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GOING BY THE BOOK ( O R A G A I N S T

I T )

European Adrian Frutiger

American Rudy VanderLans & Zuzana Licko


3


o intro· duction “A mystery is the most stimulating force in unleashing the imagination.” 4

Zuzana Licko


Starting in the 1940s, both Europe, particularly Switzerland, and America saw the development of typography that would suit new requirements of communication and advertising. Graphic design-

EmigrĂŠ Magazine

ers continued to encounter new developments and aspects of culture throughout the 20th century. There were differences and similarities between these two parts of the world. Europe and America’s typography was influenced by the time period, historical aesthetic

P rom in en t ur es of

Ad r ian

Van d er Lan s of

an d

an d t o

cen t ur y work,

t h at i n

it

t h er e

it ies

h ave and

Th roug h

is

evident sim ilar-

d if fer en ces

t y p o g r a p h i c

i n f luen ces. de s i gn

Z uza na

2 0 t h

ar e

an d

t h e i r

Te c h n o l o g y,

er as,

cult ur e,

na tion alit y

sh ap ed

a nd

t h ei r

ex plor at ion s

an d

acco m-

pl ish m en t s.

Th e

over ar-

c hin g

con t r ast

t h ese t h e

of

f un ct ion al v e r s u s i d e a

o f

b et ween

t yp ogr ap h ers

id ea

ture, and technology.

t yp ogr ap hy

tr em en d ously. their

movements, nationality, cul-

R u dy

A m er ica,

c o nt r ib ut ed 2 1 st

Fr ut iger,

Europ e,

L i cko,

f i g-

t h e

a

i s

coh esi ve

Sw iss-st yl e A m e r i c a n

d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s

an d

in d iv id ualis m.

5


Within this contrast, the European Swiss style concentrated on limiting a design to

just the essential elements and excluding decoration. The American mind frame did allow for functional design, yet some designers and typographers sought to experiment. American typography played with straying from modernist ideals and universal notions of function. With separate mind-frames guiding their work, these European and American designers show diversity.

Another key reason for the contrast in these designers is that they used different

forms of technology. Frutiger worked by hand with metal type. He used the first phototype starting in the 1950s, and eventually used digital setting with personal computers by the 1990s. VanderLans and Licko, on the other hand, started their magazine EmigrĂŠ with the Macintosh computer. They used technology such as the photocopier, low-resolution printer, dot-matrix printer, and bitmap font tool.

Adrian Frutiger was born in Interlaken, Switzerland in 1928. He then moved to Zurich

to train at the Zurich School of Arts and Crafts from 1949 to 1951. Following his education in Zurich, he started working at Deberny & Peignot in Paris in 1952.

Swi tzerl a nd, and

F ra nce

cul tures a

r o l e

the most important thing I have learned is that legibility and beauty stand close together.\� Adrian Frutiger

i n

t y p o -

w o r k He

o f

took

thes e

vari ous

ti ons

and

l oca-

di fferent

cul tures

i nto

g u i d i n g

h i s

o w n

work,

i n

des i g n

hi s s

ti oned

had

pl ayed

t h e

F ruti g er.

how

6

ea ch

tha t

g r a p h i c

“From all these experiences

Germa ny,

account,

work

a nd

both

func-

a ppeared.


NATIONALITY CULTURE

Adrian Frutiger

Although living away from his homeland of Switzerland,

his nationality was a strong influence on his typographic work. For instance, he was interested in Swiss tradition and felt it was genetically a part of him. He was interested in

Switzerland was socially

woodcut techniques and the Bernese Oberland tradition of making paper silhouettes. This tradition included cutting up

and culturally an expanding

shapes out of black paper using scissors and then sticking them together to make letters and characters. According

area of tradition. Design and

to Frutiger, this technique traces back to the traditions of Interlaken (Spiekermann).

typography were taught and practiced based on craft rules that had been traditionally approved of and established (Friedel, Ott and Stein, 36). 7


Another way that his nationality impacted his work was

the way handwriting was

taught in German-Swiss

schools. Even at age

fifteen, he rebelled

against the strict Hulliger

method of handwriting

taught in these schools;

rather, he preferred to

emulate a freer method of

handwriting (“Biography:

Adrian Frutiger”).

nationality culture

He even played a role in Parisian culture in the 1970s, when he developed custom type for the Charles de Gaulle airport. His typeface Frutiger was used for the airport’s signage, which gave this typographic creation a strong

The work of American

cultural association with France, despite Frutiger’s func- designers Rudy VanderLans tional, Swiss style of work. and Zuzana Licko was also directly influenced by their nationality and the culture of America. Although they were both born in Europe, the two were involved in the radical graphic design and typography that emerged in

8


America during the 1980s, with the invention of the Macintosh computer. VanderLans was born in 1955 in the Hague, Holland, and attended the Royal Academy of Fine Art from 1974 to 1979. The Royal Academy’s curriculum was very traditional, pragmatic, hands-on, and modeled after the functionalist ideologies of the International Typographic Style (VanderLans and Frutiger 's Signage for Charles De Gualle Airport

Licko 9). VanderLans followed the rules and Hulliger Method of Handwriting

methods that he was taught and did not question their validity. He did not like the European practice of design as a primarily organizational discipline, so he decided to travel to the United States (VanderLans and Licko 10). It wasn’t until he got to America and attended UC Berkeley when he was introduced to a more theoretical approach to Graphic Design. Zuzana Licko was born in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia

American Postmodernist Typography by Emigré

9


“Design’s function was to make this world a better place. Design was used to inform, not persuade. And advertising was very much looked down upon. That’s the envrionment, in a nutshell, that

c

nation· ality + cul· ture

I grew up in.”

Rudy VanderLans, originally from Europe

10

a


a

in 1961 and moved to the United States by the age of seven. She attended UC Berekely as well for graduate school, where she met VanderLans.

UC Berkeley

In contrast to Frutiger, who followed traditional rules of his country’s culture, the magazine that VanderLans art directed and the fonts Licko developed for it influenced

E m i g r é

M a g a z i n e

directly tied into culture. Th e

i s s u e s

bu ilt th a t

w e r e

aroun d

feat ur ed

de sign ers, Fella, a nd

dards. The movement of going

t h em e

against previously established

such

as

Ed

Valicen t i ,

Carson .

Th ey

a l s o

i n c l u d e d

c u l t u r -

a l l y

im p or t an t

f igur es

f rom s u c h N i c k

ot h er

as

an d

R e p ub lic several a nd we re

sought to experiment and be distinct.

O liver,

D esign ers

f rom

Dutch m any

standards was became an ideal of American design. Designers

coun t r ies,

Vaugh an

Bell,

rules and to set new stan-

e a c h

Am er ican

R ick

D av id

a

designers to go against fixed

Br it ain,

designers,

ot h ers

d elv in g

in t o

w h o n ew

design territory (Dooley). Em igr é

was

i n t e n d e d journal

to

a s

or igin ally c u l t u r a l

feature

phot ogr ap h ers, a nd

ar ch it ect s

artists, p oet s,

( Dooley).

11

Zuzana Licko and Rudy VanderLans


“Their influence on culture is diverse and significant; they import it and export it;

they offer new interpretations, comparisons, ideas, and a certain universal wisdom acquired through juggling conflicting values and lifestyles (VanderLans and Licko 16).”

Frutiger was a prominent figure in typography well before VanderLans and Licko.

These designers are located in different time periods within the 20th century, and therefore designed during different typographic movements. Frutiger’s main decades of design range from the 1950s to the 1990s, while VanderLans and Licko are known for design from the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. Different design eras and movements shaped the work of Frutiger, VanderLans, and Licko, making their work contrast. However, they have a couple design decades in common.

Frutiger was a functionalist, a modern, and a systems designer. Originally from

Switzerland, then living in Zurich, and eventually in France, the Swiss and functionalist style heavily influenced Frutiger. He used systematic elements and designed based on a structured grid.

The

Swi s s

s tructured,

org a ni zed, t h e t i c

b e c a m e

popul ar 1960s

cl ean

duri ng

a nd

u s e d

i n

i n g .

The

wa s

a esv e r y

the often

a d v e r t i s 1960s

a l s o

“Their influence on culture i n c l u d e d

f u n c t i o n -

is diverse and significant; a l i s m ,

a

t i m e

w h e n

they import it and export it.” typog raphy

s topped

Excerpt for potential advertisers, Emigré, 1984 searching a n d of

for

e n t e r e d

s tabi l i ty

a

new

s t a g e

(“Des i g n

Movements ”) . 12

the


TIME MOVEMENTS

The Complete Works of Type by Adrian Frutiger showing Univers and his functional Swiss style of work

The style of functionalism allowed for international communication, clear design, simplicity, and only necessary content. Functionalists had large amount of unprinted space and used columns of text that were arranged on rigid grids

only classifiable by cities and

(Friedl, Ott, and Stein 32). The typography included bold headlines, with light faced bodies of text. There was no

schools, but also by their loy-

decoration or emotion. Functional design simply expressed information through words and pictures (Friedl, Ott, and

alty to certain typefaces. Soon

Stein 32). This movement mainly spread throughout Europe, but also in the US and Japan (Friedel, Ott and Stein, 32).

there were not only Akzidenz

In the 1960s, there were design factions which were not Grotesk supporters, but also a Univers faction, a significant typeface created by Frutiger. (Friedel, Ott and Stein, 32).

13


There was also the Helvetica community. Functionalism

continued to develop

through the 1980s, when

Frutiger created his type-

face Frutiger. Design

elements were used for

structure, and utilized

straight lines, surfaces,

color, and rarely used

diagonals. (Friedel, Ott

and Stein, 25).

time movements

14

Decades after the start of Frutiger’s typographic achievements, VanderLans and Licko’s work began receiving public attention. As radical post-modernists, their work was critiqued as being a threat to modernist ideals and against universal ideas of beauty (Dooley). In post-mod-

Emigré magazine was one

ern graphic design, specifically during the 1980s, designers

example of designers and

got tired of the constraints of designing within a grid

typographers breaking rules

(“Design Movements”) of clean design. In some cases, typography was barely readable and grunge design became ordinary (“Design Movements”).


VanderLans and Licko were part of the digital age, when technology and software was advancing. Designers began producing and replicating design digitally, using new tools to create. Within the various time periods of European Frutiger and Frutiger's Functionalist Typography

American VanderLans and Licko, many influential and important typographic achievements were made.

Countless typefaces were created by both Frutiger and Licko. Frutiger created EmigrĂŠ breaking the rules of clean design

President, Phoebus, Ondine, Meridien, Egyptienne, and Univers in the 50s. He created Apollo, Serifa, and OCR-B in the 60s, created Iridium, Frutiger, and Glypha in the 70s. He created Icone, Breughel, Versailles, and Avenir in the 80s. He and created Vectora in the 90s. He also wrote numerous books between 1980 and 1999. Licko was at the forefront of type design in

15


e m time+ move· ments

“Helvetica is the jeans, and Univers the dinner jacket. Helvetica is here 16

to stay.” Adrian Frutiger


e Designing Univers at Deberny & Peignot the late 80s and early 90s. She created Coarse, Modula, Citizen, Matrix, Senator, Lunatix, Oblong, Variex, and Elektrix in the 80s. She created Journal, Tall Pack, Totally Gothic, Triplex, Matrix Script, Quartet, Narly, Dogma, Whirligig, Base 9 and 12, Soda Script, Filosofia, Mrs Eaves, Hypnopaedia, and Tarzana in the 90s. She created Solex, Lo-Res, and Fairplex

A d r i a n

F r u t i g e r

c on sid er ed th e

most

de s i g n ers t u r y.

of

Wh en

i n

t h e

a t

1 9 5 2 ,

ow n

t h e

h e

i s

a

ve r y a n d

a

t h e

I t

is

m os t

U n ivers, U n ivers t h at

h as

weigh t s

k n ow n

for for

of

weigh t s

fam ily;

Fr ut iger

U n i v e r s

va r iat ion s m e n t e d

s y s te m

his

h is very

x -h eigh t

var iet y

d e s i g n e d 2 1

of

st roke

lar ge

th e

of

ach ievem en t s

ser if

even

l e g i bi l it y. w i th i n

of

1 9 5 7 .

san s

revivals, and later created display typefaces.

b e g a n

b ecam e

d esign in

cen-

b egan

faces, then she made historical

D e b e r n y

a l s o

One

r e now n ed r e l e a sed

was made up of bitmap type-

t y p e f o u n d r y

w h ich

th e

in the 2000s. Her early work

of

t yp e

2 0 t h

t yp efaces

important. wa s

on e

Fr ut iger

P e i g n o t

de si g ni n g

b e

im p or t an t

w o r k i n g &

t o

i s

t h at

a

n u m b e r i n g

r at h er n am es

w i t h im p le-

t h an

usin g

( “U n ivers�).

17


Univers was revolutionary in that it breathed fresh air into the Swiss design scene

(Spiekermann). Back then there were design factions which did not just relate to cities and schools, but also by loyalty to a certain typeface. Univers began to have a strong following, among Akzidenz Grotesk and Helvetica. At this time, typeface choice was limited; typefaces were only available on certain typesetting systems and the choice depended on the respective printers (Spiekermann).

After designing Univers in the 1950s, Frutiger created Serifa in 1967, a slab-serif

which had forms based on Univers. Serifa retains the geometric, linear appearance of Univers, but also adds unbracketed square serifs and boxier caps (“The History of Serifa”). Serifa is also extremely legible and suitable for a variety of uses.

Next, in 1968, Frutiger designed OCR-B, a commissioned design that would be

aesthetically pleasing for Europe. As America was seen to be more idiosyncratic, OCR-A, the typeface used for optical character recognition in America, was considered inappropriate for the standards of Europe(“Adrian Frutiger”). Frutiger reflected on his commissioned design, stating that,

“Gi l bert me bet

the

Wei l

s howed

OC R-A

(Optical

Character

R e c o g n i t i o n ) t h e

U S A ,

comment

al pha-

f r o m

w i t h tha t

‘cari ca ture

t h e

s uch

l etters ’

“caricature letters were were

uns ui ta bl e

for

unsuitable for the demands the

dema nds

of

the

of the European market.” E u r o p e a n

m a r k e t .“

Gilbert Weil’s comment, explained by Adrian Frutiger F ruti g er “The

conti nued,

techni ques

machine-reading been 18

much

of had

i mproved


TYPEFACE DESIGN

Top: American OCR-A, Bottom: European OCR-B by Frutiger

in the meantime and a finer basic grid could be used. He asked me if I could design a non-stylized OCR script which would be pleasing to the human eye as well as readable by machine (“Adrian Frutiger – Traces”).” All letters and figures

become one of his most

are easily identifiable and distinguishable from one another. In 1973 the B version, by Frutiger, was accepted as an ISO-

known accomplishments.

world standard (“Adrian Frutiger – Traces”).

In the early 1970s, Adrian Frutiger was living in

The forms are not a mono-

Paris and was commissioned by the Charles De Gaulle International Airport for typographic signage. He created

line as Univers, due to

a typeface called Frutiger, a humanist sans serif, that has subtle thicks and thins in the typeface, which gives it more character (“Frutiger”).

19


Frutiger himself saw flaws in Univers when it came to

signage and realized that

an entirely new typeface

was required. He sought a

distinctive look that would

help display information.

typeface design

20

One of Frutiger’s other popular typefaces is Avenir, meaning “future” in French. It is a geometric sans serif that

has different weights. The forms of the letters are not entirely geometric, but this gives Avenir a distinct look and separates it from typefaces such as Futura and Century Gothic (“Adrian Frutiger”). Frutiger thought Futura looked cold and modern, so he “humanized” it (“Avenir”).

Adrian Frutiger created type-

Another quality of the typeface is that it is highly legible, an

faces that suited his nationality,

aspect that plays an important role in Frutiger’s functionalist

culture, and the design eras

mind frame. he was involved in. Frutiger’s typefaces reflect his modern functionalism and his use of structure and system in his design. Frutiger closely worked


within European influence; meanwhile, America did not have such a rigid approach. Zuzana Licko and Rudy VanderLans of EmigrĂŠ accumulated numerous new typefaces that express the different, exploratory approach of American typographers Frutiger's Functionalist Typography

and designers. Zuzana Licko created numerous Adrian Frutiger writing

typefaces that not only are significant to typographic history, but also expresses

the new, distinct look of many American design aesthetics. Her typeface Lo-Res was initially created in1985 and released again in 2001 with some technical improvements. This was a bitmap type design created for the coarse resolutions of the computer screen and dot matrix printer. Early computers were very limited in what they could do, so Licko had to design her typefaces in a special way that kept this in mind (EmigrĂŠ). In the 1980s,

Frutiger with letterform designs

21

Zuzana Licko's Lo-Res Bitmap Typeface


"there was something unexplored and interesting there and I wanted to try my own hand at it… I thought that anything I would do would be better than what was out there."

y 22

Zuzana Licko

d

type· face des· ign


d

Print piece by Emigré showing their fonts the Macintosh computer had a public domain software that allowed fonts to be made. The bitmap typefaces were seen as idiosyncratic; which goes along with the American unpredictable, innovative, new territory of Graphic design VanderLans and Licko were undertaking. Many critiqued that these typefaces lacked applicability (Licko). It is classified as a display font. Bitmap fonts

F o l l ow in g a n d

Van d er Lan s

t og e th er i n

t o

th r ee

fa c e s .

Th is

Var iex

th at th e

by

is

an d

sam e

a l t er in g

is

t h e ax is; t h e

of

th e

t e rs

each

c a n

b e

an d

directly linked with the idea of

t yp e-

computer technology.

t h r ee lin es var-

b ot h

t h e

h as

m any

sin ce

t h e

ch ar act er

ar e

p lace,

layer ed

m u l t i color ed l e t t e rs

or igi-

align m en t

Var iex

sam e

has a distinct aesthetic, as it is

t h ick n ess

an d

i n

is tied to a certain resolution (Licko). Licko’s Lo-Res typeface

ob t ain ed

t h e

a xe s

t o

t yp e-

Th e

ar e

of

t h at

d ef in ed

cen t er

a rou n d

va r i a t ion s,

of

1 7 9 ).

weigh t s

var y.

it’s body; each bitmap design

an

x - he i g ht m ay

on e

d isp lay

( M i dde nd or p i ou s

number of pixels in relation to

is

con sist s

we i gh t s by

Var iex

Em igr é

i nven t ive

fa c e

resolution, meaning a specific

con t r ib ut ed

t h e

had to be designed for a specific

wor ked

t yp efaces

Va n de r Lan s w i t h in

Licko

cr eat e

19 8 8 .

t h e

n a l ,

Lo-R es,

or

ch ar act o

for m

out lin ed

( Mid d en d or p

1 7 9 ).

23

Variex by Emigré, showing how the weights are defined by the center lines


In 1996, Zuzana Licko released Mrs Eaves and Filosofia, two of her most significant

typographic achievements. After Licko’s phase of bitmap typefaces, she looked towards historical revival. Mrs Eaves, named for John Baskerville’s lover, is a Baskerville revival (Norvell). It uses playful ligatures and petite caps, which is a unique version of small caps. Mrs Eaves was accompanied by a program from LettError, which was meant to help designers manage the large amount of ligatures (Norvell). Filosofia is a Didone and Bodoni revival that has alternate characters and an often used unicase face.

By the 2000s, Licko designed Solex, which seems a bit more conservative of an

exploration than some of her previous typefaces. Solex is an industrial looking sans serif. It is evident that Licko has certain themes in her work that are carried over in Solex. For example, Licko emphasizes distinct geometric verticality in the shape of counters. Solex uses a combination of ideas that evolved over a few different periods of typographic development, for instance, the typefaces appears slightly condensed and rectangular like the grotesque types for newspaper ads and handbills of the late 1800s (Downer). Later 20th century examples of resemblance include families like Frutiger’s Univers, and especially Paul Renner’s typefaces. Solex also revisits postmodern themes, as it is rigid, linear, and non-calligraphic (Downer).

T h e

u n d e r l y i n g

c o n -

trast between European Frutiger

and

VanderL ans

“design is all so encom-

i s

t h e

a n d

u n i f i e d

L i c k o f u n c -

passing and ubiquitous,

t i o n a l ,

s w i s s - s t y l e

how it is ever not a cul-

v e r s u s

a n

tural force? \” Rudy VanderLans

A m e r i c a n

t y p o g r a p h i c t h a t

s t r a y e d

modernist showed ti on

24

Ameri can

a nd

s t y l e f r o m

ideals

and

experi mentadi vers i ty.


TYPEFACE DESIGN TECHNOLOGY

Detail from the limited edition Mrs Eaves type specimen booklet

One of the factors that contributes to this contrast is the fact that Frutiger, VanderLans and Licko had different technology available to them, as they started designing during different

Adrian Frutiger always met

design eras. Frutiger’s work began with older techniques, while the EmigrÊ team was initially able to work with a

the demands of changing

Macintosh computer. technology. In 1952, when Charles Peignot invited Frutiger to oversee the drawing office at Deberny & Peignot in Paris, the foundry was using metal type fonts.

25


These metal fonts were used for

the revolutionary machine

of the 1950s, the Lumitype/

Photon phototypesetting

systems (“Adrian Frutiger”

Graphic Design History).

Here Frutiger helped the

foundry advance to newer

technology by moving

classic typefaces used

with traditional printing

to phototypesetting.

(“Adrian Frutiger”).

Frutiger’s fonts were some of the earliest made for photocompositions printing in the 1950s. For example, Univers was made for metal and film composition

technology

in 1957. Frutiger’s approach to

26

typography did not just rely on technological advances. In fact, one of his methods for creating type was by cutting shapes out

Frutiger explained, “The time

of black paper, using scissors, and then sticking them together

soon came when texts were

to make letterforms and characters (“Biography: Adrian Frutiger”).

no longer set in metal types but by means of a beam of light. The task of adapting the typefaces of the old masters from relief type to flat film was my best school” (“Font Designer – Adrian Frutiger”).


“Technological progress was rapid. Electronic transfer of images brought the stepping, followed by my feelings for form. But today, with curve programs and laser exposure, it seems to me that the way through the desert has been completed.” (“Font Designer – Adrian Frutiger”) Frutiger worked with Relief type on flat film

the requirements of technological change, from the first phototype

of the 1950s to digital setting with personal computers in 1990s. In fact, he even went back to his old typefaces and made new editions of his classics; modern technology allowed him to revise details that couldn’t be achieved in the Phototypesetting System

past (Spiekermann). As for Zuzana Licko and Rudy VanderLans, their design careers began at the same time the Apple Macintosh computer was introduced. As opposed to other designers of the time, they embraced the new technology and loved working with it.

Frutiger with letterform designs

27

Emigré's first Berkeley Office Macintosh Computer


o

h

tech路 nology

"I heard everybody say how bad digital type looked and how it was impossible to make it look any better."

28

Zuzana Licko


h

Dot Matrix Printer and a Macintosh Computer

VanderLans was interested in chance encounters and computer glitches of the Macintosh; he wanted to see how the computer could influence a layout (Dover). The first issue of VanderLans’ and Licko’s Emigré magazine was put together in 1984. Since Emigré did not have a budget for typesettings, they worked with L icko newly

wor ked

invented

b i t m a p

a

typewriter type that was resized

Macintosh

on a photocopier (Dover). Emigré

f o n t

si m p list ic

t o o l

d r aw in g

wo r d- processin g (VanderLans The u s e d e rs

cr eat ed o n

p r in t-

M a c i n t osh

ti pl e

b e l i e v e was

r eason

( Va nder Lan s

Licko was very interested in.

t o

d esign . t h at

h ad

m ul-

in st alled

users

t o

sh ad ow an d

t h e

goin g

b ein g

t yp efaces an d

printer output, and output that

V a n d e r L a n s

gr ap h ic

a l lowed

accommodate a low-resolution

Design ers

com p ut ers

l i ne

6).

d ot-m at r ix

de g r ad e

a n d

Licko

fon t s

L i c k o

On e

mapped typefaces that would

wer e

b e s i d e s

th e

was initially designed with bit-

an d

t yp efaces

( D ooley).

a n d

a n d

p rogr am s

and

ear liest

L i c ko

w it h

out-

fon t s

Licko

6 ).

29 Bitmap typeface design by Emigré


However, the computer increasingly became an important part of Emigré. Emigré

stated in a 1988 article, “From that point on, graphic design was never the same for us. Although it was a primitive tool during those first years, this computer made many things possible. We had already printed the first issues of Emigré magazine, but it was the Macintosh that made it economically possible to continue publishing. It also inspired us to design and manufacture original typefaces, an area previously dominated by only a few large type foundries.” (VanderLans and Licko 6)

VanderLans and Licko realized that they needed to refine their ideologies to go along

with the new technology; they could not use established standards because they could not all fit the function of a computer (VanderLans and Licko 7). The two designers had to create new standards that derived from the computer itself. Emigré stated, “with computers, designers will be able to personally control their work to an unprecedented degree, from designing custom typefaces to editing color separations. This will surely increase the specialization of the profession. But it will, above all, extend the creative process into previously un-explored areas.”

Licko used a public-domain software called Font Editor that allowed her to design

low-resolution typefaces for the Macintosh screen and dot-matrix Imagewriter. The Macintosh also allowed her to store data that defined her typefaces, so that it could be accessed through the keyboards (VanderLans and Licko 18). Now it was possible for basically any individual to design and draw a typeface and use it without restrictions.

R u d y

V a n d e r L a n s

s tated,

“There were no visual standards and no existing language to copy or be inspired by.” VandeLans and Licko

t o

g o

wi thout

were

i ng or

no

2 3) .

hi red

T h e r e s ta n-

e x i s tto

i ns pi red

( V a n d e r L a n s L i c k o

a

n o

l a ng ua g e be

e n d -

vi s ual

a n d

abl e

havi ng

throug h

t y p e s e t t e r .

d a r d s

30

were

e x p e r i m e n t

l es s l y to

“We

copy

by”

a n d


TECHNOLOGY

EmigrĂŠ Magazine Issue 5 using typesfaces and desgins made on a Macintosh

With little knowledge of calligraphy, not following the

traditions and conventions of typographic design, Zuzana Licko based most of her designs on simple concepts that she knew would work with the Macintosh. Most of her fonts

of bitmap fonts later

used modular elements from which she could create all of the characters (VanderLans and Licko 18). Licko’s early work

progressed into historical revivals and then display fonts, once there was new post-script technology.

31


Overall, both Frutiger and the EmigrĂŠ

team worked within their

nationality, culture, time

periods, and technological

availabilities. Europe and

America saw the develop-

ment of typography that

would suit new require-

ments of communication

and design.

Although both Frutiger, Rudy VanderLans and Licko were able to adapt to the technological advances and express their nationality, culture, and design

conclusion

movements and are known

32

as prominent figures 20th century typography, they also had contrasting achievements. Through their work, it is evident

The American mind frame

that there are similarities and differences based on technology,

allowed for functional design,

design eras, culture, and nationality shaping their explorations.

but many designers and typographers sought to experiment and be different. Americans played with the grid and the rules of the past.


In contrast, Frutiger followed the rules of European design, but still made significant achievements that progressed European typography. Adrian Frutiger’s is considered to be one of the most important type designers of the 20th century. Frutiger followed traditional rules of his

Typeface Design by Frutiger

country’s culture, while Emigré magazine influenced designers to go

against fixed rules and to set new standards. The true distinction between the mindframe of European and American design can be seen through Frutiger, VanderLans and Licko. Although there is a contrast, their 20th century typograPhototypesetting System

phy paved the way to further progression in the typographic world, as well as their own typographic works being acclaimed and respected.

33

Emigré Magazine Composition


Information “Adrian Frutiger.” History Graphic Design. History Graphic Design. Web. <http://

www.historygraphicdesign.com/index.php/the-age-of-information/

the-international-typographic-style/463-adrian-frutiger>.

“Adrian Frutiger.” Typophile. Typophile, 06 May 2005. Web. <http://typophile.

com/node/12118>.

“Adrian Frutiger – Traces.” Linotype. Linotype. Web. <http://www.linotype.

com/793-12663/thebigocrbproject.html>.

“Avenir.” Typophile. Typophile, 16 May 2005. Web. <http://typophile.com/

node/12462>.

“Biography: Adrian Frutiger.” Monotype Imaging. Monotype Imaging. <http://

monotypeimaging.com/ProductsServices/TypeDesignerShowcase/

AdrianFrutiger/Biography.aspx?type=bio1>.

“Design Movements.” Heine Web Basics Iowa JMC. University of Iowa. Web.

<http://heine.webbasics.iowajmc.com/design-movements/>.

Dooley, Michael. “Zuzana Licko and Rudy VanderLans.” AIGA. The American

Institute of Graphic Arts, Web. <http://www.aiga.org/medalist-zuzan

alickoandrudyVanderLans/>.

Downer, John. “Solex.” Emigré Fonts. Emigré, Web. <http://www.Emigré.com/

EFfeature.php?di=121>.

Emigré, . “Emigré 15.” Emigré Fonts. Emigré, Web. <http://www.Emigré.com/

Licko3.php>.

“Font Designer – Adrian Frutiger.” Linotype. Linotype. Web. <http://www.lino

type.com/720/adrianfrutiger.html>.

Friedl, Friedrich , Nicolaus Ott, and Bernard Stein. Typography: An Encyclopedic

Survey of Type Design and Techniques Throughout History. Black

Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Print.

“Frutiger.” Typophile. Typophile, 06 Jul 2005. Web. <http://typophile.com/

node/13517>.

Licko, Zuzana. “Lo-Res.” Emigré Fonts. Emigré, Web. <http://www.Emigré.com/

EFfeature.php?di=101>.

Middendorp, Jan. Dutch Type. 010 Uitgeverij, 2004. Print. Norvell, Forrest L. “Zuzana Licko.” Typophile. Typophile, Web. <http://typophile.

com/node/12166>.

Spiekermann, Erik. “Adrian Frutiger: Mr. Univers.” The Font Feed. FSI FontShop

International, 02 Sep 2008. Web. <http://fontfeed.com/archives/adri

an-frutiger-mr-univers/>.

“The history of Serifa.” Blogspot, 03 Oct 2010. Web. <http://graceolson24.blog

spot.com/2010/10/biography-of-font-designer-adrian.html>.

“Univers.” Typophile. Typophile, 06 Jul 2005. Web. 15 Oct 2013. <http://typo

phile.com/node/13516>.

VanderLans, Rudy, and Zuzana Licko. Emigré: Graphic Design into the Digital

Realm. Wiley, 1994. Print.

34

works cited


colo¡ phon Typefaces in Book Design:

Univers

Solex

D e s i g n e r

Variex

N o r a Mos l ey

Emperor

Pro j e c t Ty p o g r a p h e r ' s Bo o k

De s i g n

C ou rs e Ty p o g r a p h y

3

Fac u l t y Fra n c h es ka

G u e rre ro

C ol l e g e C o rc o ra n

C o l l e g e

Ar t

+

of

De s i g n

Images berkeleyside.com containerlist.glaserarchives.org designrelated.com EmigrĂŠ.com folklore.org fontfeed.com fontnotes.com linotype.com monoscope.com newlyswissed.com pinterest.com/EmigrĂŠfonts skrillanoise.files.wordpress.com vectronicsappleworld.com yeathatsfresh.com

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36


Going by the Book (or Against it)