the complexity of doing business in Myanmar. Photo: TNCC
venture companies with Myanmar citizens, or to have a local branch or representative offices of a foreign company. It is possible to register a foreign company under the Foreign Investment Law or the Myanmar Companies Act. “The Foreign Investment Law has lifted some of the restrictions for foreign investors,” Mr Borge said. The law prohibits damage to the environment or certain extraction of natural resources. Some activities are only allowed in a joint venture arrangement, such as production of a range of consumer goods, and certain construction activities and transportation services. Some activities require approval from ministries and an environmental impact assessment, and some activities are unrestricted. “The Myanmar Investment Commission has wide discretionary power,” he added. Foreigners cannot own land in Myanmar, but leases are possible. “A lease is one year, with some exceptions,” he said. It is 30 years in a special economic zone (SEZ) and can be 50+10+10, with renewals, under the Foreign Investment Law. There are also considerable trade restrictions. Foreigners are generally not allowed to import and distribute products. A typically allowed structure would involve a foreign owned marketing company with the logistics handled by locals. The banking sector is likewise in transition. “It is much easier now to transfer funds into the country,” Mr Borge said, “but there is still some uncertainty regarding repatriation of funds.”
On acquisitions, due diligence is essential. “Who owns the company, what does the company own, are the books reliable?” are questions that should be asked. “As general practice, most companies seems to have two or three sets of books,” Mr Borge added, for tax authorities, investors and shareholders, or owners. Also - it is not always clear if foreigners can buy the shares or assets in question. A typical structure involves forming a joint venture, with a local partner contributing assets, and the foreign investor contributing capital. “The so-called nominee structure is not recommended,” he added. Taxation also throws up numerous questions and concerns. Is Myanmar moving from low to high compliance? Can we rely on “established practice”? Does the Myanmar Internal Revenue Department have enough resources? Tax practice remain complex but there are also numerous breaks and incentives for investors; it makes sense to have good financial and legal counsel when embarking on business activities. While trading, land lease, banking, tax and structural issues remain challenging, Mr Borge summarised, the situation is improving and the rewards are potentially lucrative. Mr Borge has since the Summit in April moved on and is now a Senior Partner with Grant Thornton in Myanmar.
Thai-Norwegian Business Review
Bjørn Holsen: Powering Myanmar’s growth By Ezra Kyrill Erker
Hydropower is the main source of electricity in the country, supplemented by gas and coal. Larger units are being introduced in the grid, but some are only for export, such as two large plants designed for export to China.
With telecommunications and other sectors currently being revamped, and manufacturing set to boom, it is evident that Myanmar needs a reliable power grid in order to sustain its development.
“We’ll probably focus on the domestic market,” he said. “There is huge hydropower potential, and projects are technically and economically feasible. Only 5 per cent of potential is now being utilised. There is large potential for investors.”
ith the country’s energy needs expected to grow by 15% a year, demand for renewable sources such as hydropower will soar, says SN Power’s Bjørn N. Holsen
“Myanmar’s energy needs are expected to grow by 15% a year,” Bjørn N. Holsen said, “similar to Vietnam, which has quadrupled demand in 10 years.” Local hydropower potential is huge, Mr Holsen said, and the World Bank, Asian Development Bank and other donors have pledged considerable funds and technical support to transform the power sector. Mr Holsen, country manager for SN Power in the Philippines and responsible for the company’s business development activities in Myanmar, was speaking at the Norway-Asia Business Summit in Yangon on how to help provide that need in a sustainable, environmentally and socially friendly manner. SN Power is a renewable energy company that invests in emerging markets. Established in 2002 as an offshoot of Norwegian state entities Statkraft and Norfund, SN Power aims to gain footholds in emerging markets with substantial hydropower potential and energy needs and thus build a leading position and contribute to economic growth and sustainable development. The company is present in 14 countries and employs over 500. “After the new Foreign Investment Law, a draft electricity law might pass this year so we know what framework we can operate in,” Mr Holsen said.
Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce
With much nationwide reform still needed, corruption still endemic and with its complicated and potentially volatile ethnic and cultural mosaic, Myanmar has yet to prove itself to be “foreign investor friendly”, Mr Holsen pointed out. “Risk is considerable,” he said. “Myanmar ranks low on the security scale. But operations in Nepal, also considered high risk, have been profitable.”
One problem is local sensitivity to electricity prices, which are heavily subsidised. Any rise often draws public protests, such as the attempt to increase prices by 40 per cent in November last year. Slightly increased rates have been approved for this year, in what is seen as a compromise.
“Myanmar’s energy needs are expected to grow by 15% a year, similar to Vietnam, which has quadrupled demand in 10 years.”
“Higher prices are very sensitive subject here,” he said. “It’s a problem of fiscal sustainability versus public acceptability.” With the need to pay for the new plants, investment is needed, not only for power generation but also transmission. The country had a total installed capacity of 4,035MW last year and electrification ratio of only 28.9 percent in 2012. Per capita electricity usage is the lowest in Asia. Hydropower potential is especially high, with 100,000MW in potential. Some 40,000 MW of hydropower are slated for
were not lost. “It is important to get local contribution,” Mr Holsen said. “You need to make sure that everyone is aligned, and that it improves the livelihood of locals.”
The energy sector is at particular risk relative to other sectors in Myanmar due to the large sums of money involved, the fight for political control over the resources, the technical complexity, the environmental and social ramifications and a lack of a history of transparency of information, not to mention credit risks. “Good management of the energy sector is about managing these risks,” Mr Holsen said. SN Power’s Bjørn Holsen addresses the urgent energy needs in Myanmar. Photo: TNCC
foreign investors. The emphasis by the Ministry of Electric Power (MOEP) is on diversifying investment. Most projects under the previous military regime were awarded to Chinese developers, which experienced strong local and international resistance due to a lack of corporate social responsibility. The MOEP is now awarding memorandums of understanding (MoU) on a first-come, first-served basis. And while the MOEP is the central authority, local governments also have a high degree of involvement in hydropower project development. Mr Holsen gave a project development in the middle Yeywa in Shan State as an example. As part of a red flag assessment to see if it was socially and environmentally feasible, they consulted with local leaders. They were amenable, as long as local roads and irrigation improved, and livelihoods
SN Power’s short term aspirations include signing an MoU with the MOEP on a feasibility study for a greenfield project (ie one on previously undeveloped land), or alternatives such as acquiring existing facilities in order to shorten the time to market. They will screen for potential partners and continuously monitor market developments and risks by having people on the ground. In short, Myanmar has huge hydropower potential. The Myanmar government through reforms and liberalisations is making the country increasingly attractive to foreign investors. With an electrification ratio of only around 30 per cent, annual GDP growth expected to exceed 6 per cent, 95 per cent of hydropower potential yet to be realised and electricity demand expected to soar, it is a potentially lucrative market despite the considerable risks.
Thai-Norwegian Business Review
Summer Party On 3 June 2014, Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce invited members and friends to its Annual Summer Party for an informal networking evening around the beautiful alfresco swimming pool area at the DoubleTree by Hilton to wish each other a happy summer holiday and to bid farewell to H.E. Ambassador Katja Christina Nordgaard after her 4 years in Thailand. Thank you everyone who attended and specials thanks to Finnair and NIST International School for its support in holding the event.
Thailand’s economy Thailand’s Economy at a Glance at a glance
I think Thailand will be my end stop. The only alternative will be to move back to Norway, but I think that possibility is very slim.
Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce
MY CN TH ID PH VN LA IN KH MM
Stock Exchange Index (SET) 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,200 1,000 800 600 400
Mar14 Apr14 May14 Jun14 Jul14 Aug14
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014p
Exchange Rates 7.00 6.50
6.00 5.50 5.00 4.50
Bilateral trade 2013
Manufacturing Index 2000=100
Import 1,550 (1,743) MNOK Export 2,494 (3,378) MNOK
100 Basic Figures: BOI. Comparisons: Wikipedia. GDP/Capita and Thai Population: Wikipedia/IMF. Thai GDP and CPI: Bank of Thailand. Quarterly GDP: NESDB. SET: Stock Exchange of Thailand. Exchange Rate THB/NOK: OANDA. Manufacturing Production Index: Thailand’s Ministry of Commerce. Bilateral Trade: Statistics Norway. Petrol and BigMac prices as of 27 September 2014
I was a main contributor to get rid of the long waiting list to get a telephone subscription I Thailand, in the beginning of the 1990es.
Thai Consumer Price Index
Thai GDP Growth (%)
2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Where do you live after Thailand?
7.52 15.56 13.93 40.00
Other bits and pieces Petrol/litre (95 E10) NOK: TH Petrol/litre (95 Octane) NOK: NO McDonald BigMac price NOK: TH McDonald BigMac price NOK: NO Sources:
What is your biggest achievement so far?
69.9 mill 5.0 mill 10,300,000 875,000 71/76 79/83
Politi, by Jo Nesbø
The last book you’ve read?
Geography Geographic Area: TH 514,000 sq. km Geographic Area NO: 385,199 sq. km Highest peak TH: Doi Inthanon 2,565 m Highest peak NO: Galdhøpiggen 2,469 m Inland water areas TH: 2,230 km Inland water areas NO: 16,360 km Coastline TH: 3,219 km Coastline NO: 25,148 km
When I made a bicycle trip around Thailand, as close to the border as possible, in 1989. 6800 km in 52 days.
The most adventure thing you have done?
My favourite restaurant is Baan Klang Nam in Rama III Road, Soi 14.
Your favourite place(s) or restaurant(s) in Bangkok?
I don’t have many secrets in my life. Perhaps not many people knows that I never served military service, because of pure health when I grow up.
Demographics Population TH: Population NO: Population Bangkok: Population Oslo: Life expectancy M/F TH: Life expectancy M/F NO:
0801 0807 0901 0907 1001 1007 1101 1107 1201 1207 1301 1307 1401 1407
What most people don’t know about you?
I would ensure that the traffic lights works properly. In no intersection should the traffic light be in the same position for more than one minute.
Honorary Member and Senior Advisor to the Board
If you become Bangkok Mayor for one day, what will be the first thing you do?
Feb14 Mar14 Apr14 May14 Jun14 Jul14
Dr. Kristian Bø
If a long weekend, I like to go to Greenworld in Thong Pha Phom north of Kanchanaburi, to play golf. If normal weekend, I like to go to Pattaya where I can meet friends and eat rice porridge at the Norwegian Seamens Church.
Where is your favourite weekend getaway in Thailand?
Top 10 Exports Jan-Jun14 %/value USD bill Motor Cars and automotive 10.8%/12.15 EDP equipment 7.8%/8.8 Precious stones/jewellery 5.0%/6.6 Refined fuels 4.7%/5.3 Polymers etc. 4.4%/4.9 Chemical products 3.9%/4.4 Rubber products 3.5%/4.0 Machinery and parts thereof 3.2%/3.6 Electronic integrated circuits 3.1%/3.5 Rubber 3.0%/3.3
80+ 70-74 60-64 50-54 40-44 30-34 20-24 10-14 0-4
0501 0507 0601 0607 0701 0707 0801 0807 0901 0907 1001 1007 1101 1107 1201 1207 1301 1307 1401 1407
I like the friendly and patient people and the Thai food. I don’t like that so many politicians can’t see the difference between right and wrong.
10-20% 10-15% 7% 0-35%
Thai Population 2012
NO US SG KE TW
What do you like most and least about living in Thailand?
Corporate income Tax Withholding Tax Value Added Tax Personal income Tax
When was the first time you came to Thailand?
GDP/Capita 2013 (TUSD)
I landed at Don Muang Airport on June 10th, 1986.
Export Growth 2012 3.1% Export Growth 2013 projected 7.6% Trade Balance USD 6.0 bill Current Account Balance USD 1.5 bill International Reserves USD 181.6 bill Minimum wage (Bangkok) Baht 300/day
Basic Figures Thailand (2013)
Getting to know the members
Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce
Thai-Norwegian Business Review
MYO TDHEE R
A S S Y A YG I A NT H E M B N ONRO W R W E RN O YA L
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D I L A N T H A
ารเสด็จพระราชดำาเนินเยือนนอร์เวย์ของพระบาทสมเด็จ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว ในปี ค.ศ. 1907 ถือเป็น ช่วงเวลาอันเหมาะสมยิ่ง เนื่องจากเป็นการเริ่มต้น ศตวรรษแห่งการสร้างพันธมิตรใหม่ของกลุ่ม ประเทศยุโรป ในขณะที่การเมืองเริ่มส่อเค้าการเปลี่ยนแปลง และการพัฒนา อุตสาหกรรมกำาลังเปลี่ยนรูปแบบความสัมพันธ์ของนานาประเทศทั่วโลก นอร์เวย์ในขณะนั้นเพิ่งได้รับเอกราชจากประเทศเพื่อนบ้านอย่างสวีเดน และอยู่ภายใต้การปกครองในระบอบประชาธิปไตย ผู้นำาของนอร์เวย์ให้ความ สำาคัญกับการพัฒนาโครงสร้างพื นฐานทางสังคมและอุตสาหกรรมเพื่อ ประโยชน์ของประชาชนและคนรุ่นหลัง สิ่งที่พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้า เจ้าอยู่หัวทรงประจักษ์ด้วยพระองค์เองในปี 1907 คือชาวนอร์เวย์มีจิตสำานึก สูงในเรื่องความเท่าเทียมกัน ในสังคม การประดิษฐ์คิดค้น นวัตกรรมใหม่ๆ และการ ทำางานหนัก ซึ่งยังมีอิทธิพล อย่างมากในสังคมนอร์เวย์ การเสด็จฯ เยือน นอร์เวย์ของพระบาท สมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้า เจ้าอยู่หัว เพื่อแสวงหา เทคโนโลยีสมัยใหม่ จึงมีความ สำาคัญทางประวัติศาสตร์ซึ่งส่งผล ต่อเนื่องยาวนานถึงความสัมพันธ์ อันใกล้ชิดระหว่างนอร์เวย์และไทย จวบจนทุกวันนี้ พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัวทรงนำาพา “สยาม” ให้ปรากฏ อยู่บนแผนที่โลก และใน ค.ศ. 1907 ประเทศไทยก็กำาลังจะก้าวเข้าสู่ยุคใหม่ ซึ่งขับเคลื่อนด้วยการพัฒนาทางสังคม เศรษฐกิจ และอุตสาหกรรม พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัวไม่เพียงทรงประจักษ์ด้วย พระองค์เองถึงกระแสการพัฒนาอุตสาหกรรมในนอร์เวย์เท่านั้น หากยังทรง ค้นพบความงดงามของธรรมชาติแบบดั้งเดิม ภูเขา ธารน้ำาแข็ง และฟยอร์ด ตลอดจนผู้คนชาวนอร์เวย์ที่เปี่ยมไปด้วยมิตรภาพ และพลังแห่งการ สร้างสรรค์ การเริ่มนำาไฟฟ้าพลังน้ำามาใช้ในเวลานั้นถือเป็นโอกาสครั้งใหญ่สำาหรับ อุตสาหกรรมพลังงาน นอร์เวย์ ได้สร้างประวัติศาสตร์ที่สำาคัญใน ค.ศ. 1905 เมื่อบริษัท นอร์สค์ ไฮโดร ซึ่งปัจจุบันเปลี่ยนชื่อเป็น “ยารา” ได้เริ่มผลิตปุ๋ยแร่ ธาตุ โดยใช้ไฟฟ้าพลังน้ำาเพื่อแยกไนโตรเจนออกจากอากาศ พระบาทสมเด็จ พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัวทรงเสด็จฯ เยี่ยมโรงงานของนอร์สค์ ไฮโดร เพื่อ
และการจัดสรรเงินกองทุนด้วยระบบภาษีที่มีประสิทธิภาพ นับแต่ศตวรรษที่ 19 นอร์เวย์ค่อยๆ พัฒนาเศรษฐกิจอย่างต่อเนื่องโดย อาศัยทรัพยากรธรรมชาติที่อุดมสมบูรณ์ การปกครองด้วยธรรมาภิบาล และความมุ่งมั่นของประชาชน เมื่อได้เข้าร่วมอยู่ในพื้นที่เศรษฐกิจยุโรป (European Economic Area) ในปี ค.ศ. 1994 นอร์เวย์จึงมีเสถียรภาพ ทางเศรษฐกิจและสังคมสูงกว่าประเทศสมาชิกอื่นๆ ปัจจุบันนี้นอร์เวย์เป็น ประเทศที่มีดัชนีการพัฒนาอยู่ในลำาดับต้นๆ ในด้านการบริหารจัดการ เศรษฐกิจและความยุติธรรมทางสังคม ประเทศไทยเป็นหนึ่งในตลาดใหญ่ของนอร์เวย์ในทวีปเอเชีย ทั้งในด้าน การส่งออกและการลงทุน โดยเฉพาะธุรกิจโทรคมนาคม ปุ๋ย และปลา ตลอด จนอาหารทะเลแปลรูป ในขณะที่สินค้าส่งออกจากประเทศไทยไปยังนอร์เวย์ ก็เพิ่มขึ้นอย่างต่อเนื่อง ในฐานะที่เป็นประเทศเล็ก ต้องถือว่านอร์เวย์ประสบความสำาเร็จทางด้าน การค้า และเป็นประเทศที่เปิดกว้างสำาหรับการลงทุนจากต่างชาติ บริษัท ต่างชาติเองก็รู้สึกวางใจ ต่อการทำาธุรกิจใน นอร์เวย์ เนื่องจาก มีกฎเกณฑ์ที่ โปร่งใสและมี ประสิทธิภาพ คล่องตัว ทำาให้ กลุ่มธุรกิจสามารถคาดการณ์ก่อนที่จะลงทุนได้ กิจการด้านพาณิชยนาวีของนอร์เวย์ ก็มีบทบาทสำาคัญต่อความ สัมพันธ์ระหว่างไทย-นอร์เวย์เช่นกัน ในปี ค.ศ. 1907 เรือทุกๆ 4 ลำาที่เข้า เทียบท่าในกรุงเทพฯ จะเป็นเรือจากนอร์เวย์ 1ลำา ปัจจุบันเรือเดินทะเลของ นอร์เวย์ยังคงความก้าวหน้าด้านเทคโนโลยีสูงที่สุดในโลก นอร์เวย์จึงยัง เป็นผู้นำาตลาดด้านการขนส่งสินค้าพิเศษ อันได้แก่ ผลิตภัณฑ์ปิโตรเลียม เคมีภัณฑ์ ก๊าซ กระดาษ ยานพาหนะและรถบรรทุกสินค้า นอกจากนี้นอร์เวย์ยังเป็นผู้ผลิตปลาแซลมอนแอตแลนติกชั้นนำา ของโลก ด้วยแนวชายฝั่งเป็นรอยฟันเลื่อยทอดยาวไปกับน้ำาทะลใสสะอาดและ เย็นจัด ซึ่งเป็นสภาพแวดล้อมที่เหมาะสมที่สุดสำาหรับการเพาะเลี้ยงสัตว์น้ำา แบบยั่งยืน ความยั่งยืนเป็นหัวใจสำาคัญของอุตสาหกรรมส่วนใหญ่ในนอร์เวย์ รวมถึงอุตสาหกรรมประมงด้วย และปัจจุบันศักยภาพในการเพาะเลี้ยงสัตว์น้ำา ของนอร์เวย์ก็กำาลังเป็นที่ต้องการในระดับสากล ในฐานะผู้ผลิตน้ำามันและก๊าซธรรมชาติรายใหญ่ และหนึ่งในประเทศ ผู้ส่งออกพลังงานรายใหญ่ของโลก นอร์เวย์มีบทบาทในการสร้างความมั่นคง ด้านพลังงานให้กับประเทศผู้ใช้พลังงาน และเนื่องจากชาวนอร์เวย์ให้ความ สำาคัญกับความยั่งยืนของสิ่งแวดล้อม จึงมีการดำาเนินนโยบายที่เกี่ยวข้องกับ
ทอดพระเนตรนวัตกรรมดังกล่าว และทรงนำาตัวอย่างกลับมาประเทศไทยด้วย ในพระราชหัตถเลขาฉบับหนึ่งที่ทรงเขียนระหว่างเสด็จฯ เยือนนอร์เวย์ พระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัวทรงแสดงความประทับใจที่ชาว นอร์เวย์ใช้เทคโนโลยีสมัยใหม่ เพื่อบริหารจัดการโรงงานขนาดใหญ่เช่นนี้ โดยใช้แรงงานน้อยที่สุด การบริหารจัดการป่าไม้ การทำาประมงอย่างยั่งยืน และธุรกิจการขนส่ง ถือเป็น 3 ภาคส่วนที่มีความสำาคัญต่อเศรษฐกิจแบบผสมของนอร์เวย์ และเมื่อประเทศยังเดินหน้าต่อไปสู่ความทันสมัย ภาคส่วนอื่นๆ เช่น ก๊าซ ธรรมชาติและน้ำามันนอกชายฝั่ง การสื่อสารโทรคมนาคม เทคโนโลยีด้าน สุขภาพ การท่องเที่ยว พลังงานหมุนเวียน ตลอดจนเทคโนโลยีด้านพลังงาน และสิ่งแวดล้อม ก็เข้ามามีบทบาทสำาคัญด้วย
ing Chulalongkorn’s visit to Norway in 1907 was perfectly timed. This was the beginning of a new century, the countries of Europe were making new alliances, political changes were on the horizon and industrialisation was transforming the way countries would relate to each other. Norway had only recently achieved independence from its neighbour Sweden, and was governed by a democratic constitution. The nation’s leaders were actively developing a new social and industrial infrastructure, focusing on the betterment of present and future generations. This strong Norwegian sense
At that time, the introduction of hydroelectric energy presented massive opportunities for energyintensive industries. Norway made history in 1905 when Norsk Hydro, now called Yara, started producing mineral fertiliser using hydroelectric power to extract nitrogen from air. King Chulalongkorn visited the Norsk Hydro facilities to review this invention and even brought samples back to Thailand. In one of his many letters written during his visit, he noted how impressed he was at how the Norwegians used modern technology to operate such large facilities with a minimum of labour. Norway’s forestry management, sustainable fisheries and shipping sector have always been important in the country’s economic mix, and as Norway continues to modernise, other sectors such as offshore natural gas and oil, telecommunications, health technology, tourism, renewable energy and environmental and energy technology all play a major role. Norway also developed the concept of grouping together related industries to focus on research and knowledge, then sharing this knowledge within the group to build upon it. This concept builds competency and expertise that is sought after throughout the world. A strong focus on research and education enables Norway to be receptive to new ideas and technology, which is pivotal to the nation’s development. Although Norway is fortunate to have abundant oil and gas deposits within its territories, decisionmakers have recognised that this new wealth could easily create an economically imbalanced society. Part of what makes Norway special is that it aims for inclusive growth and has been able to achieve this through a set of core beliefs: a strong dialogue between employees and employers, a robust social safety net, an open economy, gender equality and a substantial
King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) travelled to Norway in 1907... นอร์เวย์ยังได้พัฒนาแนวคิดในการรวมกลุ่มอุตสาหกรรมที่มีความ เกี่ยวข้องกัน เพื่อมุ่งเน้นในเรื่องการศึกษาวิจัยและองค์ความรู้ จากนั้นจึงนำา องค์ความรู้มาแลกเปลี่ยนกันภายในกลุ่มเพื่อนำาไปใช้ประโยชน์ แนวคิดนี้ช่วย สร้างศักยภาพและความเชี่ยวชาญ อันเป็นคุณลักษณะซึ่งเป็นที่ต้องการทั่วโลก การให้ความสำาคัญกับการค้นคว้าวิจัยและการศึกษาอย่างจริงจังทำาให้ นอร์เวย์สามารถรับแนวความคิดและเทคโนโลยีใหม่ๆ ซึ่งถือเป็นหัวใจสำาคัญ ของการพัฒนาประเทศ แม้ว่านอร์เวย์จะโชคดีที่มีทรัพยากรน ำามันและก๊าซธรรมชาติสะสมอยู่ มากมายในประเทศ แต่ผู้มีอำานาจในการตัดสินใจล้วนตระหนักดีว่าความมั่งคั่ง เหล่านี้ทำาให้สังคมเสียดุลยภาพทางเศรษฐกิจได้ง่าย สิ่งที่ทำาให้นอร์เวย์มี ความพิเศษโดดเด่นกว่าประเทศอื่น คือการวางเป้าหมายเพื่อการเจริญเติบโต ของประเทศโดยรวม และสามารถบรรลุเป้าหมายนั้นด้วยแนวคิดหลักๆ ใน สังคม ได้แก่ การพูดคุยรับฟังกันระหว่างนายจ้างและลูกจ้าง เครือข่าย ประกันสังคมที่เข้มแข็ง ระบบเศรษฐกิจแบบเปิด ความเสมอภาคทางเพศ
of social equality, innovation and hard work, which King Chulalongkorn discovered in 1907, is still a leading influence in Norwegian society. The historical importance of King Chulalongkorn’s visit to Norway in search of modern technology had an everlasting effect on the close relationship that Norway and Thailand still enjoy today. King Chulalongkorn put ‘Siam’ on the world map and by 1907 Siam was standing on the doorstep of a new era that would be fueled by far-reaching social, economic and industrial development. Not only did King Chulalongkorn witness first-hand the wave of industrialisation that was taking place in Norway, he also discovered an inspiring panorama of pristine nature, mountains, glaciers and fjords, as well as a nation of friendly, innovative people.
สภาพภูมิอากาศอย่างจริงจัง ตลอดจนพัฒนาเทคโนโลยีการผลิตที่เป็นมิตร กับสิ่งแวดล้อม ซึ่งกระบวนการเหล่านี้ได้ขยายผลไปสู่ผู้ใช้ด้วย เป็นเวลากว่าศตวรรษที่นอร์เวย์เป็นผู้ผลิตพลังงานจากน้ำาสะอาด และ ปัจจุบันยังเป็นผู้บุกเบิกในการพัฒนาและผลิตแผงโซล่าเซลล์ เนื่องจากมี ความเชี่ยวชาญในการผลิตเหล็กซิลิคอน ทั้งยังให้ความสนใจกับการพัฒนา ประสิทธิภาพของพลังงาน การดักจับและกักเก็บคาร์บอน รวมถึงการทดลอง เกี่ยวกับพลังงานคลื่น พลังงานน้ำาขึ้นน้ำาลง พลังงานจากน้้ำาเค็ม และกังหันลม ลอยน้ำา ถึงแม้นอร์เวย์จะมีทรัพยากรมั่งคั่ง แต่ทรัพยากรมนุษย์ก็ยังคงเป็น สินทรัพย์ที่มีค่าที่สุดของประเทศ กุญแจสำาคัญที่ทำาให้นอร์เวย์ประสบความ สำาเร็จมาโดยตลอดก็คือ ประชาชนที่มีการศึกษา เปิดกว้าง และรู้จักปรับตัว สิ่งเหล่านี้จะนำาพาประเทศให้เจริญต่อไปในอนาคต การเสด็จประพาสยุโรปของพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว ในปี ค.ศ. 1907 นับเป็นจุดเริ่มต้นมิตรภาพอันยาวนานและลึกซึ้งระหว่างสอง
redistribution of funds through an effective tax system. Starting from the 19th century, Norway steadily built up its economy thanks to its abundance of natural resources, good governance and the steely determination of its people. By 1994, when Norway integrated into the European Economic Area, it had the highest socioeconomic stability of any member. Today Norway ranks high on many development indices due to its sound economic management and social justice system. Thailand is one of Norway’s major markets in Asia for both exports and investments, in particular in the fields of telecommunications, fertiliser and fish and seafood processing. Exports from Thailand to Norway have also continued to increase. As a relatively small country, Norway thrives on trade and is open to foreign investment. International
ประเทศที่อยู่ไกลกันคนละมุมโลก ดังจะเห็นได้จากพระราชหัตถเลขาหลาย ฉบับที่ทรงเขียนระหว่างเสด็จฯ เยือนนอร์เวย์ ทรงชื่นชอบความทันสมัยของ นอร์เวย์ที่พระองค์ ได้ทรงค้นพบ ทั้งยังทรงสนุกกับการพบปะพูดคุยกับชาว นอร์เวย์อีกด้วย นอร์เวย์และประเทศไทยจึงเริ่มมีการติดต่อสัมพันธ์กัน และมีความเข้าใจ อันดีระหว่างสองประเทศนับแต่นั้น การแลกเปลี่ยนเรียนรู้ทั้งในด้านเทคโนโลยี การลงทุน และทรัพยากรบุคคลที่เกิดขึ้น จึงมีจุดเริ่มต้นจากการเสด็จ ประพาสนอร์เวย์ในปี ค.ศ. 1907 และยังส่งผลสืบเนื่องต่อไปในอนาคต
companies feel comfortable doing business in Norway because of its transparent and streamlined regulations, providing the predictability businesses crave when looking to invest. The Norwegian maritime sector has also been important in the Thai-Norwegian context. In 1907, every fourth ship calling on Bangkok was a Norwegian vessel. Today, Norway maintains the world’s most technologically advanced offshore fleet, resulting in it being the market leader in specialised shipping of petroleum products, chemicals, gas, paper, vehicles and rolling stock. Norway is also the world’s leading producer of Atlantic salmon. Norway’s long and jagged coastline of cold, clean, fresh seawater provides excellent conditions for sustainable aquaculture. Sustainability is a core value for most industries in Norway, and fisheries are no exception. Norway’s aquaculture competence is internationally sought after.
“…we fortunately witnessed both the midnight sun and the northern light phenomena from here…” King Chulalongkorn, July 19, 1907
“ห่างจากนอทเคปไม่ถึง ๕๐๐ ไมล์ อาจจะเห็นพระอาทิตย์ในเวลาเที่ยงคืน อาจจะเห็นนอทไลต์ แสงสว่างข้างฝ่ายเหนือ ซึ่งเปนโอภาศอันควรจะพิศวง” พระบาทสมเด็ จ พระจุ ล จอมเกล้ า เจ้ า อยู ่ ห ั ว 19 กรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 1907
มหัศจรรย์แห่งธรรมชาติอันเลื่องชื่อของ นอร์เวย์ ได้แก่ปรากฏการณ์แสงเหนือในช่วง ฤดูหนาว หรือ “ออโรรา โบเรลลีส” ที่ดึงดูด นักท่องเที่ยวจำานวนมากให้มาเยือนดินแดน มหัศจรรย์ทางตอนเหนือของนอร์เวย์ทุกๆ ปี Norway is rightly famous for its winter display of the Northern Lights, or aurora borealis in Latin, which draws large numbers of visitors every year to Norway’s vast northern wonderland. 150
As a major natural gas and oil producer and one of the largest exporters of energy in the world, Norway contributes to the energy security of consuming countries. As Norwegians place a premium on environmental sustainability, the country is taking climate policy seriously and developing advanced environmentally friendly production technology and procedures that span from exploration to end user. For over a century, Norway has been producing clean hydropower. Today it is a pioneer in the development and production of solar cell panels because of its metallurgical expertise in producing silicon metal. Another focus is the development of energy efficiency and carbon capture and storage, in addition to experiments with wave energy, tidal energy, salt water energy and floating windmills. Although Norway is a country rich in natural resources, its human capital is still the country’s most valuable asset. A nation of well-educated, open, adaptable people has always been the key to Norway’s success and will continue to be well into the future. The visit of King Chulalongkorn to Norway in 1907 was the start of a long and deep friendship between two nations that are geographically far apart. As can be seen in King Chulalongkorn’s many letters written during his visit to Norway, His Majesty appreciated the modern Norway he discovered and enjoyed meeting the people of Norway. Since that time, mutual understanding and contacts between Norway and Thailand have grown. Continued exchanges of people, technology and investments will ensure the common journey that began in 1907 will continue into the future.
ปูราชาเป็นความน่าตื่นใจอย่างใหม่ใน อุตสาหกรรมประมงของนอร์เวย์ และยัง กลายมาเป็นอาหารเลิศรสที่ทำากำาไรอย่างงาม และส่งออกไปขายทั่วโลก King crab is an exciting new addition to the Norwegian fisheries sector and has already proven a highly lucrative delicacy that is exported around the world.
...in search of modern technology
PM BE 4:47
To celebrate more than a century of close relations between Norway and Thailand, the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Bangkok has produced a 200 page book entitled ‘Modern Norway Then and Now’, presenting H.M. King Chulalongkorn’s impressions and photographs from his visit to Norway in 1907, with images of the modern Norway of today.
Photo: King Chulalongkorn
“…I took a photograph of an old man… he was a kind man with a reserved smile when I photographed him…”
We hope this book will inspire more Thai people and companies ‘in search of modern technology’ to travel to Norway and share our common history... strengthening even further the already excellent ties between our two countries.
King Chulalongkorn, July 11, 1907
“ได้ถ่ายรูปตาแก่ตามปรกติของแกที่แต่ง นุ่งกางเกงแลเสื้อเชิ้ต เหน็บมีด, ใส่ตุ้มหู, สูบกล้อง, ใจแกดี อมยิ้มอมแย้มยืนให้ถ่าย” พระบาทสมเด็ จ พระจุ ล จอมเกล้ า เจ้ า อยู ่ ห ั ว 11 กรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 1907 138
อ�ค�รต่�งๆ ในนอร์เวย์ใช้พลังง�นของประเทศ เพียงร้อยละ 37 และก่อให้เกิดก๊�ซเรือนกระจก น้อยกว่�ร้อยละ 5 ทั้งนี้เพร�ะมีก�รนำ�ไฟฟ้� พลังน้ ม�ใช้ในระบบทำ�คว�มร้อนให้กับอ�ค�ร ในขณะที่อ�ค�รในยุโรปก่อให้เกิดก�ร ปล่อยก๊�ซเรือนกระจกถึงร้อยละ 40 หรือ ม�กกว่�นั้น
“…no Thai has ever travelled the route we took last night going north… we are on our way to North Cape which is really far away…”
Norway’s buildings consume only 37% of the country’s energy and generate less than 5% of its greenhouse gas emissions because hydroelectric power is used for central heating. In Europe buildings generate 40% or more of the greenhouse gas emissions.
King Chulalongkorn, July 9, 1907
“ทางที่มาตั้งแต่ทรอนด์เยมคืนนี้ นับว่าคนไทยยังไม่มีผู้ใดได้เคยมาถึงเลย มีคนไทยที่ได้เคยมาถึงทรอนด์เยมแล้ว สามคนเท่านั้น ระยะทางที่จะขึ้นไปจนถึง นอทเคปไกลมาก” พระบาทสมเด็ จ พระจุ ล จอมเกล้ า เจ้ า อยู ่ ห ั ว 9 กรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 1907
“…they say that their church design is ‘old Norwegian’ although it is very similar to the design of temples in Myanmar…” King Chulalongkorn, July 24, 1907
“วัดนั้นทำ�ด้วยไม้ชำ�ฉ�ทั้งสิ้น แต่ได้สร้�งม�แล้วถึง ๘๐๐ ปีเศษ จนกร่อนหรอในที่ต่�งๆ รูปร่�งทรวดทรงเปน อย่�งนอรวิเยียนแท้ คล้�ยรูปวัดพม่�ม�ก” พระบ�ทสมเด็ จ พระจุ ล จอมเกล้ � เจ้ � อยู ่ ห ั ว 24 กรกฎ�คม ค.ศ. 1907 64
Photo: King Chulalongkorn
ตึกสูงระฟ้าริมน้ ในกรุงออสโลคือการ ผสมผสานระหว่างรสนิยมในการออกแบบ สมัยใหม่กับความเคารพในประวัติศาสตร์ และวัฒนธรรมดั้งเดิม กรุงออสโลจึงกลาย เป็นแหล่งรวมงานออกแบบที่น่าตื่นตาตื่นใจ และสถาปัตยกรรมใหม่ๆ ที่กำาลังจะเกิดขึ้น อีกหลายสิบโครงการ The new waterfront skyline in Oslo mixes a healthy enthusiasm for modern design with a solid respect for its history and traditions. The city has become a haven for adventurous design, with dozens of new architectural projects underway.
นอร์เวย์เป็นหนึ่งในผู้ผลิตปลาแซลมอน แอตแลนติกชั้นนำา และหนึ่งในผู้ส่งออกอาหาร ทะเลรายใหญ่ที่สุดของโลก ด้วยแนวชายฝั่งที่ยาว เว้าแหว่งเป็นรอย ฟันเลื่อย โอบล้อมด้วยน้ ทะเลใสสะอาด จึงเป็น สภาพแวดล้อมตามธรรมชาติที่ดีเยี่ยมสำาหรับ อุตสาหกรรมประมงแบบยั่งยืน
“We can converse with the King and Queen as if we were relatives…”
“The Queen is very beautiful and has a fine disposition rather like Princess Victoria… our relationship was informal…”
King Chulalongkorn, July 6, 1907
“ในการที่มาอยู่เมืองนี้ ช่างรู้สึกสบาย เสียจริงๆ เพราะทั้งเจ้าแผ่นดินแลพระมเหษี จะพูดจาเล่นหัวอะไรกับเราเหมือนดังกับ เปนญาติกันจริงๆ จะถามอะไรก็ถามกันได้ พูดจากันตรงๆ หมด”
Norway is one of the world’s leading producers of cold-water Atlantic salmon and one of the largest seafood exporters in the world. The country’s long and jagged coastline surrounded by fresh seawater provides excellent natural conditions for a sustainable fishing industry.
King Chulalongkorn, July 5, 1907
“กวีนก็งามมาก ดูเหมือนจะงามกว่าพี่ๆ ทั้งหมด อัชฌาไศรยก็ดีมากคล้าย ปรินเซสวิกตอเรีย อยู่ข้างจะกระดากๆ ในการรับแขกถึงบ่นออกมาว่าไม่ชอบรำาคาญ เจ้าแผ่นดินบอกว่า ต้องพูดกับคนนั้นคนนี้ ก็บ่นออดแอดเบื่อต่างๆ แต่กับพ่อนั้นสนิทสนม ต้อนรับพูดจาไม่มีกระดากกระเดื่องเลย”
พระบาทสมเด็ จ พระจุ ล จอมเกล้ า เจ้ า อยู ่ ห ั ว 6 กรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 1907
พระบาทสมเด็ จ พระจุ ล จอมเกล้ า เจ้ า อยู ่ ห ั ว 5 กรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 1907
หน้าถัดไป: การพัฒนาเทคโนโลยีอย่างต่อเนื่องนำาไปสู่ การปฏิวัติอุตสาหกรรมเพาะเลี้ยงปลาด้วย วิธีใหม่ ผ่านการตรวจสอบควบคุมคุณภาพ อย่างเข้มข้น การจำากัดจำานวน และเทคโนโลยี การเพาะเลี้ยงปลาในมหาสมุทรแบบยั่งยืน ทำาให้นอร์เวย์ยังเป็นผู้นำาในการส่งออก อาหารทะเลมาหลายทศวรรษ Next page: A continuous focus on technological development has led to revolutionary new methods for the fish farming industry. Through strict quality monitoring, quotas, and sustainable ocean farming technology, the country has remained a leader in seafood exports for decades. 72
195 Photo: King Chulalongkorn
“…as our ship turned around for the journey home… Prince Sommot proclaimed in Magadhi that “a new chapter in life had begun”…” King Chulalongkorn, July 12, 1907
“วันนี้นับว่าเปนวันขากลับ ถึงว่าวันข้างหลัง ยังมากกว่าวันข้างน่าที่ล่วงไปแล้วก็รู้สึกว่า เปนขากลับ มันขรึมๆ ในใจอยู่นั่นเอง โล่งว่ากระไรก็ไม่รู้ แปลว่าคิดถึงบ้านเท่านั้น” “วันนี้กรมขุนสมมตบอกศักราชตามธรรมเนียม ที่เคยบอกกันเมื่อบ่ายหัวเรือกลับ แต่บอกวิเศษขึ้นทบอกภาษามคธด้วย” พระบาทสมเด็ จ พระจุ ล จอมเกล้ า เจ้ า อยู ่ ห ั ว 12 กรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 1907
197 Photo: King Chulalongkorn
“…I greatly admire the Norwegians for building roads to areas where only a few people live…”
พระบาทสมเด็ จ พระจุ ล จอมเกล้ า เจ้ า อยู ่ ห ั ว 25 กรกฎาคม ค.ศ. 1907
27 Photo: King Chulalongkorn
Can be aquired exclusively through the Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce: Telephone: 02 650 8444 firstname.lastname@example.org One to nine books: THB 2,000 each plus VAT Ten or more books: THB 1,500 each plus VAT Available at the Thai-Norwegian Chamber of Commerce
King Chulalongkorn, July 25, 1907
“น่าชมความพากเพียรในเรื่องตัดถนน ของเขาจริงๆ คนก็น้อย พื้นที่ก็ไม่มี ผลประโยชน์อะไรนอกจากหญ้าแลฟืน”
200 Pages Collector’s Edition In Thai and English 64cm x 24cm Hard Cover